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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

VIII SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2010

2 UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe

Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2010 ISSN15122409

dagvikavSirdiT: Email:tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
Tema: zRva enasa da kulturaSi, zRvis semiotika
Sesavali semiotikis pirveli samecniero konferencia gigi TevzaZe qarTveli da zRva nino abakelia akvaturi simbolos zogierTi mniSvnelobisTvis qarTul miToritualur sistemaSi cira barbaqaZe zRvis semiotika qarTuli enis masalebis mixedviT naira bepievi wylis binadrebi osur miTologiaSi SoTa bostanaSvili zRvaosani piligrimebi (b/artistuli warmodgena) daviT bostanaSvili niJarebis sasaxle konstantine bregaZe zRvis saxismetyveleba germaneli romantikosi david fridrihis ferweraSi mxatvris, kaspar 56 9 11

15 29 38 43 50

nino gogiaSvili zRva, rogorc cxovrebis simbolo, guram rCeuliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi rismag gordeziani zRvis aRmniSvneli daudgeneli etimologiis mqone sityvebi berZnulSi lali daTaSvili zRvis qristianuli simbolika da qarTuli literatura

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lali zaqaraZe globaluri azrovnebis manifesti _ karl Smitis geopolitikuri koncefcia 88 xaTuna TavdgiriZe zRvis miTosi: semiotika da poetika (statia-leqsikoni) daviT TinikaSvili wylis semiotika religiebSi zurab kiknaZe zRva da xmeleTi qarTul miTosSi cira kilanava zRvis semantika daviTianSi xaTuna maisaSvili zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva Sina da zRva gareTa... 98 124 136 157

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aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe arekvlis fenomeni, rogorc yviTeli feris Tandayolili Tviseba zRvis uZrav silurjesTan mimarTebaSi (Jan-mari gustav le klezios oqrosmaZieblis mixedviT) 176 murad mTvareliZe cisferyanwelTa zRva TaTia mTvareliZe, maia SuxoSvili zRvis gaazrebis ZvelberZnuli modeli inga milorava zRvis sivrculi modeli modernistul teqstSi 186 194 200

ada nemsaZe zRva, rogorc sivrcis maidentificirebeli niSani, oTar WilaZis romanSi _ `gzaze erTi kaci midioda~ 205 izabela petriaSvili, manana rusieSvili zRvis xati qarTul da inglisur folklorSi mamia faRava, malxaz CoxaraZe Woroxis auzi erTiani kulturuli sivrce 212 222

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rostom CxeiZe zRva da qarTvelebi maia jaliaSvili zRvis simbolika cisferyanwelebTan ramaz xalvaSi andria mociqulis misioneruli mogzaurobebi SavizRvispireTsa da saqarTveloSi gia joxaZe koncepti zRva qarTul Suasaukuneobriv narativSi (,,qarTlis cxovreba IV-XV ss.)

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enis, literaturisa da kulturis semiotika


Tamar berekaSvili qalaqis semiotika _ Tbilisi qeTevan bucxrikiZe samyaros kosmograma da Tanamedrove qalaqi cisana burjanaZe bibliuri saxeebis mxatvruli funqcia akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi Janeta varZelaSvili konkretulidan abstraqtulisaken: enobrivi niSnis semiozisis egsistencialuroba 270 278

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Tamar lomiZe prolegomenebi gamokvlevisTvis: codnis dafuZnebis principebi XX saukunis literaturaTmcodneobiT TeoriebSi 305 rusudan fifia `sityuai Zlieri~ ioane minCxis poeziaSi 309

ramaz qurdaZe niSanTa sistemis pragmatikuli aspeqti zogi Jargonuli sityvis sesxebisas qarTulSi 314 irakli cxvediani jeimz joisis ,,ulise: miTosi da struqtura 321

CONTENTS
Topic: The Sea in the Language and the Culture; The Sea Semiotics
Nino Abakelia On Some Meanings of Aquatic Symbolism in Georgian Mythic Ritual System Tsira Barbakadze The Sea Semiotics according to Georgian Materials Naira Bepieva Water Inhabitants in Ossetic mythology Shota Bostanashvili Seafaring Pilgrims (B)art(h)istic Performance David Bostanashvili Shell Palace Konstantine Bregadze The Symbolism of the Sea in the Paintings of the German Romantic Artist Caspar David Friedrich Nino Gogiashvili The Symbol of the Sea in Guram Rcheulishvilis Works Rismag Gordeziani Greek Words of Unknown Etymology Denoting the Sea Lali Datashvili A Symbol of the Christian Sea and the Georgian Literature Lali Zakaradze The Manifest of Global Thinking Geopolitical Conception Khatuna Tavdgiridze The Sea Myth: Semiotics and Poetics (Article-Vocabulary) David Tinikashvili Water Semiotics in Religions Zurab Kiknadze The Dream of Klytemnestra and the Ash in the Hearth

333 334 334 335 335

336 338 338 338 339 339 340 340

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Tsira Kilanava Semantic of the Sea in Davitiani Khatuna Maisashvili The Sea In and the Sea Out, or the images and myths of the Sea in Georgian Media Atinat Mamatsashvili-Kobakhidze The Phenomena of the Reflexion as the Innate Characteristic of the Yellow Colour in View of the Immutable Blue of the Sea. According to Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clzios Novel Le Chercheur dor Murad Mtvarelidze The Sea of the Blue Horns Tatia Mtvarelidze, Maia Shukhoshvili Ancient Greek Model of the Meaning of the Sea Inga Milorava Spatial Pattern of the Sea in Modernist Texts Ada Nemsadze The Sea as a Main Identifier in Otar Chiladzes Novel A Man Coming on the Road Izabella Petriashvili, Manana Rusieshvili The Image of the Sea in Georgian and English Folklores Mamia Paghava, Malkhaz Chokharadze Chorokhi River Basin a Unified Cultural Sphere Maia Jaliashvili The Sea Symbols in the Poetry of Blue Horns Poets Ramaz Khalvashi Apostle Andrews Missionary Journeys in Georgia and the Black Sea Littoral Gia Jokhadze The Concept of Sea in the Medieval Narrative (The Life of Georgia IV-XV)

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Semiotics of Language, Literature and Culture


Tamara Berekashvili Semiotics of the City Tbilisi Ketevan Butskhrikidze The World Cosmogram and the Modern City Tsisana Burdjanadze Artistic Functions of Biblical Images in the Akaki Tsereteli Works 346 347 348

Tamar Lomidze Prolegomena to a Study: The Principles of Foundation of Knowledge in the XX Century 348 Rusudan Pipia Strong Word in the Poetry of Ioane Minchkhi Ramaz Kurdadze Pragmatic Aspect of Sign System while Borrowing Some Slang in the Georgian Language Irakli Tskhvediani James Joyces Ulysses: Mythos and Structure 348

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semiotikis pirveli samecniero konferencia

2010 wlis 15-16 oqtombers ilias saxelmwifo universitetis, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetisa da samecniero Jurnal `semiotikis~ organizebiT baTumSi Catarda semiotikis pirveli samecniero konferencia, romlis Tema iyo: zRva enasa da

kulturaSi, zRvis semiotika.


ratom zRva? bolo dros zRvis Tema gaaqtiurda Cvens kulturasa da socialur garemoSi, rac SemTxveviTad sulac ar meCveneba. revoluciis Semdeg matareblis metafora zRvis gadacurvis metaforam Caanacvla. gza evropisken zRvaze gadis... Tumca metaforulad zRvis gaaqtiureba kidev ufro mniSvnelovania. swored baTumSi, ama wlis seqtembris TveSi Catarda art-festivali. festivalis ideis avtori da samxatvro xelmZRvaneli, cnobili evropeli prodiuseri kris torSi, festivalTan dakavSirebiT ambobs: `mTeli es voiaJi 2002 wels erTi impulsisagan daiwyo. evropul proeqts xelaxali STagoneba sWirdeboda. zRvari aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris waiSala. evropa axal metaforas saWiroebda. Cven zRva avirCieT. 2006 wlidan moyolebuli, urbanuli gamowvevebi gansakuTrebiT sazRvao qalaqebsa da portebSi Cans. festivali

10 `zRvebi~ Savi da CrdiloeTis zRvebis sanapiroebze mogzaurobs, Cvens xelovnebas warudgens da mayurebels izidavs, amiT saporto qalaqebis cxovrebas cvlis... amjerad eqspedicia `zRvebi~ stambulidan daviwyeT, baTumSi CamovitanT Cvens energias da Cvens xelovnebas, mzadyofnas axali cvlilebebisadmi~. rogorc Cans, zRvis ideiT Cven ufro did proeqts vexmianebiT, rac sabolood dakavSirebulia cvlilebebTan, axal xelovnebasTan, axal wesrigTan. qarTul internet-sivrceSi, azrebi.ge-ze, gamoqveynda gigi TevzaZis esse `qarTveli da zRva~, romelmac feisbukSi saintereso diskusia gamoiwvia. swored am werilSi dasmuli problema gaxda stimuli semiotikis konferenciis Temad zRvis semiotika gamocxadebuliyo. gigi TevzaZis azriT, `qarTvelebisa da zRvis Sesaxeb arsebuli warmodgenaTa [anti-zRvauri] kompleqsi ZiriTadad sabWoTa dros Seiqmna da sabWoTa xelisuflebac, nebsiT Tu uneblieT [mainc vfiqrob, rom nebsiT], cdilobda am warmodgenis kultivirebas da warmatebiT moaxerxa kidec. am warmodgenis gavrcelebis politikuri motivi cxadia _ qarTvelebs ar unda gasCenodaT survili zRvis gadalaxviT da zRvis gavliT moxvedriliyvnen sasurvel adgilas - erTaderTi gza, romelic saqarTvelos misTvis sasurvel samyaros - evropas -daakavSirebda, ruseTze da samxedro gzaze gavliT unda momxdariyo. es proeqti albaT qarTvelebisaTvis ruseTis gardauvlobis da aucileblobis warmodgenis gamomuSavebis strategiis nawili iyo.~ vfiqrobT, konferenciam saintereso kvlevebs mouyara Tavi, romlebsac swored `semiotikis~ am nomerSi gTavazobT. qarTul enasa da kulturaSi `zRvis mimoqceva~ adasturebs, rom zRva qarTvelis bunebis nawilia da Tu igi (qarTveli) droebiT daSorda zRvas, axla droa, miubrundes da gaaaqtiuros igi cnobierebasa da cxovrebaSi da Tavsmoxveuli `zRva, romelic Soria~, aqcios axloblad da xelaxla moiSinauros. vuerTdebiT gigi TevzaZis werilis finals: `...zRva ki imave adgils, Tu ufro mets ara, daikavebs qarTvelebis TviTprezentaciaSi, identobaSi da TviTwarmodgenaSi, rac mas 100, 200 an Tundac 800 wlis win hqonda~.

zRva enasa da kulturaSi, zRvis semiotika a


gigi TevzaZe

qarTveli da zRva

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori. ilias saxelmwifo universitetis reqtori. wignebi: Cveni dro, sfinqsi da Zenonis isari (cnobierebis esTetika) (1993); momavlis niSnebi (yofierebis esTetika) (1995); saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis simulaciebi (1999); instituciuri cvlilebebis sociologia (2002); `saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis dabruneba~ (2003); aq da yvelgan (2006). ganjadoeba. xuTi ese Tanamedrove saqarTvelos Sesaxeb (2009); ucnobi wignebi qarTvelebisTvis. ucnobi wignebi saqarTvelodan (2010).

ara mgonia sakamaTo is, rom Cveni cxovreba sabWoTa kavSiris dros Seqmnili umsjelobebiTaa savse. magram umsjeloba risi umsjelobaa, advilad amocnobadi rom iyos. umsjelobis erT-erTi Zlieri mxare misi TavisTavad sicxadiT SeniRbulobaa. anu, umetesoba umsjelobebi umetesoba adamianebisaTvis TavisTavad cxad da martiv WeSmaritebas warmoadgens. amas winaT leqso maWavarianis karg statiaSi _ vin gadacuravs zRvas? _ erT umsjelobas wavawydi, romelic, sabednierod, mxolod teqstis samkaulad iyo gamoyenebuli da amitom teqsti ar gaufuWebia. Sesabamisad, am umsjelobis gamoaSkaravebis mcdeloba maWavarianis teqstis daskvnebs arc daakninebs da arc Secvlis. piriqiT, SeiZleba argumentebi daumatos. .....zRvis piras mcxovreb xalxs, argonavtebs dadevnebul aietis miTiur xomaldebs Tu ar CavTvliT, arasdros gvyolia floti. Savi zRva ar gviCenda masSi Securvis survils. amitomac davarqviT zRva _ zRvari. mis iqiT Cveni winaprebisTvis ara
pirvelad azrebi.ge-ze

gamoqveynda

internet-sivrceSi,

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gigi TevzaZe

feri iyo, Seucnobelis SiSis garda. vikingebs sicive, SimSili da siaxlisken swrafva aiZulebda faratina gemebiT okeane gadaelaxaT. Cven, kavkasiis mTebis CrdilSi, Tbil adgilze mokalaTebulebs, rogorc Cans, ar gvSioda, arc siaxle gvizidavda maincdamainc da, Sesabamisad, arc imis mizezi gvqonia rodesme, zRvebis gadacurvaze gvefiqra (leqso maWavariani, vin gadacuravs zRvas? tabula 19. 19-25 ivlisi, 2010. an http://rekuzo.blogspot.com/2010/07/blogpost_23.html). vfiqrob, rom am abzacSi gamoTqmuli azri bevrisTvis nacnobia. Cemi mxridan, am warmodgenis aRwera rom srulyofili gaxdes, davumatebdi, rom laSa-giorgim scada flotis ageba, magram qalebs gadahyva, da rom qarTveli xalxi cdilobda, zRvis piras ar ecxovra, mTas irCevda sacxovreblad. mgonia, rom qarTvelebis da zRvis Sesaxeb warmodgenaTa es kompleqsi ZiriTadad sabWoTa dros Seiqmna da sabWoTa xelisuflebac, nebsiT Tu uneblieT [mainc vfiqrob, rom nebsiT], cdilobda am warmodgenis kultivirebas da warmatebiT moaxerxa kidec. am warmodgenis gavrcelebis politikuri motivi cxadia _ qarTvelebs ar unda gasCenodaT survili zRvis gadalaxviT da zRvis gavliT moxvedriliyvnen sasurvel adgilas _ erTaderTi gza, romelic saqarTvelos misTvis sasurvel samyaros _ evropas _ daakavSirebda, ruseTze da samxedro gzaze gavliT unda momxdariyo. es proeqti albaT qarTvelebisaTvis ruseTis gardauvlobis da aucileblobis warmodgenis gamomuSavebis strategiis nawili iyo. axla TviTon qarTvelebis da zRvis Sesaxeb. rasac axla davwer, iqidan zogi mouyoliaT CemTvis, rogorc gadmocema/miTi, zogic wamikiTxavs, zogic ki _ istorikosebs uTqvamT, rogorc sakuTari kvlevis Sedegi. ase rom, is, rasac qvemoT naxavT, aris Worebis, ambebis da istoriuli faqtebis narevi. sul ar mgonia, rom amis wakiTxvis Semdeg qarTvelebis anti-zRvuri identobis umsjeloba gaqreba, magram vfiqrob, rasac davwer, sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom upirobod aRar miviRoT umsjeloba da msjeloba mainc mogvindes am Temaze. upirveles yovlisa, flotis da naosnobis Sesaxeb: visac Sav zRvasTan saqmiani, da ara marto sakurorto, damokidebuleba aqvs, icis, Tu rogori arasandoa is sanaosnod. faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs met-naklebad wynari periodi, romelic ramdenime kviras grZeldeba. Savi zRvis garSemo mdebare saxelmwifoebs Soris ar arsebobs arc erTi, romelmac floti Sav zRvaze Seqmna da ganaviTara (mxolod saqarTvelos hqonda mcdeloba, amaze qvemoT mogiyvebiT). Sav zRvaSi moaruli flotebi xmelTaSua an egeosis zRvebis wynar da naosnobisaTvis idealur pirobebSi iyo Seqmnili da Semdeg gadmotanili Cvenken.


qarTveli da zRva

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erT-erTi mTavari qarTvelur-anti-zRvuri argumenti, romelsac moixmoben xolme, aris zRvis samzareulos ganuviTarebloba. TiTqosda, rkinis argumentia, magram am dros saqarTvelos is istoriuli nawili gvaviwydeba, romelic dRes TurqeTSia, lazebiTaa dasaxlebuli da romelTa mTeli cxovrebac dResac zRvasTanaa dakavSirebuli. is, rom Cvens, sazRvars aqeT darCenil lazebs, es kultura daaviwydaT, araferia gasakviri: sabWoTa xelisufleba Zalian zRudavda qarTvelebis zRvasTan Sexebas da Cveni lazebic iZulebulni iyvnen, sxva saqme moeZebnaT Tavis sarCenad. axla rac Seexeba mezRvaurobas: Sua saukuneebSi Sav zRvaze genuelebi dominirebdnen. marko polo swored maTma gemebma Camoiyvanes Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze. istoriuli wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom qarTvelebi, romlebic axlandeli baTumis teritoriidan samxreTiT saxlobdnen, iyvnen kargi mezRvaurebi da aseve _ saxifaTo mekobreebi. rogorc Cans _ raRac Tanamedrove somalelebis msgavs saqmianobas eweodnen. arafers vityvi yabalaxze, romlis formis mixedviTac Tu vimsjelebT, misi pirveladi daniSnuleba sazRvao kapiuSonoba gaxldaT. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos sanapiros zeda zols _ is sanaosnod cudi iyo, magram isic cnobilia, rom isini, vis xelSic foTis sanapiro iyo, savaWro gemis mflobelebs gemis safasuris anazRaurebas pirdebodnen, Tuki gemi portSi Semosvlisas CaiZireboda. mTliani xisgan didi, zRvaSi sanaosno navebis gamoTlis Sua saukuneebis droindeli xeloba me-20 saukunis 20-ian wlebamde, gasabWoebamde, iyo SenarCunebuli guriaSi. imis magaliTad, Sua saukuneebSi zRvas rom mniSvnelovani adgili eWira qarTvelebis cxovrebaSi, vfiqrob, vefxistyaosanic sakmarisia. gaxsovT albaT, rom zRva erT-erTi centraluri adgilia TxrobaSi. is, rom saqarTvelos floti ar hyavda, erTi mxriv, politikiT, xolo meore mxriv, isev da isev Savi zRvis gansakuTrebulad areuli bunebiT aixsneba. naosnebi axlac eridebian Savi zRvis, pirdapir, mis centrze gavliT, gadakveTas da warmoidgineT, ra iqneboda is Sua saukuneebis zRvaosnebisaTvis. vefxistyaosanze gamaxsenda: is, rom fridoni navs, romelsac nestan-darejani mihyavs, napir-napir misdevs cxeniT, Zalian Sav-zRvuri aluziaa: Savi zRvis araprognozirebadi xasiaTis gamo axlac yvelaze uxifaTo naosnoba sanapiro zolTan axlos moZraobaa. laSa-giorgis flotur ambiciebs rac Seexeba: albaT is dro yvelze ufro xelsayreli iyo qarTuli flotis dasaarseblad: arc manamde da arc mere _ Savi zRva upatrono aRar yofila: bizantia, Savi zRvis formaluri mflobeli _ dasustebuli iyo da aravin ar

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SeuSlida xels laSa-giorgis droindel saqarTvelos Savi zRvis dapatronebaSi, magram mefe gardaicvala, saqarTveloSi monRolebi Semovidnen. maleve Sav zRvaze genuelebi gabatondnen. magram Tavi davaneboT Sua saukuneebs da Tundac me-19-me-20 saukunis dasawyisis saqarTveloze vilaparakoT. is, rom am periodSi dasavleT saqarTvelos afxazeTis, samegrelos, guriis da imereTis nawilebi kulturulad sakmaod ganviTarebuli iyo, swored zRvis da sazRvao vaWrobis damsaxurebaa. ras ar naxavdiT xoneli da senakeli saSualo fenis mier zRvis gavliT gamoweril/miRebuli nivTebis siaSi _ parizuli kabebiT dawyebuli, avejiT, wignebiT da saTamaSoebiT damTavrebuli. is faqtic, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcire qalaqebis kultura ganviTarebuli iyo, swored zRvis siaxloviT da misi aqtiuri gamoyenebiT aixsneba. amitom niko nikolaZis Zalisxmeva sulac ar iyo ganuxorcielebeli proeqti, rodesac man Savi zRvisaTvis kidev ufro meti mniSvnelobis miniWeba daapira, vidre mas hqonda imdroindel saqarTveloSi. da gamouvida kidec. magram gasabWoebis Semdeg Savi zRva ruseTis tbad gadaiqca da nikolaZis yvela proeqti TiTqmis saukuniT SeCerda. saqarTvelo axlac cnobilia kargi mezRvaurebiT da kargi sazRvao saswavleblebiT. bevri ucxoeli [gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleTis qveynebidan da afrikidan] dRes sazRvao ganaTlebas swored saqarTveloSi iRebs da aq miRebuli diplomi yvelgan gadis. mesmis, rom es rusul gavlenad SeiZleba CaTvaloT, magram 20 weli veranairi instituciuri gavlena ver SenarCundeba, roca wyaro aRar arsebobs da ganviTarebis safuZveli ar aris. dRes Savi zRva, da gansakuTrebiT, saqarTvelos sanapiro erTerTi yvelaze ufro Seuswavleli adgilia yvela sxva zRvasa da okeanes Soris. is, rom aqamde ar xdeboda misi Seswavla, mxolod da mxolod sabWoTa kavSiridan momdinare inerciiT Tu aixsneba. vfiqrob, rom studentebis daintereseba sazRvao kvlevebiT, romelTa ricxvi yovel weliwads, cotaTi, magram mainc izrdeba, migviyvans im dromde, rodesac erTaderTi qarTvelur-anti-zRvuri argumenti, moxuci da mowyenili haidegeris msgavsad, sityvebSi erovnuli xasiaTis amokiTxvis saeWvo sarwmunoobis mqone TamaSi (zRva-zRvari) iqneba. zRva ki imave adgils, Tu ufro mets ara, daikavebs qarTvelebis TviTprezentaciaSi, identobaSi da TviTwarmodgenaSi, rac mas 100, 200 an Tundac 800 wlis win hqonda.

nino abakelia

akvaturi simbolos zogierTi mniSvnelobisTvis qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi


wyali yvela SesaZlebeli arsebobis wyaro, Tavdapirveli substanciaa, romlidanac yvela forma momdinareobs da ukan brundeba dakninebis an kataklizmebis gamo. Sesabamisad, yvelafris dasabami da dasawyisi, miwasTan da haerTan erTad, sivrcul realobas miekuTvneba (upirispirdeba cecxls rogorc droiT process) da, rogorc aseTs, sxvadasxva xalxis samyaros suraTSi gansxvavebuli adgili miesadageba (eliade 1974, Sevalie 1996, CeTvaindi 1986). qarTul enaSi `Sesakrebeli wyalTa~ moiazreba zRvad, romelsac asxvaveben sididiT da, Sesabamisad, momcro zRvas tbas uwodeben, mdinares ki _ `minaden wyals~. (Sdr. sulxan-saba). okeanesTan, zRvasTan, mdinaresTan, tbasTan, WasTan, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, wylis mdgomareobaTaA simravlesa da sxvadasxva formas warmoadgenen, gansxvavebuli rwmena-warmodgenebi asocirdeba. zRva, rogorc, zogadad, `Sesakrebeli wyali~, da, kerZod, Savi zRva, konkretulad gamokveTili specifikuri teritoriaa, romelsac imis mixedviT, Tu vis surda misi moxelTeba, sxvadasxva saxeliT ixseniebdnen, magaliTad, rogorc `zemo zRvas~ (asirielebi Zv.w. XIII-XII ss),~axSianas~ (anu Savs, Rrmas _ iranelebi),~avqsinus pontoss~ (arastumaTmoyvares), `pontikon

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, SedarebiTi literaturis institutis mkvlevari. iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: simbolo da rituali qarTul kulturaSi, Tb., 1997. interesTa sfero: kulturuli anTropologia, semiotika, uZveles kulturaTa kvlevebi, miTologia da religiebis istoria, analizuri fsiqologia, literaturis istoria, musika, xelovnebis istoria.

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Talass~ (pontos zRvas), `evqsinos pontos~ (stumarTmoyvare zRvas) (berZnebi), `buntus zRvas~(a.w. IX arabul-sparsuli geografiuli naSromebi), `xazarTa zRvas~,~yirimis zRvas~, `qerCis zRvas~, `trapizonis zRvas~, `rusebis zRvas~, `hudal al alems~ (qveynierebis sazRvars), `darie gurzans~ (qarTvelTa zRvas) (XI saukunis sparsuli wyaro; ucnobi avtoris geografiuli naSromi) da sxv. (T.beraZe 1981, 3-58). qarTvelebi im xalxTa ricxvs miekuTvnebian, romelnic sakuTar istoriul da miTologiur mexsierebas zRvas ukavSireben da, rogorc gansxvavebul elements kulturis topografiaSi, gansazRvrul adgils uCenen. sainteresoa, rom sxvadasxva xalxis cxovrebaSi zRvas gansxvavebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. magaliTad, Zveli berZnebisTvis zRvas, rogorc maTi cxovrebis integralur nawils, saSuamavlo da gamaerTianebeli funqcia hqponda da, Sesabamisad, kolonizaciis, savaWro da gacvlis adgili, bunebrivi resursebis eqspluataciisTvis gankuTvnili lokuss warmoadgenda. es imas niSnavs, rom mas hqonda ekonomikuri, politikuri da saomari mniSvneloba. aqedan gamomdinare, Zveli berZnuli samyaros suraTSi zRva centrSi iyo moTavsebuli, xolo misi napiri (resp. dasaxlebebi) qmnida periferias. Sesabamisad, maTi kolonializmis modeli xmelTaSuazRvispireTsa da Sav zRvaze, rogorc mis ganvrcobaze, specifikuri iyo (misi umniSvnelovanesi dasaxlebebi teritoriis SigniT 25 milze Rrmad ar Sedioda) (toporovi 1993, 417). berZnebisagan gansxvavebiT, qarTvelebisaTvis zRva horizontalur proeqciaSi periferiul sazRvars (qveynerebis sazRvars) warmoadgenda, romelic saaqaosa da saiqios, amiersa da imiers, Sinasa da gares Sorisaa moqceuli. zRvris simbolika, romelic sivrcis simbolur organizaciasTan aris dakavSirebuli, uSualod kosmologiur sistemas efuZneba, misgan gamomdinare da, Tavis mxriv, samyaros suraTis Semqmnelia (n. abakelia 2008). am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa aRmosavleT saqarTvelos realiaSi dadasturebuli leqsis fragmenti: `... brZanebda dambadebeli: me davdgi miwa myaria, zed gadavxure zecada sina, Wiqa da rvalia Sig gavacine mze, mTvare mavali dRe da Ramea; mrgvalad movartyi sami zRva TeTri, wiTeli, Savia...~ (kiknaZe 2010).


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aq zRvaSi zogadad sakrebeli wyalTa, wylis rezervuari igulisxmeba, romelic samferi (TeTri, wiTeli, Savi) sami sartylis saxiT ekvris samyaros... (Sdr.: infeqciur daavadebaTaA sulebis ferebi: wiTela batonebi, Savi yvavili; zRapris gmiri, romelic wiTeli, TeTri da Savi raSis mflobelia; `Jamnis~ sami viriT (TeTri, wiTeli da SaviT) xevsureTSi Sesvla, stumroba; sami sudara (TeTri, wiTeli da Savi); samonadireo eposSi TeTri da Savi ZaRlebis arseboba da sxva (ix. oqroSiZe 1973, virsalaZe 1955, ColoyaSvili 2004, xidaSeli 2010, mindaZe 2010). motanil arasrul CamonaTvalSi feri rCeba simboluri azrovnebis erT-erT mTavar sayrdenad. m. xidaSelis aziT, qarTul kulturaSi gamoyenebuli (wiTeli, TeTri da Savi) ferebi arqauli simbolikis yvela niSans atarebdnen, erT sistemaSi iyvnen gaerTianebulni da maTi funqciebi mkveTrad iyo gamokveTili (xidaSeli 2010, 473). magram faqti, rom qarTul tradiciaSi wiTeli sikvdil-sicocxlis feri iyo, Savi _ sikvdilisa da aRorZinebis, TeTri ki _ sikvdil-sicocxlisa, ferTa ambivalentur gaazrebaze migvaniSnebs da is, rom erTi da igive feri urTierTgamomricxav axsna-ganmartebas eqvemdebareba, gvibiZgebs ferTa sivrcobrivi aspeqtiT dalagebisken da mis kosmologiasTan dakavSirebas (amaze cota qvemoT). imis gamo, rom adamiani samyaros sknelTa sazRvrebTanaa dakavSirebuli, mas saSualeba eZleva Seicnos keTili, boroti da neitralurad kategorizebuli zebunebrivi arsebebi, romelnic moZraoben sakraluridan profanulSi da piriqiT, sferoebSi. sxvadasxva modalur doneze ganTavsebuli sazRvrebidan (ix. abakelia 2008) aq yuradRebas SevaCerebT mxolod zRvaze, tbaze, mdinareze, rogorc liminalur zonebze. miTologiur rwmena-warmodgenebSi erTmaneTs upirirspirdebian `sakuTari// sxvisi~, `nacnobi~//~ucnobi~ (`ucxo~), `Sina~// `gare~, zRva (rogorc auTvisebeli adgili) da xmeleTi, dRe da Rame; ufro zogadad _ samyaro da anti-samyaro, mowesrigebuli Sina da mouwesrigebeli qaosi. orive samyaro dasaxlebulia sxvadasxva saxis arsebebiT, romelnic cdiloben gadalaxon sazRvrebi da SeaRwion sapirispiro samyaroSi sxvadasxva mizniT. gare samyaros miRmuri personaJebi, romelTac aqvT, rogorc keTili, ise avbediTi zemoqmedebis unari, Caketili sivrcis sazRvrebis `RiobebSi~ ciklurad iWrebian, romlebic iReba sezonebis cvlis dros (mag.: Wiakokonobaze, vnebis kviris did xuTSabaTs, eliobaze (2.08), mariam RvTismSoblis miZinebis dResaswaulze (28.08); Winkebis mosvlisas gazafxulsa da Semodgomaze, mesefis zRvidan amosvlis dros Semodgomasa da gazafxulze da sxv. aseve nebismierad mo-

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dian infeqciur daavadebaTaA sulebi _ `batoni-angelozebis~ saxiT da sxv. (n.a. gv 155). `sxvis~ sivrceSi yofnisas miRmuri personaJebi (zRvis sulebi, tbis sulebi, mdinaris sulebi...) Tavs sxvadasxvagvarad avlenen. zebunebrivi arseba, romelic `sxva~ sivrceSia moxvedrili, uxilavia Cveulebrivi adamianebisTvis, magram xilulia supersensitiuri adamianebisTvis, romelTac SeuZliaT maTi xilva (upiratesad, es arian monadireebi, meTevzeebi, mezRvaurebi). adamianebi da daimonebi (anu zebunebrivi arsebebi), rogorc es kargadaa cnobili specialuri literaturidan, erTmaneTTan urTierTobaSi Sedian sizmrebisa Tu xilvebis meSveobiT, am SemTxvevaSi _ zRvasTan, tbasTan, mdinaresTan da a.S. anu yvela saxis wylian adgilTan, rogorc liminalur, zRvrul zonasTan. am adgilebTan sxvadasxva saxis gadmocemebi da simboloebia dakavSirebuli. aq SevexebiT mxolod akvatur liminalur simboloebs, romlebic rogorc personifikaciebi, samive (fsiqikur/mikrokosmul, sazogadoebriv/mezokosmur da bunebriv / makrokosmul) doneze moqmedeben. zRva, rogorc RvTaebrivi wesrigis, mravalsaxa kosmosis nawili, qarTul tradiciaSi upiratesad mdedrul principTan asocirdeboda. misi miTologiuri personifikacia xazgasmiT mdedruli gaxldaT da zRvis nenes, zRvis dedis (zogjer moxuci qalis) saxiT warmoidgineba. zRvis atributebi kverTxi da Savi ZaRli iyo. misi amgvari percefcia Zalian hgavs imave qarTul tradiciaSi dacul kosmizirebuli dedis erT-erT nairsaxeobas _ nadirT patrons, romelsac Tavze ia-vardisa da samoTxis ucxo yvavilebis gvirgvini adgas, xelSi dedoflis damamtkicebeli insignia swori Txilisagan Tlili joxi upyria (Sdr. hekates misteriebSi kverTxi, romelsac `TeTrfoTliani~ ewodeboda). orive qalRvTaebasTan (akvaturTan da teluriulTan) asocirdeba Savi ZaRli, romelic maTi atributi an zogjer maTi ipostasia. orive qalRvTaebisTvis, romelnic xTonur zonas miekuTvnebodnen, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba maT adgilsamyofels hqonda. mag.: tyis dedoflis sauflo warmoidgineboda, rogorc farTo mindori, garSemortymuli maRali mTebiT da vercxlisferi wyaroebiTa da tbebiT, xexiliT, yvlanairi yvaviliT: iqve mobalaxe veluri da Sinauri cxovelebiT. ayvavebuli da nayofieri buneba qalRvTaebis Cveulebriv fons warmoadgenda, romelSic misi Zlevamosileba sxvadasxva saxiT vlindeboda. v.bardaveliZis (1957) mier rekonstruirebuli qalRvTaeba nanas (romelic didi deda RvTaebis erTerTi nairsaxeobadaa miCneuli mis mier) saasparezo fonic, masTan asocirebuli legendebisa da variantebis mixedviT, dakavSirebuli iyo zRvasTan. simRerebis mixedviT `batonebi~ (infeqciuri daavadebebis sulebi modiodnen TeTri zRvidan (s. wevaSi, zemo imereTi) (e.i. pir-


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veli satylidan, romelic samyaros gars artyia - n.a.). legendebis mixedviT, es qveyana xan zRvispiras cicabo kldezea aRmarTuli, xan kunZulze, romelsac yvela mxridan zRva uvlis (kaxeTi). gavrcelebuli rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, `batonebis~ qveyana SemoRobilia maRali galavniT da aqvs didi alayafis kari, romelic urduliT iketeba. masSi gamWvirvale brolismagvari wyaroebia, romlebSic cis laJvardi irekleba; yvelgan moedineba Taflisa da rZis mdinareebi, CanCqerebi margalitis Sxefebs afrqveven, xolo mzis sxivebi qveyanas cisartyelas ferebiT aferadeben. masSi aRmarTulia koSkebi an didebuli sasaxleebi; koSkebi didi batonebisTvis da karvebi patara batonebisTvis (bardaveliZe 1957). gurul legendebSi, ciuri samefos cisartyelas ferebi miiReba `batonebis~ TeTrad, wiTlad da lurjad (rogorc muqi da bneli feri, lurji da Savi aq sinonimuria.Sdr. lomiZe 2008, 115. - n.a.) SeRebili sacxovreblisagan... svanuri legendis mixedviT, cicabo kldis Tavze, romelic zRvispirasaa gaSlili mindoria. yvavilebiT mofenil mindorze didi wyaroa, sadac batonebis dedaa.... (bardaveliZe 1957) (TeTri da wiTeli feri samyaros sartylebis ferebi figurirebs mebodiSeTa tansacmelSic da SesawiravTa ferebSic). nana warmoidgineba didi dedis saxiT, romelic arwevda oqros akvans da tkbili xmiT aZinebda masSi mwol vaJiSvils. igive samoTxiseuli landSafti ilias bazaleTis tbaSic (romelic xalxuri gadmocemebis inspiraciiTaaA Seqmnili) iZebneba; am leqsSi tbis Ziras maradmwvane, ayvavebuli, uWknobi walkotia; masSi akvania CviliT, romelsac gars grZneuli sirinozni exvevian da umRerian...batonebis //mzis (cis) baRSi da wyalqveSa baRSi erTnairi walkotia, romlis SuagulSi oqros akvania yrmiT. zRvis siRrmeebSi, zRvis nenes garda, cxovroben da mas marTaven mesefebi, magram maTze damokidebulia xmeleTze mcxovrebTaAkeTildReobac. samyaros suraTSi gare sknelSi moqceuli mesefebi, romlebic, rogorc Cans, adgilobrivi Sesaqmis miTis personaJebic iyvnen, drodadro Sinas saqmeebSic ereodnen da monawileobdnen. isini ciklurad modiodnen da aregulirebdnen saaqaos saqmeebs. amgvarad,`cikluri stumrebi~ dasavlur qarTul realiaSi arian e.w. mesefebi sxvadasxva dros avismqneli an sikeTis momtani arsebani. megruli da aWaruli masalis mixedviT, isini adamianis msgavsi (mdedri da mamri) arsebebi arian, romelnic rigrigobiT amodian weliwadis garkveul dros (oqtombris bolo 3 dRe da noembris pirveli sami dRe 28.10- dan 3.11-mde) zRvidan da modian adamianTaA samyaroSi (sxva gadmocemiT, isini xmeleTze cxovroben). maT mosvlas Tan sdevs amindi an uamindoba, mosavali an mousavlianoba. maT dasdevT Sa-

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vi ZaRli. mesefebi nadirTpatronebi arian, mosvlisas iTvlian nadirs. am dros monadire sanadirod ar wava. nadiri da frinveli erT adgilze grovdeba. mesefi maT niSnavs da swored niSniani nadiris mokvlis ufleba aqvs monadires. iRbliani nadiroba damokidebulia imaze, Tu vin daado nadirs niSani, qalma mesefma Tu kacma. mesefebi TviTonac kargi monadireebi arian. isini mSvil-isriT xocaven nadirs da Semdeg nanadireviT nadims awyoben. megruli rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, nadiris Zvlebs tyavSi Cayrian, joxs dahkraven da acocxleben (abakelia 2008), zustad iseve, rogoc xmeleTis nadirTpatronebi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi gavrcelebul rwmena-warmodgenebSi (n.a). wasvlisas mesefebi glexebs paraven mTeli wlis samyof oTxfexs da maTTan erTad ubrundebian zRvis fskers... maTi wasvlis Semdeg wvimac wydeba da idarebs (virsalaZe 1976). mesefebi da Winkebi weliwadSi orjer Cndeban sezonis cvlilebisas (gazafxulsa da Semodgomaze). maTi mosvlisas mosaxleoba saTanado Tadarigs iWers. yvelafris karebs ketavs da rkinas (walds an namgals) daadebs avi Tvalisagan dacvis mizniT. termini mesefi sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxvanairad ixsneboda, Tumca yvela es axsna-ganmarteba dResdReobiT isev varaudebis sferoSi rCeba. mag.: mesefebs erTni nadirTpatronebad miiCneven (Tandilava 1986; virsalaZe 1976, 1964) sxvani _ wvimis momyvan patara RvTaebebad (nadaraia 1979), zogi maT, iseve rogorc nadirTmfarvels, micvalebulis sulebs ukavSirebdnen, romlebic xalxuri rwmeniT, mudmivad Tan sdeven adamianebs da icaven gareuli nadirisgan (m. makalaTia). mesefi ixsneboda, rogorc veSapis identuri forma (i.javaxiSvili, n.mari), rogorc ganmgebeli (a.canava), rogorc meufe, mefe, batoni... arsebobs xalxuri etimologiac, romelic mas maisTan (zogi gadmocemiT maTi napirze gamosvlis dro maisia, xolo megrulad maisi mesia) akavSirebs. napirze amosuli mesefi gzaze yvelafers (foTols, qvas, miwas) ukuRma abrunebs (ukuRma miRmuri samyaros mimarTulebaa). Cveni azriT, mesefis arsis gagebaSi SesaZloa maTi simravle dagvexmaros. sayuradReboa, rom sityva mesef-Si gamoyofili `sefe~ SesaZloa, niSnavdes samefo kariskacsac (vezirs). xom ar mianiSnebs es faqti, rom unda arsebobdes mesefis meufe, romlis kverTxic (samefo Zalauflebis insignia) maT napirze gamoaqvT? xom ar aris es meufe zRvis nene, romlis atributebi kverTxi da Savi ZaRlia (zogjer TviTon RvTaebis erT-erTi ipostasi)? mesefi zRvis nenes mesefea (veziria), romelic maT xmeleTze agzavnis ramdenime davalebis Sesasruleblad: nadiris raodenobisa da amindis dasaregulireblad.


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amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xTonuri siRrmeebi qarTul tradiciaSi gansaxierdeboda Tavisi struqturiT teluriuli da akvaturi qalRvTaebebis saxeebSi, romlebic saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi sxvadasxva saxeliTaa warmodgenili: nerCis batoni // fuZis angelozi (samegrelo, guria, imereTi), argila// igive adgilis deda (svaneTi), adgiel dedofal//adgilis dedofali, adgilis deda (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTa), zRvis deda, wylis dedaA da sxv. mravali saxelwodebiT warmodgenili es saxe, romelsac aSkarad sivrculi ganzomilebac aqvs, gansazRvrul adgilSi Cenasa da am adgilis flobas gulisxmobs. is uSualo kavSirSia kosmiuri dedis ideasTan, romlis xatebac qarTul tradiciaSi qalRvTaebis nairfer saxeebsa da xatebebSi iSleba, romlebic mis sxvadasxva Zalasa da aspeqtebs avlenen (abakelia 1991). amgvarad, ayvavebuli buneba Cveulebrivi fonia qalRvTaebisTvis, romelic sxvadasxva saxiT vlindeba. magram qalRvTaeba mudam amgvari idiliuri ganwyobiTaA da mdgomareobiT ar Cndeba. igi, aseve, asocirdeba wvimasTan, TovlTan, zvavTan da, zogadad, gaavdrebasTan xmeleTze. mis am saxesTan dakavSirebiT iqmneba miTologiuri kompleqsebi: wylis deda _ meTevze, nadirTpatroni monadire (Sesabamisad, mokvdavisa da ukvdavis mimarTeba), sicocxle sikvdili, nadirTpatroni iRbliani nadiroba, yurSa monadire da sxv. (abakelia 1997). Tu nadirTpatronis pirvel, mSvid, idiliur saxesTan jixvi, arCvi, mTis antilopa, Sveli, irebi da sxv. asocirdeba, romlebic, rogorc rqosnebi, mas nayofierebasa da mTvaris simbolizmTan akavSireben, mis meore xatebasTan _ gaavdrebasTan miTologiuri ZaRli yurSaa dakavSirebuli (Sdr. ciuri ZaRlis elvasTan mimarTebas). e.virsalaZis naSromSi mocemulia yurSas garegnoba: `yurSas yur-tuCi oqrosi asxia, yurSas Tvalebi `mTvaris odenaa, yurSas yefa quxilsa hgavda zecisasa~, yurSas warbebi gvelebia~. yurSas personaJis ganxilvisas g. SaraSiZem yurSas meteorologiur funqcias gansakuTrebulki yuradReba miaqcia (SaraSiZe 1968). beTqilis miTis ganxilvisas g.SaraSiZem sagangebod gaamaxvila yuradReba atmosferul fenomenze, ufro ki monacvleobis meqanizmze. romlebzec gansakuTrebuli zemoqmedeba nadirTpatronebsa Tu jagnaris// tyis RvTaebebsa aqvT, roca exeba cis mdgomareobas an mouxelTebel da saxifaTo gadasvlas sibnelidan sinaTleSi. svanuri rituali didi sifrTxiliT yofs dalisaTvis samoqmedod dRe-Rames Suaze, zustad ciskris varskvlavis gamoCenisas. kultis mizania bindis gafantva da dilis dabruneba (gaTeneba). aRniSnuli specifikuri miznis miuxedavad, igi mTlianad nadirobis qalRmerTs eZRvneba. aqac bunebis fenomenis cvlazea laparaki (Rame-gaTeneba) (SaraSiZe 1986, 78-118).

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mamri da mdedri mesefebis xmeleTze gadmosvla, Cveni azriT, mamri da mdedri arsebebis saxiT, dar-avdris moncvleobis maCvenebelia, romelsac zRvis deda aregulirebs. kvakasielebisTvis (da ara marto kavkasielebisTvis n.a. ) sezonuri, meteorologiuri, dRisa da Ramis da a.S. monacvleoba droisa da sivrcis rigSi Sedis. atmosferuli fenomenebis regularuli gameoreba da Tanmimdevroba dakavSirebulia casa da miwas Soris gansxvavebis variantebze. es, g.SaraSiZis mixedviT, erTgvari determinizmia, romelic drois msvlelobaze sakuTari kanonebiT moqmedebs. Sesabamisad, pirvelze (sivrceze) zemoqmedebiT _ SeinarCuneb an ver SeinarCuneb dros. es jaWvuri Tanmimdevroba aSkaraa gvalvisa da wvimis monacvleobaSi da gamodgeba Ramisa da dRis monacvleobaSic, magram Sebrunebuli meqanizmis gamoyenebiT. pirvel SemTxvevaSi monacvleoba miiRweva cisa da miwis SeerTebiT, meoreSi maTi daSorebiT. Ramis sibnele, rogorc g. SaraSiZe ganagrZobs, gamowveulia cisa da miwis SeerTebiT, SereviT, rac miTiur planSi Seesabameba mzis gadaylapvas hipoxTonuri Zalis mier. SeerTeba irRveva gamTeniisas, roca mze Tavis STanmTqmels dausxlteba. am dros ciuri sivrce da dedamiwa erTmaneTs Sordeba. es daSoreba iwvevs dRisa da Ramis monacvleobas. amindze (droze) misi zemoqmedebis principi igivea, rac nadirobis geniebisa (SaraSiZe 1986). amgvari ritmuli monacvleoba kargad Cans mesefebis xmeleTze regularulad gamosvlis miTSic. Savi zRvis suli da misi personifikaciebi xTonur tips ganekuTvneba da, Sesabamisad, saxifaToa. am konteqstSi vxvdebiT zRvis nenes da mesefebs. personaJi, RvTaeba adgilisa, Rirebulebas aniWebs konkretul adgils da sakuTari Tavis meSveobiT gansazRvravs am adgils, rogorc `sakuTars~. adgilis sivrceSi Sesuli _ adgilis sulia (genius loci), adgilis dedaa, romelic flobs am adgils (aseTi SeiZleba iyos zRvis suli, tbis suli, mdinaris suli, tyis, suli, kldis suli da sxv. e.i. adgilis mixedviT sxvadasxva saxeliT warmodgenili adgilis deda). zRvis garda, sxva liminalur zonebs tbebi da mdinareebi warmoadgenen. sxva akvatur personifikaciebs tbebis (igive mcire zRvebis) zoomorfuli (verZi, xari, cxeni) simboloebi warmoadgenen, romlebic tbebSi cxovroben da maTTan nayofiereba da aseve amindis cvlaa dakavSirebuli. zog tbas mag.: imerxevSi uSualod buRis tbas (buRgoils) eZaxdnen. legendis mixedviT, am tbaSi wiTeli xari cxovrobda, romelic zafxulobiT amodioda da Zroxebs amakebda... (saxokia 1985). samegreloSi cnobili iyo miqam-garios tba, romelzec amindi da uamindoba iyo damokidebuli; masSi, gadmocemiT, TeTri verZi cxovrobda, romelic zafxulobiT napirze amodioda da cxvrebs ner-


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bavda. miqam garios (mTavarangelozebis miqaelisa da gabrielis) tbasTan wesad iyo mTis ZirSi Sesawiravis Sewirva (saxokia 1985). xanSi Sesuli mwyemsi xonCaze dawyobili saklavis gul_RviZliT yvelas magivrad tbis patron miqam-gariosTvis atarebda locvas da sxv. tbebisTvis icodnen ZRvenis mitana sakvebis saxiT da wyalSi Cayra. masTan dakavSirebuli iyo samoTxiseuli miraJebi. masSi bunebrivi simboloebis garda, asocirdeba, fsiqikis mier Seqmnili simboloebi, rogoricaa gveleSapi da devi. mravali eTnografiuli da arqeologiuri masala arsebobs tbebis, mdinarebis, wyaroebis, Webis (romlebic miwis Tvalad iTvlebodnen. magaliTad, Wis gaTxra Tvalis gaxsnad aRiqmeboda samegreloSi) da a.S. Tayvaniscemaze. mudmivad cvalebadi da Seuqcevadi mdinareebi uZvelesi droidan asocirdeboda drois nakadTan, romelic mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT miedineboda. mdinaresTan dakavSirebuli sxva cnobili simboluri mniSvnelobebi iyo: saiqioSi mimavali gza, codvebisgan ganwmendis saSualeba, nayofiereba da sxva. mdinare sakomunikacio saSualeba iyo saaqaosa da saiqios Soris. mdinares Sinidan gareT atandnen cud ambebs, sakralur obieqtebs. ganZis Caflva mdinaris piras e. i. marginalur zonaSi, Sesawiravis gakeTebas utoldeboda (lorTqifaniZe 2004), xolo Cveni azriT, Sinasa da gares Soris arsebuli cirkulaciis maCvenebeli iyo (abakelia 2007). eTnografiuli monacemebiT, qarTul tradiciaSi mdinaresTan, rogorc qaluri (wylis deda, gveli, gvelSapi ) aseve, mamakacuri (xari, verZi, devi...) sawyisebi asocirdeba. gvelisa da gveleSapis saxeebi qarTul tradiciaSi dakavSirebulia wyalTan. gveleSapi (veSapi) wylis mflobeli, misi binadari da darajia. qarTul zRaprebSi urCxuli wyals umsxverplod aravis uTmobs; msxverpli unda gaiRos ara marto mdabio xalxma, aramed xelmwifemac (Ciqovani 1949). veSaps, rogorc wesi, ebrZvis gmiri... (xalxur doneze mag.; leCxumsa da qvemo svaneTSi moaruli gadmocemis Tanaxmad, mas mama-Svili an sxva versiiT, ori Zma vaJina da JivJiva ebrZoda, qristianul doneze _ upiratesad, wm. elia, wm. giorgi). rwmena-warmodgenebi wylismflobeli gveleSapis Sesaxeb uSualodaa dakavSirebuli megaliTur ZeglebTan, kerZod, veSapebTanA/viSapebTanA da maT miTologiasTan. nayofierebasTan erTad maTTan meteorologiuri simbolizmicaa dakavSirebuli (ix. abakelia 1997). rwmenebi wylismflobeli gveleSapis Sesaxeb uSualod ukavSirdeba zemoT xsenebul megaliTur Zeglebs. da, rogorc aRiniSna, Tu erT SemTxvevaSi es Zeglebi nayofierebis, rZisa da Svilierebis mimcemia, sxva SemTxvevaSi maTTan gvalva-delgmaa dakavSirebuli.

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n. marisa da i.smirnovis (1931: 87-90) aRniSvniT, saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi gavrcelebul veSapebis zedapirze rig SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxvanairi gamosaxulebebis garCevaa SesaZlebeli. yvelaze xSirad ki, cxovelis Tavis, rqebiT. zog veSapze aRniSnuli gamosaxulebebi detaluradaaa damuSavebuli, zogze ki stilizebulia. xSirad, am cxovelTa xaxidan gadmodis erTi, ori an sami talRiseburi xazi, romelic wylis nakadTTan identificirdeba (sixaruliZe 1972: 24). am Zeglebze gatyavebuli cxovelis tyavi (umeteswilad, xaris. gvxvdeba kameCis da cxvrisac) Sesawiravis tyavadaa miCneuli, romelic TiTqosda mTel stelazea gadafenili (n. mari da i.smirnovi: 1931 87-90). Sesawiravis gatyavebisas Tavis, kudis da kidurebis xeluxleblad datoveba msxverplSewirvis uZvelesi formaa, romelic XX Suawlebamde saqarTvelos mraval kuTxeSi dasturdeba (ix. abakelia 1987: 237-243; 1991: 83-115). Cveni kvlevis Tanaxmad (abakelia 1997, 2010), menhirebTan asocirdebian cis RmerTebi (amaze metyvelebs xSir SemeTxvevaSi xaris gamosaxuleba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, amindis RmerTis universalur simbolos warmoadgens. aRniSnuli Tezisis gasamyareblad SeiZleba movitanoT tipologiuri masala erTerTi uZvelesi xalxis, kerZod, xeTebis religiidan, romelic amindis RmerTs huwai-s exeba. sadResasawulo teqstebis umetesi konteqstidan da sakulto inventaridan gamomdinare, huwai qvis stela an beTilia, romelzec zogjer reliefebia amotvifruli. maT aTavsebdnen rogorc taZarSi, ise Ria cis qveS, wyaros TavTan an tyesTan axlos an mTaze. xeTologiuri gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad, qvis stelebi sxvadasxva RvTaebas eZRvneboda, magram maT Soris yvelaze cnobili da mniSvnelovani amindis RvTaebis gamosaxulebiani stela iyo (aseve, mniSvnelovnad gveCveneba, rom amindis RvTaebis gamosaxuleba dResaswaulebis dros gamohqondaT taZrebidan, ritualuri procesiiT mihqondaT qalaqgareT da misi stelis win aTavsebdenen (zingeri: 1986: 245-2530). aRniSnuli masala zemoT gamoTqmul varauds amyarebs, rom qvis stelaze SesaZlebeli iyo amindis RvTaebis gamosaxva (iseve rogorc, Cvens sinamdvileSia, misTvis Sesawiri cxoveli anu misi erT-erTi ipostasi gamoesaxaT). unda aRiniSnos, rom materialuri Zeglebis garda, es rwmenebi asaxulia wmindanebis epiTetebSi. am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi mTis veSagis/mTis SeSagis (romlis erT-erTi epiTeti `wyarosTavisa~ aris) arseboba (ix. oCiauri 1988), romlic aRniSnul regionSi cis RmerTis (Semdeg ki amindis RmerTis, xolo qristianul doneze _ wmindanis) saxiT aris warmodgenili Tavis xTonur antagonistTan erTad. xalxur rwmena-warmodgenebSi, qristianul doneze, masTan asocirdeba wm. giorgi da misi xTonuri


akvaturi simbolos zogierTi mniSvnelobisTvis ....

25

mowinaaRmdege da es transformacia miikvleva Cvens mier wm. giorgis dawnexil, kondesirebul epiTetSi, romelic ufro farTo konteqsts gulisxmobs. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, wm. giorgi (erT-erTi axali Teofaniaa amindis RvTaebisa qristianul doneze) iTvisebs damarcxebuli xTonuri mowinaaRmdegis saxels da gvxvdeba wm. giorgi mTis veSagi/SeSagi wyarosTavisa~-s saxeliT, romlis ganmgebelic TviTon xdeba brZolis Semdeg. sainteresoa, rom xaris gamosaxulebiani veSapebi, rogorc amas n. mari da i.smirovi aRniSnavdnen, gvxvdebian mTebSi mdinareebis saTaveebTan, wyarosTan, tbebTan, arxebTan da sxv. (ix. mari da smirnovi, 1931). es faqti xSir SemTxvevaSi dasturdeba qarTul realiaSic (gavixsenoT baraleTis svetisa da sxva qvasvetebis mdebareoba), aseve _ sakralur topografiasa da wmindanis epiTetSic. Cveni dakvirvebebis mixedviT, qarTul tradiciaSi menhirebi (sxva tradiciebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebSic isini cal-calke figurireben, Sesabamisad, kromlexebisa da menhirebis saxiT) orive principiT _ mdedruliTa da mamruliT _ erTad arian warmodgenili. amgvarad, qarTul tradiciaSi megaliTuri Zeglebi, romlebic veSapis saxeliT arian cnobili, konsekrirebulni arian maTSi zebunebrivis damswreobiT. warmoadgenen ra Teofanias, isini mianiSneben sakraluri `centris~ (terminis eliadeseuli gagebiT) erT-erT nairsaxeobaze. profanul sivrceSi Casmuli zebunebrivi sivrcis realobis `ierofanizacia~ uSualod miiRweva TvalsaCino simbolizmiT, romelsac TviTon qvis forma avlens (erTis mxriv, cis ganmgebeli, meores mxriv misi xTonuri mowinaaRmdege) da romelic mas kosmiuri energiis centrad aqcevs. Cveni kvlevebis Tanaxmad, wyaroTavi, wyalsacavi, zRva, tba, mdinare da sxv. e.w. `liminaluri~ zonaa, romelzec samyaros centri gadis da romelic Cven kosmiuri brZolis adgilad gvesaxeba. am adgilebSi aRmarTulia brZolis amsaxveli simbolo qvis veSapis saxiT, romelzec xaris (amindis RvTaebis erTerTi gavrcelebuli gamovlinebis) gamosaxulebaa. amrigad, zemoT Tqmuli mokled Semdegnairad SeiZleba Sejamdes: winamdebare kvleva organizebulia wylis mdgomareobaTaA simravlisa da formebis garSemo, romlebic sivrcul realobas miekuTvnebian da rogorc aseTni qarTvelTa samyaros arqaul modelSi gansazRvrul adgils ikaveben. qarTvelebisTvis, rogorc mcirericxovani xalxisTvis, zRvas ar gaaCnda kolonizaciis, savaWro da gacvlis funqciebi (rogorc es Zveli berZnebisTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli), magram is yovelTvis maT istoriul da miTologiur mexsierebaSi rCeboda da kulturis to-

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pografiaSi periferiaze moiazreboda. qarTvelTaTvis aTvisebuli samyaros nawili `Sina~ moTavsebuli iyo samyaros centrSi, romelsac gars sami samfera (TeTri, wiTeli,Savi) sartyeli uvlida (da mis vertikalur da horizontalur topografias gulisxmobda). sartylebSi dasaxlebuli arsebani sartyelTa ferTa mixedviT iyvnen dajgufebulni ( rogorc nakleb saSiSi, metad saSiSi da ukiduresad saSiSi arsebani). kosmogoniis amsaxvel citirebul leqsis fragmentSi (romelic arc Tu ise Zveli Cans, magram romelSic arqetipebi moqmedeben) ferebi kosmiuri simbolizmis gamomxatvelia. yovel sartyels Sesabamisi zebunebrivi arsebebi Seesabameba. gamovlenilia zRvis suli Tavisi TiasoTi, mesefebis (vezirebis saxiT), romelic SeiZleba Sedardes did nanasa da mis mesefeT _ batonebs. gamovlenilia tbisa da mdinareTa zoomorfuli da antropomorfuli arsebani maTi Sesabamisi mdedruli da mamruli sawyisebiTa da funqciebiT. wyaros, mdinaris da tbis maxloblad aRmarTuli megaliTuri Zeglebi miCneulia sakraluri centris erT-erT nairaxeobad, romelic amindis ganmgeblis ( qristianul doneze wm.giorgis) da misi xTonuri antagonistis kosmiuri brZolis adgilad moiazreba. literatura abakelia 1991: . , , 1991. abakelia 1997: nino abakelia. simbolo da rituali qarTul kulturaSi, Tb., 1997. abakelia 2007: nino abakelia, saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli masalis mixedviT). semiotika, 2. Tb., 2007. abakelia 2008: nino abakelia, `daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi, semiotika, 3, Tb., 2008. bardaveliZe 1957: .., , ., 1957. beraZe 1981: T. beraZe. zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tb., nakaduli, 1981. eliade 1974: Mircea Eliade. Patterns in Comparative Religion, A Meridian Book, New American Library, Times Mirror, New York, 1974. virsalaZe 1955: elene virsalaZe, barbol-babari qarTul folklorSi, saqrTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, t. XVI, 1, Tb., 1955.


akvaturi simbolos zogierTi mniSvnelobisTvis ....

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virsalaZe 1964: el. virsalaZe. qarTuli samonadireo eposi, Tb., 1964. virsalaZe 1976: el. virsalaZe. qarTuli miTologiis istoriidan. `haeris mcvelni~. iv.javaxiSvilis dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli. Tb., 1976. zingeri 1996: Itamar Singer. The huwai of the Storm-God in Hattua. Trk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlari IX. Dizi a-9. IX.Trk Kongresi, Ankara. 1981. I Cilt.Ankara. 1986. Tandilava 1986: z. Tandilava, RvTaeba mesefis miTologiuri saxis gagebisaTvis, kr. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos zepirsityviereba, Tb., 1986 kiknaZe 2010: zurab kiknaZe da tristan maxauri (Semdgenlebi). xalxuri poeziis anTologia. qarTuli wignis mxardaWeris fondi, Tbilisi, memkvidreoba, 2010. lomiZe 2008: Tamar lomiZe, feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi,semiotika,3, Tb., 2008 lorTqifaniZe 2004: O.Lortkipanidze. Hoards in Colchian Bronze Culture: their Role and Function, Journal of Georgian Archaeology, No. 1. Tbilisi, 2004. mari da smirnovi 1931: ... .. . (. . , .1.., 1931. mindaZe 2001: nunu mindaZe, religiuri sinkretizmi qarTul xalxur medicinaSi. qarTveluri memkvidreoba, V, quTaisi, 2001. nadaraia 1979: m.nadaraia, wvimis patara RvTaebebi _ mesefebi da Winkebi. kr. `samegrelo~, mecniereba.Tb., 1979. oqroSiZe 1973: T.oqroSiZe. ferTa simbolika qarTul jadosnur zRaprebSi. ciskari,1. Tb., 1973 oCiauri 1988: al. oCiauri. qarTuli xalxuri dReobebis kalendari, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1988. saxokia 1985: mogzaurobani (guria, aWara, samurzayano, afxazeTi), Batumi, 1985. sixaruliZe 1972: .. . . .4.., 1972. toporovi 1993: ... - ( . 1., , 1993. xidaSeli 2010: manana xidaSeli. feris simbolika maxlobeli aRmosavleTis adresamiwaTmoqmedo kulturebsa da qarTul

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xalxur kulturaSi. krebulSi: m.xidaSeli. saqarTvelos Zveli kulturis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2010. SaraSiZe 1968: GG. Charachidz. Le systeme Religieux de La Gorgie Paienne. Paris, 1968. Sevalie da Reebrani 1996: Jean Chevalier, Alain Gheebrant, The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols, BlackwellPublishers, Great Britain, 1996. CeTvaindi 1986: T. Chatwynd. A Dictionary of Symbols, London, Glasgow, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland, 1986. Ciqovani 1949: mixeil Ciqovani. veSapTmebrZoli gmiri da wminda mxedari. puSkinis sax. pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi. t.VII. Tb., 1949. ColoyaSvili 2004: rusudan ColoyaSvili, uZveles rwmena-warmodgenaTaAkvali xalxur zRaprul eposSi, Tb., 2004.

cira barbaqaZe

zRvis semiotika qarTuli enis masalebis mixedviT zRvis semantikuri veli


qarTuli enis leqsikonebis mixedviT, leqsema zRvis saintereso semantikuri veli dasturdeba. pirvel rigSi, unda aRvniSnoT, rom uZvelesi fuZea da aRdgenilia misi saerToqarTveluri arqetipic. aseTi fuZeebi qarTulSi bevri ar aris. gvxvdeba Zvel qarTulSic: `xolo zRuai igi qarisagan aRxirRueoda~; `warvidoda zRuasa mas galileisasa~da sxva. qarTul zRu-a fuZes Seesatyviseba megruli zRv-a, lazuri zoR-a da svanuri zuRu-a. giorgi klimovma saerToqarTveluri fuZe-enis donisTvis aRadgina zRua- arqetipi. hainc fenrixisa da zurab sarjvelaZis qarTvelur enaTa etimologiur leqsikonSi dasturdeba zRvasTan dakavSirebuli kidev erTi uZvelesi fuZe: zRuel-. qarTuli: zRvel- zRvel-a (rac niSnavda kokispirul wvimas, misi megruli Sesatyvisi iyo: zRvar- zRvar-zRval-i (rac agreTve kokispiruli wvimaa), zRvar-zRvala-an-s _ kokispirulad wvims. qarTuli enis imerul dialeqtSi dasturdeba zRvel- Ziri, romlis kanonzomieri megruli Sesatyvisia megruli zRvar-, zRvar-zRval- (reduplicirebuli fuZe) _ es masala Seapirispira hainc fenrixma. zRvidanaa nawarmoebi: zRvauri (zRvi-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, SedarebiTi literaturis institutis mkvlevari. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi _ qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika (2003), qarTuli sakanonmdeblo stili (1996), poeziis semiotika (2009). interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, poetika, kritika.

dan monaberi qari), zRvavdeba (zRvasaviT bevri, didi xdeba), mozRvaveba, uzRvavi...

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semantikurad zRvas ukavSirdeba kidev erTi leqsema: zRvari

_ sazRvari, mijna. miuxedavad imisa, rom zRvarSi aSkaraa zRvis


Tviseba, rom is aris zRvari, gamyofi... es etimologia mainc saWiroebs ufro dazustebul kvlevas. qarTulSi aris kidev erTi leqsema zRveva (azRvevina, miuzRo), romelSic Soreulad SeiZleba `zRua~ fuZe ivaraudebodes, Tumca esec mxolod varaudia. biZina foCxua qarTuli enis leqsikur fondSi saerToqarTveluris namemkvidrevad miiCnevs Semdeg sityvebs: wyali, zRva, tba, Rele, Rvari, Tovli, wvima, (foCxua 1974:317). zRva gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT bevris aRmniSvnelia idiomebSi:

zRva sixaruli, zRva xalxi, siyvarulis zRva...


zRvis mTavari Tviseba Relva metaforizebulia qarTuli enis leqsikaSi da dakavSirebulia adamianis Sinagan emociebTan: avRel-

di, guli miRelavs... Relvam Semipyro...


Zalian sainteresod gveCveneba Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi dadasturebuli menaveobis leqsika: menave _ navis mmarTveli, patroni. menaveT-moRuawe _ `ara xolo menaved, aramed menaveT-moRuawei yovlad... ganwesebul var~. menaveT-moZRuari _ menaveTa Tavi; agreTve: navis-ufali, navis mavlinebli (menave), navis-marTebeli, navis-moqmedi da sxva (abulaZe 1973:231, sarjvelaZe 1995). sulxan-saba ki navis mravalferovan semantikur vels gvTavazobs (zomebis mixedviT): navi _ ese zogadi saxeli ars yovelTa nav-

Ta. mciresa navsa _ nuSa, missa udidessa _ varcli, kopano, karapa, karpaWa, xumaldi, karafiTa, oCxomeli, oleWkanderi, katarRa _ erTi meores udides-udidesni arian, xolo xomaldi da dromoni udides yovelTa. stoli _ saomarni navni. menave _ eseni arian yovelni navTa muSakni: xolo navse ewodebis navis maSenebelsa da navkosalari _ menaveT moZRvarsa, xolo meprore _ menaveT uxucessa, mpirvelobni _ menaveT gamgebelsa, navturi _ katarRis mnesa da navte _ momcro navis menavesa, xolo mxervali _ navis mavlinebelsa, romelsa upyries timoni da meafqioe _ afris gamgebelsa. navsadguri _ sadaca navi dadgomad SesaZlebel ars zRvaTa Sina, navsayudeli _ sada zRva ukumdgaria, viTarca tba, myudro da uRelavi (ellenebr: limena, limoni).
menaveobasTan dakavSirebuli mravalferovani leqsikis arseboba adasturebs, Sesabamisad, mravalferovani funqciebi arsebobda da rom qarTvelebi `gaSinaurebuli~ iyvnen zRvasTan.


zRvis semiotika qarTuli enis masalebis mixedviT

31

Zalian mniSvnelovania agreTve, rom qarTvelebma simSvidis, daculobis, TavSesafris metaforad swored zRvasTan dakavSirebuli leqsema _ navsayudeli airCies. qarTuli enis leqsikaSi zRvis semantikuri velis Seswavla (rogorc pirdapiri, aseve gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT) adasturebs, rom zRva qarTvelis bunebis nawilia da rom sityva zRva uZveles, arqetipur doneze aRdgenili leqsemaa. agreTve zRvis semantikuri veli _ zRvaosnobasa da naosnobasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika, menavis ierarqiebi da Tavad navis mrvalsaxeoba (Sesabamisi qarTuli SesatyvisebiT) gamodgeba argumentebad, rom aRniSnuli konceptiT gamoxatuli farTe semiotikuri veli Cveni, qarTvelis, bunebis erTgvari matricaa.

wyali, nakadi, mdinare _ drois metafora anu wyalwaRebulebi


`Cvens cxovrebiseul gamocdilebaSi dro yovelTvis heraklites drois msgavsia. Cven niadag vixsenebT am Zvel Sedarebas, TiTqos amdeni saukunis manZilze araferi Secvlila da kvlavindeburad vrCebiT heraklited, mdinareSi Tavis anarekls rom uyurebs da fiqrobs imaze, rom mdinare mdinare araa, imitom, rom wyali Seicvala, da Tavadac araa heraklite, radganac isic Seicvala mas Semdeg, rac ukanasknelad umzerda mdinares~. borxesi, ~dro~

`ver movirCine Cemi yrmobis wvimebis wyevla. maSinRa mivxvdi: rom sicocxlis wyalma wamiRo~. giorgi kekeliZe

wylis (mdinaris) drosTan kavSiri universaluri metaforaa. am analogiiT enasa da kulturaSi mravali axali metafora ibadeba gansxavavebul enaze, gansxvavebuli sintaqsiT, magram saerTo ideiT, rac adasturebs kacobriobis fsiqikur da mentalur erTianobas da, amave dros, gamoxatvis individualobas. yvelaferi, rac arsebobs, dros miaqvs... Tumca zogs inaxavs dro, zogs ki _ swrafad aqrobs da iviwyebs. mas Semdeg mravalma wyalma Caiara _ ityvis qarTul enaze molaparake da `mraval wyalSi~ bunebrivia, dros igulisxmebs; anu _ didi dro gavida... Sesabamisad, frazeologiaSi arsebobs sintagma: cxovrebis dineba. raki dro mdinarea, xolo cxovreba droiT

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gansazRvruli, maSasadame, cxovrebac mdinarea, anu dineba, romelsac zogi mihyveba, zogs miaTrevs es dineba, xolo zogisTvis morevad iqceva. aqedan kidev erTi frazeologiuri sintagma: cxovrebis morevi. cxovreba zRvasTanac identificirdeba qarTul cnobierebaSi cxovrebis zRva. am metaforul kavSiris arss kargad gamoxatavs oTar WilaZe leqsSi `moxetiale kunZuli~: `daxetialobs Cemi kunZuli, mTeli qveyana zRva aris misTvis. is erT adgilze ver gaCerdeba, gamoclili aqvs fexqveS sayrdeni.~ `moxetiale kunZuli~ asociacias aCens artur rembos

`mTvral xomaldTan~.
mec CamiTria zRvis simReram, iq cis kamara da varskvlavebiT moWedili maradisoba imzireboda da qceuli uZReb samared xandaxan cxedars, Cafiqrebuls, zeviT esroda. uceb dairRva lilisferi zRvis maqmanebi, dRis neli ritmi da kaSkaSi, da viT uRvinod daTroba anda usazRvroba Cveni qnarebis, gamwarebuli siyvarulis vigrZen duRili! (frangulidan Targmna givi gegeWkorma). cxovrebis yvela dineba metaforulad Tavs iyris cxovrebis zRvaSi. es zRvac droiT da droSi gansazRvrulia, TiTqos dagrovili droa. adamiani mogzauria (an mxedari), zRvaosani an naosani (an sulac, kunZuli), romelic mowodebulia. gamudmebulad moZraobdes. zRva ki (cxovreba) mRelvare da xifaTiT aRsavsea, amitom unda imoZrao ise, rom ar daiRupo. maZiebeli adamianis Tandayolili swrafvaa `bedis samZRvris~ gadalaxva... baraTaSvili `merniT~, galaktioni `lurja cxenebiT~ miiswrafis am gadalaxvisken. vaJafSavela ki ityvis: `dezi vkra Cemsa lurjasa, gadaverio zRvaSia. TqvenTan ZaRlurad sicocxles sikvdili mijobs cdaSia; ver maawonebT karg ymasa, rac ar maudis WkvaSia!~ (`qeifi~) baraTaSviliseul da galaktioniseul sulis swrafvas vaJafSavela `lurjas zRvaSi gadareviT~ gamoxatavs, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs sulis swrafvas. mdinaris, zRvis gadalaxviT gmiri gadis gaRma, axal samyaroSi. zRvis (mdnaris) gadalaxvas da meore napirze (gaRma) gasvlas


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bevri simboluri, metaforuli Tu ezoTeruli mniSvneloba ukavSirdeba. qarTuli enis frazeologiaSi ki gaRma gasvla gardacvalebaa. zRvis saintereso semiotikaa akaki wereTlis leqsSi: zRvao, aReldi, aReldi, qartexils daemorCile! aamTagore talRebi, kideebs gadaacile! margalitebis salaro Seni ufskruli gulia, myudroebis dros is ganZi qveynisTvis dafarulia. mxolod rodesac mrisxaneb, guls uxsni mzes da mTvaresa, im margalitebs Sestyorcni Sen Semkvrels aremaresa. poeto! nurc Sen ekrZalvi mrisxane gulis Relvasa!.. Zilis dros quxils nu moSli da sibnelis dros elvasa! akaki wereTeli poetisa da zRvis identifikacias mimarTavs da mRelvarebas miiCnevs maT mTavar Tvisebad, radgan simSvidis dros ganZi poetisa da zRvis gulSi _ orivegan dafarulia da mxolod aRelvebul talRebs da poetis aRelvebul guls SeuZlia margalitebis amotana fskeridan. zRvis saintereso metaforul semantikas warmoadgens Tanamedrove avtori giorgi kekeliZe Tavis poeziaSi. sainteresod gadaTamaSebuli qarTuli enis idiomaturi TqmebiT poeti qmnis xan axal semantikas, xan kidev frazeologizmebis (enobrivi cnobierebis) sazRvrebSi rCeba. `zRva kovziT dailia~ da `kovzi nacarSi Camivarda~ zRvasTan mimarTebiT ase gamoiyena poetma: kovzis Zlispiri zRvas vsvamdi kovziT ZarRvebad gavidgi marjnebi, xolo Tevzebi dardiviT mereoda badeebs xandaxan TviTonve vCuqnidi, radgan dards ra dalevda me erTi viyavi, erTi viyavi da zRvas vsvamdi. zRva didi iyo me ukve ufro. erTxelac, CaTvlemils, sizmrebi amewva mze CemSi Cavida. ..... kaci aRar darCa, rom ebWo is ki mainc icinoda:

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sxva mzeebma sxva zRvebi gadawves, Rrubeli am zRvebis nacari afantes qarebma da mere daiqca gacrili nacari. gawvimda. ...... gawvimda. zRvas vsvamdi kovziT da nacarSi Camivarda.

cira barbaqaZe

frazeologizmebis pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobebis SereviT aqtiurdeba sruliad sxva mniSvneloba da myari gamonaTqvamebic axal niuansebs iZens. asea am leqsSic. `zRva kovziT dailia~ _ es gamonaTqvami moTminebis mniSvnelobas ukavSirdeba, iseve, rogorc `wveTma qva gaxvrita~. warmodgenil teqstSi ki pirdapiri mniSvnelobiTaa (leqsis konteqstSi ki simboluri)gamoyenebuli `zRvis kovziT daleva~, romlis finalia `kovzi nacarSi Camivarda~ anu: araferi gamomivida. am leqsis gagebac mravalgvarad SeiZleba, iseve, rogorc mravalgvaria zRvis mniSvneloba mocemul konteqstSi. miTologiuri, arqetipuri Tu metaforuli-simboluri Sinaarsi aqvs am teqsts... zRva aris _ dro, stiqia, cxovreba, aracnobieri... yvela SemTxvevaSi, gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebis miuxedavad, azri finalSia gacxadebuli. sxva leqsSi ki giorgi kekeliZe sakuTar andazas Seqmnis: `ver movirCine Cemi yrmobis wvimebis wyevla. maSinRa mivxvdi: rom sicocxlis wyalma wamiRo~. `wyalwaRebuli~ poeti frTxilicaa: nu gaSli afrebs, ver wagviyvans Sors Cveni navi... wamixda xasiaTi da mosavali qari davTese da mzea (`sxva andazis Zlispiri~) leqsSi `embienti~ ki avtorma mSvidi mgzavrobis survili ase gamoxata: `me iqiT waval, sadac wyali iqneba mdore~. poeti xan Tavad iqceva zRvad, ganudgeba Zmebs, romlebmac `afrebi gaSales~ da Soreul mogzaurobaSi wavidnen. samagierod, grZnobs maTi gemebis fskers... Cemma Zmebma miaSures udides


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gemebs, Cemma Zmebma gaSales amayi afrebi. micuraven axla, micuraven mSvidad, saocari TavdajerebiT saocradve bednierni. da Cemi Zmebis xomaldebis fskers msubuqad grZnobs Cemi mTvlemare mkerdi. ra mimarTebaa zRvis fskersa da zedapirze mocurave gemebs Soris? iqneb maradiulisa warmavalTan? avtori (iseve, rogorc yvela) bolos `gaRma gadis~, aq gadaaTamaSdeba kidev erT idioma: drois gayvana. finali ki leqsSi `kacis Zlispiri~ aseTia: dro gamyavs, radgan mxolod es saqme vici, Tundac xels xelad gamowvdili talRa miSlides, aTasi da binZuri talRa. dro gamyavs. aha, gamoCnda is napiric, me gavedi da daRlisgan male movkvdebi, aseTia Cemi wesi me movkvdebi, dro ki samSvidobos gaviyvane. zRvis metaforas sainteresod xsnis zurab qarumiZe romanSi `Rvinomuqi zRva~. avtori wers: `yvelaze saintereso stimuli am wignis dawyebisTvis iyo Tbilisis istoriis xuTtomeulis pirveli tomi. gadaSli da kiTxulob, rom Tbilisis teritoria geologiuri TvalsazrisiT kainozouri zRvis fskeria, romelic Camoyalibda kainozour eraSi da a. S. warsulis xedvis Cveneburi variantia. me momewona es metafora. Semdeg zRvisa da qalaqis metaforaa. es axali ar aris, joisiseulia; aq imdenad qalaqisa da zRvis metafora ki ar aris mTavari, TviTon es wignia zRva _ Rvinomuqi zRva. xatebis asociaciebi, raRac ucxosadmi swrafvis, Riaobis, damokidebulebis, amitomac es aris garemos garRvevis mcdeloba.~ (xazgasma Cemia _c.b.)

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cira barbaqaZe

zaza SaTiriSvili am romanis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs: `avtori ar aris orientirebuli ambis moyolaze mas ainteresebs ara istoria, aramed is, Tu ra mosdis enas, roca wer. wera ai, romanis realuri Tema da Sinaarsi. qarumiZe iRebs idiomas, enis am gaqvavebul Sres, jer aqcevs mas metaforad, anu imad, rac idioma odesRac iyo (lingvisturi `miTologiis~ Tanaxmad) da amis Semdeg is am metaforas `anarativebs~, `aambebs~. magaliTad, `xelwera~, `bedis wera~ gamoTqmebi, romlebic sxva araferia, Tu ara gaqvavebuli metaforebi, romlebsac Cven yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi avtomaturad, yovelgvari orazrovnebis gareSe viyenebT qarumiZis romanSi `ibruneben~ orazrovnebas, iZenen metaforul (sazogadod, tropul) ganzomilebas, romlis Semdegac avtori kidev erT xerxs mimarTavs trops `abukvalurebs~, materialurs xdis _ xeli personaJi xdeba, `xelwera~ ambavi, anu is, rasac avtori gviyveba.~ sxvaTa Soris, aqve SevniSnavT, rom isini imas, rasac zurab qarumiZe mimarTavs (e. w. idiomaTa etimologia) `Rvinomuq zRvaSi~, giorgi kekeliZe amas poeziaSi `akeTebs~. ena, romelic scenaze gamodis avtoris (rogorc mediumis) meSveobiT, gvabrunebs saganTa arsisken da siRrmisken. metaforulad teqsti iqceva zRvad, romelic periodulad zedapirze amoativtivebs imgvar `niSnebs~, romlebic gvixsnian etimologias, anu arss. rac Seexeba, wyalTan dakavSirebul qarTuli enis frazeologizmebs da idiomebs, unda aRiniSnos, rom isini umeteswilad, uaryofiT semantikasTanaa dakavSirebuli. magaliTad: wylis nayva,

wyalSi gadayra, wyalwyala, wyalwaRebuli, arc Zmari, arc wyali, wyali Seudga, win - wyali, ukan mewyeri, wyali ar gauva da sxva. dadebiTi semantikisaa wylisgan nawarmoebi _ wyaloba, mwyalobeli... agreTve: Seni wyali gadamesxas!
zRva, rogorc koncepti, ambivalentur xasiaTs atarebs da aerTianebs dadebiT da uaryofiT mniSvnelobebs erTdroulad, riTac qmnis erTian da ganuyofel bunebas. literatura baSliari 1998: . . / . . .. . - .: . beraZe 1981: Tamaz beraZe, zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi. beraZe 2009: Tamaz beraZe, samxedro-sazRvao saqmis istoriidan, Tbilisi.


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mamardaSvili... 1974: M. K. , . . , , . foCxua 1994: biZina foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia, Tbilisi. Smiti 2010: karl Smiti, xmeleTi da zRva, msoflio-istoriuli ganazreba (germanulidan Targmna giorgi TavaZem), Tbilisi. leqsikonebi hainc fenrixi, zurab sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi, 2000. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (Svidtomeuli), arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT. zurab srjvelaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tbilisi, 1995. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli (ortomeuli), Tbilisi, 1993. ilia abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tbilisi, 1973.

naira bepievi wylis binadrebi osur miTologiaSi


wylis binadarT TiTqmis yvela kavkasieli xalxis folklori icnobs. magram ZiriTadad isini avsuli qalebi arian, romlebic TavianTi grZneulebiT cdiloben mamakacTa datyveveba-vnebas. wyalTan axlos cxovrobs avsuli ali. igi demonuri arsebaa, xiblavs mamakacebs da mere Rupavs. samegreloSi wylis deda (wyariS dida) lamazi grZelTmiani qalia. igi wyalSia, cxenosans xels Caavlebs, Semdeg ki cxenianad Rrma wyalSi CaiTrevs. arc mebadurebs indobs igi, axvevs maT badeSi da axrCobs. afxazur miTologiaSi wylis RvTaebaa ZiZlani. adreul safexurze mas wvimasac SesTxovdnen. Semdegi drois TqmulebebSi igi alis msgavs avsul qalad iqca. Aafxazur miTologiaSi sxva binadari qalebic arian. isini Rame gamodian da mamakacebis Setyuebas cdiloben. CeCnuri folklori icnobs wylis dedas (xi-nana). romelsac civi, slikina sxeuli aqvs. yumixebis warmodgeniT, wyals ganagebs suv-anasi (wylis deda). man sakuTari Tavi SesTavaza kacs, Semdeg Tavisi grZneuli Tma Semoaxvia mas, romelmac amas verafriT daaRwia Tavi. mixvda, Tu qalis nebas ar dahyveboda, qali moaSTobda. qalma beWedi gaukeTa TiTze da gaafrTxila,

filologiis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. monografia: `grigol bagrationis cxovreba da Semoqmedeba~ (2006). Targmnili da gamocemuli aqvs krebulebi: `osuri folklori~ (2004), `osuri zepirsityviereba~ (2006), qarTuli prozis anTologia osur enaze (2007), osuri prozis anTologia qarTul enaze (2007), osuri Tqmulebebi (2010). interesebis sfero: literatura, folklori, enaTmecniereba.


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aravisTvis araferi eTqva amis Sesaxeb. kaci dabrunda Tu ara, Tavis sacoles aCuqa is beWedi. Mmesame dRes suv-anasma igi wyalSi daaxrCo (sixaruliZe 2007: 157). sruliad gansxvavebuli samyaroa wyali da wylis binadari osur miTologiaSi. donbedTiri osuri miTologiis mixedviT, wylisa da wyalqveSa samyaros mbrZanebeli naxevrad kaci, naxevrad Tevzia. igi meTevzeTa RvTaebad iTvleba. Oosuri Tqmulebebis mixedviT, donbedTiri mamakacia, radgan meTevzeebi Cveulebriv mamakacebi arian. donbedTirs asulebic hyavs wylis asulebi, romelTac qalebi scemen Tayvans, radgan osuri wes-Cveulebis mixedviT, wyals qali ezideba (mamakacisTvis es sircxvilad iTvleboda). saerTod, donbedTirebs wyalSi da wyalqveS mcxovreb xalxs uwodeben. narTebis eposSi wyali da wylis samyaro ganuyofeli nawilia mTlianad samyarosi.Oosi mecnieri v. abaevi marTebulad aRniSnavda: `RmerTebis samyaro, adamianTa samyaro da bunebis samyaro es sami samyaro narTebis droSi erTi sicocxliT sunTqavs da maT erTmaneTis ena esmiT~ (abaevi 1988: 35). marTlac, RvTaebebi (warmarTuli da qristianuli), adamianebi da stiqiebi (qari galagoni, wyali, zRva _ donbedTiri), samive maTgani osur eposSi _ narTebisa da carciaTebis samyaroSi gansakuTrebulad aris warmoCenili. donbedTirebi narTebisaTvis sapativsacemo RvTaebas warmoadgenen. narTebis ufrosi varxagi iyo, varxags ori vaJi SeeZina _ tyupebi... gaixara varxagma... iseTi saRvTo gamarTa, narTebs rom ekadrebodaT. dapatiJa zecis binadarTagan qurdalagoni, wylis binadarTagan _ donbedTiri, narTebidan bora da sxvani. samyaros mTlianoba (ca, wyali, adamiani) Tavidanve ase harmoniulad aisaxa narTebis eposSi. swored bunebis, stiqiis samyaroSi moiazreba wyali, rogorc osTa macocxlebeli, maTi sulierebis kidev erTi navsayudeli, sadac maT garkveuli mimarTeba aqvT. donbedTirebis sacxovrisic gansakuTrebulia: `axsarTagi zRvis fskerze rom Cavida, donbedTirebis saxlSi moxvda. saxli ki marTlac saocari ram iyo _ kedlebi Zvirfasi mbrwyinavi sadafisa hqonda, iatakad lurji mina ego da saxuravad ciskris varskvlavi exura~ (narTebi, gv.42). wylis binadarni araCveulebrivi silamaziT gamoirCeodnen: donbedTirebis asuli `iwva sawolze, xSiri, oqrosferi kululebiT lamis iataks exeboda. mzesaviT pirbadrs brolis yeli uqaTqaTebda~ (abievi 1988: 45) aseTi iyo Zerasa mzeTunaxavi, donbedTirebis asuli, romelic narTebis uruzmagisa da xamicis mSobeli iyo.

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naira bepievi

samyaros samganzomilebiani sistema Taviseburad aqvT warmodgenili kavkasiis sxva xalxebs. afxazebis azriT, Cveni samyaros garda arsebobs ramdenime samyaro, zogi Cvens qvemoTaa ganlagebuli, zogi Cvens zemoT, Cven SuaSi varT da amitom welze vikeTebT qamars. aseTive rwmena aqvT raWvelebsac, arsebobs sami samyaro, zeda Zalian baraqiania, amitom mis mcxovrebT ar sWirdebaT didi garja, qveda Zalian unayofoa, xolo Cvens samyaros Sualeduri adgili uWiravs (sixaruliZe 2007: 235). osur miTologiaSi, rasakvirvelia, es zesknel-qveskneli da Sualeduri samyaro moiazreba, magram aq kidev metad aris dakonkretebuli uSualod zeciuri, miwieri da wylis stiqionTa erTianoba. wylis sulis baTagisa (an gaTagis) da narTi mzeTunaxavis (romelic gaTagma Zalis gamoyenebiT daimorCila) Svili iyo narTebis eposis erT-erTi STambeWdavi gmiri sirdoni. baTraZis maxvili, g. Sanaevis mier Cawerili Tqmulebis mixedviT, `Cagdebulia Sav zRvaSi da roca dasavleTidan elavs, osebi am elvarebas baTraZis maxvilis brwyinvas miakuTvneben, romelic zRvidan zecaSi avardeba xolme uwminduri sulebisa da eSmakebis gasaJletad~ (abaevi 1988: 17). imdenad Zlierad Semodis zecis, miwisa da wylis ganzomilebebi narTebis samyaroSi, rom TviT zeciuri vasTirjisa da wylis RvTaebebis donbedTirebis asulis Zerasas Svilia narTebis saTayvanebeli diasaxlisi saTana. samive sferos binadarni narTebis eposSi erTiandebian. Aaq swored samive _ zeca (vasTirji), wyali, (Zerasa _ donbedTiris asuli) da miwa (narTebi, romelTa dedaboZi aris saTana) erT mTlian ganzomilebaSia warmodgenili. narTebs sirdonma auwya saTanas dabadeba. saTanaUuruzmags gamohyavs akldamidan, sadac Zerasam Soba. vfiqrobT, srulyofileba amitomac miiRweva: `saTana iseTi lamazi da gonieri qali dadga, rom misi silamaze bnel Rames dResaviT anaTebda. Aazrovneba ki basr danaze ufro gamWriaxi da isarze ufro mizanmimarTuli hqonda.~ isic unda iTqvas, rom sxvadasxva samyaroTa urTierTkavSiri, wylisa da zecis an wylisa da miwis, sakmaod Znelia da garkveuli Zalis gamoyenebiTac xdeba zogjer. narTebis eposidan cnobilia, rom vasTirjim Tavdapirvelad donbedTirebis asuli ver daimorCila. Mmoxerxebulobis wyalobiT qali advilad dausxlta xelidan (wylis piras mivida, viTom xel-piris dasabanad da iqidan `Tavis samSoblo~ _ donbedTireTSi Cavida). Ggardaicvala ukve xmeleTze mcxovrebi Zerasa da akldamaSi (Svilebs unda eyaraulaT, dedis anderZis Tanaxmad, isini ki qorwilSi wavidnen) vasTirjim igi maT-


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raxis erTi dakvriT gaacocxla, vasTirjim aisrula wadili da wlis Tavze swored am akldamaSi daibada saTana. aseTive winaaRmdegobaa wylisa da miwis erTianobis SemTxvevaSic. wylis binadarma gaTagma narTi mzeTunaxavi Zalis gamoyenebiT daimorCila da daibada narTi sirdoni. miuxedavad amisa, am sami ganzomilebis is harmonia, rac narTebisa da carciaTebis eposSi Semdeg viTardeba, aSkarad migvaniSnebs, rom osTa winaprebs, carciaTebs, saocari siaxlove hqondaT wyalTan, wylis samyarosTan. `mudmivad wylis napiras cxovrobdnen carciaTebi, ase ufro uadvildebodaT cxovreba... carciaTebi patara mdinareebis napirebzec cxovrobdnen. sadac mdinareebi ar iyo, iq carciaTebi naxulobdnen did tbebs da mis napirebze saxldebodnen. daleviTac im wyals svamdnen (osuri Tqmulebebi). carciaTebsac hqondaT iseTi wyaroebi, romlebic adamianebs avadmyofobisagan kurnavda, Tbili wylebic hqondaT, mJave wylebic. saRvTos gadaxdis dros erT-erTi aucilebeli rituali sruldeboda yabaxi imarTeboda. `am saRvToze sami saxis yabaxi gaimarTeba: erTi zecaSi, meore wyalSi, mesame kacis Tavze~ (miwiereba) (osuri Tqmulebebi 2008: 108). sam ganzomilebad danawevrebul samyaroSi (ca, miwa da wyali) Tavis gamoCena mxolod umamacesT SeeZloT. aseTebi ki, Tqmulebis mixedviT, roca Sejibri gaimarTa, aRmoCndnen. caSi vacila (RvTaeba), zRvaSi Cexi (ucnaurad mJReri kacis saxeli), miwaze ki carciaTebis disSvili imarjvebs. narTebi donbedTirebsac stumroben. axsarTagi donbedTirebTan midis. Semdeg ki maTi siZe xdeba, donbedTiris qaliSvils, Zerasas irTavs colad. Uuruzmagi da xamici maTi vaJebi arian. donbedTirebi narTebs swyaloben. roca narTebs Zalian gauWirdaT,Mman narTebs mimarTa: `Cems wylebze wisqvilebi gamarTeT, Cems qaliSvilebs gavafrTxileb, rom wisqvilis borblebi Seuferxeblad atrialon, narTebs ki es sikeTe Cemgan saCuqrad hqondeT.~ donbedTirebs unaTesavdebian carciaTebic: `carciaTebs Zalian bevri ucolo vaJi hyavdaT. ucolo vaJebma qaliSvilebi, romlebic miwveul xalxs mohyvnen, sacoleebad SearCies. zogma zecierTa qaliSvili airCia, zogma _ donbedTirebisa~. carciaTebis Txzulebebis mixedviT, donbedTirebi swyaloben maT. carZois evgviparebi ver sZleven, radgan igi wyals Seafarebs Tavs. donbedTirebi daicaven. magram arseboben wylis sxva binadarnic (sxva donbedTirebi), romlebic Seuteven mas da mis mtrebs, evgviparebs, daexmarebian mis damarcxebaSi. amrigad, wyali da wylis binadarni narTebisa da carciaTebis

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naira bepievi

eposSi RvTaebebTan (zecasTan), adamianebTan harmoniul urTierTkavSirSi Tanaarseboben. isini keTili sulebi arian da zogierTi sxva eposebis wylis binadarTagan gansxvavebiT, adamianis sikeTisaTvis arian mowodebulni. donbedTirebi sruliad gansxvavebuli RvTaebebi arian, romelTac osur miTologiaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukaviaT. maT araferi aqvT saerTo wylis avsulebTan, adamianTa mtrebTan. donbedTirebs aqvT TavianTi samefo, samyaro, saidanac isini miwier arsebebs narTebs, carciaTebs swyaloben da zogjer maT unaTesavdebian kidec. sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom osuri Tqmulebebis mixedviT, osebi wylis maxloblad saxldebodnen, maT mdinare an tba aucileblad axlos unda hqonodaT. albaT amis gamo iyo, rom maT Seqmnes aseTi dasamaxsovrebeli saxe wylis RavTaebebisa, donbedTirebisa. literatura abaevi 1988: v. abaevi. osTa narTuli eposi, wignSi narTebi, osuridan Targmna m. cxovrebovam, cxinvali, 1988. sixaruliZe 2007: qeTevan sixaruliZe. kavkasiuri miTologia, Tb., 2007. osuri Tqmulebebi 2008: osuri Tqmulebebi, osuridan Targmna n. bepievam, Tb., 2008. orjonikiZe 1967: , 1967. , , 1967. orjonikiZe 1989: , 1989. , , 1989. mileri 1992: , 1992. , , 1992. carciatebi 2007: , 2007. , , 2007.

SoTa bostanaSvili zRvaosani piligrimebi (b/artistuli warmodgena)


`zRvaosani piligrimebi~ semiotikuri refleqsiaa konceptualur proeqtze (suraTze), romelsac hqvia `piligrimebi~, igive moxetiale kunZuli, an meeqvse kontinenti. proeqtma iuneskos mier mowyobil arqiteqturis saerTaSoriso konkursSi gaimarjva (venecia, 1988). konkursis Tema gaxldaT `ocdameerTe saukunis civilizaciis sivrce~. `piligrimebi~ Tavad gaxlavT niSanTSemoqmedebiTi suraTi, ferweruli da enobrivi semiurgiuli teqsti. igi amoizarda konkretuli, lokaluri (qarTuli) kulturis saxe(l)ebidan da gadaizarda sazogado saxe(l)Si da sax(e)lSi. aq kerZos da sazogados, romlebsac sxvadasxva aRsaniSnebi da aRmniSvnelebi aqvT, niSani akavSirebT da radgan piligrimebSi gamosacnobic araferia (rac Cadebulia, imas amoviRebT), winamdebare statia gTavazobT mis gasinjvas rolan bartis cnobil teqstTan mimarTebaSi: `suraTis ritorika~ [barti 1989, 298302]. rogorc cnobilia, `suraTis ritorika~ eweva `panZanis~ firmis makaronis reklamis semiotikur analizs. Cven `SeviWrebiT~ bartis teqstSi, `gamovaZevebT~ makarons, pomidors da yvela danarCens da SevitanT zRvas, cas da taZrian skamebs. an ase: Cven davdgamT semiotikur speqtakls `pi-

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis arqiteqturis fakultetis sruli profesori; arqiteqturis saerTaSoriso akademiis profesori; poeti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: arqiteqturis poetika; Tbilisis ritualebis sasaxle; sazRvrebis konfliqti da urbanuli konfliqtis sazRvrebi; uridod da uderidod; protoposti, anu gavTend-i. interesTa sfero: filosofia, filologia, literatura.

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ligrimebi~ bartis scenaze. maS ase, Tqven winaSea b/artistuli warmodgena. instruqcia: rolan bartis teqsti warmodgenilia muqi da daxrili SriftiT. kvadratul frCxilSi miTiTebulia mxolod gverdis nomeri. mravalwertiliT aRniSnulia Cvens mier gamotovebuli adgilebi bartis teqstidan. sami Setyobineba. Cven winaSea [298] suraTi (gamosaxuleba, leksia). vxedavT: zRvaze da cis fonze ganlagebulia skamis formis minis eqvsi nageboba. TiToeul skamze saTiTaod devs (awyvia, gamofenilia, `zis~) xuTi sxvadasxva konfesiis taZari. meeqvse skamze ki xea amozrdili. erTi sityviT, maT sxdoma aqvT. skamebis sazurgeebis siluetebi gansxvavdebian stilisturi niSnebiT. mocurave skamebi Sejgufebulni arian magidasTan, imave _ navsadgomTan, romlis konfiguraciaze teqstia ganTavsebuli. vecadoT, gamovyoT is Setyobinebebi, romlebic SesaZlebelia Sediodnen (inaxebodnen) am gamosaxulebaSi [298].

pirvels am Setyobinebebs Soris aqvs enobrivi substancia da uSualod gveZleva; igi warmoqmnilia suraTis qveda nawilSi ganlagebuli teqstiT. ..... am Setyobinebis kodi sxva araferia, Tu ara inglisuri enis kodi; imisaTvis, rom gavSifroT msgavsi Setyobineba, saWiroa mxolod wakiTxvis unari da inglisuris codna. Tumca, enobrivi Setyobineba aseve SeiZleba iyos danawevrebuli, imdenad, ramdenadac
[298] suraTis teqstis saTaurs, romelic zRvis gamosaxulebasTan erTad ikiTxeba, daemata (am werilSi) `zRvaosani~, rom SesaZlebeli gaxdes (am werilis) wakiTxva (zRvis) gamosaxulebis gareSec. amdenad `zRvaosani piligrimebi~ Tavadve migvaniSneben mcuravi saxlebis misiaze da gadagviyvanen kulturis garkveul paradigmebTan. kerZod: utnafiStimTan, noesTan, kolumbTan da misT. rac Seexeba Tavad suraTis enobriv Setyobinebas, misi qarTuli Targmani aseTia: piligrimebi. mcuravi sakarcxulebi saxlebia. mcuravi saxli moxetiale kunZulia meeqvse kontinentia _ TavSesafaria, `... Tu aRiareb, rom iRupebi~. sakarcxuli individualobis simboloa. sakarcxuli dasvenebis simboloa. sakarcxulebis yriloba dialogis niSania. sakarcxulebis sazurgeebi teleekranebia _ piligrimTa sa-


zRvaosani piligrimebi

45

qadago ena. sakarcxulebi sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi arian. es sxvadasxvaoba maTi zurgebia. es sxvebi sakarcxulebze sxedan. sakarcxulebi adgilia (sacxovrebeli, samuSao, dasasvenebeli...). sakarcxulebi dacuraven erTad da cal-calke. sakarcxulebi samyaros gadaaqceven interierad - saerTo saxlad. sakarcxuli _ qancgawyvetili kacobriobis dasvenebis simboloa. sakarcxulebi... teqstSi aRar aris naxsenebi (aRar Sevida) sintagma maxvSis sakarcxuli, saidanac Tavisi genetikuri kodi miiRes Cveni suraTis skamebma da romelic, Tavis mxriv, damatebiT codnas moiTxovda da gvagzavnida qarTul kulturasTan _ svaneTTan, tabus da sakralobis niSnis matarebel saganTan. sxva enobriv sivrceSi (aq, inglisurSi) sawyis sintagmas Caenacvla `skami~, romlis resakralizacias, masze mjdomi taZari axdens (ganagebs). teqstSi naxsenebia aseve moxetiale kunZuli, magram ucnobia (sxvebisTvis) misi warmomavloba, rogorc oTar WilaZis poemis saTauri, romelic poetis suliskveTebis muxts gamoxatavs: `daxetialobs Cemi kunZuli / pirvelyofili gulubryvilobiT / darwmunebuli, rom saWiroa, / rom vinmes mainc miuswrebs sulze / amxela zRvaSi~. saxe(l)ebma _ `maxvSis sakarcxuli~ da `moxetiale kunZuli~ monawileoba miiRes sxva speqtaklSi (`piligrimebSi~) da gardaisaxnen sxva saxe(l)ebSi. am aqciiT gafarTovda niSani - aRsaniSnebi da aRmniSvnelebi gamravldnen. miuxedavad amisa, upirveles yovlisa, moce-

mul SemTxvevaSi aris mxolod erTi tipuri niSani, da saxeldobr, bunebrivi (werilobiTi) enis niSani. Cven visaubrebT erTi Setyobinebis arsebobaze. Tu gadaverTvebiT enobrivi Setyobinebidan, Cven aRmovCndebiT gamosaxulebis, rogorc aseTis, winaSe. am gamosaxulebaSi inaxeba diskretuli niSnebis mTeli rigi. pirvel rigSi (Tumca, CamoTvlis Tanmimdevroba aq sulerTia, radgan es niSnebi ar arian xazovanni. isini warmogvidgenen [299] paradoqsul inscenirebas): skami - interieris
elementi - sxva (hipertrofirebul) masStabSi, sxva masalaSi da sxva adgilas, iq, sadac ver ganTavsdeba. aseTi adgili mxolod suraTSia, an jer mxolod suraTSia (radgan SesaZlebelia axali teqnologiu-

46

SoTa bostanaSvili

ri amocanis dayeneba). am moulodnelobas, gnebavT, utopias da absurds, emateba is, rom skamebze taZrebia ganlagebuli. warmodgenil suraTSi taZrebi erTaderTi savaraudo masStaburi elementebi arian, romlebic skamebis masStabs gansazRvraven (savaraudod, Cveni skamebi ocdaaTsarTuliani saxlebi arian da maTi saerTo simaRlec as metrs aRwevs). imisaTvis, rom wavikiTxoT es pirveli niSnebi cal-calke, sru-

liad sakmarisia is codna, romelic gamomuSavebulia Cveni, farTod gavrcelebuli civilizaciis mier, .... [299], magram sruliad SeuZlebelia maTi wakiTxva suraTiT SemoTavazebul situaciaSi. amisaTvis arasakmarisia is codna, romelic nebismier kulturul adamians gaaCnia, amitom is am suraTs fantastikis sferoSi moaTavsebs, radgan suraTi Cveuli sagnebis uCveulo xarisxebs da ganlagebebs gvTavazobs uCveulo situacias. SeiZleba iTqvas _ sxva, Secvlil kulturas da civilizacias. saqmec is gaxlavT, rom es sxva ar aris fantastikis sferodan. aq kultura Tavis sxvas warmogvidgens _ kulturuli bunebis eqspozicias, kulturas kulturis Sesaxeb. amdenad, Cven winaSea metakulturuli leksia da refleqsia. suraTi TiTqos xids sdebs bunebrivi sagnebidan gadamuSavebul sagnebamde [300].

rac Seexeba meore niSans, aq ki Tavad kompozicia gvaiZulebs gavixsenoT ramdenime suraTis Sesaxeb (mag.: rene magriti), romlebic gamoxataven saganTa uCveulo yofaqcevis adgils, an am qcevis uadgilobas suraTis gareT, da amdenad is gvagzavnis esTetikur aRsaniSnTan [300], romelic ver gvixsnis saqmis viTarebas: Cven winaSea peizaJuri interieri, an piriqiT _ interieruli peizaJi; aq gansxvavebulTa Soris sazRvrebia waSlili. codna, romelic saWiroa am niSnis

asaTviseblad, ganekuTvneba mxolod sulieri kulturis sferos


[300], magram is erTgvari akulturuli arcodnaa, suraTi ki kompoziciis niRbiT warmogvidgens srul mentalur dekompozicias. esTetikuri fenomeni ver gvixsnis (ver ganmartavs, ver gvagebinebs) imas, Tu ra xdeba, ra ambavia suraTSi. da Tu is uZluria da ver gvixsnis (ver gviSvelis, ver gvanTavisuflebs) saganTa Tavnebobisagan, is ixsnis (Tavs anebebs) pasuxismgeblobas da gvixsnis (gviRebs) gzas utoposisken _ umiwobisken _ ubiwobisken _ usaxe(l)obisaken, saidanac

xelaxlaa gasakeTebeli Tavdapirveli dasasrulis ingredientebiT.


esec es(s)e _ mcire artistuli pauza vidre isev b/artistul pozas miviRebdeT. erTic vTqvaT am antraqtis dros: Cemma mterma Sexeda yvelafers mxolod seriozulad, an, kidev uaresi, mxolod araseriozulad; yoveli raRaca (movlena, faqti, komentari) ubralod, saintereso unda iyos (farTe gagebiT). arc Cvens werils aqvs sxva pretenzia.


zRvaosani piligrimebi

47

Cven mier gamoyofil niSnebs SeiZleba davumatoT kidev erTi, romelic migviTiTebs imaze, rom Cven, suraTis saxiT, swored konceptualur sakonkurso proeqtTan gvaqvs saqme da ara raime sxvasTan: amaze metyveleben rogorc adgili [300] _ zRva, mogzauroba gemiT, sadac
Sesrulda da gamoifina planSeti sxva monawileTa Soris, gamarjvebulTa dajildoebis adgili (san-markos moedani); sakonkurso devizi, programa, masmedia, maT Soris Jurnali, sadac gamoqveynda gamarjvebuli proeqtebi. erTi sityviT, informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom Cven winaSea suraTi-proeqti, ar Sedis Tavad suraTis davalebaSi, ar war-

moadgens mis imanentur mniSvnelobas, radgan gamosaxulebis suraToba aq mTlianad funqcionaluria: .... [300]. maSasadame, Cven winaSe gamosaxulebaa, romelic Tavis TavSi atarebs CamoTvlil niSnebs; cxadia, es niSnebi qmnian erT Tavisebur mTlianobas da radgan isini diskretulni arian, saWiroeben garkveul kulturul codnebs da gvagzavnian globalur aRsaniSnebTan (magaliTad miTTan), romlebic gaJRenTilni arian emociur-RirebulebiTi warmodgenebiT; maSasadame, suraTze enobriv SetyobinebasTan erTad aris kidev erTi Setyobineba - ikonuri. da es yvelaferia? ara. ..., me `mesmis~, rom Cem winaSe ara ubralod formebi da saRebavebia, aramed, sworedac rom Tavmoyril saganTa sivrcobrivi gamosaxuleba, romelic eqvemdebareba identifikacias (nominacias). am mesame Setyobinebis aRsaniSnebad muSaoben sagnebi, xolo mis aRmniSvnelebad - igive sagnebi, magram daxatulebi; [301]. isini mxolod mogvagoneben realur sagnebs, an asocirdebian maTTan. zRvis anturaJis wyalobiT isini imyofebian realur garemoSi, magram qmnian ararealur situacias, rasac ganapirobebs maTi urTierTganlageba da Senacvlebuli masStabebi. aq yvelaferi daxatulia, xelovnurad aris Seqmnili da mxolod suraTis kuTvnilebaa. aq aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris sruli TviTnebobaa, darRveulia maTi struqtura da saerTod, aq yvelaferi daSlilia da xelaxlaa awyobili. am aRniSvnis veqtori mis gareT aris mimarTuli da aRsaniSni emTxveva aRmniSvnels. ramdenadac cxa-

dia, rom analogiur gamosaxulebebSi damokidebuleba aRsaniSn sagansa da aRmniSvnel saxes Soris TviTneburia, maSin ... ar unda gamoiricxos, rom aRsaniSni warmovidginoT sagnis fsiqikur saxed. miuxedavad amisa, mesame Setyobinebis specifika imaSi mdgomareobs, rom urTierToba aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris aq kvazitavtologiuria, mxolod diskretul niSnebs Soris, da ara suraTis sinkretulobasTan mimarTebaSi ..... aq aris kodirebis aqti da Sesabamisad, transformacia da eqvivalentobis principi, romelic ar uTmobs adgils kvaziidenturobis princips. sxva sityvebiT, ikonuri Setyobinebis niSnebi ikvebebian niSanTa garkveuli sawyobidan. isini miekuTvnebian garkveul

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kods, ris Sedegadac Cven ver aRmovCndebiT paradoqsaluri fenomenis saxis winaSe _ ukodo Setyobinebis winaSe. ..... [301]. da mainc, am SemTxvevaSi, laparakia Tavisebur anTropologiur codnaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom meore simboluri kodisgan gansxvavebiT, mesame Setyobineba unda Seesabamebodes bukvalurs [302]. asea Tu ara es? miuxedavad
imisa, rom zRva, ca da taZrebi (xec) ferweruli eqvivalentebia, aq mxolod xelaxali kodirebis aqtia. es aris Setyobineba kodirebis procesis Sesaxeb. gnebavT metaSetyobineba da meti Setyobineba. es is SemTxvevaa, roca codnas arcodnis vakansia uCndeba da ar avsebs, rom nulovani codnis niSniT warmosdges. Tu pirvel SetyobinebaSi `anTropologiuri~ codna gvexmareba (skami, zRva, ca, taZari), meoreSi simboluri cnobiereba; mesameSi mxolod arcodnaa, `bukvaluris~ namcecebTan erTad.

maSasadame, Tu yvela naTqvami sworia, es niSnavs, rom gansaxilvel suraTSi sami Setyobinebaa, da saxeldobr: enobrivi Setyobineba, ikonuri Setyobineba, romelsac safuZvlad udevs raime kodi da bolos, ikonuri Setyobineba, romelsac safuZvlad ar udevs araviTari kodi,
rac gamowveulia suraTis sinkretuli da absurduli situaciiTac. suraTis mayurebeli aRiqvams erTdroulad percefciul (aRqmiT) da

`simbolur~ gamosaxulebebs. aseTi sinkretizmi _ wakiTxvis ori tipi damaxasiaTebelia Tavad gamosaxulebis funqciisaTvis masobrivi komunikaciis CarCoebSi. .....Cveni mTavari mizania mTlianobaSi gavacnobieroT gamosaxulebis struqtura, maSasadame is urTierTobebi, romlebsac, sabolood samive Setyobineba iziarebs [302]. .... bukvaluri Setyobineba sayrdenis rols asrulebs simbolurisaTvis. amasTanave, Cven viciT, rom sistema, romelic iyenebs sxva sistemis niSnebs aRmniSvnelebad, sxva araferia, Tu ara konotaciuri sistema, amitom amieridan bukvalur gamosaxulebas vuwodoT denotaciuri, xolo simbolurs _ konotaciuri. amdenad, Cven ganvixilavT jer enobriv Setyobinebas, Semdeg denotaciur gamosaxulebas (rac Cveni suraTisTvis problemaa) da bolos _ konotaciur gamosaxulebas [303].
pirveli moqmedebis dasasruli. farda literatura barti 1989: . , // , pp. 298. : , 1989


zRvaosani piligrimebi

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piligrimebi

daviT bostanaSvili

niJarebis sasaxle
zRvaze, zRvaSi da zRvis qveS mTeli samyaroa. magram iSviaTad SevxvdebiT sintagmas: `zRvaze, ama da am adgilas~. zRva uadgilo adgilia _ igi qmnis uadgilobas, utoposs. SeuZlebelia, zRvis erTgvarovnebis ruqa-struqturis gamovlena. misi uniSno, usaxo (magram ara usaxuri) zedapiri da siRrmeebi mxolod gansakuTrebuli mcirericxovani TemebisaTvis aris struqturirebuli da mravalmniSvneliani (mezRvaurebi, meTevzeebi, zRvis arqeologebi). zRvis ganfeniloba kulturaSi am konferenciis Temaa. uSualod arqiteqturul konteqstSi SegviZlia gavixsenoT qalaqebi zRvaze (tange da dRevandeli utopiebi), zRviT garSemortymuli, `damwyvdeuli~ sazogadoebebi (kreta) da ukacrieli, saidumlo kunZulebi; wyalqveS gauCinarebuli qalaqebi (miTiuri atlantida da dioskuria) da `saxlebi~ (`nautilusi~). mcuravi `qalaqebi~ (kidobani, sazRvao lainerebi da aviamzidebi); aseve zRvispira qalaqebis literaturuli xibli (o. WilaZiseuli qalaqi vani). yvelafer amas SegviZlia vuwodoT zRva kulturaSi; da amave saxeldebas vaigivebT cnebasTan zRvis semiotika, imisgan damoukideblad, Tu ramdenad aris amgvari CamoTvla-mimoxilva-eqsplikacia semiotikis samecniero komponenti. SesaZlebelia Tu ara uSualod semiotikuri analizis warmarTva Temaze _ zRva da arqiteqtura.

arqiteqtori. stu-s arqiteqturis fakultetis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: arqiteqtura da xelisufleba`, arqiteqturis semiologia`, casaxle`. interesTa sfero: kulturologia, lingvistika, literatura.


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am sakiTxze pasuxis gacemas cdilobs Cveni Tema _ `niJarebis sasaxle~, romelic ganixilavs 1973 wels aSenebul sidneis operis Teatris Senobas (arqiteqtori iorn utzoni). Senobas, romelmac avstralia arqiteqturuli orientiris mqone iSviaTi qveynebis rigSi Caayena. pirvel sakiTxad ganvixilavT statiis saTaurSi _ `niJarebis sasaxle~ _ asaxul problemas: msgavseba arqiteqturaSi. sidneis yureSi aRmocenebul TeTr moculobaSi, erTi SexedviT, ioli dasanaxia misi msgavseba gemis ialqnebTan, niJarebTan d.a.S. bartis dakvirvebiT, `for-

mis danaxvisTanave igi rames unda daemsgavsos: adamianebi ganwirulni arian analogiisTvis~ [Cendleri 1994]. Senobis garsis magvari (magram ara garsuli) konstruqcia niJaris saxes aRZravs da aqve SevniSnoT enobrivi damTxveva: `garsi~ da `niJara~ inglisur enaSi erT aRmniSvnelSi erTiandebian _ `shell~. am msgavsebis `safuZvlianobas~ isic amyarebs, rom operis Teatris Senoba (niJarebiani sasaxle) wylis (zRvis) zedapiridan amoizrdeba. moculobebis TeTri feri, maTi siaxlove zRvasTan, enobrivi TamaSi _ is komponentebia, ris analogiaze damyarebuli motivirebuli niSani iwyebs konotaciebis, da Sesabamisad, miTis Seqmnas (TeTris, niJarebis, ialqnebis konotaciebi). sidneis yure operis saxliT adgili-Setyobinebaa, cnobadi da warmatebuli. ra rols TamaSobs msgavsebis fenomeni arqiteqturiT moxibvlis dros. igi uzrunvelyofs Setyobinebis iolad damaxsovrebas da mnaxvels amocnobisgan miRebul siamovnebas sTavazobs. gavixsenoT r. iakobsonis mier Semotanili termini `literaturuloba~ da mis msgavsad SemovitanoT cneba `arqiteqturuloba~, romelic ar aris damokidebuli utilitarul, raodenobriv, istoriul, sociologiur, teqnologiur kategoriebze. msgavsebis fenomeni operis Senobis SemTxvevaSi xelisSemSlelic SeiZleba aRmoCndes misi arqiteqturulobis aRmosaCenad. msgavsebebi da asociaciebi gamocnobis siamovnebas gvaniWebs - ra kargia, rom Senoba hgavs ialqnebs! niJarebs! yoveli Senobis danaxvisas, romelic Senobas ar hgavs (arc erT nacnob tipologiur kodSi ar jdeba), veZebT mis mgavsebas rame sxva saganTan da Semdeg am msgavsebis logikur mizezs, rom TiTqos Senobam msgavsebis safuZvelze metaforulad misi funqcia unda aRniSnos. rogor dagvexmareba semiotika am metaforul SetyobinebaSi aRmovaCinoT arqiteqturuloba. naSeni samganzomilebiani Setyobinebaa. arqiteqtor Jan nuvelis dakvirvebiT, am Setyobinebis wakiTxva, kinos enaze rom vTqvaT, uwyveti gadaRebis reJimia (continiousshot). sidneis opera - misi geometria - mudmivad da uwyvetad icvleba (xedvis kuTxis cvlasTan erTad) _ Seisruli kamarebidan erTmaneTSi moTavsebuli niJaris magvar formebamde, Semdeg `ialqnebis~ simravlemde. am gardasaxvebs Soris Suale-

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daviT bostanaSvili

duri mdgomareobebis usasrulobaa. arqiteqturis kiTxvisas erTi SexedviT SeuZlebelia sxva adgilas da sxva droSi gadaxtoma, erTi sasruli situaciidan meore situaciaSi aRmoCena Sualeduli uwyveti gadasvlis gareSe. meore mxriv, arqiteqtura, rogorc vizualuri Setyobineba, Senobis konturebiT ar amoiwureba da igi garemosTan erTad ikiTxeba. swored am kiTxvis procesSi SeiZleba moxdes uwyveti kadris gawyveta da droiTi gadasvla-gadanacvleba (cut). rodesac Senobis interieridan, pasaJebidan an mis moculobebs Soris kadrSi Semodis sxva epoqis Senoba, qalaqis an bunebis fragmenti, es arqiteqturuli scenis (Senoba da `garemo-konteqsti~) kinowakiTxvis sinqronul-sintopur farglebs scildeba: erTi Senoba da misi dro; amis nacvlad saxezea diaqronia-diatopia: moZraobisas kadrSi Semosuli qalaqis fragmentebi sxvadasxva droiT situaciebisken gagzavnian _ SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom arqiteqturasac SeuZlia droiTi montaJis Seqmna. sidneis operis uwyvet cvalebadobaSi yuradRebas iqcevs ori mdgomareoba _ ori Setyobineba: 1. Senobis Seisruli TaRebi sidneis caTambjenebis fonze 2. `afrebi~, `niJarebi~ zRva-cis fonze. Tavad Senobac am ori qaosis (qalaqis qaosi da uniSno, uorientiro zRvis zedapiris sicariele) sazRvarze dgas. pasuxi rom gavceT konferenciis Temas _ zRvis semiotika _ uwyveti kadrebis simravlidan Cven erT vizualur Setyobinebas avarCevT, sadac amgvar sintagmasTan gvaqvs saqme: TeTri laqebis simravle, zRva, ca da horizonti. semiotikuri diskursi zRvis peizaJis struqturis gamovleniT SegviZlia daviwyoT. umberto eko arqiteqturis sakuTari kodebis Ziebisas geometrias ganixilavs, rogorc arqiteqturis, ise peizaJis (garemos) aRmwer sistemas. geometriul metakods instrumentuli mniSvneloba aqvs, rodesac saWiroa `kodis povna, magaliTad, romelime peizaJisTvis, raTa Semdeg masSi CavweroT Sesabamisi arqiteqturuli gadawyveta~ [eko 2004: 293-294]. eko iqve SeniSnavs, rom obieqtis aRmweri kodi ar gulisxmobs imas, rom swored igi udevs safuZvlad am obieqts da geometria ver CaiTvleba arqiteqturis sakuTar kodad. zRvis da cis mudmivadcvalebadi zedapirebi da horizonti aranair adgilze ar miuTiTeben; erTaderTi orientiri swori horizontaluri xazia - erTaderTi `myari~ niSani - zRvis geometriuli kodi _ xazia. mis horizontalurobas misi referenti adgens - realuri zRvis horizonti; mxolod iq arsebobs erTaderTi orientacia zeviT/qveviT. udabnos `geometriuli kodi~ zRvis msgavsia da aqve SevniSnoT, rom udabnos horizontze damiwebuli piramidebi da zRvis horizontze amozrdili sidneis opera erTi situaciis ori gankerZoebaa _ erTi sintaqsia.


niJarebis sasaxle

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zRva idealuri adgilia arqiteqturis dabadebisTvis. erTi mxriv, misi sicariele TiTqmis nebismier niSans amniSvnelebs da orientirad gadaaqcevs. meore mxriv, Tavad am niSnis Semotana zRvis asemantiur situacias adgilad aqcevs. erTi mxriv, zRva TeTri furcelia, u(kon)teqstobaa, meore mxriv, swored es u(kon)teqstoba iqceva mZlavr konotaciur saxed (qaosis da wylebis urTierTanalogia). erTi mxriv, arqiteqtori Tavisufalia nebismieri niSnis Semosatanad zRvaSi, meore mxriv, zRvis Zlieri simboluri saxe gansakuTrebul niSans moiTxovs. mivubrundeT sidneis operas. samganzomilebiani aq-ar-myofi situacia (realoba) fotoSetyobinebamde daviyvaneT. `gageba gulisxmobs erTi tipis realobis reducirebas meore tipamde~ [Lvi Strauss, Claude (1961): Tristes Tropiques. citirebulia: Cendleri 1994]. es fototeqstic ufro martiv struqturamde SegviZlia daviyvanoT. `zRva + ca + TeTri + zedapirebi~ Tanmimdevruli gamartivebebis Sedegad miviReT Semdegi modeli: horizontaluri xazi + Senobis grafikuli silueti. swored am modelze ganvaxorcielebT ramdenime paradigmatuli (Canacvlebis) da sintagmaturi transformaciebis (mimateba, gamokleba) operacias. am operaciis ganxorcieleba fototeqstzec SeiZleba Tu zRvas da cas sxva niSnebiT CavanacvlebT: zRvas - qviSiT, mdeloTi, kldiT d.a.S.; cas - urbanuli fragmentiT, mTiT. TeTrs - sxva ferebiT. amjerad Cven ar gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas, Tu rogor aris artikulirebuli Tavad Senoba _ mas erT sintagmatur erTeulad CavTvliT. erT SemTxvevaSi horizontalur xazs paradigmatuli velidan gamoxmobil, sxva tipis xazebiT CavanacvlebT. meore SemTxvevaSi mivmarTavT sintagmatur transformaciebs: xazebis damatebas, sintagmatur erTeulTa gadanacvlebas. ra instrumenti gagvaCnia imis dasamowmeblad, rom sintagmaturi da paradigmatuli transformaciebisas (Cven SemTxvevaSi, garemo-konteqstis cvlilebisas) Setyobineba ase da amgvarad icvleba? rom erTi aRmniSvnelebis meoreTi Canacvlebisas Sesabamisad icvleba aRsaniSnebi? am transformaciebis (Sdr. elmsleviseuli komutaciis testi) ganxorcieleba enobriv sivrceSi SesaZlebelia, sadac `mkvle-

vars gasaanalizebeli enis azris Sesaxeb garkevuli codna aqvs. semiologiaSi ki vxvdebiT sistemebs, romelTa azri ucnobia~ [barti
1964, 119]. CvenTvis marlTac ucnobia rogorc operis Senobis, aseve aq ganxiluli fotoSetyobinebis aRsaniSni. SeiZleba aRmoCndes, rom am operaciebiT sidneis operis Senoba Tavisufldeba msgavsebis tvirTisgan. am tvirTs mas akisrebs misi zRvasTan yofna, TeTri feri da misi geometria. am tvirTisgan gaTavisufleba ideologiis (adresatis

54

daviT bostanaSvili

codnaTa da molodinTa sistema) daZlevasac gulisxmobs. `zRvasTan ialqani~ mosalodnelia. es mniSvneloba imdenadaa kodificirebuli, rom swored es codna ganapirobebs mis mimsgavsebas ialqnebTan, niJarebTan. gai kukis sityvebiT: `Cven maSin vxedavT msgavsebas, rodesac ukve viciT mniSvneloba~ [Cook, Guy (1992): The Discourse of Advertising. citirebulia: Cendleri 1994]. amasTan erTad sainteresoa Semdegi stereotipi: `zRva + TeTri (feri)~. erTi SexedviT, igi Cveulebrivi vizualuri sintagmaa - paroleSi Tavisufali kombinirebis Sedegi. warmodgena, rom `zRvas uxdeba TeTri feri~, am kombinaciur Tavisuflebas zRudavs da mas gayinul sintagmad aqcevs (syntagme fig) - Sesabamisad, igi iseTi frazaa, romelic `ekuTvnis langues sivrces da mis kombinirebaSi individi ar monawileobs~ (sosiuri, citirebulia: barti 1964, 95). mravali semiologiuri sistema iyenebs amgvar gayinul sintagmebs da `SegviZlia moviazroT sintagmaTa mTeli

lingvistika, romelic sWirdeba yvela upiratesad stereotipur werilobas~ [barti 1964, 95]. miuxedavad operis Teatris originalurobisa, Cven mainc SgviZlia visaubroT masSi arsebuli stereotipuri werilobis (criturestrotype) rolze.
formis sxva situaciebSi moTavsebiT SevZlebT ukeT wavikiTxoT misi arqiteqturuloba da davuSvebT, rom arqiteqturul formas aranairi kavSiri ar aqvs mis konteqstTan; `arqiteqturuli obieqtis landSaftSi Cawera~ ki saeWvo konceptia. gavixsenoT le korbuzies sityvebi: `ara akropolisis mTa karnaxobs parTenons, aramed parTenoni...~. rogor dagvexmareba semiologiuri codna `zRvis sintagmaSi~ axali niSnis damatebisas - zRvaze naSenis Setanisas. pirveli mosalodneli aqcia SeiZleba iyos vertikalis Semotana. meore magaliTi ki ubralod horizontaluri xazis dublirebaa (rogor SeiZleba misi naSenad ganxorcieleba, es sxva sakiTxia). amgvarad, semiotikuri analizi Tavad SeiZleba gadaizardos semiotikur praqtikaSi - sintagmaturi gadamontaJebidan dawyebuli axali niSnebis SeqmniT damTavrebuli. literatura barti 1964: Barthes R. lments de smiologie, in Communications 4, pp. 91-135 eko 2004: . . -: Simposium. 2004 Cendleri 1994:Chandler, Daniel (1994): Semiotics for Beginners [WWW document] http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.ht ml [1.10.10]


niJarebis sasaxle

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danarTi.

sidneis operis Teatri

gizas ansambli

sintagmaturi da paradigmatuli transformaciebi.

konstantine bregaZe

zRvis saxismetyveleba germaneli romantikosi mxatvris, kaspar david fridrihis ferweraSi


rogorc cnobilia, romantikosi avtori _ rogorc mxatvari, ise mwerali _ mniSvnelovan Semecnebiseul da esTetikur datvirTvas aniWebs bunebas, bunebis suraTebs; romantikuli mxatvruli teqstebis lirikul gmirsa, Tu ferweruli tiloebis protagonists imTaviTve axasiaTebs bunebisadmi gaunelebeli swrafva, rac maTi ucilobeli personaJiseuli ontologiaa. amitomacaa, rom romantizmSi, rogorc mxatvrobaSi, ise mwerlobaSi, mocemulia bunebis suraTebis ara ubralo ilustrireba da maTi TviTmiznuri deskrifcia, da Sesabamisad, maTi mimeturi asaxva, aramed aq gvaqvs empiriuli bunebis esTetizeba, rac gulisxmobs empiriuli bunebis suraTebis saxismetyvelebiT, anu simbolur gardasaxvas, bunebisaTvis simboluri Rirebulebis miniWebas, ris safuZvelzec romantikul poetur teqstSi Tu romantikul ferwerul tiloze mocemuli bunebis suraTi ukve empiriuli bunebis mimeturi asaxva ki aRaraa, aramed konkretuli filosofiuri Tu misterialuri sazrisis matarebeli saxismetyvelebiTi kodia. amitomac, romantikosi avtoris mier realizebuli esTetikur-SemoqmedebiTi gardasaxvis Sedegad mocemuli bunebis suraTebis niSan-Tviseba uk-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asistent-profesori. S. rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis komparativistikisa da literaturis Teoriis ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli. goeTesa da novalisis saerTaSoriso sazogadoebebis wevri. ZiriTadi naSromebi: novalisis saxismetyvelebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi, 2001. novalisis enis filosofia, 2003. literaturisa da enis filosofiuri narkvevebi (novalisi, goeTe, v. f. humboldti...), 2009. Targmanebi: novalisi: Ramis himnebi (2007); novalisi: sumbulisa da vardkokoris zRapari (2008). interesTa sfero: germanuli romantizmi, hermenevtika, enis filosofia.


zRvis saxismetyveleba germaneli romantikosi mxatvris ...

57

ve imTaviTve simboluria, empiriuli bunebis esTetizebis procesSi romantikosebis mxatvrul teqstsa Tu ferwerul tiloze buneba ukve fuZndeba da gardaisaxeba, rogorc transcendenturobaze imTaviTve mimarTuli da misi Tavis TavSi Semcveli mxatvruli simbolo. bunebis esTetizebis procesSi amavdroulad vlindeba romantikosi avtoris mier bunebis arsis `miTosuri~ gaazreba: anu, bunebisadmi romantikosi avtorisa Tu misi lirikuli gmiris swrafva ukve aris ara zedapiruli sentimentaluri grZnobebis gamowvevisa da aRZvris saSualeba, ara erTjeradi emociebis aRZvris saSualeba, aramed samyaros sulisa (Weltseele) da usasrulo transcendenturobis mudmivi cxovelmyofeli siRrmiseuli gancdis gamowvevis saSualeba, rasac safuZvlad udevs bunebis Sesaqmeseul cocxal arsad, RvTis qmnilebad, RvTaebrivi sawyisis Semcvel fenomenad gaazreba. amgvarad Semecnebuli da SemoqmedebiT procesSi moqceuli empiriuli buneba ukve aris saxismetyvelebiTi esTetikuri Rirebuleba, mas ukve simboluri datvirTva eniWeba da romantikosebis mxatvrul teqstebsa Tu ferwerul tiloebze umeteswilad fuZndeba, rogorc dakarguli paradizuli yofis aluzia da saRvTo transcendenturobis mxatvruli simbolo. aqedan gamomdinare, buneba romantikos lirikul gmirs aniWebs transcendirebis, anu empiriuli sinamdvilis gadalaxvis saSualebas, bunebisadmi swrafvis dros igi ukve transcendirebs: anu, bunebaSi `gaWra~ da misi Wvreta (Anschauung) da gancda (Gefhl) romantikos protagonists empiriuli sinamdvilisa da sakuTari empiriuli `me~-s axal xarisxSi moazrebis spiritualur unarsa da religiur grZnobas aniWebs, rac Semdgom vlindeba am empiriul mocemulobaTa mistikur daZlevasa da gadalaxvaSi da transcendenturobasTan ziarebaSi. amitomac romantikosebTan, Sesabamisad, romantikos protagonistebTan, bunebis aRqma mudam `miTosuria~, anu isini bunebaSi Wvreten absolutis, an dakarguli paradizuli yofierebis fragmetul gamovlinebebs empiriul sinamdvileSi. Sesabamisad, romantikul teqstebsa Tu ferwerul tiloebze mocemuli bunebis suraTebi ukve warmoadgenen dakarguli samoTxiseuli yofis simbolur aluziebs, transcendenturi sivrcis mxatvrul simboloebs. romantikosi protagonistis bunebisadmi mimarTebasa da swrafvas fixtes mier SemuSavebuli da romantizmSi koreqtirebuli da srulyofili `me~-sa (Ich) da `ara-me~-s (NichtIch) dialeqtikuri urTierTmimarTebis Semecnebiseuli sqema udevs safuZvlad: anu `me~, rogorc Semmecnebeli subieqti masSi imTaviTve mocemuli transcendirebadi enteleqiisa da inteleqtualuri Wvretis (die intellektuelle Anschauung), anu sinTezuri Wvretis safuZvelze a priori miemarTeba

58

konstantine bregaZe

misi cnobierebis miRma arsebuli `ara-me~-sadmi (am SemTxvevaSi bunebisadmi), Semohyavs igi Tavis cnobierebaSi, aqcevs mas cnobierebis sakuTrebad da Semdgom am `ara-me~-s Semecnebis safuZvelze `me~ kidev ufro siRrmiseulad Seimecnebs sakuTar Tavs. amgvarad, aRniSnul Semecnebis sqemaSi impliciturad moqmedebs transcendirebis principi: anu, sakuTari SezRuduli empiriuli ~me~-s farglebidan aprioruli gasvla, misi gadalaxva da Semdgom kvlav masTan dabruneba, ris Sedegadac yalibdeba axali, ufro maRali da ganvrcobili warmodgena sakuTar subieqturobaze. aq mimdinareobs subieqtis mier sakuTari Tavis imgvari Semecneba, rodesac igi empiriaSi Tavis Tavs moiazrebs zeempiriulis, transcendenturi mocemulobis wevrad, zeempiriul `me~-d. aq ki warmoebs fixteanuri gadasvla (transcendireba) empiriuli `me~-dan araempiriuli, zeempiriuli `me~-sken, risi SesaZleblobis winapirobacaa `me~-s `ara-me~-sadmi (mag. bunebisadmi) aprioruli mimarTeba da swrafva (Sehnsucht). amgvarad, romantikosebTan `ara-me~ _ buneba _ gvevlineba rogorc transcendirebis SesaZleblobis ucilobeli winapiroba. swored transcendirebadi bunebis saxismetyvelebaa mocemuli cnobili germaneli romantikosi mxatvrisa da fermweris, kaspar david fridrihis (1774-1840) ferwerul tiloebze asaxul bunebis suraTebSi, mis cnobil zRvis, mTisa da tyis landSaftebze. aq mocemuli bunebis suraTebi swored SemoqmedebiTi esTetizebis produqtia, ris safuZvelzec fridrihis tiloebze mocemuli bunebis suraTebi empiriuli bunebis mimeturi asaxva ki aRaraa, aramed konkretuli filosofiur-SemecnebiTi semantikiTY`datvirTuli~ simboluri mxatvruli saxeebia. fridrihis tiloebze asaxul esTetizebul bunebas mudmivad transcendirebis saxismetyvelebiTi funqcia akisria: anu, mis ferwerul tiloebze asaxuli bunebis suraTebis mxatvruli funqciaa mayureblisa da ferweruli tilos protagonistis cnobiereba a priori moaqcios transcendirebis procesSi, e. i. gamoiwvios maTSi empiriulis gadalaxvis (bergang) aprioruli moTxovnileba da transcendenturisaken gaunelebeli swrafva (Sehnsucht) (Sdr. fridrihis cnobili, dRes ukve romantizmis Tavisebur logod qceuli ferweruli tilo `mogzauri nislis zRvis winaSe~ [1818]). amitomac, SemTxveviTi araa, rom swored `me~-sa (subieqtisa) da `ara-me~-s (bunebis) dialeqtikuri urTierTmimarTebis romantizmiseuli sqema udevs safuZvlad fridrihis ferwerul tiloebs, mis cnobil landSaftur mxatvrobas, sadac vlindeba romantizmis filosofiis mTavari postulatebi _ Wvreta (Anschauung), gancda (Gefhl), swrafva (Sehnsucht) da gadalaxva (bergang). xolo am sqemis Tanaxmad, rogorc es zemoT ukve aRiniSna, Semmecnebeli subieqti


zRvis saxismetyveleba germaneli romantikosi mxatvris ...

59

(`me~) sakuTari cnobierebiseuli nebelobis (Wollen) safuZvelze apriorulad unda iswrafodes, rogorc sakuTari empiriuli `me~-s SezRudulobis, ise movlenaTa sinamdvilis (empireis) daZlevisa da gadalaxvisaken, ris safuZvelzec `me~-m unda moipovos ufro maRali Tvalsazrisi sakuTar Tavze. am procesis SesaZleblobis ucilobeli winapiroba ki aris `ara-me~, romelic romantikul mxatvrul teqstSi, an ferwerul tiloze SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos satrfos poeturi simboloTi, an bunebis saxismetyvelebiT.

kaspar david fridrihi: `mogzauri nislis zRvis winaSe~ (1818)


aqedan gamomdinare, konceptualuri TvalsazrisiT sruliad logikuria, rom fridrihis ferwerul tiloebze bunebis suraTebTan erTad Soreul, Tu axlo perspeqtivaSi mudmivad gamosaxulia cal-

60

konstantine bregaZe

keuli adamiani, an adamianTa jgufi, anu transcendirebisaken mswrafi Semmecnebeli subieqtis, an subieqtTa figurebi, romelTa egzistencialuri da ontologiuri amocanaa aprioruli transcendireba, anu empiriulobis daZleva da gadalaxva. aq bunebis suraTebs fonis, ukana planis meoradi funqcia ki aRar akisria, rogorc, vTqvaT, franguli barokosa Tu rokokos warmomadgenelTa ferwerul tiloebze, mag. antuan vatos ferwerul tiloebze, aramed fridrihTan buneba da protagonisti, romelic apriori Semmecnebeli subieqtia, aqtiur urTierTqmedebaSi arian CarTulni, rogorc `me~ da `ara-me~, da vlindebian, erTi mxriv, rogorc transcendirebis SesaZleblobis winapiroba (buneba), da meore mxriv, rogorc transcendirebisaken mswrafi subieqti. swored amgvar dispoziciaSi arian moqceulni fridrihis cnobil zRvis landSaftebze subieqti da buneba (zRva), risi paradigmatuli nimuSicaa misi cnobili tilo `beri zRvasTan~ (1809/10).* aq beri da zRva warmoadgenen `me~-sa da `ara-me~-s dialeqtikuri urTierTqmedebis sqemis Semadgenel nawilebs. am SemTxvevaSi zRvas swored egzistencialuri zRvrulobis, anu empiriulsa da araempiriuls Soris egzistencialuri zRvrulobis efeqtis Seqmnis mxatvruli funqcia akisria da amavdroulad, simbolurad ganasaxierebs rogorc romantikosi protagonistis swrafvis obieqts _ usasrulo transcendenturobas, ise protagonistisaTvis am transcendenturobisaken swarfvis (anu transcendirebis) aRZvris winapirobas. tiloze asaxulia qviSian napirze mdgomi mamakaci, romelic mRvrie da TiTqmis Savi ferebiT mosil zRvas gadahyurebs. ca zogan muqi lurjia, zogan daburuli da danislulia. suraTze mxolod cis zeda nawilia SedarebiT naTeli tonebiT mosili. cis, da zogadad, suraTis ferTametyveleba saRamo Jamze miuTiTebs.

am mxatvrul tilos es saxelwodeba, faqtobrivad, misces fridrihis kolega romantikosma poetebma da mwerlebma qlemens brentanom, axim fon arnimma da hainrih fon klaistma, romelTa subieqtur aRqmaSic tiloze gamosaxuli pirovneba ratomRac beris _ mag. kapucineli beris (klaistTan) _ STabeWdilebas tovebda (Teoria... 2000: 395). Tavad fridrihi Tavisi suraTis protagonists berad saerTod ar moixseniebs da ubralod uwodebs erTi kaci (einMann)(Teoria... 2000: 282)


zRvis saxismetyveleba germaneli romantikosi mxatvris ...

61

amgvarad, mocemul ferwerul tiloze fridrihis mier TiTqosda zedmiwevniT sqematizebulia romantikuli msoflgancda da msoflaRqma: martosuli, `suliT oboli~ adamiani bunebis wiaRSia `gaWrili~, da amdenad, mas cxovrebisaTvis zurgi Seuqcevia, xolo suraTze Tavad buneba warRvniseuli da apokalifsuri niSan-Tvisebebis matarebelia (mRvrie zRva, nisleuli zRvaze da daburuli zeca). aqedan gamomdinare, romantizmis filosofiis umTavresi postulatebis (swrafva, gadalaxva) gaTvaliswinebiT suraTis simbolikas aseTi semantika eqneba: xmeleTi (qviSiani napiri) ganasaxierebs amqveyniur amao cxovrebas, warmaval empiriul sinamdviles, zeca _ transcendenturobas, zRva _ sikvdils, xolo mWvreteli beri _ transcendenturobisaken mswraf Semmecnebel subieqts. magram am saxismetyvelebiTi sqematizebisagan nawarmoebs ifaravs da originalobas aniWebs swored suraTis unikaluri lurji ferTametyveleba da perspeqtiviseuli ganfena, romelic agebulia protagonistisa da bunebis aradabalansebul dispoziciaSi, rac saboloo jamSi mkveTri dinamikurobis efeqts qmnis. xolo suraTze lurji feris saxismetyvelebiTi funqciaa, erTi mxriv, moaxdinos transcendenturi sivrcisa da misken protagonistis swrafvis maqsimaluri simbolizeba, ramdenadac lurji feri imTaviTve transcendenturobisa da misken swrafvis mxatvruli simboloa (mecleri 2008: 47-48); meore mxriv, lurji feris saxismetyvelebiTi funqciaa Seqmnas Ramis, saRamos efeqti, anu simbolurad mianiSnos im erTaderT aucilebel qronotopze, rodesac Wvretisa (Anschauung) da gancdis (Gefhl) safuZvelze iwyeba transcendirebis procesi, ramdenadac zogadad romantizmis saxismetyvelebiTi paradigmidan gamomdinare

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konstantine bregaZe

mxolod da mxolod Rame, saRamoa transcendirebisa da miRmierisaken mistikuri swrafvis erTaderTi ucilobeli mxatvruli tropi (Sdr. novalisis `Ramis himnebi~). amgvarad, mWvreteli beri Semmecnebeli subieqtis, am SemTxvevaSi, axali Tanamedrove romantikosi adamianis simboloa, romelic Tavis TavSi aviTarebs SemecnebiT da SemoqmedebiT Tavisuflebas,1 xolo zeca fuZndeba, rogorc usasrulo transcendenturobis simbolo. am konstelaciaSi ki zRva ukve simbolurad ganasaxierebs empiriulsa da araempiriul sinamdvileTa Soris arsebul Sualedur araempiriul sivrces _ sikvdils. amasTan isic niSandoblivia, rom aRniSnul suraTze (da ara marto aq, aramed fridrihis sxva ferwerul tiloebzec, sadac zRvis landSaftebia mocemuli) zRva da zeca TiTqosda erwymis erTmaneTs, maT Soris horizontaluri zRvari TiTqmis waSlilia, ris safuZvelzec es ori mocemuloba (zRva da zeca) erT mTlianobas qmnis da isini ukve erTdroulad da erTbaSad aRiqmeba, rogorc transcendenturi sivrce, rac qmnis suraTze mocemuli zRvis simbolikis ormagi interpretaciis SesaZleblobas: erTi mxriv, zRva aris araras (das Nichts), sikvdilis simbolo, xolo meore mxriv, igi ganasaxierebs transcendentur, zeempiriul sivrcesac, rac ukve romantikosi protagonistis (beris) swrafvis sagania, da rac mis egzistencias maradiul Rirebulebas aniWebs. Tumca, rogorc cnobilia, zRva, da zogadad, wylis simbolika, aseve ganasaxierebs adamianis arsSi imTaviTve mocemul aracnobieris sferosac (mecleri...2008: 227-228), romelic upirispirdeba subieqtis cnobierebas, e. i. upirispirdeba im goniT organos, romelic ganapirobebs subieqtis subieqturobis, anu misi pirovnulobis, misi `me~-s onto-egzistencialur dafuZnebas. amgvarad, subieqtis Sinagan arsSi aracnobieri vnebebi upirispirdeba subieqtis `me~-s, mis cnobierebas, anu aracnobieri eswrafis subieqtis pirovnebis daSlasa da dekonstruqcias, rac egzistencialuri TvalsazrisiT mis ararasul mdgomareobaSi gadasvlas niSnavs, ramdenadac aracnobieris bneli da ukontrolo vnebebi da ltolvebi swored pirovnulobis, subieqtis rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri sikvdilis mizezi xdeba. Sesabamisad, aracnobieri ltolvebiTa da vnebebiT dabinduli cnobiereba brkoldeba saRvTo transcendenturobisaken swrafvisas, ramdenadac aracnobieri upirispirdeba subieqtis transcendirebad bunebas da abrkolebs mis transcendenturobisaken swrafvas, anu aferxebs gadalaxvis apriorul process. xolo, Tavis mxriv, subieqtis WeSmariti egzistencia, romantikosTa rwmeniT, swored am ontologiur gadalaxvaSi mdgomareobs, ramac subieqti sabolood unda aaridos araraseul araWeSmarit egzistencias.


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am SemTxvevaSi zRva, rogorc aracnobieris simbolo, upirispirdeba mWvreteli beris cnobierebas, abrkolebs misi subieqturobis dafuZnebas, da aqedan gamomdinare, mis saRvTo transcendenturobisaken swrafvas. amgvarad, aq zRva, rogorc aracnobieris simbolo, anTropolgiuri TvalsazrisiT ganasaxierebs empiriuli subieqtis (am SemTxvevaSi suraTis protagonistis) Sinagani arsis arasrulyofilebas, romelic upirispirdeba zRvasTan myofi beris `me~-s, e. i. mis pirovnulobas, subieqturobas da Sedegad abrkolebs mis swrafvas tarnscendenturobisaken. amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom fridrihis ferwerul tiloze `beri zRvasTan~ erTbaSad ikveTeba anTropologiuri, egzistencialuri da ontologiuri problematika, sadac avtori cdilobs zogadad adamianis arsebobis problemis xelaxal gaazrebas, rac romantizmSi mTeli sisruliTa da simZafriT daisva, ramdenadac romantikosTa TvalsazrisiT, XVIII s. ganmanaTleblobisa da racionalizmis mier mocemuli samyarosa da adamianis modeli iyo calmxrivi, anu mxolod empiriul sinamdvileze gaTvlili da amdenad, warmoadgenda adamianis arsisa da yofierebis arasrulyofil hermenevtikas. Sesabamisad, racionalizmis ontologias ar hqonda WeSmaritebiseuli Rirebuleba.A amitomac, romantikosebis mixedviT, aRniSnuli calmxrivobis daZlevis winapiroba iyo, erTi mxriv, aradogmaturi religiuri xelovnebis, an, meore mxriv, e. w. xelovnebis religiis (Kunstreligion) dafuZneba (fr. Slaiermaxeri, v. h. vakenroderi, fr. Slegeli, novalisi), sadac religias, religiurobas Camoscileboda wminda eklesiur-dogmaturi gageba da Tavad sityvas religia da zogadad, religiurobas daubrundeboda Tavisi pirveladi etimologiuri mniSvneloba _ anu, religia (laT. religio), rogorc kavSiri, mimarTeba, am SemTxvevaSi _ saRvTo transcendenturobisadmi mimarTeba da masTan kavSiri. amitomac, romantikosebis xelovnebis Teoriis mixedviT, xelovnebis nimuSi Tavisi arsiT imTaviTve religiuri, anu kavSiriseuli unda iyos, anu is apriori transcendenturobasTan unda amyarebdes kavSirs, unda transcendirebdes. Aaq, ra Tqma unda, religiuri, kerZod, qristianuli religiis motivebiTa da saxismetyvelebiTac xdeba SemoqmedebiTi operireba, magram aq isini eqcevian romantizmis xelovnebis TeoriaSi koncipirebuli esTetizebis procesSi, ris safuZvelzec qristianul motivebsa da simbolikas mxatvrobasa da literaturaSi ukve adogmaturi da araeklesiuri, `sekularizebuli~ xasiaTi aqvT. Sedegad, romantikosebi Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi interpretaciebis safuZvelze qmnian axal miTologias, rasac isini qristianobis

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miTologias (MythologiedesChristentums) uwodeben (novalisi, fr.


Slegeli), rac msoflmxedvelobrivi TvalsazrisiT adogmaturi da araeklesiuri, pirovnul-subieqturi qristianobis dafuZnebas gulisxmobs, xolo esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT _ tradiciuli qristianuli saxismetyvelebis romantizmis esTetikis sivrceSi moqcevas da `Tavisufali poeturi gamonagonis~ (`freiepoetischeErfindung~) (novalisi), anu Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi aqtis safuZvelze (mag. novalisis `Ramis himnebi~) Tavisufali religiuri xelovnebis, an ufro zustad, xelovnebis religiis (Kunstreligion) dafuZnebas, romelic xelovnebas gaaTavisuflebda da daicavda yovelgvari eklesiur-dogmaturi religiurobisagan da daupirispirdeboda xelovnebaSi nebismier dogmatur-eklesiur religiur gamovlinebas da gaemijneboda aseTi tipis xelovnebas, mag. xelovnebaSi igive kaTolicizmis tendenciebs (Sdr. SemdgomSi kaTolikobamiRebuli romantikosi mwerlisa da poetis, qlemens brentanos gviani Semoqmedeba, an romantikos konceptulist mxatvarTa dajgufebis _ `nazarevelTa~ (`Nazare ner~) SemoqmedebaSi mocemuli tradiciuli qristianul-eklesiuri saxismetyveleba). swored gareligiurebuli, e. i. religiadqceuli xelovnebis _ romelic imTaviTve transcendenturobasTan damakavSirebeli, transcendirebadi xelovnebaa _ nimuSebia fridrihis zRvis landSaftebi, da maT Soris `beri zRvasTan~ (da zogadad, misi xelovneba). rogorc ukve zemoT iTqva, aRniSnul tiloze mWvreteli subieqti, anu romantikosebiseuli Tanamedrove adamiani Cayenebulia zRvrulobisa, da Sesabamisad, egzistencialuri finalobis situaciaSi: igi, pirvel rigSi, rogorc individi, romlisTvisac upirvelesi da Rirebulia sakuTari subieqturoba, bunebasTan, anu `ara-me~-sTan mimarTebaSi Wvrets sakuTari arsebobis arss: aq misTvis cxadi xdeba empiriulobis daZlevis aucilebloba, razec protagonistis zurgSeqceuli dgoma da usasrulobis Wvreta mianiSnebs, misi swrafvis sagania burusiT moculi transcendenturoba. Mmagram empiriul subieqtsa da zeempiriul transcendenturobas Soris, rogorc egzistencialuri aucilebloba da gardauvaloba, mocemulia sikvdilis fenomeni, romelsac suraTze zRva ganasaxierebs. swored aq ikveTeba Tanamedrove romantikosi adamianis tragedia da gaoreba, kirkegoriseuli an-an: misTvis sikvdili (zRva) aris egzistencialuri finaloba da misi arseboba sabolood araraSi (dasNichts) gadava da amiT mis subieqturobas, mis `me-s~ bolo moeReba, Tu sikvdili misTvis Seiqneba axali ufro amaRlebuli da WeSmariti (zeempiriuli) egzistenciis dasawyisad. mocemuli zRvrulobis mdgomareobaSi ki vlindeba subieqtis cnobierebis tragizmi, rodesac erTi mxriv, subieqtis cnobierebi-


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saTvis cxdia empiriuli sinamdvilis amaoeba, warmavloba, araWeSmariteba, da aqedan gamomdinare, misTvis cxadi xdeba movlenaTa sinamdvilis gadalaxvis aucilebloba; xolo meore mxriv, subieqtisaTvis usasrulobis, anu transcendenturobis ontologiuri bundovaneba da am transcendenturobaSi sakuTari subieqturobis Semdgomi arsebobis bundovanebac cxadia, rasac fridrihis suraTze simbolurad ganasaxierebs danisluli da daburuli zeca. A aq ki ikveTeba fridrihis protagonistis, da zogadad, romantikosi protagonistis msoflmxedvelobrivi skepsisi, pesimizmi da gaoreba, rac, ra Tqma unda, yvela romantikosi avtorisa da maTi yvela protagonistisaTvis araa damaxasiaTebeli, mag. novalisisa da misi lirikuli gmirebisaTvis, romlebic Sinaganad aRWurvilni arian Seuqcevadi fixteanuri cnobierebiseuli nebelobiT, da romelTaTvisac ar aris damaxasiaTebeli msgavsi msoflmxedvelobrivi skepsisi da gaoreba, novalissa da mis protagonistebs daZleuli aqvT empiriulisa da transcendenturis cnobierebiseuli da ontologiuri SeuTavsebloba, rasac ver vityviT sxva romantikos avtorebsa da maT protagonistebze, mag. l. tikis, aug. klingemanis, e. T. a. hofmanis (da nawilobriv, fridrihis), romelTa mxatvruli teqstebi da protagonistTa Sinagani arsi mudmivad determinebulia e. w. `ubeduri cnobierebiT~ (hegeli). A am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa sakuTarive ferweruli tilos interpretacia, sadac fridrihi erTdroulad mimarTavs rogorc protagonists, ise sakuTar Tavs:

` [...] da Senc Wvret da iswrafi dilidan vidre saRamomde, da saRamo Jamidan vidre SuaRamemde; magram ver ganWvret da ver Seicnob Seucnob miRmierebas! amaod ggonia, TiTqos naTeliqmneba da amoicnob bneliTmosil momavals! Tumc Seni Rrma kvali atyvia udabur qviSian napirs. magram susti qari gadauvlis mas da Seni naterfalis nasaxic aRar darCeba: ugunuro adamiano, aRvsilo amao fiqriT!~ [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Teoria... 2000: 282). 2 aSkaraa, rom fridrihi sakuTari tilos interpretacias romantizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli msoflmxedvelobrivi skepsisis farglebSi axorcielebs, da aq cxadi xdeba, rom suraTis protagonistis egzistencia swored ubeduri cnobierebiTaa determinebuli. cnobierebis es tipi, romelic hegelma gamoyo da riTac romantizmis msoflmxedveloba daaxasiaTa, Tavisi arsiT tragikulia (ubeduria), ramdenadac igi, erTi mxriv, acnobierebs sakuTari empiriuli `me~-s ucilobel sasrulobasa da warmavlobas, da movlenaTa sinamdvilis (empireis) araWeSmaritebas, romelsac igi moiazrebs, rogorc moCvene-

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konstantine bregaZe

bas, aCrdilTa samyaros(Schein, Schattenwelt),e. i. rogorc iluzias, rogorc efemeruli arsis mqone mocemulobas. xolo meore mxriv, e. w. ubeduri cnobiereba aseve acnobierebs am empiriuli sinamdvilis miRma arsebuli transcendenturobis arsebobasa da misken swrafvis aucileblobasac sakuTari transcendirebadi, mswrafveli arsidan gamomdinare. aseTi cnobierebis farglebSi empiriuli da transcendenturi sinamdvile erTmaneTs upirispirdeba rogorc SeuTavsebeli mocemulobebi da swored aq warmoiSoba ubeduri cnobierebis tragizmi, ramdenadac swrafvis obieqti misTvis sabolood miuwvdomeli rCeba sakuTari sasruli da arasrulyofili bunebidan gamomdinare. swored msgavsi cnobierebiseuli paradigma ikveTeba fridrihis suraTze, sadac protagonistis winaSe zRva da zeca (transcendenturoba) aRmarTulia rogorc ontologiuri aucilebloba, romlisaken swrafvac protagonistSi iwvevs tragikul grZnobas, ramdenadac am procesSi igi amavdroulad acnobierebs sakuTar SezRudul da sasrul arssac transcendenturobasTan mimarTebaSi, rac suraTze swored bunebisa da adamianis araTanabari da daubalansebeli dispoziciTaa miniSnebuli _ zRva da zeca TiTqos nTqaven napirze mdgom mWvretel subieqts. amdenad, protagonistis cnobierebisa da yofis tragizms Tavad swrafvis obieqtis (transcendenturobis) bolomde Seucnobi arsi da misi miuwvdomloba iwvevs (`magram ver ganWvret da ver Seicnob Seucnob miRmierebas!~). amgvarad, fridrihis tiloze `beri zRvasTan~ zRvis simbolika, erTi mxriv, SeiZleba moazrebul iqnas sikvdilis, Sesabamisad, egzistencialuri finalobisa da araras simbolod, sadac zRvas ontologiuri da egzistencialuri zRvrulobis mxatvruli funqcia akisria, rodesac zRva, rogorc sikvdilis da, amavdroulad, aracnobieris mxatvruli simbolo zRvars udebs da abrkolebs protagonistis swrafvas transcendenturobisaken da mis cnobierebaSi aRZravs transcendenturobis miuwvdomlobis tragikul gancdas. xolo meore mxriv, zRva ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT ganasaxierebs romantikosi protagonistis umTavresi swrafvis sagans _ usasrulo transcendenturobas, transcendentur sivrcesac (das Unendliche), rac romantikosi protagonistisaTvis warmoadgens saboloo WeSmaritebis, anu WeSmariti egzistenciis sferos.Aam SemTxvevaSi zRvis simbolikas ukve transcendirebadi, anu zeempiriulTan kavSiris damyarebis (e. i. religiuri) mxatvruli funqcia akisria. amdenad, fridrihis ferwerul tiloze `beri zRvasTan~ erTdroulad mocemulia erTi da imave mxatvruli simbolos _ am SemTxvevaSi zRvis simbolos _ ormagoba da ambivalenturoba, rac zogadad damaxasiaTebelia rogorc kaspar david fridrihis ferweruli mxatvro-


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bis saxismetyvelebisaTvis, ise, zogadad, romantizmis saxismetyvelebiTi paradigmebisaTvis, sadac erTi da igive simbolika SeiZleba Tavis TavSi Seicavdes ramdenime saxismetyvelebiT, da zogjer urTierTgamomricxav, semiozissac, rac romantizmis saxismetyvelebis ucilobeli ontologiaa.3 A

SeniSvnebi:
saerTod Tavisufleba romantikosebTan msoflmxedvelobriv doneze, pirvel rigSi, vlindeba religiuri da socialuri Tavisuflebebis formiT, rogorc praqtikuli yofis sferoSi, ise SemoqmedebiT procesSi _ mag. adogmaturi da araeklesiuri religiurobisaken swrafva da Tavisufali siyvarulis dafuZneba, rac am SemTxvevaSi gulisxmobs partnioris Tavisufal arCevansa da masTan rogorc qorwinebiTi, ise araqorwinebiTi sasiyvarulo urTierTobis damyarebas. xolo romantikosTa rwmeniT, Tanamedrove xelovnebis erT-erTi umTavresi kriteriumi da SemoqmedebiTi amocana iyo sazogadoebrivi da religiuri konvenciebisagan Tavisufali subieqtisa da Semoqmedebis propaganda da primati, risi paradigmatuli nimuSic aris fr. Slegelis romani `lucinde` e. w. xelovanTa romanis (Knstlerroman) Janridan. aqedan gamomdinare, romantikosebi TavianT Tavs, pirvel rigSi, moiazrebdnen swored rogorc Tanamedrove Tavisufal xelovanebs, romelTa SemoqmedebiTi `Tavgasuloba da nebeloba veranair kanons ver egueba` (`die WillkrdesDichterskeinGesetzbersichleide~)(fr. Slegeli), da romlebic TavianT mravalmxriv da yovlismomcvel, mTeli yofierebis mocvaze pretenziis mqone romantikul xelovnebas mkveTrad upirispirebdnen upirveles yovlisa, klasikosTa, mag. e. w. vaimaruli klasikis warmomadgenelTa (goeTesa da Sileris), maTi azriT, calmxriv, SezRudul, dromoWmulsa da araaqtualur klasikur xelovnebas. 2 sainteresoa, rom swored `ubeduri cnobierebis~ perspeqtividan ganixilavs aRniSnul ferwerul tilos romantikosi novelisti da dramaturgi hainrih fon klaisti Tavis esseSi `gancdebi fridrihis zRvis landSaftis winaSe~ (1810):
1

`araferi SeiZleba imaze ufro melanqoliuri da Semzaravi iyos, rogoric samyaroSi es mdgomareobaa: sicocxlis erTaderTi naperwkali sikvdilis vrcel samefoSi, euli naTeli wertili eul wreSi. Tavisi ori Tu sami idumalebiTmosili sagnis safuZvelze suraTi Cvens winaSe warmoCndeba, rogorc apokalifsi~ [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis k. b.] (Teoria... 2000: 284). 3Mswored msgavsi ormagi, ambivalenturi saxismetyvelebiTi funqcia akisria zRvis simbolikas fridrihis sxva tiloebzec _ `ori mamaka-

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ci zRvasTan mTvaris amosvlisas~ (1816/17), `qali zRvasTan~ (1818), `kirqvis kldeebis sanapiro kunZul rugenze~ (1818), `mTvaris amosvla zRvaze~ (1821), `gemebi navsadgurSi saRamos Jams~ (1827), `mTvaris Suqi zRvaze~ (1830) da sxva. zRva am ferwerul tiloebzec sikvdilis, araras, an usasrulo transcendenturobis simboloa. Cemi azriT, calsaxad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRniSnul ferwerul tiloebze zRvas igive saxismetyvelebiTi da sazrisiseuli paradigma udevs safuZvlad, rac fridrihis cnobil ferwerul tilos `beri zRvasTan~. aseve, msgavsi saxismetyvelebiTi paradigma udevs safuZvlad fridrihis meore cnobil ferwerul tilos `mogzauri nislis zRvis winaSe~ (1818), sadac kvlav vxvdebiT mayureblisagan zurgSeqceviT mdgom protagonists, romelic usasrulo transcendenturobas Wvrets da misken iswrafis. oRond am tiloze transcendirebis mxatvruli funqcia ukve sqeli nisliTmosil mTian landSafts akisria. literatura Teoria... 2000: Theorie der Romantik, (hrsg.) von H. Uerlings, Reclam, Stuttgart, 2000. mecleri... 2008: Metzler Lexikon literarischer Symbole, (hrsg.) von G. Butzer, Verlag Metzler, Stuttgart/Weimar, 2008.

Mkaspar david fridrihi, `mTvaris amosvla zRvaze~ (1821)

nino gogiaSvili

zRva, rogorc cxovrebis simbolo, guram rCeuliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi


mecnierebi didi xania Sejerdnen, rom simbolo aSkara SeTanxmebiTYmiRebuli ,,pirobiTi niSania~, romelic aRqmad-materialur saxes aZlevs azrovnebis procesebs, mxolod igi mkveTradaa gamijnuli ,,niSnisagan~, radganac ,,niSani~ sakomunikacio funqciis matarebelia, simbolos ki sakraluri daniSnuleba aqvs. xSirad simboloebis gaSifvris meSveobiT xdeba teqstis wakiTxva da kvanZis gaxsna. ,,simbolo erTgvari xidis rols asrulebs iracionalur samyarosa da mistikur samyaros Soris~. (1) simbolo adamianTa mexsierebaSi kodirebuli erTi saxea, romelic meoris gamoxatvis plans warmoadgens. Tumca, yvela konteqstSi saxe-simbolo simbolos ar warmoadgens, da rogorc froidi ityoda, xandaxan sigara ubralod sigaraa. guram rCeuliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi zRva simbolur datvirTvas iZens. magaliTisaTvis ganvixilavT sam moTxrobas: ,,munji axmedi da zRva~, ,,neli tango~ da ,,me da irina~. zRva ara marto simboluri, aramed sakralur-mistikuri saxec aRmoCnda mwerlisaTvis. man, sakuTari sicocxlis fasad, zRvaSi daxrCobas gadaarCina adamiani. ,,nel tangoSi~ igi TiTqmis dokumenturi bukvalobiT aRwers mSvelelis (am

qarTuli literaturis mimarTulebis doqtoranti. Telavis iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori. sadoqtoro Tema muxran maWavarianis poeziis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi. interesTa sfero: literatura, semiotika, poetika. leqsebis krebuli: amindebi bis-ze.

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SemTxvevaSi mamis) daxrCobis process, romelic mwerlis ubadlo intuiciasa da qvecnobierSi Rrma wiaRsvlebze metyvelebs, radgan misi aRsasrulic TiTqmis identuri iyo. zRva, moyolebuli saxarebidan, amqveyniuri cxovrebis, sicocxlis simboloa. amis dasturia saxarebiseuli igavi petres zRvaze gavlis Sesaxeb, roca man _ rwmenaSeryeulma CaZirva daiwyo. igavSi zRvis simbolo asocirdeba cxovrebasTan da miniSneba calsaxaa daeWvebuli, aramtkice, rwmenaSeryeuli adamiani iZireba cxovrebis morevSi. bibliuri zRva RvTis nebiT Seqmnili da SemosazRvruli ,,Sesakrebeli wyalTaa~ da RvTisave nebiT azvirTdeba an cxreba. ,,gadaaqcevs zRvis Relvas siwynared da dadumdebian misi talRebi~ (4, fs. 88.10. maT. 8, 26). ,,awynarebs zRvaTa xmaurs, maTi talRebis xmaurs da erebis mRelvarebas~. (4, fs. 88.10 es. 17, 12-13), vkiTxulobT daviTis fsalmunSi. zRva, saxarebis mixedviT, cxovrebis, yofis simboloa, romelSic adamianebi arseboben da moqmedeben. aRelvebuli zRva, Sesabamisad, SfoTian, mZime, winaaRmdegobebiT savse yofas niSnavs, mSvidi da damcxrali ki Sesabamisad _ dawynarebuls. Zalian saintereso saxarebiseuli kompozitia ,,Relva-gvemuli~. Relva zRvis talRebTan asocirdeba, talRebis Tvisebaa, Relva-gvemuli ki cxovrebiseuli vnebebiT gvemuli adamianis epiTetia. ,,daujdomeli sagalobeli yovladwmidisa RvTismSoblisaTa~-Si vkiTxulobT: ,,gixaroden, navT-sayudelo sawuTosa Sina Relva-gvemulTao: gixaroden, sZalo usZloo~. (5, 32) ,,navT-sayudeli~ igive navsayudeli, damdgari, usafrTxo adgilis sinonomia, sadac wuTisoflisagan ,,Relvagvemulni~ Tavs afareben, isveneben. zRvis simbolika saxarebamdeli movlenaa da jer kidev uZveles civilizaciaTa miTologiaSi vlindeba, rogorc sicocxlis pirvelsawyisi, amorfuli da ukidegano substancia. amis naTeli magaliTebia babilonuri, berZnuli da Zvelegvipturi miTebi. zRvis simbolo, aqedan gamomdinare, mkvidradaa kodirebuli Cvens mexsierebaSi da yovelTvis Sesabamis asociaciebs iwvevs. is, rogorc yvela sxva nebismieri simbolo, warmoadgens kulturis mexsierebis mniSvnelovan meqanizms da literaturul teqstebSi gvevlineba Sesabamisi saxiT. masSi kondensirebulia garkveuli programa, romelic Tavis daniSnulebas yovelTvis zustad asrulebs. zRvis simbolo universaluria da yvela kulturaSi daaxloebiT identur qveteqsts moicavs. ,,ramdenadac simboloebi kulturis mexsierebis mniSvnelovan meqanizms warmoadgenen, maT gadaaqvT teqstebi, siuJeturi sqemebi da sxva semiotikuri warmonaqmnebi misi erTi plastidan meoreSi, simboloa konstanturi rigebi, romelnic kulturis diaqronias msWvalaven, garkveulwilad, Tavis Tavze iReben erTianobis meqanizmTa funqcias: kulturis mexsierebis sakuTar


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Tavze ganxorcielebiT~ (1). ,,nel tangoSi~ moTxrobis siuJeti musikis fonze viTardeba; Tavdapirvelad, zRvisa da mis mSvid sanapirosTan sinqronulad calTvala somexi emigranti akvnesebs gitaras, tragediis Semdeg ki musikalurdinamikuri foni wyvilis mier Sesrulebul nel tangoSi gadadis. ,,curvis dros TiTqmis arasodes ara fiqroben~ am winadadebiT iwyeba moTxroba, radgan curva cxovrebaa, garkveulwilad, arsebobis inercia. patara igori kargad curavs. amas napirze mzeze mSvidad mificxebuli mSoblebi kmayofilebiT aRniSnaven. ,,momavalSi pirveli adgili eqneba~, ambobs mama, magram imasac ixsenebs, rom vinme valeric Zalian kargad curavda, magram raRac SemTxvevis Sedegad daixrCo. miniSneba nawarmoebSi Semodis gangaSis gancda da faqti: zRvidan (cxovrebidan) rom uvnebeli gamoxvide, marto kargad curva (moqmedeba) ar kmara, amas kargi amindi da mSvidi zRva (uxifaTo cxovreba) sWirdeba. igori colSvils gadaarCens, TviTon ki zed napirTan uskdeba guli. miTopoetur warmosaxvaSi zRvidan napirze gadmosvla, afrodites msgavsad, dabadebis eqvivalenturia, zRvaSi Sesvla, misken mibruneba ki sikvdilis mauwyebelia. Sdr: zRvaSi ixrCobs Tavs ,,Tavadis qali maia~, TaraS emxvaric adidebul engurs ewireba. zRva, rogorc sicocxlis uryevi substancia da simboluri saxiT, TviTon cxovreba, guram rCeuliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs. ,,nel tangoSi~ gmiri uZlebs zRvruli situaciiT gamocdas, moTxrobaSi ki ,,zRva arc Tu ise Relavda~ mTavar gmirs TviTgadarCenis instinqti ereva da megobars tovebs, romelic exrCoba. misi megobari daiRala curviT (cxovrebiT) da amitom daixrCo, mas ki Zala eyo da gamovida. marTalia, guram rCeuliSvili iseTi ostatobiT ver wardga poeziaSi mkiTxvelis winaSe, rogorc prozaSi, magram zRvis simbolos ukeT gagebisaTvis upriania moviSvelioT misi leqsi dedisadmi: ,,deda! ar Camoxvide zRvaze zRva Zalian Relavs SenTvis ar SeiZleba aq curaoba zRva Zalian Relavs, Senc Zalian Relav . . . aq zRva simboloa adamianis (am SemTxvevaSi dedis) mozRvavebuli, moZalebuli emociuri mdgomareobis da amasTan, cxovrebis - rogorc misi yvelaze gavrcelebuli gagebis. zRva saSiSia, igi xan kriala da ulamazesia, xan kidev aRelvebuli da umarTavi. miTologiur okeaneSi ki binadroben saSiSi urCxulebi. ,,deda! nu Camoxval... aq yvelaferi isedac Relavs, _ afrTxilebs dedas. sxva leqsSi ambobs: ,,win, sulelo mezRvauro, win

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win win! win! zRva mxolod erTia da zRvas arc erTi porti ara aqvs . . . cxovreba, sicocxle erTia da aq ar arsebobs pauza, Sesveneba arc erTi porti, ,,arc erTi bina, arc erTi adgili, sadac daisvenebs, ,,mxolod sulelebs SeuZliaT ucnobi portisken curva, da am leqsis lirikuli gmiric suleli mezRvauria. leqsi savsea amaoebis gulismomkvleli gancdiT, romelic simboloebis - zRvis da mezRvauris saxiT aris motanili. SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom zRva guram rCeuliSvilis prozauli asparezi da stiqiaa. ,,fsiqoanalitikosebis azriT okeane asocirdeba ,,koleqtiur aracnobierTan, romlidanac amoiwvereba sulierebis mze. (3, 84) mwerlisaTvis zRvis sivrce TiTqmis mudmivi panoramaa, romlis fonzec xdeba movlenebi da romlis arsebobac xsnis movlenebs. ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu Cven ar viciT, ra aris simbolo, yovelma sistemam icis, ra aris ,,misi simbolo da saWiroebs mas semiotikuri struqturis muSaobisaTvis. (1) moTxrobaSi ,,munji axmedi da zRva~ vkiTxulobT, rom axmeds zRva arc uyvars da arc ejavreba, igi misTvis arsebobis wyaroa, radganac igi meTevzea da misi fizikuri arseboba zRvazea damokidebuli. zRva sicocxlea, romelic axmeds arc uyvars da arc ejavreba. Tumca zRva anu sicocxle, mas saCuqarsac sTavazobs qalis saxiT, axmeds cxovreba sTavazobs saCuqars, igi zRvaSi poulobs Tavis lilis. es moTxroba fabuliT da Txrobis stiliT Zalian hgavs ernest hemingueis moTxrobas ,,moxuci da zRva. faqtobrivad, mwerali saTaurSic ki pirdapir mianiSnebs amis Sesaxeb. rCeuliSvilis prozaSi zRvas sqesi ar gaaCnia. zogadad, miTopoetur warmosaxvaSi, zRvis stiqia qalur sawyisTan asocirdeba ,,didi dedaa _ sicocxlis warmomqmneli wiaRi. ,,babilonur miTSi ,,mlaSe pirvelad okeanes ganasaxierebda TeTri gveleSapi TiamaTi. (3, 84) rCeuliSvilis zRva pirdapir da calsaxad warmoadgens cxovrebis simbolos. lilis sikvdilis Semdeg munji axmedi isev zRvis imedze rCeba: ,,Tevzaobis Semdeg xSirad egdo naxevrad SiSveli zRvis napiras da eloda damtvreuli barkasis povnas, romlis Zirzec iwveboda zRvis saCuqari. (4, 173). hemingueis moTxrobaSi ,,moxuci da zRva zRvas sqesi aqvs. misi moyvaruli Raribi meTevzeebisaTvis is mdedria, santiagos qaliviT uyvars zRva anu cxovreba, ar ejibreba mas, efereba, elaciceba, ar brazobs. SedarebiT mdidari meTevzeebisaTvis ki zRva mamria, _ meto-


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qe. zmanebis enazec ki zRva cxovrebis simboloa. moTxrobaSi ,,me da irina~ Seyvarebul vaJs zRvaze mihyavs qali. iqamde idiliuri urTierToba swored zRvaze yofnisas iZens gansxvavebul xasiaTs da fatalurad mTavrdeba. ideaSi srulyofili wyvili sazRvao kurortze (anu simboluri saxiT cxovrebaSi) yofnisas irRveva. idiliuri samyaro, romelsac qmnis wyvili qalaqSi yofnisas, zRvaze imsxvreva. miniSneba cxovrebiseuli sirTuleebis warmoSobaze, romelic am konkretul SemTxvevaSi mTavari moqmedi piris sulieri ryevebis aRweriT gamoixateba, swored zRvis akompanementis TanxlebiT Cndeba. navSi xdeba mkvleloba, sadac gmiri bolomde avlens Tavis mouTokav siyvaruls, Tanmxlebi eWviTa da agresiiT. ,,metaforas, romelic saxes azrobriobisaken mimarTavs, upirispirdeba simbolo, romelic agreTve saxes emyareba, magram mimarTulia formis stabilizaciisaken. (2) samive moTxrobaSi gamokveTilia Zveli da gavleniani, bunebrivi simbolos _ zRvis saxe, ieri da daniSnuleba. zRva martiv saxe-simbolos miekuTvneba. simbolo ki rac ufro martivia, miT ufro gavrcelebuli, Rrma da calsaxaa. zRvis kanonikuri simbolika aqtiurad figurirebs guram rCeuliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi. literatura 1. iuri lotmani, simbolo kulturis sistemaSi, http://www.lib.ge/body_text.php?5858 2. nina aruTinova, simbolo, http://semioticsjournal.wordpress.com 3. simboloTa ilustrirebuli leqsikoni, tomi 1, bakmi 2006 4. guram rCeuliSvili, qarTuli prozis saganZuri, neli tango, Tbilisi 2010 5. axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, stokholmi, 1993 6. daujdomeli sagaloblebis krebuli, Tbilisi 2007

rismag gordeziani zRvis aRmniSvneli daudgeneli etimologiis mqone sityvebi berZnulSi


berZnebi, romelTa cxovrebaSic zRva gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobiT gamoirCeoda, TavianT damokidebulebas misdami enobriv donezec adasturebdnen. Zvel berZnulSi zRvis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda oTxi ZiriTadi termini: hJ qavlassa, oJ povnto~, to; pevlago~, oJ a{l~. amas emateba formativi jWkeanov~, romelsac garkveulwilad `msoflio mdinaris~ mniSvneloba aqvs. aqedan oJ povnto~ da oJ a{l~ formativebis indoevropuli etimologia mecnierebaSi eWvs ar iwvevs.1 rac Seexeba danarCen terminebs, maTi etimologia daudgenlad iTvleba. viziareb im mkvlevarTa azrs, romelnic maT araindoevropul winaberZnul samyaros ganakuTvneben. vfiqrob, iseve, rogorc mravali aseuli e.w. winaberZnuli formativi, isinic mimarTebas gviCveneben qarTvelur enebTan.2
1 2

iv, javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis klasikuri filologiis, bizantinistikisa da neogrecistikis institutis direqtori, sruli profesori, saqarTvelosa da saqsoniis (gfr) mecnierebaTa akademiebis wevr-korespondenti, saberZneTis arqeologiuri sazogadoebis sapatio wevri, 25 wignisa da calke gamocemis, 150-ze meti samecniero statiis avtori, samecniero Jurnal Phasis-is mTavari redaqtori.

Sdr. GEW, DELG, EDG qarTvelur-winaberZnuli enobrivi mimarTebisaTvis ix. E. J. Furne, Vorgriechisch-Kartvelisches. Studien zum ostmediterranen Substrat nebst einem Versuch zu einer neuen pelasgischen Theorie, Leuven 1979; E. J. Fur-ne, Palokartvelisch-pelasgische Einflsse in den indogermanischen Sprachen, Leiden 1986; r. gordeziani, winaberZnuli da qarTveluri, Tbilisi 1985;r. gordeziani, mediteranulqarTveluri mimarTebebi, Tbilisi 2007-2008.


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to; pevlago~ berZnulSi niSnavda zRvas, Tumca misi semantika, rogorc Cans, Ria, gaxsnil, teritorialur wylebs miRma mdebare zRvas aRniSnavda.3 h. friskis cda, igi *pelh2 indoevropul fuZesTan daakavSiros,4 gaumarTleblad miaCnia r. beekess, romelic formativis winaberZnul warmomavlobas uWers mxars.5 vfiqrob, misi dakavSireba SeiZleboda qarTvelur *fel- fuZesTan, romelsac gaRebis, bolomde gaRebis mniSvneloba hqonda.6 m. Cuxua saerToqarTvelur arqetips *bel- formiT aRadgens da masSi Riaobis, gaxsnis, siSiSvlis mniSvnelobas varaudobs. igi ufro Sors midis da qarTvelur fuZes saerTo naxur *b-el- `gaReba, gaxela/gaxsna, axda fuZesTan akavSirebs. Sesabamisad, fuZis saerTo kavkasiur doneze aRdgenis SesaZleblobas ar gamoricxavs.7 Zneli saTqmelia, winaberZnulSi ag- elementi mawarmoebelia Tu fuZiseulia.8 Tuki Cemi dakavSireba misaRebia, maSin SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom es elementi fel-/bel- Zirs saxelur formas aZlevda. Cemi azriT, msgavsi elementi SeiniSneba qarTvelur sityvaTwarmoebaSi: Sdr. saerToqarTveluri *qad da qad-ag-i. Sesabamisad, pevlago~-is gaazreba daaxloebiT amgvarad SeiZleboda: `Ria, gaxsnili, gamRebeli, gamxsneli~. mecnierTa yuradRebas didi xania ipyrobs termini qavlassa, romelic xSirad gvxvdeba ukve homerosis eposSi. specialistTa erTsulovani aRiarebiT, am terminis etimologia daudgenelia.9 hesiqioss dadasturebuli aqvs glosa dalavgca, romelsac igi mniSvnelobiT qavlassa-s identurad, xolo warmoSobiT makedonurad miiCnevs. savsebiT sworad SeniSnavs furnee, rom sulac ar aris aucilebeli davujeroT hesiqioss da termini namdvilad makedonurad miviCnioT.10 samagierod, mkvlevarni erTsulovanni arian imaSi, rom aq aSkarad dasturdeba qal-/dal- fuZeebis monacvleoba. es ki terminis winaberZnul warmoSobaze unda migviTiTebdes.11 rogorc glosis -agca, aseve berZnuli terminis -assa daboloeba SeiZleba mawarmoeblad miviCnioT. aseT SemTxvevaSi daismis TviT fuZis qal-/dal- semantikis
3 4

Sdr. LSJ, 1356 GEW 5 EDG 6 m. Cuxua, iberiul-iCkeriuli SedarebiTi gramatika, Tbilisi 2008 7 m. Cuxua, dasax. naSr. 8 r. beekesi fiqrobs, rom es elementi winaberZnuli sufiqsia, GED, XXXIV 9 Sdr. GEW, DELG, EDG, WKE, 195 10 WKE, 195 11 EDG

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sakiTxi. am mxriv yvelaze misaRebi Tvalsazrisi a. leskim wamoayena, romelmac 1947 wels gamoaqveyna specialuri statia saxelwodebiT qavlassa.12 a. leski yuradRebas aqcevs im garemoebas, rom zRvis aRmniSvneli oTxi terminidan ori _ povnto~ da a{l~ mamrobiTi sqesisaa, erTi _ pevlago~ saSualosi, mxolod qavlassa aris mdedrobiTi sqesis. a. leskis azriT, homerosis eposi da sxva berZnuli wyaroebi iZleva SesaZleblobas davaskvnaT, rom mxolod a{l~ da qavlassa SeiZleba gaviazroT terminebad, romlebic mlaSe wylis semantikas Seicaven. igi ganixilavs mravalricxovan konteqsts, romlebSic a{l~ da qavlassa erTmaneTs SeiZleba Seenacvlon swored am funqciiT, magram arcerT SemTxvevaSi amgvar konteqstebSi ar Segvxvdeba povnto~ da pevlago~ terminebi. a. leski midis daskvnamde, rom mlaSe wylis/ zRvis mniSvnelobis mdedrobiTi sqesis mqone winaberZnul sityvas qavlassa berZnulma mounaxa marilis mniSvnelobis mqone TavisaTvis organuli fuZidan nawarmoebi ukve mamrobiTi sqesis sityva a{l~ da orive maTgans absoluturad sinonimuri gageba mianiWa. aqedan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, vifiqroT, rom CvenTvis saintereso fuZe qal(a)/dal(a)- Seicavda marilianis, mlaSesTan miaxloebulis mniSvnelobas, saidanac romeliRac winaberZnuli mawarmoeblis meSveobiT nawarmoebi iqna `mariliani wylis~ mniSvnelobis mqone zRvis aRmniSvneli termini.13 vfiqrob, es winaberZnuli fuZe mimarTebas gviCvenebs qarTvelur enobriv samyarosTan. ukanasknel xanebSi m. Cuxuam saerToqarTvelur doneze aRadgina *dal-a arqetipi, romelic `delamos, dos, kveTis~ mniSvnelobas Seicavs; misi azriT, am fuZes aqvs kanonzomieri Sesatyvisi saerTo naxuri *dur-*dor _ `mlaSe, marilianoba~ saxiT. es ki SesaZleblobas iZleva vimsjeloT fuZis ukve saerTokavkasiur doneze aRdgenis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb.14 rogorc Cans, Tavad saerToqarTvelur donezec misi umTavresi semantika swored `simlaSe, marilianoba~ SeiZleba yofiliyo, razec svanuri fuZis dr/dr erT-erTi mniSvneloba: `Roris an xbos damarilebuli maWiki, romelsac iyeneben kveTis dasamzadeblad15 SeiZleba miuTiTebdes. Tuki es asea, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom im winaberZnuli enis wiaRSi, romelSic marilianobis, simlaSis Semcveli dal(a)- fuZe dasturdeboda, am fuZis bazaze warmoiqmna zRvis aRmniSvneli termini, romelic Sevida berZnul enaSi.
12 13

A. Lesky, Thalassa, Hermes 78, 1943, 258 ff A. Lesky, op. cit. 14 m. Cuxua, dasax. naSromi, 314 15 v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi 2000


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yuradRebas iqcevs termini jWkeanov~. iseve, rogorc es miTopoetur azrovnebaSi xdeba, okeanosi, yoveli SemTxvevisaTvis, adreul berZnul eposSi warmoadgens e.w. personificirebul msoflio nakads, mdinares, romelic dedamiwas gars uvlis. homerosTan igi aris yvela RmerTisa da sagnis mSobeli (Il. XIV, 201, 24546). homerosTan erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba zRva da okeanosi ramdenime niSniT: zRva aris wylis sivrce, metnaklebad Caketili Tu kontinentebiT SemosazRvruli, romliTac adamianebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian zRvaosnobis saSualebiT. zRvebis sanapiroebze ganlagebul qveynebSi ZiriTadad realuri xalxebi saxloben. SesaZloa vifiqroT, rom homerosTan zRvad moiazreba ZiriTadad xmelTaSuazRvispireTi. okeanosi, amisagan gansxvavebiT, aris msoflio mdinare, romelic zRvis farglebs gareTaa da gars uvlis dedamiwas. misi gadakveTis Semdeg vxvdebiT miTiur xalxebsa da qveynebs: eTiopelebs, harpiebs, gorgonebs, kimirielebs... Sesabamisad, okeanosi mudam Tavis TavSi, anu ukan brundeba.16 miuxedavad calkeuli cdebisa, misi warmomavloba daudgenlad iTvleba. r. beekesi mas winaberZnulad miiCnevs, razec jWghvn, jWghnov~, jWgenov~ paraleluri formebis dadastureba migviTiTebs.17 aq, rogorc e. i. furnee SeniSnavs, winaberZnulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli k/g Tavisufali monacvleoba dasturdeba.18 formativis etimologiisaTvis, upirveles yovlisa, yuradReba unda mivaqcioT masSi dadasturebuli fuZis semantikas. vfiqrob, am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa homerosTan moxmobili epiTeti okeanosisa, ajyovroo~. mas, Cveulebriv, ase Targmnian: `Tavis TavSi ukanve Semdinare~ (germ. `in sich zurckflieend~, ing. `returning into itself~).19 Sesabamisad SeiZleba davuSvaT, jWkeanov~-is semantika garkveulwilad wrebrunvas, msoflio mdinaris mudmiv trials, Tavis TavSi ukanve Semdinarobas ukavSirdeba. rogorc Cans, aqve SeiZleba ganvixiloT glosa wjgevnio~ `Zveli, maradiuli~. Tuki am fuZeebs Soris marTlac arsebobs kavSiri, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom misi semantika erTdroulad ukanqcevisa da siZvelis, maradiulobis mniSvnelobas Seicavda. r. beekesi fuZis savaraudo winaberZnul arqetips aRadgens formiT *kan.20 vfiqrob, es fuZe mimarTebas unda gviCvenebdes Zvel qarTulSi intensiurad gamoyenebul ukun-/ukuan- fuZesTan, romelic qarTu
16 17

Sdr. DNP EDG 18 WKE, 124 19 LSJ 20 EDG 1677

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li enis ganviTarebis uZveles periodTanaa dakavSirebuli, razec fuZeSi / monacvleoba unda migviTiTebdes.21 vfiqrob, megruli ukoxole `ukan, ukana mxares~ gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba qarTul-zanur arqetipzec vimsjeloT. am fuZisgan, erTi mxriv, iwarmoeba terminebi ukunqceva, ukuana, ukan, xolo meore mxriv, ukuni, ukuneTi, ukuniTi, ukunisamde.22 daudgeneli etimologiis mqone zRvis aRmniSvneli terminebis aq SemoTavazebuli etimologiebi mTlianad jdeba qarTvelur-winaberZnuli hipoTezis konteqstSi, romelic Cemi da E. J. Furne-s naSromebSia gadmocemuli.23 Semoklebebi: DELG = Pierre Chantraine, Dictionnaire tymologique de la langue grecque: histoire des mots, Paris 1968-1980 DNP = Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopdie der Antike. Das klassische Altertum und seine Rezeptionsgeschichte, hrsg. H. Cancik and H. Schneider, Stuttgart 1996-2003 EDG = Robert Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden 2010 GEW = Hjalmar Frisk, Griechisches stymologisches Wrtwrbuch, 3 Bde, Heidelberg 1960-1973 LSJ = A Greek-English Lexicon, compilled by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, recised and augmented throughout by H. S. Jones..., Oxford 19779 WKE = E. J. Furne, Wichtigsten Konsonantischen Erscheinungen des vorgriechischen. Mit einem Appendix ber den Vokalismus, Den Haag 1972

T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisi 1965 22 A Comprehensive Georgian-English Dictionary, London 2006 23 Sdr. SeniSvna 2
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zRvis qristianuli simbolika da qarTuli literatura


Zveli da axali aRTqma wuTisoflisa da satanis simbolod moiazrebs zRvas, romelic maxes ugebs adamians, am zRvaSi mocurave navs da uRelvo napiramde miRwevaSi xels uSlis. ramdenadac zRva uzarmazar da yovliswamlekav ZalasTan asocirdeba, qristianulma kulturam igi bibliur mxecs _ veSaps daukavSira, romelic axrCobs adamianebs da anadgurebs dasaxlebul adgilebs. igi maradis saSiSia, radgan satana mudmivad `aRZrulia~kacis STasanTqmelad. `mravalmRelvare ars sawuTro ese, daudgromel da warmaval~, _ moTqvams JamTaaRmwereli. daviT guramiSvili wuTisofels aRelvebul zRvas adarebs, xolo adamianTa sulebs _ navebs, romelTac ejaxebian talRebi da ganadgurebiT emuqrebian: `midis-modis es sofeli, qartexilTa zRvisebr Relavs!.. naTobs da bindobs sawuTro, qcevadi, mobrunavia, wams myudro qari aqrolis, wuTze damusris navia.~ (`sawuTro soflis samduravi~). wm. basili didi gvaswavlis: `adamianis suli am sofelSi Zalian hgavs xomalds, romelic talRebis sapirispiro

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos pedagogTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis institutis humanitaruli mimarTulebis profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi: saRvTismetyvelo sakiTxebi qarTul hagiografiaSi (1996), daviTianis'swavlebisaTvis (1998), grigol noselis wminda makrinas cxovreba (2010); wignebi: feriscvaleba (literaturuli werilebi) (2009), seriidan qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi: vaJa-fSavela (or nawilad) (2001, 2002), nikoloz baraTaSvili (2007), niko lorTqifaniZe (2000), akaki wereTeli (or nawilad) (2004, 2008). interesTa sfero: RvTismetyveleba, litmcodneoba, poetika, kritika, qristianuli xelovneba.

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mimarTulebiT micuravs. erT adgilze gaCereba dauSvebelia da, Tu igi ar gamoiyenebs Zalisxmevas win wasasvlelad, siRrmeSi STainTqmeba~. qristiani yoveldRiurad amitomac loculobs im adamianebisTvis, romlebic `zRvaTa Sina iWirvian~ _ maTSi ar gulisxmobs mxolod mezRvaurebs, aramed yovel kacsa da sakuTar Tavs, anu yvelas, visac cxovrebasTan Widili uwevs. zRva Tavisi sididis gamo gansakuTrebuli Zlierebis sazomia. sulxan-saba swored misi moSveliebiT gadmogvcems sedraq veziris sibrZnisa da ganaTlebis masStabs: `mecnierebiTa zRvaTa ufskrulTa miwevnil iyo~. leo qiaCeli `haki aZbaSi~ zRvas pirvelyofil qaosTan akavSirebs, raTa misi gansakuTrebuli siZliere, daumorCilebloba da yovliswamlekavi, gamanadgurebeli Zala asaxos: `bnelSi gaxveuli zRva axla ise boboqrobda da Rmuoda, TiTqos mTel qveyanas warRvniT da dangreviT emuqrebao... mTebiviT maRla aziduli talRebi napirebs grialiT exeTqebodnen... ufskrulis layuCebiT amonaberi Savi grigali zRvis Suagulidan giJuri stveniTa da bRaviliT imuqreboda. wylis veeba, haerSi atacebul lodebs haerSi aTamaSebda, ngrevisa da texis Semzaravi grialiT Caigugunebda... pirvelyofili qaosis sunTqvis naxleCebis brma srbolas hgavda dausabamo ukuneTSi misi awyvetili TareSi~. Tumca qristianuli kultura TiTqmis yovel simbolos ormagi SinaarsiT tvirTavs, radgan yovelive uflis Seqmnilia (maT Soris, zRvac) da keTil sawyiss efuZneba. zRvaSic wyalia, darwyulebisa da sicxovlis simbolo. Tu aq veSapia, ganadgurebisa da STanTqmis simbolo, aqvea macxovari-Tevzi: ixTiosi _ ieso qriste Ze RmrTisa mxsneli, romelic cxovrobs samyaroul wylebSi da wmends mas suliwmidis madliT, amarcxebs veSaps samWeduriT, kaci amoyavs jojoxeTis ufskrulebidan da xsnis gzas dausaxavs, `suli RmrTisa~ ki mimoiqceva `zeda wyalTa~, marTavs da imorCilebs yovelives. ucnobi qarTveli himnografi `ZlispirSi~ xotbas Seasxams yovlisSemZle macxovars, romelmac daimorCila zRva da buneba Seucvala mas, radgan qviSa wyals ver iWers, zRva ki qviSaze dgas: `romelman dahrTen wyalTa zeda zesknelni misni, da Seayene zRuai qviSasa...~ kacobrioba or nawilad iyofa: erTni wuTisoflis Rirseu-


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lad gavlis Semdeg rwmeniTa da RvTis imediT midian qristes navsayudelSi, anu sasufevels daimkvidreben; meoreni ki cxovrebis zRvaSi inTqmebian (zogi maTgani amao cxovrebas ewafeba, `mimndoni sawuTrosani~ miwis kacebi xdebian, wuTisoflisgan dagebul maxes ver xedaven da amqveyniur sacdurebs ver uZleben, zogi TiTqos ibrZvis gadarCenisTvis, magram Zala ar hyofnis da iRupeba, zogic sakuTari nebiT, netarebiTa da ubrZolvelad gadaeSveba samyaroul WaobSi, RadarinelTa Rorebis msgavsad). amitomac gvaswavlis SoTa rusTveli, ar vendoT wuTisofels: `vaqeb Wkuasa brZenTasa, romelni eurCebian...~ `Tavfaravneli WabukSi~ erTmaneTs upirispirdeba sofeli `aRZruli zRvis~ saxiT da zesTasofeli _ sanTlisa da siyvarulis saxiT. yoveldRiurad eWideba Wabuki cxovrebas, anu wuTisofels, viTarca maminacvals (ilia), dabrkolebas ar epueba da Tavisi gzasavalis gakvlevas cdilobs. siyvaruliT anTebuli Tavs ar izogavs tbis gadasacurad. sanTeli unaTebs gzas. es sanTeli sauflo naTelia, romelic `bnelsa Sina Cans~ da `kelaptarobs~. Wabuki misi SemweobiT aRwevs meore napirs _ `uRelvo navsayudels~. eSma sanTels aqrobs, rom vaJs naTeli moaklos da wyvdiadis tyveobaSi martod (RvTis Sewevnis gareSe) darCenils gaumklavdes. TavfaravanSi iRupeba eSmaki dedabrisagan Zleuli Wabuki. saukeTeso vaJi, `cali xeliT dolabi rom mihqonda~, meoriT niavqarobda, TavgametebiT rom ibrZoda wuTisoflis winaaRmdeg, mainc imsxverpla aboboqrebulma zRvam. leqsi kidev erTxel dagvafiqrebs, rom `talRa talRaze nacemi` meyseulad STanTqavs da anadgurebs yvelas, visac sifxizle moudundeba, an cxovrebiseuli sayrdeni uRalatebs, Znelia samyaros zRvaSi daxrCobisagan gadarCena. Tavis daxrCobiTa Tu amis mcdelobiT suls eSmas aZleven cxovrebisagan gatexili Teimuraz xevisTavi (mixeil javaxiSvili _ `jayos xiznebi~) da Tavadis qali maia (leo qiaCeli _ `Tavadis qali maia~). qristianul literaturaSi zRvis simboluri gaazreba, garkveulwilad, bibliuri wignebiTacaa nasazrdoebi. Semodis `soflis aRZruli zRvisa~ da sulis navis sworad, daunTqmelad tarebis motivebi. `metivuris daviwyeba~ (anu, urwmunoeba da codvaTa siWarbe) tivis zRvaSi CaZirvas iwvevs.

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radgan adamiani sawuTros moqalaqea da garemosTan nebsiT Tu uneblieT urTierTobs, kacis buneba ki winaaRmdegobebiTaa savse (rusTvelis Tqmisa ar ayos, `mteri mtersa versa avnebs, rome kaci Tavsa ivnebs~), codvac orgvaria: garedan momdinare, wuTisofliseuli, da Sinagani, anu gulismieri. `raisTvis gulis-sityvani mravalni movlenan gulTa TquenTa?~ _ kiTxulobs luka maxarebeli (24, 38)... `zRvac~ (Sesabamisad) orgvaria: garemoseuli da Sinagani, sulSi Camdgar-Cagubebuli da mtanjveli. amitom orivenairi sacduri gardauvalia, orivesTan gamklaveba Znelia da adamis STamomavals maradiuli sifrTxile, ufalze fiqri da misi yovelwamieri Sewevna sWirdeba, raTa mis sulsa Tu qmedebaSi codvas macxovnebeli madli dasWarbdes. `momixile Ze SecTomili; ganmasvene vnebaTagan borot-Relvili,~ _ SehRaRadebs macxovars nikoloz baraTaSvili; cnobilia wm. grigol xanZTelis poeturi niWiT aRbeWdili Targmani, romelSic wmida mama, sagaloblis avtor ucnob himnografTan erTad, mravalmowyale ufals SesTxovs cxovrebis zRvaSi danTqmisagan gadarCenas da morwmunes kidev erTxel daafiqrebs imaze, Tu ramden `unebel~ gansacdels umzadebs wuTisofeli `sawuTros kacad, soflis moyvared gadaqceul~ (~SuSanikis wameba~) adamians: `soflisa zRvai aRZrul ars RelviTa codvisaiTa, saSinelad damnTqams me, da movivlti Senda navTsayudelsa, da esreT giRaRadeb: danTqmisagan mixsen me, mravalmowyale!~ himnis meore nawili ki Sinagani `zRvis~ daSretisTvis dedaRvTisas mimarT aRvlenili vedrebaa: `qalwulo dedofalo, romelman gviSev sityuai, dausabamoi xorciT, daacxrven Relvani ganZvinebulni, gulissityuani Cemni, da moec sulsa Cemsa siwmide saRmrToi!~ zRvis simbolodan momdinared gvesaxeba samoTxis erT-erTi saxeli _ `qristes navsadguri~, romelic gvxvdeba `SuSanikis wamebaSi~. iakob xucesi SeniSnavs, rom samoel da ioane episkoposebi wm. SuSaniks `madlobiT warhgzavnides navTsadgurisa mis mimarT


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qristeisisa~. samoTxe `uRelvo myudroebis sadgurad~ moixsenieba himnografiul mwerlobasa da nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi. leqsSi `Cemi locva~ nikoloz baraTaSvili evedreba ufals: `cxovrebis wyarov, masv wmidaTa wyalTagan SenTa, daminTqe maTSi salmobani gulisa senTa, ara dahqrolon sulsa Cemsa qarTa vnebisa, aramed moec mas sadguri myudroebisa!~ mravalmxriv sagulisxmo am strofSi poeti Tavisi sulis navis samSvidobos gayvanas iTxovs, risTvisac `gulis senTa~ daTmena miaCnia aucileblad. sarwmunoebas yovelgvari tkivilis damaameblad Tvlis. ufals `cxovrebis wyarod miiCnevs, misi wm. wylisTvis dawafebas natrobs, rogorc uflis es saxeli, ise sarwmunoebis `wylad~ moxsenieba, saxarebas efuZneba: `ukueTu vinme ara iSves wylisagan da sulisa, ver xel-ewifebis Seslvad sasufevelsa RmrTisasa~ (ioane 3, 5). nikoloz baraTaSvilic SesTxovs macxovars, `wyali cxoveli~ Seasvas, raTa `cxovrebis wyaros~ dawafebiT saukuno sofelSi damkvidrebis imedi gauCndes. wyali _ sikeTe zRvas _ borotebas upirispirdeba, poeti macxovnebeli wmida wylis SesmiT fiqrobs ganwmedasa da codvaTagan Tavdaxsnas, radgan rwmena tkivilis Cacxrobisa da gulis damSvidebis wamalia, vnebaTagan xsnis gzaa. es rwmenac saxarebis cnobili sityvebis gamoZaxilad gvesaxeba: `ara uxms cocxalTa mkurnali, aramed sneulTa~ (maTe 9, 12). tatos Txovnac esaa, salmobaTagan sarwmunoebis ZaliT gaTavisufldes, rwmeniT dainTqas gulis seni da tkivili. wuTisofliseul codvis burusSi gzis gakvleva metad Znelia. amitom gulis senTa daamebis Semdeg poeti sulis xsnas SesTxovs zeciur mamas: `ara dahqrolon navsa Cemsa qarTa vnebisa~ (Sdr.: `guli wmidai dahbade CemTana, RmerTo, da suli wrfeli ganmiaxle guamsa Cemsa.~ _ fs. 50, 10). es striqonic saxarebiseul igavs efuZneba. maTes (8, 24-27), markozisa (4, 35-41) da lukas (8, 22-25) saxarebebSi gadmocemulia, navSi myofi ufali da mociqulebi rogor moxvdnen aRelvebul zRvaSi. sikvdilis SiSiT Sepyrobilma mowafeebma ieso gaaRviZes, gadarCena SesTxoves, manac SerisxviT daacxro qarica da zRvis Relvac, Tan mociqulebs usayvedura mcired morwmuneobisaTvis. navi poets simbolurad sulad mouazrebia, romelic gzas miikvlevs cxovrebis zRvaSi, vnebis qarebiT garemoculi. warwymeda mudmivad emuqreba rwmenaSeryeul suls, `myudroebis sadgurs~,

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anu samoTxes igi mxolod uflis wyalobiT miaRwevs. amitomac, mociqulTa msgavsad, warwymedisagan xsnasa da `vnebis qarTa~ dacxromas, sasufevelSi damkvidrebas iTxovs. (yuradRebas ipyrobs sityva `myudroeba~. eqvTime da giorgi aTonelebis TargmanebSi saxarebis es adgili amgvarad ikiTxeba: `(ufalma) Sehrisxa qarTa maT da zRuasa. da iqmna meyseulad dayudeba did~ (maTe 8, 26), xolo adiSis oTxTavSi: `iyo yudroeba did~. Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom amave oTxTavSi samoTxe xSirad `sadgurad~ moixsenieba, maSin SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom n. baraTaSvilis mier samoTxis `myudroebis sadgurad~ moxsenieba saxarebis Zveli TargmanebiT unda iyos STagonebuli. magaliTisTvis davimowmebT: ioanes saxarebaSi ufali hpirdeba mociqulebs, rom ganumzadebs adgils mamamisis saxlSi, anu caTa sasufevelSi: `saxlsa mamisa Cemisasa savane mraval arian... me warvide da gangimzado Tqven adgili~ (14, 2). adiSis oTxTavSi sityva `savanes~ nacvlad ikiTxeba `sadgur~...). wm. mamebi gvmoZRvraven, rom brZeni mesaWe imas ki ar sWirdeba, vinc ukve miaRwia navsadgurs da samSvidobosaa, aramed imas, vinc cxovrebis gaSlil zRvaSi iWirvis. bibliaSi zRvasTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime ambavi gvxvdeba: macxovris mier mewamuli zRvis Suaze gayofa da israelis amgvarad gadarCena egviptelTa risxvisagan, iona winaswarmetyvelis daxsna veSapis muclidan, macxovrisa da petre mociqulis siaruli zRvaze, iesos mier zRvaTa da qarTa dacxroma (riTac irwmunes mociqulebma macxovris Zala)_ yovelive amiT ki warmoCnda uflis mier zRvis damorCileba. es monaTxrobebi, Tavis mxriv, saTaves udeben axal paradigmebs da momdevno periodis literaturaSi asaxuli epizodebi Tu siuJetebi simbolur datvirTvas iZens. wm. gabriel beris _ didi aToneli mamis gamorCeulobaze metyvelebs misi msgavseba petre mociqulTan. wm. mariamis surviliT, igi erTaderTi aRmoCndeba mTawmindel mamaTagan, visi xelis mikarebasac inebebs xmelTaSua zRvidan mocurebuli xati. wm. gabrieli zRvaze fexis dausveleblad gaivlis da xmeleTze gamoabrZanebs aw ukve iveriis yovladwmida RmrTismSoblis karibWisad wodebul xats. Cveni azriT, iona winaswarmetyvelis ambavi aluziurad igulisxmeba `vefxistyaosansa~ da `aluda qeTelaurSi~. vaJa-fSavelas xevisberi berdia, `sxva rigis SiSiT~ ferdakarguli, zRvaSi CanTqmas Tvlis ufro iol sasjelad, vidre imas, rom aludas daujeros, muslims kurati Seswiros da Satilele-


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bisTvis karg mesaWed ar gamodges: `manam sjob, cani dameqcnen, zurgi gamisqdes miwisa, an Tu zRvam damnTqas uZirom, sadili vsWamo qviSisa~. ionac swored amitom daisaja zRvaSi gadagdebiT, ufals rom eurCa da nineviaSi qadagebaze (anu ninevelTa mesaWeobaze) uari Tqva. iona winaswarmetyveli veSapma gadaylapa uflis, anu zeciuri mamis urCobisaTvis, mas SeeZlo eTqva, rom ar uyvarda ninevelni da amitom ar surda maT qalaqSi qadageba, Tumca amis nacvlad gemiT gamgzavreba gadawyvita nineviisgan sapirispiro mimarTulebiT da ase apirebda davalebisaTvis Tavis aridebas. mamis urCi veSapis stomaqSi _ jojoxeTis xaxaSi aRmoCnda. iqidan ki mxolod sinanulis madlma gamoixsna igi. nestans mamis urCobisa da codvis gamo (man xom saqmro-ufliswuli tariels farulad moakvlevina) davari `zRvis veSaps~ ugzavnis. qajebs ubrZanebs mis wayvanas da gemidan, anu ucnauri kidobnidan, mis iq gadagdebas (dakargvas), sadac zRvis Wipia: `wadiT, dahkargeT mun, sada zRvisa Wipia!~ sapyrobiled gadaqceuli sawuTro `ylapavs~ nestans, romelic evedreba tariels, rom `RmerTsa Sehvedros~, raTa ufalma frTebi misces da am samyarodan `afrena~ SeZlos. qajeTis cixeSi datyvevebuli nestanis gamoxsna mxolod maSin xerxdeba, roca igi zRvad damdgari cremliT inaniebs codvas, xvdeba, xvarazmSas mkvleloba `marTali samarTliT~ rom ganbrWo, amis gamo ver ukavSirdeba misi da tarielis gulebi erTmaneTs. amitomac uxsnis mijnurs: `can samarTali marTali, gulisa gulsa miva rad?!~ erT dros mamis orguli Svili tariels farsadanTan wasvlasa da mis erTgul samsaxurs avalebs: `wadi, indoeTs mimarTe, arge ra Cemsa mSobelsa~. mxolod amis Semdeg marcxdeba codvis veSapi da mis, anu qajeTis cixis, mier `gadaylapuli~ mTvare-nestani ubrundeba satrfos (`naxes mzisa Sesayrelad gamoeSva mTvare gvelsa~). uZlevel gmirad gadasaqcevad ionasaviT veSapis muclidan Tavdaxsna, anu meored Sobaa saWiro. es sulieradac SesaZlebelia da xorcieladac. oRond, vinc amas mxolod fizikuri ZaliT axerxebs, damarcxebulia, radgan es, Cveni azriT, simbolurad gulisxmobs samyarodan mxolod xorcieli problemebis mogvarebis Semdeg gasvlas, rac jojoxeTs moaswavebs. amirani, gauWris Sav ve-

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Saps mucels da uvnebeli, Tanac uZleveli, gamova, magram amas mxolod sakuTar Zalasa da neba-survils miawers, rac mis gaampartavnebas iwvevs da ufalTan dapirispirebis, masTan daWidebis survils aRuZravs. esaa misi mijaWviT, maradiuli tyveobiT dasjis mizezi (jojoxeTSi moxvedrac sulis tyveobas, mis Seborkvas niSnavs). xolo, vinc uflis imediTa da rwmeniT iRvwis, imarjvebs _ ase unda damarcxdes uimedobis, sasowarkveTis cremliT damdgari bazaleTi _ `veSapi~. `misi muclidan~ _ tbis Ziridan unda amodgan oqros akvani, masSi Cakruli `STanTqmuli~ gmiris dasaxsnelad, romelsac dRedaRam natrobs qarTveli; maSin is uZlevel gmirad gadaiqceva da eniT uTqmel bednierebas mianiWebs Tavis ers. amitomac Senatris masa da mis mxsnels ilia WavWavaZe: `neta mas, vaJkacsa saxelovansa, visica xeli pirveli daswvdeba ima akvansa!~ ufali dahpirda meTevze mociqulebs kacTa mesaTxevleebad da mesaWeebad qcevas. am Sexedulebis gamoZaxilia meaTe saukuneSi moRvawe ucnobi qarTveli himnografi wm. ninos _ qarTvelTa sulis macxonebels `brZen meTevzes~ rom uwodebs: `hoi, didsa sakvirvelebasa! rameTu uZluri bunebai dedobrivi ninois mier sakvirvelad ganZlierdebis da emsgavsebis brZenTa maT meTevzurTa! rameTu mis mier nisli igi ganqardebis da mze simarTlisai gamobrwyindebis _ qriste RmerTi, romelmanca acxovnna sulni Cvenni~. zRva ufskruls, uZiro Rrmulebs, bneleTsa da saSiS talRebs ukavSirdeba, rac misi wuTisofliseulobiT aixsneba. meored mosvlisa da samyaros esqatologiuri aRsasrulis Semdeg, uflis sufevisas ki aseTi zRva aRar iarsebebs, rogorc gvarwmunebs ioane RvTismetyveli: `da vixile cai axali da queyanai axali, rameTu pirveli igi cai da pirveli queyanai warxdes da zRuai arRara ars~ (apok. 21, 1). axali cisa da axali miwis Seqmna yovelive amqveyniuris saxecvlilebas gulisxmobs. amitomac Seicvleba zRvac da igi brolisad gadaiqceva, Tanac naTels gamoasxivebs uflis saydarTan mdgomare naTlis tomisTvis: `da winaSe saydarsa missa, viTarca zRuai Wiqisai, msgavsi brolisai~ (apok. 4, 6).


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kacis mTavari safiqralic am naTlis tomTan SeerTeba unda iyos... am Temas uamravi mwerali exeba, amJamad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT jemal qarCxaZis `igize~, romlis mTavari gmiri zRvasTan `ibadeba~. igis `zRvis sveli simSvide da sigrile~ siamovnebs, roca tkivili awuxebs, sanugeSod zRvasTan midis, aq eguleba `sakvirveli siTbo, romelsac zRva gamoscems~, misi `sveli sunis~ SeynosviT gamofxizlebuli, `Tbil silaSi CaCoqili~ iwyebs xatvas (ufalic silaSi xatavda, zRvis napirze) da mxatvrad, moazrovne Semoqmedad gadaqceuls swored zRvis napiri miaxvedrebs, rom `igim raRac icis iseTi, rac sxvebma ar ician... igim didi raRac icis.~ _ is samyaros Secnobas iwyebs da mis did saidumlos swvdeba, bneleTidan gaRwevisa da naTlisaken svlis aucileblobas xvdeba. igi naTlis `sakvirvel~ toms uerTdeba, brwyinvale SesamosliT rom dganan uflis winaSe `sxivosani TvalebiTa da TeTri, molaplape mosasxamebiT.~ amgvarad, qristianuli TvalsazrisiT, erTmaneTs upirispirdeba boboqari zRva _ wuTisofeli da samoTxe _ qristes uRelvo navsadguri, romelsac mxolod brZeni mesaWeebis `navebi~ _ naTlistomel zecis kacTa da maTze mindobil Rirseul adamianTa sulebi aRweven.

lali zaqaraZe

globaluri azrovnebis manifesti - karl Smitis geopolitikuri koncefcia


azrovneba istoriuli da perspeqtiulia. swored istoriuloba da perspeqtiuloba gansazRvravs azrovnebis im sqemebsa da Wrils, im problemaTa speqtrs, romliTac Cven sinamdvilis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT. Tanamedrove samyaroSi mimdinare cvlilebebi, globaluri daTboba, ekologiuri krizisebi da kataklizmebi kacobriobas axali gamowvevebis winaSe ayenebs da Tanamedrove azrovnebis axal tendenciebs gansazRvravs. samyaros perspeqtiva humanitarul da socialur mecnierebebs aiZulebs, axali prioritetebi eZebos da globaluri azrovnebis maxasiaTeblebi gamokveTos. Tanamedrove humanitarul da socialur mecnierebaTa erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa, sul ufro da ufro metad daamkvidros interkulturuli paradigmebi. am mxriv, dasavlur filosofiur azrovnebaSi sagulisxmo mcdelobebi SeiniSneba amis magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT hainc kimerlesa da franc martin vimeris naSromebi. interkulturuli filosofiis winaSe unikaluri perspeqtiva ikveTeba: kulturaTa dialogis xelSewyoba da momavlis azrovnebis konturebis moxazva; am konteqstSi aqtualuri xdeba azrovnebis istoriis mkvlevarTa mier xSirad miCqma-

filosofiis doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori (baTumi), grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universitetis filosofiisa da socialur mecnierebaTa kvleviTi institutis kulturis ganyofilebis gamge (Tbilisi).
samecniero kvlevis sferoebi: Sua saukuneebis fi-

losofia, qarTuli filosofiis istoria, kulturis filosofia. muSaobs interkulturuli filosofiisa da kulturis sociologiis Tanamedrove problemebze. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ori monografia: germanuli romantizmi da qarTveli romantikosebi (2008), kulturis sociologia (2009). Targmani: udo ieki, ganazrebani qarTuli filosofiis Sesaxeb (2010), statiebi qarTul, rusul, ukrainul da germanul enebze.


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luli, an kidev sulac ukugdebuli azrovnebis gzebisa da kerebis xelaxla aRmoCena [...] (iremaZe:21). es mniSvnelovania qarTuli sauniversiteto/akademiuri sivrcisTvis, radgan swored man unda moamzados qarTuli azrovnebis Riaobisa da mis globalur diskursSi CarTvis safuZveli (ieki 2010:44). Tanamedrove globaluri azrovnebisa da interkulturalobis konteqstSi sagulisxmoa samarTlis da politikis cnobili germaneli Teoretikosis, karl Smitis (1888-1985) naSromi xmeleTi da zRva (1942)1. k. Smitis geopolitikuri Sexedulebebi winamdebare statiaSi swored am naSromze dayrdnobiT iqneba ganxiluli2. aq Smiti aviTarebs hegelisa da misi mowafis ernst kapis3 Sexedulebebs msoflio istoriisTvis zRvis gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. masSi mocemuli geopolitikur-filosofiuri konceptebi momavlis msoflmxedvelobis konturebs moxazavs (iremaZe 2010:5). zRvisa da xmeleTis mimarTeba SmitisTvis msoflio istoriis mamoZravebeli faqtoria. am naSromSi geografiuli mudmivebi da aRmoCenebi (mignebebi) Rrma filosofiuri refleqsiis sagani xdeba da maT gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba; kerZod, naTladaa naCvenebi, Tu ra gavlenas axdens es faqtorebi adamianis azrovnebasa da msoflio wesrigze, socio-kulturul garemoze, an kidev momavali (globaluri) azrovnebis monaxazze. am problemaTa speqtri da maT Sesaxeb refleqsia XXI saukunis dasavluri filosofiis erT-erTi aqtualuri mimarTulebis, filosofiuri geografiis4 sagnobriv vels qmnis. karl Smitis xmeleTi da
karl Smiti, xmeleTi da zRva. msoflio-istoriuli ganazreba, germanulidan Targmna giorgi TavaZem, nekeri, Tbilisi, 2010, 178 gv. (es naSromi daibeWda samecniero seriis - filosofia-sociologiis klasikuri da Tanamedrove teqstebi, t. 3 - farglebSi). aseve ixileT am naSromis originali: Carl Schmitt, Land und Meer. Eine Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtung, Reclam, Leipzig, 1942. 2 xmeleTisa da zRvis ZiriTadi ideebi k. Smitma mogvianebiT ganaviTara naSromSi - dedamiwis nomosi (1950). 3 Ernst Kapp, Philosophische oder Vergleichende allgemeine Erdkunde als wissenschaftliche Darstellung der Erdverhltnisse und des Menschenlebens nach ihrem innern Zusammenhang, 2 Bde, Braunschweig, 1845. 4 filosofiuri geografiis aqtualur problemebs eZRvneba germaneli filosofosis, helmut Snaideris uaxlesi naSromi - ix. helmut Snaideri, filosofiuri geografia, germanulidan qarTulad Targmna giorgi TavaZem, nekeri, Tbilisi, 2010 (aseve ix. am teqstis originali: Helmut Schneider, Philosophische Geographie: Die Bedeutung des Wassers fr die Geschichte Europa und Asien // Heinz Paetzold und Wolfdietrich Schmied-Kowarzik
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zRva swored filosofiuri geografiis sistemuri dafuZnebis erTerT warmatebul mcdelobad SeiZleba miviCnioT. *** xmeleTsa da zRvaSi Smiti aanalizebs kacobriobis istoriaSi mimdinare Zireul cvlilebebs da maT gamomwvev faqtorebs, naTlad aCvenebs da asabuTebs, Tu rogor qreba samyaros Zveli wesrigi (nomosi) da RirebulebaTa sistema; axali wesrigi, eqsistencialuri yofierebisa da azrovnebis arsebiTi orientirebi ki adamianma swored geografiul mudmivebTan mimarTebiT unda gansazRvros. samyaros wesrigis cvalebadoba cvlis adamianTa damokidebulebas Zveli da axali elementebisadmi. dedamiwis adrindeli nomosis nacvlad ganuwyvetliv da Seuferxeblad izrdeba Cveni planetis axali nomosi... am zrdas aucileblobiT ganapirobebs adamianuri eqsistenciis Secvlili parametrebi da mimarTebebi. axali nomosi mxolod brZolaSi Tu warmoiSoba. bevri adamiani amaSi mxolod sikvdilsa da ganadgurebas xedavs. zogierT maTgans swams, rom samyaros aRsasruli dadga. sinamdvileSi Cven mxolod zRvasa da xmeleTTan uwindeli damokidebulebis gaqrobis momswreni varT (Smiti 2010:151-152). xmeleTisa da zRvis dapirispirebis mniSvneloba msoflio istoriisTvis, sivrcobrivi revoluciis cneba da misi formebi, evropis roli samyaros axali wesrigis SeqmnaSi, protestantizmisa da kaTolicizmis msoflio masStabis dapirispireba xmeleTisa da zRvis dapirispirebis fonze, saerTaSoriso samarTlis formireba, sivrcis cnebisa da sivrcis, rogorc mesame ganzomilebis analizi - ai, sakiTxTa da problemaTa is farTo speqtri, romelic winamdebare naSromSi karl Smitis geopolitikuri koncefciis arss qmnis. xmeleTi da zRva dapirispirebuli elementebia. erTmaneTTan dapirispirebulni arian avtoqTonuri (xmeleTze mijaWvuli) da
(Hrsg.), Interkulturelle Philosophie, Weimar, 2007, S. 206-231). am gamokvlevaSi h. Snaideri sagangebod ganixilavs herderis, hegelis, Smitisa da vitfogelis Sexedulebebs filosofiuri geografiis poziciebidan da gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs erT-erT umniSvnelovanes geografiul elementze - wyalze. filosofiuri geografiis aqtualur problemebs ganixilavs amave wignSi dabeWdili statiebi: Tengiz iremaZe, interkulturuli filosofiis dafuZnebis warmatebuli cda, ix.: iqve, gv. 14-21; giorgi TavaZe, filosofiuri geografia (mniSvneloba, Tanamedroveoba, perspeqtivebi), ix.: iqve, 22-43. aseve ix. giorgi TavaZe, karl Smitis perspeqtivistuli filosofiuri geografia, ix.: karl Smiti, xmeleTi da zRva, gv. 7-44.


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avtoTalasuri (zRvis stiqiiT ganpirobebuli5) xalxebic. maTTvis ucxoa sivrcisa da drois is warmodgenebi, romelic myari miwis zemoqmedebiTaa Camoyalibebuli. maT xmeleTis Sesaxeb arafris codna ar surdaT, isini arasodes mogzaurobdnen xmeleTze. mTeli maTi arseboba, warmodgenaTa samyaro da ena zRviT iyo ganpirobebuli [...]. miwa maT wminda zRviur arsebobas udebda sazRvars, an, piriqiT, xmeleTis adamianebisTvis am wminda zRvis adamianebis samyaro sruliad sxva, Zalze Znelad misawvdom samyaros warmoadgens (Smiti 2010:50). adamiani xmeleTis arsebaa. miwa misi dedobrivi wiaRia. adamiani miwis Svilia. magram aqve ismis Semdegi kiTxva: nuTu adamianis yofiereba da adamianuri arseba wminda miwieri xasiaTisaa? Smits ainteresebs, Tu ra rols TamaSobs danaCeni elementebi (miwa, wyali, cecxli, haeri). adamianebis Rrma, xSirad gaucnobierebel mogonebebSi. wyali da zRva yoveli cocxali arsebis idumal pirvelmizezad gvevlineba... zRvis usasrulo zedapiris Zalmosileba da momajadoebeli Zala cxadyofs, Tu ratom eZebdnen poetebi, naturfilosofosebi da bunebis mkvlevrebi sicocxlis sawyiss wyalSi (Smiti 2010:48-49). Smits mohyavs citati goeTes faustidan (yovelive wylisagan warmoiqmna, / yvelaferi wyliT suldgmulobs, / okeane, gviwyalobe Seni maradiuli mfarveloba!), xolo Tales mileTelis (Zv. w. 500 w.) Sexedulebas _ yvela arsebulis wylidan warmoSobis Sesaxeb - maradiuls uwodebs (Smiti 2010:49). aRsaniSnavia, rom Smiti oTxi elementis Sesaxeb ionuri filosofiisa da winasokratelebis moZRvrebis erTob saintereso interpretacias gvTavazobs. igi miiCnevs, rom maTi Sexedulebebi dRemde sasicocxlo mniSvnelobisaa da aqve azustebs elementis cnebasac. im elementebs, romelTac Tanamedrove mecniereba ikvlevs, sayovelTaod cnobil oTx pirvelelementTan mxolod saxeli aqvs saerTo (Smiti 2010:51). Tanamedrove azrovneba eWvis qveS ayenebs samyaros pirvelelementis Sesaxeb kiTxvis dasmis legitimurobas. amgvari sawyisebis moZieba faqtobrivad aris ukan dabruneba, ukusvla ganusazRvrelSi (regressus in infinitum). am Teoriul problemaze Smitic miuTiTebs da miiCnevs, rom istoriuli ganazrebis dros am oTxi elementiT SeiZleba SemovifargloT. es elementebi CvenTvis martivi da TvalsaCino saxelebia, saerTo niSnebia, romlebic adamianuri arsebobis gansxvavebul, did SesaZleblobebze miuTiTeben (Smiti 2010:52). saxmeleTo da sazRvao sa
samxreT naxevarsferoSi mdebare kunZulebi: polinezia, kanakebi, melanezia, samoa da sxva (ix. k. Smiti, xmeleTi da zRva, gv. 50).
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xelmwifoebis Sesaxeb Smiti swored am elementebis konteqstSi saubrobs. am elementebidan gamomdinareobs gansazRvrulobebi, anu istoriuli arsebobis xmeleTTan da zRvasTan dakavSirebuli formebi. Tumca es formebi meqanikuri iZulebis xasiaTs ar atarebs, isini adamianis Tavisufali moqmedebisa da gadawyvetilebis Sedegia. mas TviT im elementis arCevac SeuZlia, romelsac sakuTari qmedebebiTa da warmatebebiT Tavisi istoriuli arsebobis axal formas ukavSirebs (Smiti 2010:54); adamiani, miwisa da wylis elementebTan erTad, cecxlisa da haeris elements irCevs (Smiti 2010:149-150). ra aris istoria? - msoflio istoria sazRvao da saxmeleTo saxelmwifoebs Soris dapirispirebis istoriaa (Smiti 2010:54). es dapirispireba, Smitis azriT, Sua saukuneebis ebrauli kabalis mimdevrebma6 gaiazres. msoflio istoria brZolaa veSap leviaTansa da bumberaz behemoTs Soris. veSapi cdilobs behemoTis sasunTqi gzis daxSobas, rac, simbolurad, saxmeleTo saxelmwifosadmi sazRvao saxelmwifos mier warmoebul blokadas naTlad gamoxatavs. msoflio istoriis umniSvnelovanes movlenebs Smiti aqac xmeleTisa da zRvis dapirispirebis fonze ganixilavs. antikuri berZnuli samyaro zRvaosani xalxebis mogzaurobisa da brZolebis Sedegad warmoiSva. tyuilad ki ar iyvnen isini zRvis RmerTis mier aRzrdilni (Smiti 2010:56). aTeni, rogorc sazRvao saxelmwifo, daupirispirda spartas (saxmeleTo saxelmwifos), romi, saxmeleTo saxelmwifo, ebrZoda karTagens, sazRvao saxelmwifos. bizantia sazRvao imperia7 iyo, karlos didis imperia ki saxmeleTo saxelmwifo; Sua saukuneebis qristianul-evropul sivrceSi veneciis sazRvao saxelmwifo (1000-1500 ww.) warmoiSva, romelic sazRvao Zalmosilebis, didi politikis brwyinvale miRwevad da yvela drois ekonomikis araCveulebriv qmnilebad iyo miCneuli. Smitis azriT, es iyo wminda zRviuri arseboba da zRvis elementis sasargeblod miRebuli gadawyvetileba, Tumca adriatikisa da xmelTaSua zRvis auziT SemosazRvruli saxelmwifos masStabebi bevrad viwrovdeba oke
Smiti aq miuTiTebs ebrael filosofosze, isaak abravanelze (1437-1508), romlis naSromidan yvelaze xSirad mohyavT citatebi leviaTanis nadimis istoriuli mniSvnelobis asaxsnelad (Smiti 2010:56). 7 bizantiis, rogorc sazRvao imperiis roli Smitis geopolitikur koncefciaSi axal aRTqmiseul katexonis (muxruWi) cnebas ukavSirdeba. is xom islamuri dapyrobebisagan icavda dasavleT evropasa da italias. amis Sesaxeb ix. Felix Grossheutschi, Carl Schmitt und die Lehre vom Katexon, Berlin, 1996; Gnter Meuter, Der Katexon. Zu Carl Schmitts fundamentalistischer Kritik der Zeit, Berlin, 1994; h. Snaideri, filosofiuri geografia, gv. 75.
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anuri kulturis safexuris ganviTarebasTan erTad. am safexurTan dakavSirebulia istoriuli eqsistenciis xmeleTidan zRvaze gadatana (Snaideri 2010:76). Smitis mizania naTelyos, rom garkveuli xalxebi mTel Tavis istoriul arsebobas zRvas, rogorc gansxvavebul elements, ukavSireben. aq ukve sakmarisi ar iyo axali kontinentebisa da okeaneebis aRmoCena. Smiti gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs axali sazRvao teqnologiebis ganviTarebas; holandielebma, am mimarTulebiT, 14501600 ww., gemTmSeneblobasa da veSapis rewvaSi bevri siaxle danerges. veSapze monadireebis gasaocar simamaces ukavSirebs Smiti okeaneebis axali, usazRvro sivrceebis, zRvis dinebebis da sruteebis, CrdiloeTSi gasasvlelis aRmoCenebs. veSapma adamianebi okeaneSi Seityua da napirze damokidebulebisagan gaaTavisufla. es adamianebi axali, elementuri arsebobis pirmSoebi iyvnen, namdvili zRvis Svilebi (Smiti 2010:75). monadireTa meore tipi - rusebi - bewvze monadireebi iyo. maT cimbiri aRmoaCines da aRmosavleT aziis sazRvrebamde miaRwies. cnobilia, rom, mogvianebiT, am teritoriebidan axali saxelmwifoebi warmoiSva. axali tipis sabrZolo xomaldebis SeqmnasTan erTad, sazRvao omebis axali epoqa iwyeba. es, Smitis azriT, evoluciebis axali, maRali xelovnebaa8. axali samyaros aRmoCenaSi Smiti gamoarCevs dasavleT da centraluri evropis xalxTa rols. am saerTo warmatebam ganapiroba evropelTa gabatoneba msoflioze (Smiti 2010:78). ra iyo am warmatebebis safuZveli? italielebis mier kompasis srulyofa da sazRvao rukebis Sedgena, kolumbisa da toskanelis nebisyofa amerikis aRmoCenisas, portugalielebisa da espanelebis pirveli didi eqspediciebi dedamiwis garSemo, germaneli astronomebisa da geografebis roli samyaros axali suraTis CamoyalibebaSi (valtcemiulerma Seqmna amerika, velzeris kolonialuri wamowyeba), holandielTa pirveloba veSapis Werasa da gemTmSeneblobaSi, safrangeTis ekonomikuri siZliere da atlantikis sanapiroze mcxovrebi mosaxleobis zRvaosnuri suli da inglisis mier sruliad gansxvavebuli elementuri cvlileba - Tavisi arsebobis xmeleTidan zRvis stiqiaze gadatana
Smiti aRniSnavs pirveli samecniero gamokvlevebis mniSvnelobas sazRvao taqtikis Sesaxeb. kerZod, igi asaxelebs frangi iezuiti mRvdlis, pol ostis naSroms (sazRvao Zalebis xelovneba, anu traqtati sazRvao manevrebis Sesaxeb), romelic 1697 w. gamoica lionSi da ingliseli klerk eldinis Txzulebas (esse sazRvao taqtikis Sesaxeb, 1782) (Smiti 2010:77).
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(Smiti 2010:95). Smiti CamoTvlis da afasebs zRvis amqafeblebis (mekobreebi, korsarebi, sazRvao vaWrobiT dakavebuli avantiuristebi, veSapze monadireebi da mezRvaurebi) rols zRvis stiqiisken mibrunebaSi da maT zRvis Svilebis axal, mamac, gambedav saxeobas miakuTvnebs. evropuli saxelmwifo sistemis konsolidacias (1713 w. utrextis zavis Semdgom) Smiti sazRvao saxlmwifoebis sabrZolo flotebis mier realuri kontrolis ganxorcielebas ukavSirebs da axali wesrigis damyarebaze miuTiTebs _ esaa zRvaze damyarebuli msoflio batonoba inglisis imperiis saxiT (Smiti 2010:84). karl Smits Semoaqvs sivrcobrivi revoluciis cneba da mas sivrcis cnebas ukavSirebs. adamianis axali energiebis gamoTavisuflebis Sedegad, axali miwebisa da zRvebis aRmoCenasTan erTad icvleba istoriuli arsebobis sivrceebic. cvlilebebi ara mxolod adamianTa horizontis, mecnierebebis, ganzomilebebis, aramed TviT sivrcis cnebis cvlilebebsac iwvevs. yovel did istoriul cvlilebas, roca sivrcis cnebis cvlileba safuZvlad edeba politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul cvlilebebs, Smiti sivrcobriv revolucias uwodebs (Smiti 2010:97-98). am sayovelTao faqtis dasabuTebas Smiti sami didi istoriuli magaliTis moSveliebiT cdilobs; esenia: aleqsandre didis dapyrobebi, romis imperia da jvarosnuli laSqrobebis mniSvneloba evropisTvis. aleqsandre didis dapyrobiTma omebma elinizmis kultura da xelovneba warmoqmna; Smiti aanalizebs am periodis miRwevebs: aristarqe samoselis (Zv. w. 310-230 ww.) azri, rom mze uZravi varskvlavia da dedamiwa mis irgvliv moZraobs, udidesi aRmoCenebi teqnikis, maTematikis da fizikis sferoSi, aleqsandriis biblioTekis xelmZRvanelis eratosTenes ( Zv. w. 275-195 ww.) mier kopernikis moZRvrebis winaswari monaxazi (Smiti 2010:99). romis imperiis Seqmna pirveli nabiji iyo Tanamedrove evropis Seqmnis gzaze. es iyo didi sivrce - espaneTidan sparseTamde da inglisidan egviptemde. sivrcis am gafarToebis dokumenturi dadasturebaa strabonis geografia da agripas ruka. mas ukavSirdeba drois, sivrcisa da planetaruli horizontis sisavsis SegrZneba. Smitis geopolitikuri refleqsiis sagani xdeba senekas gasaocari winaswarmetyveleba axali samyaros (novus orbis)9 Sesaxeb, romelic 1492 w. ax
tragediaSi medea seneka ambobs: cxeli indi da civi araqsi erTmaneTs exeba, / sparselebi elbisa da rainis wyals svamen, / Tetisi axal samyaroebs axdis saburvels, tule metad aRar iqneba dedamiwis bolo sazRvari (Smiti 2010:101).
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lad aRmoCenil amerikas miuyenes. es fraza, misi azriT, saidumloebiT moculi xidia axal drosa da aRmoCenebis saukuneSi; am sityvebma moazrovne adamianebs didi sivrcisa da yovlismomcveli samyaros SegrZneba Caunerges (Smiti 2010:102). romis imperiis dacemas, islamis gavrcelebas, arabebisa da Turqebis Semosevebs evropis sivrcobrivi cnobierebis gabundovaneba da evropis meCeCze Sejdoma mohyva (Smiti 2010:103). karl Smitis sagangebo ganxilvis sagania jvarosnuli laSqrobebis gavlena evropaze: mas mohyva axlo aRmosavleTis gacnoba, satransporto-savaWro sistemebis Seqmna (Sua saukuneebis msoflio ekonomika), politikuri cxovrebis axali formebis, qalaquri kulturisa da universitetebis ganviTareba, romis samarTlis aRorZineba, axali ganaTlebuli fenis, iuristebis warmoqmna; amasTan, goTikuri xelovneba iqca sivrcis gardamqmneli Zalis da moZraobis axali ritmis gamoxatulebad (Smiti 2010:104). Smitis azriT, pirveli planetaruli sivrcobrivi revolucia amerikis aRmoCena da dedamiwis garSemovlaa. man kacobriobis saerTo cnobiereba Secvala. am droidan mzis sitemis Sesaxeb warmodgenebi icvleba da myari uZravi dedamiwa mzis irgvliv moZrav planetad iqca. galileis, kepleris, niutonis aRmoCenebma Secvala sivrcis warmodgena da SesaZlebeli gaxada usasrulo, carieli sivrcis warmodgena. dasavluri racionalizmi da evropuli suli am periodidan Seferxebulad miiwevs win. k. Smitis geopolitikuri koncefciaSi sagangebo ganxilvis sagania axali samyaros kolonizacia evropelTa mier10. dedamiwis zedapirze nebismieri mniSvnelovani cvlileba da gardaqmna msoflio-politikur cvlilebebTan da dedamiwis axal danawilebasTan (kolonizaciasTan) aris dakavSirebuli (Smiti 2010:113). yoveli didi epoqa, misi azriT, kolonizaciiT iwyeba. XVI-XVII saukuneebis gasaocar sivrcobriv revolucias aucileblobiT unda mohyoloda aseTive gasaocari da umagaliTo kolonizacia. kaTolike da protestanti kolonizatorebis mier Tavdapirvelad qristianobis, mogvianebiT ki, evropuli civilizaciis gavrcelebis gamarTlebis safuZvelze warmoiqmna qristianul-evropuli saerTaSoriso samarTali. saerTaSoriso samarTlis warmoSoba evropis qristiani xalxebis erTobliobas usvamda xazs. am xalxTa erTianoba qmnida saxelmwifoTa Soris wesrigs, erTa ojaxs. samrewvelo ganviTareba, teqnikis, eleqtroteqnikisa da eleq
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ix. k. Smiti, xmeleTi da zRva..., gv. 112-120.

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trodinamikis, aviaciis miRwevebi sruliad Secvlis adamianis sivrcobriv warmodgenas. am cvlilebebs Smiti axal sivrcobriv revolucias ukavSirebs. adamianis mimarTeba zRvis stiqionTan kvlav radikalurad Seicvala. adamianma, xmeleTisa da zRvis Semdeg, mesame ganzomileba, mesame elementi - cecxli - daipyro. Sesabamisad, Seicvala da gafarTovda bunebaze batonobis SesaZleblobebi; samxedro-sahaero Zalebis sivrcobrivi iaraRis gavlena yvelaze Zlieri da TvalSisacemia. teqnikuri saSualebebi da adamianis batonoba sahaero sivrceSi naTels xdis, rom cecxlia adamianuri aqtivobis axali elementi. dRes sivrce adamianuri energiis, aqtiurobis da miRwevebis asparezad iqca. zRvis sivrcobrivma cnebamac ganicada cvalebadoba. Tanamedrove satransporto da kavSirgabmulobis teqnikam SesaZlebeli gaxada okeanisa da zRvis samyaros nebismieri wertilis uswrafesi kontroli, riTac safuZveli ecleba zRvisa da xmeleTis dapirispirebas; amis Sesabamisad icvleba dedamiwis adrindeli nomosi. mis nacvlad ki ganuwyvetliv da Seuferxeblad izrdeba Cveni planetis axali wesrigi da icvleba adamianTa damokidebulebebic Zveli da axali elementebis mimarT (Smiti 2010:151). adamianis SiSi siaxlisadmi xSirad iseTive didia, rogorc misi SiSi sicarielis winaSe... amitom bevri mxolod qaoss xedavs iq, sadac sinamdvileSi axali sazrisi brZoliT ikafavs gzas axali wesrigis dasamyareblad. ra Tqma unda, Zveli nomosi qreba da masTan erTad uCinardeba memkvidreobiT miRebuli zomebis, normebisa da mimarTebebis mTeli sistema. magram mis adgils araTanabarzomiereba da nomosisadmi mtrulad ganwyobili arara rodi ikavebs. TviT Zveli da axali Zalebis sastik brZolaSic warmoiSoba marTebuli sidideebi da Tanabarzomieri proporciebi (Smiti 2010:152). karl Smitis msoflio-istoriuli ganazrebebi momavlis azrovnebis gasagebad mdidar konceptualur masalas gvTavazobs. man Tanamedrove sazogadoebis, mrewvelobisa da ekonomikis, mecnierebisa da kulturis adekvaturad dasaxasiaTeblad wyali/zRva wamoswia wina planze; masTan xmeleTisa da zRvis dapirispireba erTgvari planetaruli kanonis saxes iZens. xmeleTi da zRva globaluri azrovnebis manifestad imitomac SeiZleba miviCnioT, rom is axleburad gansazRvravs adamianis adgils kosmosSi. Smitis azriT, adamianis Tavisuflebis masStabebi usazRvroa, Tumca man Tavis Tavze unda aiRos mTeli pasuxismgebloba da mocemul geografiul mudmivebTan sruliad axali mimarTeba unda Camoayalibos. es ki, Tavis mxriv, adamianis cnobierebis ganaxlebas da transformacias gamoiwvevs. amgvarad ganaxlebuli adamianuri cnobiereba SeZlebs ki axali msoflio wesrigis (nomosis) Seqmnas.


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literatura 1. ieki, udo rainhold: ganazrebani qarTuli filosofiis Sesaxeb, germanulidan Targmna lali zaqaraZem, nekeri, Tbilisi, 2010. iremaZe, Tengiz: interkulturuli filosofiis dafuZnebis warmatebuli cda // h. Snaideri, filosofiuri geografia, germanulidan Targmna giorgi TavaZem, nekeri, Tbilisi 2010, gv. 14-21. raTcingeri, iozef: imis Sesaxeb, rac msoflios kravs. Tavisufali saxelmwifos winapolitikur-moraluri safuZvlebi // Tanamedrove sazogadoebis gamowveva, germanulidan Targmna giorgi baramiZem, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2010, gv. 57-87. Smiti, karl: xmeleTi da zRva. msoflio-istoriuli ganazreba, germanulidan Targmna giorgi TavaZem, nekeri, Tbilisi 2010. Snaideri, helmut: filosofiuri geografia: wylis mniSvneloba istoriisaTvis - evropa da azia // h. Snaideri, filosofiuri geografia, germanulidan Targmna giorgi TavaZem, nekeri, Tbilisi 2010, gv. 44-113. habermasi, iurgen: demokratiuli samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos winapolitikuri wanamZRvrebi // Tanamedrove sazogadoebis gamowveva, germanulidan Targmna giorgi baramiZem, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2010, gv. 17-56. Grossheutschi, Felix: Carl Schmitt und die Lehre vom Katexon, Berlin, 1996. Knodt, Reinhard: Der Nomos der Erde. Eine Betrachtung zum Raumbegriff bei Carl Schmitt, in: Philosophisches Jahrbuch, 98/2 (1991), S. 321-333. Mannheim, Karl: Strukturen des Denkens. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp 1980. Meuter, Gnter: Der Katexon. Zu Carl Schmitts fundamentalistischer Kritik der Zeit, Berlin, 1994. Ottmann, Henning: Carl Schmitt, in: Politische Philosophie des 20. Jh.s, Hg. H.O./K. G. Ballestrem, Mnchen, 1990, S. 61-87. Ottmann, Henning: Carl Schmitt, in: F. Volpi (Hrsg.), Groes Werklexikon der Philosophie, Bd. II, Stuttgart 2004, S.13581362.

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe

zRvis miTosi: semiotika da poetika statia-leqsikoni


winaTqma Tu ki raime Zalian hgavs miTs Tavisi struqturiT da Sida dinebebiT, es aris leqsikoni. leqsikons mkveTrad gansazRvruli, Tanmimdevruli da organizebuli struqtura aqvs _ igi anbanuri rigiT alagebs asaxsnel sityvebs. magram misi Tanmimdevruloba pirobiTi da moCvenebiTia, igi ufro mozaikur princips eqvemdebareba, romlis TiToeuli umciresi nawilic ki nebismier dros da nebismieri mimarTulebiT SeiZleba gadaadgildes, ise, rom ar dairRves wesrigi - `leqsikuri kosmosi~. `leqsikur kosmoss~, rogorc erT konkretul `kosmiur sxeuls~ Tavisi dro da sivrce aqvs, romelic, erTi mxriv, mdinaria da droSi Seqcevadi roca anbanur rigs mihyveba, magram sakmarisia leqsikonis funqcionaluri, miznobrivi amoqmedeba(anu leqsikonis romelime gverdze CvenTvis saWiro sityvis ganmartebis moZieba) da im wuTidan igi drosa da sivrceSi Seuqcevadi xdeba, radgan igi gamodis drois mdinarebidan da ara-drosa da ara-sivrceSi gadasvliT axal zekosmiur wesrigs

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; baTumis niko berZeniSvilis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `miTologiuri gadmocemebi aWaraSi(weraqveTas miTi, ukvdavebis maZiebeli luymani)~ (baT. 2001); `aWaruli samonadireo miTosi~ (baT. 2004); gamoqveynebuli aqvs statiebi qarTul miTo-ritualur, miTo-sociogoniur sakiTxebze. mxatvruli proza: `Samani da dedofali~ (2007); `HOMO TATUS~ (2008). interesTa sfero: semiotika, miTis poetika, arqaul kulturaTa kvlevebi, analizuri fsiqologia.


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iZens. yvelaferi es leqsikonis struqturas anaTesavebs miTis struqturasTan, romelic erTsa da imave dros droSi Seqcevadi da Seuqcevadia da sadac warsulze Txroba Tanabrad xsnis awmyos da momavals; sadac momavali gansazRvravs warsuls. amasTan, miTSi dgeba iseTi wuTebi(`Jami~), da es `Jami~ miTisTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania, roca igi kargavs droisa da sivrcis ganzomilebebs da aradroSi gasuli _ maradisobas erwymis. Cven erTad SevkribeT yvela is mcire Tu didi statia, calkeuli dakvirvebebi da asociaciebi, romlebic erTi konkretuli TematikiT aris urTierTSekavSirebuli. es aris zRvis miTosis statia-leqsikoni, romelic ra Tqma unda, erTi publikaciis farglebSi ver iqneba amomwuravi, magram iqneba erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani mimarTulebiT gaxnili kosmogonia aris is mTavari mamoZravebeli ontologiuri sazrisi, romelSic yvelaze farTod da yvelaze Rrmad ixsneba zRvis miTosuri buneba. Cveni statia-leqsikonic, rogorc nebismieri leqsikoni, SegiZliaT waikiTxoT nebismieri wertilidan, amiT arc azri Seicvleba da arc logikuri wesrigi dairRveva. igi miTis sivrcis farglebSi trialebs da mxolod maSin tovebs am sivrcisa da drois sazRvrebs, roca Tavad miTosi gadis drois mdinarebidan.

`asasa~ _ mebaduris magiuri SeZaxili, romelic zRvis/wylis


RvTaebas larsas ukavSirdeba. z.Tandilava fiqrobs, rom `asasa~ unda momdinareobdes ricxviTi saxelidan `asi~, rasac adasturebs monadirisa Tu meTevzis misalmebis megruli tradicia: `oSi, oSi!~... `asi, asi!~ e.i. bevri dageWiros(Tandilava 1996: 133) termini samonadireo wes-CveulebebSi dadasturebuli `monadiris saidumlo enis~ Semadgenel leqsikur erTeulad unda CaiTvalos. `asasa~-s mebaduri saTevzaod gasvlidan pirveli Tevzis daWeris momentSi warmoTqvams. magiur sityvas Tan axlavs Sesawiravis miZRvnis rituali: meTevzem wylis piras, buCqebSi, RviniT savse WinWila unda daudgas wminda larsas, romelic yvelafris gamgebelia wyalSi da mis zedapirze. larsa meTevze-mezRvaurTa mfarveli RvTaebaa, romelic maTgan samsaxurs moiTxovs. amitom xvewna-vedrebis Semdeg daWeril pirvel Tevzs an Tevzebis garkveul nawils isev wyalSi uSveben `wylis meufis~ wilad. meTevzeoba, iseve, rogorc nadiroba, am sferoSi arsebuli safrTxidan gamomdinare, dawyevlil saqmianobad iyo miCneuli. xalxur leqsSi gacxadebulia monadiris, meTevzisa da xuros

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`dawyevlili~ mdgomareoba: ar aSenda xuros saxli, arca monadirisao, erTi dRiT adre deivso meTevz-mebadurisao~. (TavdgiriZe 20004:11-12; Tandilava1996: 11-12.) bunebasTan pirispir darCenili adamiani safrTxis Semsubuqebas magiuri saSualebebiT, tabus SemoRebiTa da misi dacviT, wylis RvTaebisadmi RvTismsaxurebiT cdilobda. yovelive es ki mowmobs Zvel qarTul istoriul sinamdvileSi kargad ganviTarebuli sazRvao-sanaosno tradiciisa da kulturis arsebobas. b

basili//grigol zRvisa _ Tavdapirvelad, zRvis, dasabamiseuli qaosuri wylebis, RmerTi unda yofiliyo, rac misi epiTetidanac (`zRvisa~) Cans. `basilas~ svanur ritualur kverze aRbeWdili RvTaebis grafikuli gamosaxuleba farTod gaSlili xelebi da fexebi, aseve maqsimalurad gaSlili xelisa da fexis TiTebi, xolo odnav gverdze gadaxrili sxeuli, romelic wriuli brunvis dinamikas qmnis da amoZravebisas samyaros garSemo wres Semoxazavs, riTac samyaros `maradiuli brunvis~ (cikluroba) simboluri xati iqmneba, _ yvelaferi es cxadad mianiSnebs `basilas~ yovlis meufebas sruliad samyaroze wyalsa da xmeleTze. basili//grigol zRvisas qristianuli zegavleniT saxelcvlilebis miuxedavad (qristianul wmindanTa saxelebi basili, vasili, grigol), rogorc saxelwodebaSi _ `zRvisa~, ise funqciebSi, SenarCunda uZvelesi kosmogoniuri plasti. imereTsa da samegreloSi grigol zRvisas, iseve rogorc mdinaris wylis RvTebas _ larsas, Cveulebriv mimarTaven mebadurebi da meTevzeoba-zRvaosnobaSi Sewevnas SesTxoven: `grigol zRvisa, wminda larsa, Sen Semewie~// `grigol zRvisa, wmin da larsa, Tebzi momeci wyli*,,basilas ritualuri kveri. sa~(Tandilava1996:133). warmarTuli tradiciis kvalze qristianuli wmindani `zRvis mcvelad~ iwodeba me-12 saukunis hamamlus (dmanisis r-ni) eklesis kedlis oTxstriqonian qaragmul


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warweraSi: `wmidai grigol zRvisa mcveli~(Tandilava 1996: 135). svanur warmarTul panTeonSi basili//grigol zRvisa (`girgol baci ZuRua kalandaSi~) `wlis Semcvleli RmerTis~ da `basil zRvis kalandis~ saxeliT Semodis da saaxalwlo (kalandis) wes-Cveulebebs ukavSirdeba. mas `yvela RmerTis wyalobis moniWebas~ SesTxoven. v. bardaveliZis gamokvleviT, `wlis Semcvleli RmerTis~ da `basili zRvis kalandis~ saxeliT svanur axalweliwadSi didi RmerTi anu fusnabuasdia igulisxmeba (bardaveliZe 1953: 110). svaneTSi, javaxeTsa da sxvagan basil/grigol zRvisas zoomorfuli atributi xaria. es savsebiT bunebrivia, radgan kosmosis uzenaesi RmerTis zoomorful ipostasad qaosis urCxulTan mebrZoli xari gvevlineba, rac siuJeturadac dasturdeba gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis miTosSi. basili//grigol zRvisa, rogorc qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis uzenaesi RvTaeba, vidre `zRvis mxvnel~ kosmiur xarad gadaiqceoda, Tavad unda yofiliyo qaosuri pirvelstiqiis ganmasaxierebeli Zala. SesaZloa, misi Tavdapirveli saxeli yofiliyo `eli~, radgan qarTul kosmogoniaSi zRvis stiqiis gamgebel qaosis RmerTad `els~ vvaraudobT (ix. `zRvis moxvna-moTesva~). g gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis miTosi _ kosmogoniuri miTosi; Sesaqmis Teriomorfuli modeli. saqarTveloSi mravalvariantad gavrcelebuli gveleSapisa da xaris (//wylis kurosa da xmeleTis kuros) brZolis siuJeti, sadac, iseve, rogorc msoflios mraval miTologiaSi, qaosisa da kosmosis dapirispireba zoomorfuli miTiuri personaJebis orTabrZoliT aris gadmocemuli. miTosi mogviTxrobs xarze, romelsac patroni (patroni zogjer wm.giorgia) yovel diliT saZovarze uSvebs, saidanac xari nabrZoli, dasisxlianebuli da mSier-mwyurvali brundeba. ambis gasagebad xaris patroni farulad kvalSi mihyveba Tavis pirutyvs, romelic erT tbasTan//zRvasTan (ix.`zRvis nawyveti~) midis, saidanac ZaxiliT (`daikivanebs~) ixmobs tbis gveleSaps. tbidan uzarmazari gveleSapi amodis, isini erTmaneTs eWidebian, magram gveleSapi Zlevs da damarcxebuli da dasisxlianebuli xari Sin brundeba. amis Semdeg xaris patroni gamoWedavs almasis (//spilenZis) rqebs da Tavis xars rqebze aasxams. amjerad xari daamarcxebs gveleSaps, almasis rqebze wamoagebs. daWrili gveleSapi tbidan amodis da ikargeba, mis kvals mihyveba tbis wyalic, sadac amieridan xmeleTi da sicocxle Cndeba. niSandoblivia, rom gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis siuJets sxvadasxvagvari dasasruli aqvs.KTqmulebaTa erTi nawili Sesaqmi-

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seulia, kosmosi imarjvebs qaosze da wylisagan gaTavisuflebul teritoriaze sicocxle Cndeba; KTqmulebaTa meore nawili esqatologiuria, mas meorenairad ~mcire warRvnis~ ciklsac uwodeben da sruliad sapirispiro finali gaaCnia: gamarjvebuli aqac xmeleTis xaria, magram momakvdavi gveleSapis ukanaskneli ZalisxmeviT tba skdeba, gadmoivlis da mTel sofels (mikrokosmosi) wyliT faravs (aWaruli Tqmulebebi vernebze); dasturdeba mesame siuJeturi rkalic: xaris mier gveleSapis damarcxeba xalxs ixsnis mosalodneli warRvnisagan (erwo-TianeTis, duSeTisa da Silduri variantebi). erTi da imave siuJetis ormagi urTierTsapirispiro semantika, erT SemTxvevaSi Sesaqme, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi esqatologia, efuZneba miTis `maradiuli brunvisa~ da `sikvdil-sicocxlis~//`dasabam-dasasrulis~ saerTo warmomavlobis miTosur msoflmxedvelobas. gveleSapisa da xaris miTosis esqatologiuri sawyisis warmosaCenad niSandoblivia miTis is aWaruli variantebi, sadac `gveleSapis tbebi~ warRvnisdroindel movlenebs ukavSirdeba. am variantebis mixedviT, mariliani tbebi, romlebic `zRvis narCenebia~, warRvnis wylis dawretis Semdeg SerCa kldeebs, xolo iqve kldeze gamobmul jaWvebze im Zveli drois gemebs abamdnen (aseTi gadmocemebi ukavSirdeba Suaxevis r-nSi sanaliis mTas, agreTve, WaxaTis adgils, xinos da gvancas mTas). gveleSapic warRvnisdroindeli personaJia, romelic `zRvis narCenSi~ darCa pirvelarsebuli qaoturi stiqiis zoomorful gansaxovnebad: `qveyana rum deiqca, darCa erTi zRvis nawyveti sarbielze, xinos mTaze. am zRvis nawyvetidan gamodioda erTi gveleSapi, dabali da suqani. mas qonda patara Zvalis rqebi. Rone auarebeli meti qonda am gveleSaps. . .~ gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis kosmogoniuri miTosis statikuri variacia, rogorc samyaros wyobis modeli, warmoCenilia miTologemaSi _ `dedamiwa xaris rqaze~. `girgol baci ZuRua kalandaSi~(svanuri) _ ix. `basili//grigol zRvisa~ d `dedamiwa xaris rqaze~ _ samyaros kosmogoniuri miTologema, romelic samstriqonian statikur kosmogoniur miToss warmoadgens. `samyaros statikuri struqtura warmoiSva kosmogoniur miTSi, rogorc demiurgis moRvaweobis dinamiuri procesis produqti~ (nekludovi 1975: 183). qarTuli kosmogoniuri miTosi ase gamoiyureba: `dedamiwa xaris rqaze dgaso, ityodnen Zvelebi, mere


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is xaric dgas Tevzeo, Tevzic dgas wyalzeo~ (bskifa, #176, 1972: 4). frazeologiurad kidev ufro dawurulia am miTosis poeturi varianti: `qveyana xarze dgaso, xari Tevze dgaso, Tevzi wyalze dgaso~ (bskifa,#175,1972: 32). samyaros wyobis samwevriani zoomorfuli modeli: xariTevziwyali _ Sesaqmis gavrcelebuli siuJetis _ gveleSapisa da xaris, rogorc qaosisa da kosmosis maradiuli orTabrZolis miTosis, statikur variacias warmoadgens, sadac xari-kosmosi ebrZvis did Tevzs-leviaTans, imave qaosis `zRvis urCxuls~ gveleSaps; wyali ki is neitraluri stiqiaa, romelic erTdroulad qaosis da kosmosis substanciebs moicavs. am samstriqoniani kosmogoniuri miTosis prozauli variantis personaJi calrqa-xaria (mis erTaderT rqazea damyarebuli samyaro, radgan meore rqa ar figurirebs), romelic `suleTis~ ciklis miTosidan aris cnobili. igi wylebian qvesknelSi damkvidrebuli cal-rqa xaria: `suleTs xari xnavs cala-rqa, baraqa mestumreTia....~. `suleTis~ ciklSi cal-rqa xari Tumca miTosisagan mowyvetiT, ukonteqstod figurirebs, misi genezisis dakavSireba kosmogoniur movlenebTan logikurad gamoiyureba: cali rqa gveleSapTan (qaosTan) brZolaSi Cans dakarguli, Tavad xari ki _ Sesaqmes, kosmogonias aris msxverplSewiruli. msxverplSewirva Sesaqmis aucilebeli elementia. qarTul miTologiur-ritualur sivrceSi dasturdeba xaris TviTmsxverplSewirva (`nebiTi msxverpli~), iloris wm. giorgis eklesiaSi yovel giorgobas (23 noembers) saidanRac modis rCeuli xari da eklesiasTan wveba, romelsac wm. giorgis, anu Tavis patrons swiraven, rac Cveni azriT, kosmogoniuri miTis Sesabamisi rituali unda iyos. msxverplSewirvis Semdeg cal-rqa xari qvesknelSi, suleTSi mkvidrdeba, sadac kvlavac ganagrZobs Tavis demiurgul moRvaweobas: darCenili cali rqiT qaosur zRvas erkineba/xnavs (`wiTel xuces xari gaeba, zRvas xnavda, qviSas Tesavda~ (ix. `zRvis moxvna-moTesva~), rac erTxel, sawyis droSi, kosmogoniisas ganuxorcielebia. `dece(S)-gim~ (svanuri) _ kosmogoniuri miTologema, samyaros Suaguli, cisa da miwis Sesayari, romliTac gamoxatulia cisa da miwis kavSiri. termini Seesabameba Suamdinarul `dur-an-qi~-s. `an~-cas, xolo `qi~ miwas, `dur~ ki maT kavSirs niSnavs. `aq aris samyaros Wipi, _ sityva `dur~ `kavSiris~ garda `Wipsac~ niSnavs, an `Wipis nawlevs~ igive omfalos an mesomfalon. am kosmiur SuagulSi gadis `didi RerZi~, Sum. dim-gal, cisa da miwis SemaerTe-

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beli, anu `grZeli RerZi~ (kiknaZe 2006: 155). svanuri `deceS-gim~, romlis pirveli nawili `dece(S)~ cas da `gim~ miwas niSnavs, es kosmogoniuri miTologema gansakuTrebiT imiT aris mniSvnelovani, rom gim//miwa, miwasTan erTad miwisqveSa wylebsac(//qvesknelis zRvebs) moiazrebs, riTac erTi mxriv, jerac ganucalkevebeli, mTliani qaosuri samyaros kosmiuri suraTi ixateba, xolo meore mxriv, gamoxatavs ukve mowesrigebul samyaroSi kosmosSi samyaros RerZis fesvebis pirvelarsebuli zRvis//okeanis wiaRidan amozrdas. miwa wylis wilad aris gamocxadebuli kvirias svanur sagalobelSi: `mze cisa, kviria, miwav wylisa, kviria...~(oniani 1969:65). miwisqveSa wylebis miwasTan ganucalkevobis idea yvelaze arqauli kosmogoniuri cnobierebis anareklia. z zRvis qali da zRvis kaci _ pirveli kosmiuri wyvili, qaotur zRvis stiqiaSi arsebuli da amave stiqiis _ mlaSe da mtknari wylebis _ anTropomorfuli gansaxovnebani; Seesabamebian Suamdinaruli miTologiis abzus da TiamaTs. megrul miTosSi zRvis qals da zRvis kacs mesefebi Seesabameba, romelTac nadirTRvTaebis funqciebi SeiZines. mesefebi, iseve rogorc zRvis qali da zRvis kaci, mTel weliwads zRvaSi atareben da mxolod erTi kviriT (28 oqtombridan 3 noembramde) _ `mesefalas~ periodSi amodian wylidan. isini drois mxolod am mcire monakveTSi asruleben nadirTRvTaebis funqcias. z.Tandilavas gamokvleviT, mesefi genezisiT zRvis RvTaebaa, wylis stiqiis ganmasaxierebeli miTologiuri personaJi, xolo nadirTRvTaebis funqciebi man sakmaod gvian SeiZina (Tandilava 1996: 110). aWaruli miTosi mesefebis _ zRvis qalis da zRvis kacis gacilebiT arqaul saxes inaxavs. miuxedavad imisa, rom xmeleTze erTkviriani amosvlis motivi aWaruli teqstebisTvisac niSandoblivia, am miTiur personaJTa samonadireo funqciebi arsad dasturdeba. vfiqrobT, rom xmeleTze amosvlis epizodic gviandeli movlena unda iyos, miT ufro, rom gvaqvs miTis iseTi aWaruli variantebi, romlebic msgavs motivs saerTod ar icnobs. movusminoT miTs: `aris zRvis kaci da zRvis qali. zRvaSi yvelaferia, rac xmeleTzea.zRvis qali naxevari Tebzia, naxevari adamiani, welqveiT (mkerdqveiT) Tebzia. xmeleTze ar gamodis. wylis kacic asea _ welqveiT Tebzia. arc igi gamodis xmeleTze.~ (bskifa, #188, 1974 w. gv.109).


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`zRvis moxvna-moTesva~ _ kosmogoniuri miTologema; Sesaqmis miTis metaforul-ritualuri variacia, romelic qarTul magiur poeziaSi wiTeli xucesis mier guTanSi Sebmuli xariT zRvis moxvna-moTesvis ritualuri aqtiT dasturdeba. msgavsi rituali _ `wylis moxvnis wesis~ saxelwodebiT _ agreTve dadasturebulia tarosis marTvis magiur ritualebSic, es gulisxmobs qalebis guTanSi Sebmas da guTnis mdinareSi tarebas, ise rom guTani da qalebi dasveldnen (kalendari 1991: 98). `zRvis moxvna-moTesvis~ siuJeti gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis miToss enaTesaveba. zRva, gveleSapi, xari da xaris patroni, romelic Tavis pirutyvs spilenZis (almasis, rkinis) rqebs gamouWedavs, Sesaqmis, kosmogoniuri miTosis ucvleli personaJebi arian. xaris patroni zogjer ubralo mokvdavia,zogjer ki RvTaebrivi arseba (kaxur TqmulebaSi _ boWormis wm. giorgi). qaotur zRvasTan brZolis kosmogoniur suraTs gvixatavs qarTuli Selocvebis erTi cikli. magiuri poeziis amgvar nimuSebSi qarTuli Sesaqmis, kosmogoniis miTo-ritualuri modelia gadmocemuli. qaotur zRvas aqac xari da misi RvTaebrivi patroni upirispirdeba: `eli elavda, qviSa Relavda, zRva fofinebda. wiTel xucess xari gaeba, zRvas xnavda, qviSas sTesavda. vis gagonia, vis moswria zRva xnuli, qviSa Tesuli~ (Selocvebi 1994: 105) Selocvis aWarul variantSi `wiTel xucess~ `wiTeli xoja~ enacvleba (asmxf., #674,1977:21), riTac teqstSi arsebiTad araferi icvleba. religiur-saRvTismsaxuro miTosur-semantikuri aspeqti xaris patronis RvTaebrivi, demiurguli warmomavlobis mauwyebelia. RvTaebrivi xucesis, `papis~ pirvelarsebuli oqros guTniT zRvis xvna-Tesvis miTologema desakralizebul xalxur leqsSic gaiJRerebs: `papis oqros guTano, zRvaSi naxnav-naTeso (poezia 1972: 132) `papa~, `wiTeli xucesi~ (`wiTeli xoja~) miTiuri drois pirvelkacia. igi Suasknelis, xmeleTis, kosmosis saxea, razec misi Seferiloba _ wiTeli feri migvaniSnebs. pirvelkaci-xucesis moRvaweoba miTiur droSi mimarTulia qaosis kosmosad gardasaqmnelad: kosmiuri xariT (cal-rqa) da oqros guTniT qaoturi wylis moxvna-daTesva wylis xmeleTad gadaqcevis momaswavebelia. `wiTeli xucesi~ kosmosis pirveli warmomadgenelia, marduqiviT (babilonuri kosmogonia) kuros epoqis naSieria da Tavadac qaosTan, gve-

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leSapTan mebrZol kosmiur xars ganasaxierebs. `eli elavda, qviSa Relavda, zRva fofinebda~ _ am striqonebiT samyaros Tavdapirveli qaoturi mdgomareobis kosmogoniuri suraTia gadmocemuli: roca `eli~ elavs da bunebis sxvadasxva stiqiebs (qariSxals, zRvas) amZvinvarebs, aboboqrebs. amgvari kosmogoniuri warmodgena, romlis mniSvnelobac dRes ukve daviwyebulia da `damwvris~ Selocvis Tavformulad aris qceuli, TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloSia dadasturebuli: `eli elavda, zRva pipinebda~(aWara).. (asmxf #543, 1966: 3); `eli elavda, zRva bibinebda~ (xevi). (Selocvebi 1994: 103-106); `eli elavda, meli melavda, zRva SiSinobda, zRva fofinobda~(raWa). (iqve); `eli elavda, meli melobda, zRva SiSinebda, zRva fofinebda~(svaneTi). (iqve); `eli elavda, meli melobda~ (imereTi). (iqve). vin aris `eli~, romelic Selocvis mraval variantSi qaosis mZvinvarebis gamomxatveli kosmogoniuri miTosis mudmivi monawilea? zogierT kavkasiur tomSi (mag. CeCen-inguSebSi) miwisqveSeTs `eli~ ewodeba, xolo Tavad RvTaebas _ `el-da~. es saxeli, rogorc Cans, xTonur sawyiss ukavSirdeba. aRniSnuli kosmogoniuri magiuri teqstebis TavstriqonSi Cven nacnobi qarTuli RvTaebis ucnob, ufro zustad, miviwyebul funqcias vxedavT. elis arqauli xati dakarguli Cans qarTul miTologiaSi, raki igi uZvelesi droidanve tarosis RvTaeba eliad unda gardaqmniliyo, xolo qaosis RmerTis Tvisebebi _ bunebis stiqiebis marTva, rogorc tarosis RmerTisTvisac Tvisobrivi, mis centralur funqciad darCa. tarosis _ stiqiaTaA marTvis funqcia elisaTvis sawyisi funqciis (stiqiaTa qaoturi mZvinvareba) gafarToebaa da arsebiTad axali, magram genetikurad identuri _ kosmogoniuri, momawesrigebeli funqciis SeZenas niSnavs (raki qaosi da kosmosi mxolod urTierTmimarTebaSi avlenen TavianT miTosur substanciebs). funqciurma metonimiam saxelis aseve metonimiuri cvlileba gamoiwvia. faqtobrivad, elis miTosur semantikaSi is Sesaqme ganxorcielda, rac cota mogvianebiT amave RvTaebis monawileobiT ganxorcielda miTosSi. `elis~ qaosuri buneba tarosis _ `elias~ kosmosur bu-


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nebad transformirdeba, rasac `qaosuri mZvinvarebis~ (uwesrigobis) kosmosur (mowesrigebul) CarCoSi moqceva mohyveba Sedegad. es ukve Awarmatebulad ganxorcielebuli Sesaqmis aqtia. msoflio miTosuri tradicia icnobs tarosis RvTaebis gveleSapTan (qaosi) brZolis cikls (magaliTisaTvis cnobili xeTuri miTebic sakmarisia), romlis kosmogoniur interpretacias am ori personaJis genetikur naTesaobasTan mivyavarT. qaosur da kosmosur gamovlinebaTa genetikur kavSirze, Tavis droze samarTlianad miuTiTa v.propma, gveleSapis mzesTan da gmirTan brZolis magaliTze (propi 1916: 197-259). analogiurad, tarosis qarTuli RvTaeba elia, rogorc kosmosis pirveli RmerTi, kosmogoniuri aqtis gansaxorcieleblad ebrZvis qaosis RmerTs els _ Tavisive genetikur winamorbeds. swored am RmerTs `els~ umRerodnen mTeli qarTuli SavizRvispireTis (aWara, guria, lazeTi, samegrelo) mosaxleoba `elesa~//`helesas~ (Tumca mkvlevrebi sxvagvar etimologiur mosazrebebs gvTavazoben am simRerasTan dakavSirebiT), romelic mebadur-mezRvaurTa simRerad iTvleba. z.Tandilavas miaCnia, rom `elesa~ anu `helesa~ genezisis mixedviT lazuri simReraa da misi sawyisebi meTevzeoba-zRvaosnobas ukavSirdeba. lazeTidan unda gavrcelebuliyo `helesa~ dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi da agreTve, SavizRvispireTis sxva qveynebis musikalur folklorSi (Tandilava 1996: 143)(`elesa~ cnobilia berZnul, Turqul, ruminul da moldavur musikalur folklorSic (m.Ciqovani). stiqiis gamZvinvarebisas swored qaosis RmerTis elis mosamadliereblad aris mimarTuli zRvasTan axlos mkvidri xalxebis ritualuri simRera `helesa~, rac `qaosis mobrunebis~ SesaCerebel rituals unda warmoadgendes. igive tendencia grZeldeba sawesCveulebo magiur poeziaSi, sadac ukve qaosis RmerTs elesa//helesas tarosis RvTaebebi (elia, lazare da sxva) enacvlebian da ukve maT mimarT aRasruleben magiur ritualebs qaosis sxvadasxva gamovlinebis _ gvalva, wvima, qariSxali, nisli, _ aRsakveTad. SelocvebSi, sadac `elis~ qaoturi mZvinvarebis kosmogoniur siuJets xaris demiurguli, Sesaqmiseuli aqti upirispirdeba, qaosis kosmosad gardaqmnas, Sesaqmes xSirad im adgilas msoflio xis aRmocenebac gvamcnobs. jerSeuqmneli, `afofinebuli~, `aSiSinebuli~ qaoturi samyaros SuagulSi, centrSi _ `zRvis karze~ sicocxlis xea aRmocenebuli da sakralurobis niSnad RvTaebrivi mironi swveTs: `eli elavda, zRva fofinobda, zRvis karze nedli xe idga, zeTi sWvioda~ (gagulaSvili 1986: 143).

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qaosisa da kosmosis brZolis, xaris, pirvelkacisa da zRvis moxvna-moTesvis, mironmdinari sicocxlis xis epizodebiT qarTul SelocvebSi uZvelesi kosmogoniuri miTosia gadmocemuli. zRvis kari _ `cis karis~ antipodi, Tumc, imavdroulad, imave semantikuri datvirTvis matarebeli. orive maTgani Sesaqmis adgilia. `cis kari~ da `zRvis kari~ kosmogoniebisas erTdroulad ixsneba. zRvis kari samyaros Wipia, `zRvis Wipia~(`vefxistyaosani~), saidanac iwyeba Sesaqme. zRvis karze aRmocendeba mironmdinari kosmiuri (sicocxlis) xe. zRvis xe// wylis kosmiuri xe _ igive sicocxlis xe, kosmiuri xe, romelic aRmocendeba `zRvis karze~ Sesaqmis adgilas (ix. `zRvis kari~). raoden antipoduradac unda gamoiyurebodes misi gamoCena xmeleTis nacvlad ukidegano zRvaSi//okeaneSi, sadac usaTuod miwis `mcire borcvic~ ivaraudeba, igi swored qaoturi wylebis Suagulidan aRmocenebulia. aseT `zRvis xeebs~ sakralurobis niSnad RvTaebrivi mironi swveTs (iseve, rogorc xevsurul xmalas alvis xes gamudmebiT swveTda mironi xevsurul andrezul xanaSi). saiqios, suleTis ciklis leqsebSi sicocxlis xis fesvebSi miwisqveSa xTonuri `veSa~ wyaro moedineba da miuxedavad wyaros sivrcobrivi mwiri maStabebisa, am ciklis alvis xeebic zRvis, dasabamiseuli wylebis kosmiuri xis variaciad unda moviazroT, Tundac imis gamo, rom Cven ar viciT veSas sawyisi buneba da Tavdapirveli masStabebi. wylis kosmiuri xis miTosuri xati Tavdapirveli kosmogoniuri datvirTviT SemorCa qarTul Selocvebs. gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am magiur-ritualurma poeturma Zeglebma kosmogoniuri miTosis unikaluri da utyuari fragmentebi Semogvinaxa: `eli elavda, zRva fofinobda, zRvis karze nedli xe idga, zeTi sWvioda~(gagulaSvili 1986: 143). Selocvis sxva variantSic qaotur zRvaSi aRmocenebuli sicocxlis xe mironmdinaria: `eli elavda, zRva fofinobda libanis xesa zeTi hdioda~ (gagulaSvili 1986: 123). mironmdinari sicocxlis xe `zRvis karzea~ aRmocenebuli. `zRvis kari~ samyaros Suaguli, anu `zRvis Wipia~. samyaros Sesaqmemde aq qaosis RmerTi _ eli aris damkvidrebuli. es adgili jergaucxadebeli `RvTis karic~ aris, raki sabolood yvela RmerTi swored aq moiyris Tavs. aq mogvianebiT, kosmosis pirveli RmerTi, xari-demiurgi daibadeba, rom samyaros pirveli Sesaqme ganaxorcielos. kidev ufro mogvianebiT ki aqve daibadeba mefe-demi-


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urgic, igi samyaros kosmiuri da amasTanave, socialuri centric unda gaxdes. `zRvis karze~ aRmocenebul sicocxlis xeze qaosis frinveli debs `kosmiur kvercxs~, saidanac warmoiSoba samyaro (ix. `kosmiuri kvercxi~). `zRvis nawyveti/narCeni~ _ kosmiuri, dasabamiseuli zRvis mikrokosmiuri xati (mikrokosmosis _ `sofeli//kosmosi~ doneze). `zRvis nawyvetebs~ uwodeben kldis ferdobebze bunebrivad arsebul marilian tbebs, romlebic dResac uxvad moipoveba saqarTvelos maRalmTian adgilebSi (ix.zRvisa da kldis Sesayari). mariliani tbebis simravliT da masTan dakavSirebuli miTologiuri semantikiT gansakuTrebiT aWaris maRalmTianeTi gamoirCeva. aWaraSi aseT marilian tbebs `zRvis narCeni~//`zRvis nawyveti~ hqvia. es swored is kosmiuri zRva/tbaa, saidanac samyaros Sesaqme, an samyaros esqatologia xorcieldeba, rac teqstobrivad gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis siuJetiT aris gaformebuli (ix. gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis miTosi). dasabamiseuli zRva/tbad unda moviazroT abudegauris tba, romelsac vxvdebiT iaxsaris andrezSi. fSav-xevsurTa andrezul xanaSi ukanaskneli devi iaxsarma abudelauris tbaSi mokla, magram devis sisxliT Sekruli tbidan veRar moaxerxa amosvla, vidre RvTiSvili mis mierve naSvelma saymom ar gamoixsna tbis piras aRsrulebuli msxverplSewirvis ritualiT. kosmogoniuri interpretaciiT, adgili sadac samyaros Sesaqme//esqatologia xorcieldeba, samyaros Suagulia, `zRvis Wipia~, amitom `zRvis nawyveti~ kldis piras, anu _ zRvisa da kldis Sesayari qmnis Suagulis, kosmiuri centris kidev erT kosmogoniur miTologemas. mniSvnelovania, rom aWarul miToss kldisa da zRvis SesayarSi, rogorc samyaros centrSi Semoaqvs ori ganzomilebis zecisa da miwis damakavSirebeli sakraluri atributi `zenjiri~, anu `jaWvi~. jaWvi kldeze, zRvasTan axlos aris gamobmuli. aWareli moxuci gviambobs, rom `adre aqauroba wyliT iyo dafaruli. jeelobaSi am mTebSi daTvebze da jixvebze sanadirod daviarebodi, gvancas mTis klde-kapanze gamobmuli jaWvi Cemi TvaliT minaxavso...~. kldisa da zRvis SesayarTan gamobmuli jaWvi Seesabameba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis(TuS-fSav-xevsureTi) andrezebSi gavrcelebul `ciur jaWvs~ - `Sibs~, romelic Suagul, wminda adgilebSi sicocxlis xeebzea gamobmuli. aseTi Sibi hqonda gamobmuli laSaris muxas, romlis saSualebiT RvTiSvilebi cis karze morige RmerTTan adiodnen da ukan Camodiodnen. `zRvis narCenTan~ dakavSirebiT arsebobs realisturi mosaz-

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reba, romlis Tanaxmad, odezRac zRva maRal kldeebamde aRwevda, Semdeg ukan daixia da Tavisi narCenebi - `zRvis narCenebi~ datova. `zRvis narCenis~ anu mariliani tbis bibliuri da realuri Sesatyvisia `mkvdari zRva~ palestinis miwaze, romelic gadmocemis Tanaxmad, sodomisa da gomoris esqatologiis adgilas warmoiSva (Sdr: aWaruli Tqmulebebi `vernebze~: gveleSapis mokvla xaris mier iwvevs tbis (`zRvis nawyvetis~) gaxeTqvas da im mxaris wyliT walekvas). zRvisa da kldis Sesayari _ samyaros Suagulis, centris kosmogoniuri miTologema. kldis wiaRSi dadasturebuli zRvebis `zRvis narCenisa~ da kldis gadakveTis adgili. zRva da klde//mTa kosmiuri wyvilia. cas mibjenili klde ciur mamrs, xolo zRva xTonur mdedrs ganasaxierebs. msoflio miTologiaSi xSirad vxvdebiT kldis (mTis) da zRvis kosmiur dawyvilebas. z.kiknaZe alTauri zRapris `koguTeis~ Sesaxeb wers: `mTa-mama, zRva-deda, es ukve kosmiuri wyvilia. mTebi mravladaa alTaiSi, alTai mTagoriania, magram zRva arasodes unaxavT mis mkvidrT. es ki imas moaswavebs, rom zRvis motivi ZvelTagan da Soridan modis da miTosuri daniSnuleba aqvs(analogiurad svanTa poeziaSi xSiria amgvari zRvis xseneba)~ (kiknaZe 2001:120). j.onianic aRniSnavs, rom svaneTSi iSviaTia moinaxos Tqmuleba, zRapari, legenda, rom masSi zRvasa da wyalze ar iyos saubari (oniani 1969:77). zRvisa da kldis Sesayari, rogorc samyaros Suaguli, RvTaebaTa samkvidroa qarTul miTologiaSi. v.bardaveliZe wers: `RvTaebaTa qveyana ganTavsebulia Znelad misaRwev adgilas, maRal mTebze, SiSvel kldeebze. `batonebsa~ da `nanasadmi~ miZRvnili legendebi da simReraTa variantebi, amave dros am qveyanas akavSireben zRvasTan. `batonebi~ movidnen TeTri zRvidan. legendebis mixedviT, es qveyana mdebareobs kldovan qimebze, romlebic zRvis napirebs gadmohyurebs~(bardaveliZe 1959: 78-79). svanuri legendis mixedviT, kldovani mwvervalebi, romlebic zRvis napirebs gadmohyureben, warmoadgenen yvavilebiT mofenil gaSlil mindors. mindorze wyaro moCuxCuxebs. aq cxovrobs `batonebis deda.~ mas qaTqaTa TeTri sxeuli da Zalian didi ZuZuebi aqvs. igi SiSvelia. msgavsi Tqmuleba gavrcelebulia dasavleT saqarTveloSic, romelic srulad mohyavs Tedo saxokias Tavis `eTnografiul nawerebSi.~ kldis wiaRSi (//mis fskerTan) davanebuli zRvis sakraluroba TeTri feriTac aris gadmocemuli qarTul miTosSi, riTac `zRvis narCenis~// tbis gansakuTrebuli marilianobac unda iyos xazgasmuli: `TeTri zRvidan geaxeliT, iav naninao!~. zRvis gadacurva _ kosmogoniuri miTologema, demiurgisa da


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qaosis brZolis variacia; agreTve SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc qvesknelSi, xTonur samyaroSi mogzaurobis ritualuri aqti, romelic RvTaebisTvis ganaxlebis _ sikvdil-aRdgomis, xolo gmirisTvis iniciaciis gzas warmoadgens. `zRvis gadacurvis~ motivs vxvdebiT xalxur Tqmulebebsa da poetur ZeglebSi. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT popularulia satrfialo Janris balada `Tavfaravneli Wabuki~, romelsac araerTi paraleli moeZebneba msoflio folklorSi. Tu ki baladas miTosur WrilSi ganvixilavT da kosmogoniur paradigmaSi CavsvamT, Cven warmogvidgeba zRvis qaosur ZalasTan mebrZoli `zRvebis momxvneli~ xaris demiurgis saxe. qaosur Zalas zRvas baladaSi avsuli dedaberi (didi deda qalRmerTi) Seesabameba, rogorc zRvis urCxulis anTropomorfuli gansaxovneba. dedabris neba gamoxatulia koSkSi gamomwyvdeuli satrfos (dedabris erT-erTi ipostasi) qmedebaSi _ gmiri Seityuos qaotur stiqiaSi, es aris erTaderTi adgili, sadac gmiris damarcxeba SeiZleba. satrfo, romelic iseve asrulebs didi dedis gankargulebebs, rogorc mefis asuli asrulebs mama-xelmwifis brZanebebs jadosnur zRaprebSi, roca saqmros gamosacdel-dasaRupad Znel davalebas aZlevs. vaJis `trfialeba~ da seqsualuri swrafva zRvis qalisaken warmoadgens masTan `brZolis~, qalis `SeWma-ganadgurebis~ ritualur aqts. arqaul xalxebSi, `Wamasa~ da `sqesobriv aqts~ Soris imdenad mWidro mentalur-biologiuri kavSiri arsebobda, rom mraval enaSi es ori procesi aRiniSneba erTi da imave sityviT (levi-strosi 1999: 194). Tavfaravnelma demiurgma, rogorc zRvis urCxulTan mebrZolma kosmiurma xarma, Tavisi `seqsualur-gamanadgurebeli~ kosmiuri ZaliT unda `moxnas-moTesos~(Sdr: yanis moxvna seqsualur aqts Seesabameba inanas ciklis Suamdinarul poeziaSi) zRva da daZlios qaosuri mdedri. Tavfaravneli Wabuki am kosmiuri brZolis Jams `wiTeli perangiT~ aris Semosili, rac anaTesavebs qarTuli kosmogoniuri miTosis personaJTan `wiTel xucesTan~(xucesoba religiuri statusia), xar-demiurgTan, romlis brZolac qaosur zRvasTan magiur poeziaSia SemorCenili. `zRvis SeSineba~/`zRvis SiSi~ _ meTevze-mezRvaurTa magiuri rituali, romelic auqmebs `zRvis SiSs~. warmodgena `zRvis SiSze~ postfolkloruli miTia, romelic prorusuli politikuri mosazrebiT Seiqmna sabWoTa periodSi. sazRvao folklori da mis wiaRSi dadasturebuli zRvaosnobasTan dakavSirebuli tradiciebi, xalxuri saRvTismsaxuro magiuri ritualebi, romelTagan gansakuTrebuli sistemurobiT lazuri foklori gamoirCeva, naTels hfens Tu rogori damokidebuleba hqondaT Zvel qarTvelebs zRvas-

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Tan, ramdenad hqondaT, an ar hqondaT maT `zRvis SiSi~ (istoriul da kulturul doneze). xalxuri tradiciebi mowmobs, rom qarTvelur tomebs, iseve rogorc nebismier xalxebs, imdenad eSinodaT wylis stiqiis// zRvis, ramdenadac eSinodaT danarCeni stiqiebis Weqa-quxilis, xanZris, kokispiruli wvimebis, gvalvebis da a.S. bunebis pirispir martod darCenili adamiani am bunebriv `SiSebs~ magiur ritualebs upirispirebda. Tumc am stiqiasTan Sinagani, SeiZleba iTqvas, genetikuri (totemisturi gagebiT) naTesaoba, familaruli siaxlove da misi safrTxeebisadmi `Seguebuli~ damokidebuleba yovelTvis gamosWvivis zRvispirelTa folkloridan, romlis erTi nimuSia lazuri Sromis leqsi: `dovibadi mzoRaS Jin, `zRvaze davbadebulvar, heq blurare, qomiCqin, vici, iqve movkvdebi, Squrina Cqar var miRun, me guli magari maqvs, guri kapeti miRun~ sulac ar SevSindebi~. laz mezRaurebs swamdaT, rom mSiSara mezRvauri `zRvaze gasvlamdec damarcxebulad iTvleba,~ uSiSar mezRvaurs ki damTrgunveli stiqia brZolisTvis ganawyobs. lazebs zRvasTan mravalsaukunovani urTierTobis kvalze sruliad sapirispiro, SeiZleba iTqvas, `ukureaqcia~ CamouyalibdaT, rac gansazRvrul ritualur-magiur CarCoSi moaqcies. laz meTevzes vidre zRva SeaSinebs, igi Tavad `aSinebs~ zRvas, `zRvis SiSs~ sapirispiro _ `zRvis SeSinebis~ ritualiT abaTilebs/auqmebs. lazTa yofaSi damowmebuli SexedulebiT, zRva iseTi daundobeli Zalaa, romelic, rac unda evedro, mainc dagamarcxebs, Tu man es moindoma. amitom zRva unda SeaSino: `mzoRa Cqimi, ma qomobTi. mas sqanden va maSqurinen, si Cqimden gaSqurinas! (`zRvao Cemo, me movedi. me Seni ar meSinia, Sen geSinodes Cemi!~) (Tandilava 1996: 12-13). amgvari magiuri sityvebis warmoTqmiT `SeSinebuli zRva~ marTalia ukan ar ixevda da arc mosesTan dakavSirebuli bibliuri saswaulis precedents imeorebda, magram meTevze am magiuri sityvebiT, upirvelesad, sakuTar TavSi Trgunavda bunebriv adamianur SiSs wylis daundobeli stiqiisadmi, iseve rogorc msgavsi `SemaSinebeli~ ritualebiT ebrZoda adamiani bunebis sxva stiqiebs da gamovlinebebs. mzis dabnelebis dros sruldeboda Weqa-quxilis imitireba, riTac mzis Camylapavi urCxuli unda SeeSinebinaT, romelic amis Semdeg mzes aTavisuflebda.


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T `Tavfaravneli Wabuki~ _ ix. `zRvis gadacurva~ k

kosmiuri kvercxi//msoflio kvercxi _ kosmogoniuri arqetipi,


Sesaqmis zoomorful modelSi samyaros arqe. Sesaqmis sxvadasxva modelebs vxvdebiT msoflio miTologiur sistemebSi. samyaroseuli `arqedan~ anu, sawyisovani substanciidan kosmosis kreacia miTosSi teqstobrivad gaformebulia pirvelelementebis personificirebul arsebaTa samkvdro-sasicocxlo dapirispirebiT. zoomorful Tu Teogoniur brZolas araiSviaTad enacvleba Sesaqmis SedarebiT `mSvidobiani~, Tumc, mainc, arc Tu umtkivneulo kosmogoniuri aqti, romelic msxverplad Sewiruli _ `dakluli~ pirvelkacis sxeulis nawilebidan kosmosis Camoyalibebas gulisxmobs. pirvelkacis motivi uSualod ejaWveba msoflio kvercxis motivs, imdenad, ramdenadac pirvelkaci Tavad msoflio kvercxidan ibadeba da rogorc damoukideblad, aseve kosmiur kvercxTan erTad, kosmosis genezisSi monawileobs. aseve damoukideblad viTardeba msoflio kvercxis miTosi, romelic misi substanciuri Semcvelobis qaotur wiaRSi ganxvnas da am gziT kosmosis warmoSobas moaswavebs. kosmiuri kvercxi qaotur morevSi TavisTavad ar Cndeba, mas Cekavs `saidanRac~ mofrenili wylis frinveli, frinveli romelic Tavis qaosur wiaRSi rogorRac Casaxul kosmosis arqes kvercxis formiT daatarebs. is qaotur usazRvroebaSi daeZebs kreaciisaTvis Sesaferis iseT myar adgils, romelic kosmiuri kvercxisaTvis budis magivrobas gaswevs. aseT adgilad zogjer wylidan amozneqili wylis dedis muxli (`kalevala~), zogjer ki `zRvis xe~ gvevlineba (ix. `zRvis xe~), romelic jerSeuqmneli `afofinebuli~, `aSiSinebuli~ qaoturi morevis centrSi _ `zRvis karzea~ (ix. `zRvis kari~) aRmocenebuli. misi kenweroc, rogorc cis RvTaebrivi kamara, rogorc RvTis `Ria kari~, mzadaa qaoturi usazRvroebidan mofrenili qaosis, magram kosmosis kvercxis matarebeli frinvelis misaRebad: `libanisa xezeda tredi ijda wverzeda...~ (gagulaSvili 1986: 144). kosmiuri frinveli swored qaoturi morevis mRelvarebis epicentrSi modis: `Citi WikWikobda, wyali SiSinobda, qari qroda~ (gagulaSvili 1986: 118)

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ufro metic, am qaoturi mRelvarebis `Cacxroma~, rac udavod kosmosis Sesaqmis momaswavebelia, kosmiuri frinvelis kompetenciaa: `Citi gaCerda, wyali dadga, qari Cadga...~ (gagulaSvili 1986: 118) kosmiur frTosans, qaotur usazRvroebaSi `margalitis kvercxis~ Casayrelad aWrils, zRvis karTan sicocxlis xeebi axvedreben `abreSumis budes~. wylidan amozneqili `kalevalas~ wylis dedis muxlis magivrobas qarTul miTosSi `qali SroSanis~ `xuTi TiTi~ asrulebs, saidanac, beWdis Tvlidan, saswaulebrivad da, amave dros, Zalzed bunebrivad, sicocxlis xe aRmocendeba. leqsSi, romelic mWidrod ukavSirdeba samonadireo-sagazafxulo tradiciebs, ar Cans (SesaZloa, dakargulic iyos) qaoturi zRvis motivi, Tumca amiT teqstis dasawyisi striqonebis kosmogoniurSesaqmiseuli paTosi ar icvleba: ` qalsa visme erqva SroSani. xuTsa TiTsa ecva beWedi. beWdis Tvalsa moli mosula, molis Tavsa naZvi asula, naZvis wversa qors bude edga, bude iyo abreSumisa, kvercxi hqonda iagundisa, gamosCeka margalitisa~ (virsalaZe 1964: 69). margalitis kvercxismdebeli frinveli sxva leqsSic gaielvebs: `qorma frTebi gaSala, dayara margalitebi~ (virsalaZe 1964: 71). aqedan moyolebuli, sicocxlis xeebi da misi fesvebiT gamyarebuli kosmosis xati mTel Semdgom eqsplicitur Tu implicitur miTologiaSi ganagrZobs Tanamyofobas, rogorc utyuari sabuTi da niSani, odesRac, sawyis droSi ganxorcielebuli umniSvnelovanesi kosmogoniuri procesebisa. es kosmogoniuri `niSnebi~ warmogvidgeba verbalurad SezRudul, magram mravlismomcveli datvirTvis mqone miTologemebad, `dakarguli miTosis~ gadarCenil nasxletebad. iseve, rogorc zRaprebSi, roca TviTmarqvia dedoflis daJinebiT moWrili alvis xis erTaderTi gadarCenili nafotic ki ar iSlis sakuTari sawyisis emanacias. da vidre, transformirebuli da axali miTo-poeturi saburveliT Semosili kosmogoniuri miTosi kvlav gacxaddebodes, an Tundac, desakralizebul zRaprul siuJetebSi iCendes Tavs sicocxlis xeebze dabudebuli oqros kvercxis mdebeli manaTobeli Wreli frinvelis (fas-


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kunjis Sesatyvisi) saxiT, sawyisi drois qaosis miTiuri frinvelis pirveladi kvali aq ikargeba, xolo qarTul miTologiur sivrceSi vakuumi Cndeba `dakarguli kosmogoniuri miTosis~ saxiT. ukve Semdgom, miTologiuri sistemis ganviTarebis momdevno safexurebze, kvlav aRdgeba qaoturTan erTad daviwyebis morevSi CaZiruli kosmiuri frinvelis xati da rogorc qvesknelidan mobrunebuli, aRmdgari frTosani, samwuxarod, isev fragmentulad, magram mainc, kvlav gaielvebs Tavdapirvel Sesqmiseul konteqstSi _ qaosis frinvelisagan kosmosis kvercxis gamoCekis kosmogoniur aqtSi: `mze CaRma Caefineba, Cava, Cajdeba budesa, oqrosa kvercxi daudevs _ WuWuli margalitisa~ (poezia 1972: 80). am leqsSi kosmiuri mze-frinvelisagan dadebuli msoflio kvercxidan samyaros Sesaqmis ukiduresad dawuruli, struqturulad TiTqmis miTologemamde dasuli Sesaqmis umSvenieresi miTosia gadmocemuli da farTod gavrcelebul msgavs siuJetebSi, rogorc tokarevi fiqrobs, mze-frinvelis dadebuli kvercxi, sxva araferia, Tu ara pirvelarsebuli `msoflio kvercxis~ rekonstruirebuli saxe. m

mesefi _ ix. zRvis kaci da zRvis qali. `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ miTosi _ kosmogoniuri miTosi. Sesaqmis Teriomorfuli (zRvis urCxulTan brZola) modelidan anTropomorful-matrialuri _ zRvis piras `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ modeli viTardeba, sadac brZolis motivs msxverplSewirvis motivi enacvleba. aboboqrebuli, aSiSinebuli qaoturi zRvis kosmogonias (ix. `zRvis moxvna-moTesva~) sxvagvari gagrZelebac aqvs. zRvis piras mSobiare qaosis ganmasaxierebeli qalRmerTi kosmosis pirveli RmerTis genitaliebs ewireba (msxverplSewirva, rogorc Sesaqmis aucilebeli elementi, kosmogoniis Teriomorfuli modelis srul versiebSi gveleSapTan brZolaSi gamarjvebuli da kosmosis Semoqmedi xaris msxverlSewirviT dasturdeba). momakvdavi qalRmerTi qaosis mamri RmerTis _ elis RvTaebrivi mdedri, mewyvile SeiZleba iyos, romelic iseve iRupeba, rogorc RmerTebis axal Taobas, sakuTar naSierebTan dapirispirebuli da kosmosis, wesrigis dasamyareblad ganwvaluli yvela didi deda qalRmerTi msoflio kosmogoniur sistemebSi (mag., TiamaTi Suamdinarul kosmogoniaSi).

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`aboboqrebuli zRvisa~ da `momakvdavi qalRmerTis izomorfuli siuJeti mravalvariantad dasturdeba, erTi mxriv, Selocvebis, xolo meore mxriv, Sromis sasimRero repertuarSi Sesuli miTosur-poeturi Zeglebis saxiT. SedarebiT srulyofilia Selocvis raWuli teqsti: elo elenTa, melo melenTa / zRva SiSinobda, zRva fofinobda./ zRvisa pirasa karavi idga. / karavSi qali, zara exura. / zaras avwie, sami vakoce, / samma kocnama feri ucvala, / ferma nacvalma wigni daswera. / _ vis gavugzavnoT? / _ daviT nefesa. / daviT nefem gamogzavna Tavxa atlasi. / _ riTi gavrecxoT? / vercxlis wyliTa. / _ riTi gavaSroT? / _ niav-qariTa. / (Selocvebi 1994: 105). Selocvis teqsts imeorebs miTologiuri leqsi `nestan-darejan~, sadac mSvenier qalRmerTs cnobili literaturuli personaJis saxeli Caenacvla, ambavi ki miTosuri darCa: bunebis wiaRSi CaZinebuls, pir-saburavi axades da sami kocniT `feri ucvales~ _ nestan-darejan / sad ras geZina? /_ mindvris bolosa. / _ zed ra gexura? / _ zari zarbabi. / movel, agxade, / sami gakoce, / samma kocnama / feri gicvala / ferma nacvalma / wigni daswera, / _ Sig ra Caswera? / _ qamxa atlasi. /_ vis gaugzavna? /_ daviT mefesa/ (kotetiSvili 1934: 202). am bundovani teqstebis yvelaze arqauli kosmogoniuri siuJeti aWaraSi farTod gavrcelebul `vai, Tu ieli ielobdaos~ leqsSia dadasturebuli, sadac RvTaebriv qals tyupis cali dac moepoveba: vai, Tu ieli ielobdao, / kidev zRvai xelobdao./ aba, gaRma-gamoRmiTa, /kidev karvebi idgao../ SiT mekarve qali iwva, /kidev pirze eburao. / aba, TeTri dolbandio, / kidev pirze avxadeo. / aba, erTi vakoceo, / vai, Tu erTi kocniTao, / kidev feri vuqcieo. / aba, orjer vakoceo, / kidev orjer kocniTao, / vai, Tu pirze avaZreo. / aba, samjer kocniTao, / vai, Tu sisxli vadineo. / aba, oTxjer vakoceo, / kidev oTxjer kocniTao, / vai, Tu suli avxadeo. / kidev misa nawolzeo, / aba, ia davTeseo, / ia vardad movidao. / dama dai dahpatiJa / margalitis sakrefelSi, / sakrefelad wvitia, / saqonelad didia. / (TavdgiriZe 2004: 187). rogorc leqsis Sinaarsidan vigebT, zRvis piras gaSlil karvebSi, `gaRmiT da gamoRmiT~, cxovrobs ori RvTaebrivi da, ro-


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melTagan erT-erTi `kocniT~, anu intimuri aqtiT iRupeba. saboloo kosmogoniuri suraTis aRsadgenad, anu qarTuli kosmogoniuri miTosis invariantuli siuJetis misaRebad qarTuli xalxuri poeziis sxva nimuSebsac unda mivmarToT, romlebic calke, damoukideblad, gaugebar, ukonteqsto poetur fragmentebs warmoadgenen da mxolod `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ ciklSi SemotaniT, pouloben ra TavianT konkretul adgilmdebareobas, iZenen logikur konteqsts. Sesabamisad, maTi semantikuri velic saerTo kosmogoniur sistemaSi Tavsdeba. am TiTqosda `periferiuli~ teqstebidan irkveva, rom `kocnas~ anu intimur aqts RvTaebrivi qalis dafexmZimeba da vaJis dabadeba mohyveba. (amis Semdeg leqsSi miTiur rZalTan _ TamarTan dakavSirebuli siuJeti iwyeba, romelic Cven `avTandil gadinadiras~ leqsis transformirebul fragmentad migvaCnia (TavdgiriZe 2004: 157-158). rogorc Cans, qalis `ferwasvla~ da `sulis axda~ genitaliuri procesebiT aris ganpirobebuli. leqsis erT-erTi varianti sikvdilis obieqtis SecvliT (am SemTxvevaSi axalSobilia da ara qalRmerTi) sxva _ kosmogoniuri intronizaciis siuJetur xazss aviTarebs, romlis paradigmul mniSvnelobaze Cven cota mogvianebiT visaubrebT: eo, meo, maisuraZeo, / maisuraZis karebze Cavikakaneo. / sami patarZali vnaxe, erTsa vakoceo. / iman ro feri icvala, / ferma nacvalma wigni daswera, / vis gaugzavna? _ daviT mefesa. / daviT mefe Sin ar daxvda, / saydars ukan flamso, /zed ori xe amosula, / soWiviTa dgaso. / vardi damikrefiao, WurSi Camiteniao, / Wuri aduRebulao, qali akivlebulao. / qalsa vaJi gasCenia, mamas gaxarebia, / mama gareT gamosula, biWi gaTavebula. / (virsalaZe1969: 123). tyupi da aqac dominirebs `sami patarZlis~ saxiT, romelTagan mxolod erTia movlenaTa epicentrSi, danarCenebi siuJetis pasiur monawileebad rCebian. `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ ciklSi Semodis kidev erTi unikaluri aWaruli teqsti _ `dedoflis leqsi~, sadac araerTi kosmogoniuri motivi aris deklamirebuli: RvTaebrivi qali _ `dedofali~, naxevrad zoomorfuli da naxevrad vegetaciuria _ igi sicocxlis xesa da masze dabudebul kosmiur frinvels (qors) ganasaxovnebs. qali fexmZimea da vaJis dabadebas ewireba. daRupul qal-RvTaebas sami tyupi da _ `dedoflebi~ _ dastiris: guSin kvira dReso, / qori mejda xeso, /

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xesa, xesa raso? / libanozis qalso. / qalsa Svili Sobia, / Sobda vaJiSvilia, / ada, dedobilisa! / ada, mamobilisa! / ijda sasTumalsa: / sami dai dedoflebi / geiSliden Tmebsa: / _ dao, dao sisano, / TeTryirmizo, msuqano, / saiT Segatrialeben? / _ sianeTis karso. / sianeTi Sin rom ara, / vin gagiRebs karso, / saiT miwas gagiTxrian? /(asmxf, #518, 1962) samwuxarod es leqsic fragmentulia, Tumca leqsis saerTo kosmogoniuri xasiaTi da mizanmimarTuleba am nawilidanac Cans (teqstis detaluri ganxilva ix.: TavdgiriZe 2004: 47-53). `dedoflis leqsis~ momakvdavi qali `libanozis~ _ sicocxlis xis anTropomorfuli ipostasia. mironmdinari sicocxlis xe _ libanozi, rogorc vnaxeT, Selocvebis `aboboqrebul-aSiSinebuli zRvis~ kosmogoniur siuJetSic monawileobs. qalis vegetaciur sawyiss win zoomorfuli sawyisi uswrebs. misi metamorfozuli transformacia zoomorfulidan vegetaciuramde TanmimdevrobiT xorcieldeba: igi Tavdapirvelad xis wverze Semomjdari qoria, Semdeg Tavad xe gardaisaxeba da `libanozis qalad~ mogvevlineba. es is RvTaebrivi qali unda iyos, romelsac cnobili samonadireo-saferxulo leqsi `qalsa vismes~ _ `SroSans~ uwodebs. mis beWedze lebanozis xis msgavsi sicocxlis xis ganmasaxierebeli naZvi aRmocendeba; xolo xis kenweroze qori budes gaikeTebs da margalitis kvercxebs gamoCeks. qoris `dayrili~ margalit-kvercxebi kidev erT miTologiur leqsSi gaielvebs: qorma frTebi gaSala, /dayara margalitebi, erTi me avitaceo, / erTi ki _ Cemma dobilma. (virsalaZe 1964: 71). miTosuri metafora cxadyofs, rom qoris `dayrili margalitebi~ kosmiur SuagulSi pirvelwinapari qalisagan (/didi deda qalRmerTisagan) araCveulebrivi vaJis _ kosmosis pirveli RmerTis, pirveli demiurgis dabadebas moaswavebs. Tavad mSobeli ki iRupeba, romelsac tyupiscali debi dastirian, tiriliT asxamen xotbas da `sisans~ uwodeben. ras niSnavs `sisani~? momakvdavi qalis romeli RvTaebrivi aspeqti aris gamoxatuli amgvari sakraluri metsaxeliT? _ `sisani~ sosan-yvavils unda niSnavdes (sosani yanebSi aRmocenebuli mowiTalo-iisferi yvavilia). yvavil-qali sosani miTosuri tyupiscalia qali-SroSanisa. isini zoomorfuli sawyisiTac enaTesavebian erTurTs, roca qoradqceulni margalitis kvercxebs `yrian~.


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Cven mier warmodgenili kosmogoniuri miTosis fragmentebi, romlebic Selocvebis, Sromis, samonadireo, sagazafxulo-saferxulo da sxva JanrebSi arian momobneulni, qarTuli miTosuri Sesaqmis anTropomorfuli modelis invariantul saxes aRadgenen. misi sruli suraTi amgvarad gamoiyureba: gamZvinvarebuli zRvis SuagulSi (`zRvis karze~) sicocxlis xea aRmocenebuli,romelsac RvTaebrivi mironi Camosdis. xis kenweroze samsknelovani kosmiuri frinvelia dabudebuli, romelic kosmosis `nawilebs~ (samyaros kvercxebs) afrqvevs qaotur dausabamobaSi. qaoturi zRvis Suagulis sxvadasxva mxares tyupi debi (ori an sami) damkvidrebulan, romelTagan mxolod erT-erTs Seswevs mSobiarobis _ samyaros Sesaqmis unari. RvTaebrivi qali qaotur zRvasTan mSobiarobs _ igi sakuTari wiaRidan badebs kosmosis pirvel RmerTs _ pirvel demiurgs, Tavad ki msxverplad ewireba am Sesaqmes: misi ganwvaluli sxeulis nawilebi qoris dayrili `margalitis kvercxebiviT~, wylidan aRmocenebuli xmeleTis, kosmosis nawilebad gadaiqceva. amgvaria `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ qarTuli kosmogoniuri miTosi, romelic Sesaqmis Teriomorfuli modelis paralelurad, an cota mogvianebiT SeiZleba warmoSobiliyo. qarTuli matrialuri kosmogoniuri miTo-ritualuri modeli mxolod nawilobriv uaxlovdeba ganviTarebul miTologiebSi dadasturebul kosmogoniur sistemebs. igi ufro arqaul, dualur kosmogoniur struqturasTan amJRavnebs genetikur siaxloves. amitom dominirebs siuJetSi tyupi debis motivi mudmivad. `momakvdavi qalis~ `qalRmerTad~ gamocxadeba pirobiTia: igi arc klasikuri tipis qalRmerTia da arc pirvelwinapari qali. misi miTosuri statusi raRac `gardamavali~ struqturuli safexuris (_`RmerT-qali~) daSvebas moiTxovs. amisken teqstebSi fiqsirebul terminologiur erTeulTa miTosuri semantikac gvibiZgebs: marTalia, `momakvdavi qali~ arqaul-dualuri msofxedvelobrivi datvirTvis mqone tyupi debis TanxlebiT aris warmodgenili, igi, Tavis tyup debTan erTad ganviTarebul miTologiebSi farTod gavrcelebuli qalRmerTis statusis (Sesabamisad funqciis) matarebeli cnebebiT _ `patarZlebi~, `dedoflebi~ _ aris aRniSnuli. tyupi dis siuJeti uZvelesia da pirvelyofili sazogadoebis dualuri msofxedvelobidan iRebs saTaves. dualuri miTebi TiTqmis yovelTvis dakavSirebulia arqauli sazogadoebis uZvelesi formis _ dualuri fratrialuri organizaciebis warmoSobasTan, miTebic, Sesabamisad, sociogoniuria. a. zolotarevis dakvirvebiT, Tuki dualuri miTebi tyupi Zmebis motivzea agebuli, maSin dua-

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lur-fratrialur Tematikas SeiZleba win uswrebdes kosmogoniuri motivebi, an am ukanasknelma saerTodOgandevnos sociogonia (zolotarevi 1964: 176). s. tolstovis azriT, dualuri tyupebis miTosi Caenacvla matriarqalur-genealogiur miTs or pirvelwinapar qalze, romlebic Tavis mxriv amoizarda ori totemis warmodgenebidan (tolstovi 1948: 288). qarTuli `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ ciklSi saqme gvaqvs arqauli dualuri kosmogoniidan ganviTarebul kosmogoniur sistemaze gadasvlis gardamaval safexurTan. amitom tyupi debi mTlianad kosmogoniuri, da ara `matriarqalur-genealogiuri ori pirvelwinapari qalis~ funqciiT gamodian. aseT `gardamaval~ safexurze arc zolotarevis mier pirvelyofilur miTebze gakeTebuli SeniSvna gavrceldeba, rom kosmogoniuri motivebi mxolod tyup Zmebs SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes. Tavad kosmogoniuri motivebi ki (Tu ki maT wavawydebiT pirvelyofil miTebSi), mTeli Tavisi kosmogoniuri struqturiTa da Sinaarsobrivi birTviT, yovelgvar zRvars Slis arqaul da ganviTarebul miTologiebs Soris. kosmogoniuri eskizis Tanaxmad, romel miTologiur sistemasac unda ekuTvnodes (arqauls Tu ganviTarebuls), demiurgis, kosmosis pirveli RmerTis dabadebis aqtSi, misi mSobeli dedis msxverplSewirva fataluri miTosuri realobaa. CrdiloeT amerikuli irokezuli tomebis kosmogoniuri miTi cnobilia ormuzdisa da arimanis (iranuli kosmogonia) miTTan msgavsebiT. irokezul miTSic tyupebis mSobeli deda iRupeba (zolotarevi 1964: 124). zogierT arqaul miTebSi Tavad tyupi Zmebi gamodian mSobeli dedis mkvlelebad (iqve). dedis mokvlis motivi marduqis mier TiamaTis gangmirvis babilonur kosmogoniaSi meordeba. imave motivs vxvdebiT amiranis eposSic. z. kiknaZis interpretaciiT, `Tqmulebas aRar axsovs, rom gveleSapi amiranis dedaa, _ am stadiaze igi, urCxulad qceuli, kacobriobis mteria, romelsac gamudmebiT ebrZvian epiuri gmirebi~ (kiknaZe 2006). amiranis eposis Sesavali epizodi _ dalis mSobiaroba kldis wverze da qalRmerTis sikvdili, imeorebs Sesaqmes. Sesaqme meordeba Semdgomac _ Sav gveleSad qceuli qalRmerTis gangmirvisas. eposis osuri varianti yvelaze axlos dgas kosmogoniur miTosTan. aq movlenebi alpuri zonis nacvlad zRvis, wylis SemogarenSi viTardeba. amiranis deda wylis qalia, romelsac klavs boroti suli. fexmZime qalis muclidan ki tyupi Zmebi amohyavT, romelTagan erT-erTi amirania da zRvaSi, dedis wiaRSi izrdeba (meletinski 1963: 66). amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTuli folkloris sxvadasxva JanrSi fragmentulad warmodgenili tyupi disa da zRvis piras mSobiare `momakvdavi qalis~ siuJeti, romelic dualuri


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msoflmxedvelobidan aRmocenda da axali, ufro ganviTarebuli kosmogoniuri sistemebisaken gaikvlia gza, odesRac erT mTlian kosmogoniur miToss warmoadgenda. iqneb swored `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ miTosi udevs safuZvlad uZveles lazur dResaswauls, romelsac `momakvdavi dResaswauli~ ewodeba da romlis ritualsac saRamo xans mzis Casvlisas mosaxleobis zRvaSi masiuri Casvla-ganbanva warmoadgens. `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ miTi `momakvdavis dResaswaulTan~ erTad uZveles qarTul kosmogoniur miToritualur models qmnis, romelic mudmivad aRadgens im `sawyis~ miTiur dros, romelSic momakvdavi qalRmerTis wiaRidan kosmosis pirveli gmiris _ demiurgis, dabadeba da kosmosis Sesaqme ganxorcielda. `momakvdavis~ cikli Tavisi demiurgis (yvela cikls Tavisi demiurgi hyavs. gveleSapisa da xaris uZveles ciklSi demiurgis funqciiT xaris anTropomorfuli ipostasi wm.giorgi gamodis) saxelsac gvamcnobs SefarviT. igi poetur teqstebSi mudmivad moxseniebuli qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi Zlierebis simbolo _ daviT mefea, istoriul realiebs mowyvetili, mefe-demiurgis ukve ganyenebuli miTosuri saxe. mefe-demiurgis samyaros centrSi dabadebisa da misi sakraluri intronizaciis kosmogonia kidev erT kosmogoniur miTo-ritualur models ayalibebs qarTul miTosur sivrceSi. `momakvdavi dResaswauli~ _ `momakvdavi qalRmerTis~ (ix. zemoT) kosmogoniuri miTosis lazuri rituali, romelic sruldeba saRamo xans, mzis Casvlisas weliwadis gansazRvrul dros -24 agvistos, RvTismSoblis miZinebis dRes. RvTismSoblis `miZineba~ miTosur-semantikur aspeqtSi unda gulisxmobdes kidec didi deda qalRmerTis `momakvdav~ mdgomareobas. s

saiqios zRvebi _ qarTuli da msoflio miTologiuri tradiciiT qveskneli da saiqio xTonuri wylebiT/zRvebiT aris dafaruli, amitomac, rogorc xalxuri leqsi gvamcnobs, gardacvlilis suls Tavdapirvelad qvesknelis `didi zRvis~ gadalaxva uxdeba, vidre `suleTis~ karibWes miadgebodes: `erTi ram didi zRva aris karebTan SesasvlelSia~. igive gzas gaivlis suleTidan samzeos adamianis sulis wasayvanad momavali sikvdilis angelozi, masac qvesknelis zRvebis gadalaxva uxdeba: `sikvdil Tqva zRva-zRva wamovel, zRva CqefiT Semoviare...~

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qvesknelis wylebi sxvadasxva saxeliT ixsenieba msoflio miTologiaSi: Sumeruli `idlusubgu~, babilonuri `xubur~, berZnuli `stiqsi~ da `okeanidi~. egviptelebs ki swamdaT `miRma qveyniuri nilosis arseboba~. qarTuli miTosi icnobs suleTis ukvdavebis `veSa~ wyaros, romelic samyaros RerZis ganmasaxierebeli alvis xis fesvebSi moedineba. Tu ki movigonebT rom aseTi kosmiuri xeebi `zRvis Wipidan~/`zRvis karidan~ aris aRmocenebuli, SegviZlia davuSvaT, rom `veSa wyaro~ amJamad dakninebuli odesRac saiqios `didi zRvis~ saTave SeiZleba yofiliyo. dasabamiseul qvesknelur zRvebs ukavSirdeba msoflio miTosSi farTod gavrcelebuli sikvdil-sicocxlis saerTo sawyisidan warmomavlobis idea _ miTosuri warmodgena zRvaze, rogorc qvesknel-saiqios wylebisa da mSobeli dedis Tbilwylebiani wiaRis Tanafard stiqiaze. am mxriv sainteresoa uZvelesi aWaruli tradicia - aWaraSi micvalebulis kubos `akvans~ eZaxian, xolo axalSobils Tavdapirvelad `xoCiCSi~ awvenen, romelsac navis forma aqvs, rogorc simbolo axali sicocxlis dausabamo wylebidan mosvlisa. h helesa//elesa _ mebadur-mezRvaurTa simRera; genezisiT qaosis//gveleSapisa da demiurgis - tarosis RmerTis brZolis kosmogoniur moTosTan aris dakavSirebuli. `helesa~//`elesas~ qaosis RmerTis elis mosamadliereblad unda yofiliyo mimarTuli, rom mas daecxro Tavisi aboboqrebuli qaosuri stiqia zRva. es kosmogoniuri miTosi fragmentulad SemorCa qarTul magiur poeziasi (ix. `zRvis moxvna-moTesva~). literatura bardaveliZe 1953: bardaveliZe v., qarTuli(svanuri) saweso grafikuli xelovnebis nimuSebi, Tb.1953. bardaveliZe 1959: ., , . 1959. gagulaSvili 1998: gagulaSvili i., qarTuli xalxuri medicina, Tb.1998. gagulaSvili 1986: gagulaSvili i., qarTuli magiuri poezia, Tb. 1986. virsalaZe 1964: virsalaZe e., qarTuli samonadiro eposi, Tb. 1964. virsalaZe 1969: virsalaZe e., qarTuli sagazafxulo-saferxulo poezia, kreb. `qarTuli folklori~, III, Tb.1969.


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TavdgiriZe 2004: TavdgiriZe x., aWaruli samonadireo miTosi,GbaT.2004. Tandilava 1996: Tandilava z., wylis kulti da qarTuli folklori, baT. 1996. kalendari 1991: n. abakelia, q.alaverdaSvili, n. RambaSiZe, qarTul xalxur dReobaTa kalendari, Tb.1991. kiknaZe 2006: kiknaZe z., Suamdinaruli miTologia, Tb. 2006. kiknaZe 1985: kiknaZe z., qarTul miTologiur gadmocemaTa sistema,Tb.1985. kiknaZe 2001: kiknaZe z., avTandilis anderZi, Tb.2001. kotetiSvili 1934: kotetiSvili v., xalxuri poezia, Tb. 1934. levipstrosi 1999: - ., , . 1999. meletinski 1976: .., , .1963. oniani 1969: oniani j., svanuri muryvamoba-kviriaoba, `macne~, 1969, #3. poezia 1972: qarTuli xalxuri poezia, 1, Tb. 1972. propi 1916: . , , . 1916. canava 2001: canava r., miTis, ritualisa da magiis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis, kreb. `ena da kultura~, #2, Tb.2001. Selocvebi 1994: qarTuli xalxuri Selocvebi, krebuli Seadgina da SeniSvnebiBdaurTo T.SioSvilma, Tb.1994. zolotarevi 1964: .., , .1964. tokarevi 1962: .., ? : , , 10, .1962 tolstovi 1948: .., , .1948. nekludovi 1975: .., - , : , .1975. Semoklebani: bskifa _ baTumis samecniero kvleviTi institutis folkloruli arqivi; asmxf _ aWaris saxelmwifo muzeumis xelnawerTa fondi.
*basilas

ritualuri kveri, wyaro: bardaveliZe 1953: 113.

daviT TinikaSvili wylis semiotika religiebSi


Cveni mokrZalebuli mcdeloba iqneba wyalTan dakavSirebuli niSnebis, simboloebis gaanalizeba sxvadasxva religiuri tradiciebidan. msoflios miTologiuri sistemebisa da religiebis umravlesoba kosmosis Seqmnamde wylis, e.w. `usaxuri~ okeanis arsebobaze miuTiTebs (rogorc cnobilia, berZnuli filosofia `kosmoss~ uwodebs mowesrigebul samyaros `qaosis~ sapirispirod). qristianuli swavlebis mixedviTac, samyaroSi yvela stiqiis Seqmnamde swored wyali iqmneba. bibliis pirvelive wignis pirvelive muxlebSi vkiTxulobT: `qveyana iyo uxilavi da gaumzadebeli da bneli iyo ufskrulze, da suli RvTisa mimoiqceoda wyalze~ (bibl./xar., 2004: dab. 1:2). sapatriarqos mier gamocemul TargmanSi am muxls Semdegi saxe aqvs: `miwa iyo usaxo da udaburi, bneli ido ufskrulze da suli RvTisa iZvroda wylebs zemoT~ (bibl./sapat., 1989: dab. 1:2). saqarTvelos bibliuri sazogadoebis mier gamocemul TargmanSi ki igi Semdegnairad ikiTxeba: `da miwa iyo usaxur-udaburi, da iyo bneli ufskrulis pirze. da suli RvTisa iZvroda wylis pirze~ (bibl./saz., 2001: dab. 1:2). amrigad, bibliuri swavlebis mixedviT, is masala, romliTac Semdgom samyaro warmoiSveba, iyo gamdnar, siTxismagvar mdgomareobaSi. `da suli RvTisa mimoiqceoda wyalze~. am sityvebis ganmartebisas

Teologiis magistri. 2010 wlidan miwveuli leqtoris statusiT aswavlis sagans msoflio religiebi` grigol robaqiZisa da ilias saxelmwifo universitetebSi. avtoria naSromisa: Sesaqmis ganmarteba eklesiis mamaTa mixedviT (2004); mTavari redaqtori krebulisa: aRmosavlur-dasavluri qristianoba` (2009). 2010 wlis oqtombridan xelnawerTa erovnuli centris k. kekeliZis saxelobis stipendianti. interesTa sfero: Teologia, religiaTmcodneoba.

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qristianuli eklesiis TiTqmis yvela Zveli egzegeti erTi azrisaa: maT miaCniaT, rom aq saubaria wm. samebis mesame hipostasze _ suliwminda RmerTze. magram aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom gansxvavebuli azrisaa ioane oqropiri. igi wers: `ras niSnavs sityvebi `suli RvTisa mimoiqceoda wyalze~? Cemi azriT, niSnavs imas, rom wylisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo erTgvari sasicocxlo moqmedeba da rom es iyo ara mdgomare da uZravi wyali, aramed moZravi da garkveuli sasicocxlo Zalis mqone~ (, 1993: 3.1). unda aRiniSnos, rom am muxlis komentirebisas profesori aleqsandre lopuxini cdeba, rodesac efrem asurs im egzegetTa ricxvs ganakuTvnebs (tertuliane, Teodorite kvireli da sxva), romelTa azriTac aq Cveulebrivi qari igulisxmeba, romelic RmerTma moavlina miwis gasaSrobad (, 1989: 67). sinamdvileSi efrem asuri wers: `...mama RmerTma warmoTqva, Ze RmerTma Seqmna; saWiro iyo, rom suli wminda RmerTsac aResrulebina Tavisi saqme, da es gamoxata man Tavisi wyalze moZraobiT... amiT igi ganaTbobda da nayofis gamoRebis unars aZlevda wyals, msgavsad Citisa, romelic gaSlili frTebiT zis kvercxebze da Tavisi siTboTi anayofierebs maT~ (, 1999: 285). aq SeiZleba gaCndes azri, rom SesaZloa es gviandeli interpolacia iyos efremis naSromSi da profesor lopuxinsac amitom aRar mohyavs misi es Sexeduleba. magram es, rogorc Cans, gamoricxulia, radgan efrem asuris (IV s.) am Sexedulebas iziarebda da citirebda misi Tanamedrove basili didic. basili wers: `...rogor mimoiqceoda igi wyalze? gauwyeb ara Cems azrs, aramed asureli kacisa... igi ambobda, rom siriuli ena ufro gamomsaxvelia da ebraulTan naTesaobis gamo wm. werilis Sinaarss ufro uaxlovdeba. rogorc igi ambobs TargmanSi sityva `iqceoda~, sityva `ganatfobdas~ nacvladaa gamoyenebuli. ganatfobda, anu ganacxovelebda wylis bunebas, msgavsad kvercxismCekeli qaTmisa, romelic raRac sasicocxlo Zalas aZlevs gantfobilTa... ase rom, SesaqmeSi monawileobis gareSe ar darCenila suli RvTisa, romelic suli wmindas ewodeba~ (basili, 2000: 2.6). amrigad, wyali miCneulia qveynierebis sawyisad, sicocxlis momniWeblad. wyals ara aqvs konkretuli forma. Tavisi bunebrivi mdgomareobiT igi mudmivad usaxuria. wylis wveTs SeiZleba hqondes garkveuli forma, magram roca igi uerTdeba wylis masas, kargavs Tavis formas, ase vTqvaT sakuTar identobas: wveTi, rogorc aseTi, aRar arsebobs, magram igi ganagrZobs Tavis arsebobas okeaneSi, rogorc misi nawili. amgvari usaxurobis, stiqiurobisa da aramdgradobis gamo es substancia ara mxolod sococxlesTan SeiZleba iyos asocirebuli, aramed qaosTan, ngrevasTan, sikvdilTanac ki. TviT samyaros Seq-

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mnis dasawyisSi ki xiluli samyarosTvis misi moqmedeba sasargeblo xdeba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca adgili aqvs misi masStabebis garkveul optimizacias. bibliuri kosmologiis mixedviT, es SeimCneva mesame dRes, roca sicocxlisaTvis aucilebeli garemo iqmneba, rac gamoixateba wylisa da miwis harmonizaciaSi. swored amis Semdgom warmoiSvebian cocxali arsebebi dedamiwaze. Tumca aq mainc unda aRiniSnos, rom biologiuri sicocxlis wyarod mainc wyali gvevlineba. biblia gvauwyebs RvTis sityvas, romelic ambobs: gamoiRos (anu warmoSvas, d.T.) wylebma qvewarmavlebi... (bibl./xar.: dab. 1:20).1 amrigad, wyali ara mxolod garemoa axlad warmoqmnili arsebebisTvis, aramed is monawileobs qmnadobis procesSi. wylis simbolikac sakmaod mdidaria qristianobaSi. `wyali cxovelsmyofeli~ _ am gavrcelebuli gamoTqmiT bibliasa Tu qristianul literaturaSi xSirad vxvdebiT im wyals, romelic RvTaebrivi energiis matarebelia, maradiuli sicocxlis momniWebelia. qriste WasTan misul samaritel qals Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTavs: yvela, vinc am wyals svams, kvlav moswyurdeba. xolo vinc im wylisgan Sesvams, romelsac me mivcem, arasdros moswyurdeba... (ioane 4:13-14). sxva adgilas qriste ambobs: visac Cemi swams... misi wiaRidan idineben cocxali wylis mdinareebi (ioane 7:38). Tavis mistikur apokalipsSi ioane mociqulic wers, rom angelozma mas uCvena sicocxlis wylis mdinare, broliviT kriala, romelic RvTis taxtidan moedineboda (apok. 22:1). Zvel aRTqmaSi wylis simbolos aqtiurad iyenebs aseve ebraeli ezekiel winaswarmetyveli, roca makurnebel wyalze saubrobs (ezek. 47:1-12). wylis destruqciulobis simbolos ukavSirdeba aseve bibliis ukanasknel wignSi _ apokalipsSi, _ naxsenebi mxecic, romelic zRvidan amodis, Tumca imave apokalifsSi wylis pozitiur simbolosac vxvdebiT: zeciuri ierusalimi, anu samoTxe, mdidaria sicocxlis wylis mdinareebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom yuranic saubrobs simbolurad samoTxis mdinareebze. simbolikasTan erTad wminda wylebis meSveobiT gankurnebis praqtikac inarCunebs Tavis mniSvnelobas qristianobis ganviTarebasTan erTad. qristianTa Rrma rwmeniT, wminda adgilebSi mTisa Tu gamoqvabulis wyaroebs makurnebeli Tvisebebi aqvs (saqarTvelos religiur sinamdvileSi amgvari adgilebi arsebobs daviT garejis, wm. ninos, mcxeTis jvris da sxva monastrebSic). cnobili religiaTmcod
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bibliis danarCen qarTul TargmanebSi arcTu ise adekvaturi sityvebiT aris gadmocemuli es azri: aivsos wyali cocxali arsebebiT... (bibl./saz.) afuTfuTdes wyalSi suldgmuli (bibl./sapat.).

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nis, mirCa eliades mixedviT, qristianul SuasaukuneebSi wylis kulti sakmaod gavrcelebuli iyo, romlis aRmofxvrasac eklesia unayofod cdilobda. am kultis winaaRmdeg eklesiis reaqcia daiwyo me-4 saukuneSi wminda kirile ierusalimelis gamosvliT (Catech. 19.8) (, 1999: $67). xsenebuli avtori gakvriTUixseniebs agreTve sxvadasxva adgilobrivi saeklesio krebis akrZalvebs, samoZRvro werilebsa Tu sxva teqstebs, romlebsac uSualod ar citirebs da arc maT zust bibliografiul cnobebs uTiTebs garda kirile irusalimelis naxsenebi (me-19) sityvisa. samwuxarod, prof. mirCa eliades SeumCneveli rCeba Semdegi garemoeba: Tuki yuradRebiT wavikiTxavT kiriles aRniSnul sityvas, es ara imdenad ierusalimeli arqiepiskoposis `gamosvla~ iyo eklesiis wiaRSi gamefebuli wylis kultis winaaRmdeg, aramed igi am sityvaSi mxolod afrTxilebs qristianebs, rom Tavi daicvan iseTi warmarTuli religiuri wes-Cveulebebisgan, rogoricaa `sakerpeebSi locva~, `jadoqroba~, `mkiTxaoba~ da maT Soris `wyaroebisa da mdinareebis winaSe kmeva da lamprebis danTeba (lighting of lamps) (, 1991: 19.8).2 aseT adamianebs kirile eSmakTa mier cdunebulebs uwodebs. axali aRTqmis eklesiaSi, anu qristianul religiur cxovrebaSi, aseve mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs nakurTxi wylis fenomens. rogorc es eqsperimentuladac dasturdeba Sesabamisi dargis specialistTa mier, wyali sakmaod didi moculobis informaciis damtevi da saimedod Semnaxvelia. es informacia ki SeiZleba iyos rogorc uaryofiTi, aseve dadebiTi. sainteresoa imave kirile ierusalimelis sityvebi, romelic im mizezze saubrobs, Tu ratom ukavia dominanturi adgili wyals qristianul simbolikasa da religiur praqtikaSi. igi wers ...Tu vinmes surs Seityos, ratom iZleva RmerTi madls swored wylis da ara sxva romelime stiqiis daxmarebiT, amis pasuxs wminda werilSi ipovis. wyali raRac gansakuTrebuli da saukeTesoa samyaros oTx xilul stiqiaTa Soris (...) eqvsdRiani Sesaqmis dros yovelgvari qmnilebis warmoSobamde RvTis suli swored wyalze moZraobda. samyaros dasawyisi _ wyalia, saxarebis dasawyisi ki _ iordanis mdinare. faraonisgan israelis ganTavisufleba ganxorcielda zRvis meSveobiT da
inglisur TargmanSi kiriles homiliebs saerTo numeracia aqvs. Tuki rusulSi sul 18 sityvaa, inglisur gamocemaSi aRniSnuli sityvis nomeria `19~. mirCac saerTo numeraciis mixedviT uTiTebs am homilias. ix. Cyril of Jerusalem. Catechetical Lecture 19.8 (First Lecture on the Mysteries) // http://www.trueorthodoxy.info/cat_stcyril_jer_cat_19_Mysteries_1.shtml
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samyaros codvaTagan ganTavisufleba aResruleba wylisa da RvTis sityvis meSveobiT (aq, rogorc Cans, kirile gulisxmobs naTlobis saidumlos, d.T.). yvelgan sadac RmerTi Tavis aRTqmas debs, iqve gvevlineba wyalic. noesTan man aRTqma warRvnis Semdeg dado. elias amaRlebac ar momxdara wylis gareSe, radgan Tavdapirvelad igi mdinareSi gadis da Semdeg maRldeba zecad. mRvdelmTavaric Tavdapirvelad ganibaneba da Semdeg iwyebs msaxurebas. aaronic jer ganibana, Semdegac iqna dadgenili mRvdelmTavrad... (, 1991: 3.2). samwuxarod, mirCa eliade arsad citirebs kiriles am brwyinvale sityvebs Tavisi Sromebis wylis qristianuli simbolikisadmi miZRvnil TavebSi. qristianuli eklesiis erTaderTi moRvawe, romlis naSromebidanac igi citirebs naTlobisa da wylis simbolizmTan dakavSirebul sityvebs _ ioane oqropiria (, 1999: $65). qristianul eklesiaSi saidumlo (laT. sakramentum) ewodeba ritualur moqmedebas, romlis meSveobiTac adamiani RvTis madls (energias) iRebs. am saidumloTa materialur formebs mxolod damxmare mniSvneloba aqvs. magaliTad, naTlobis wyali uflis qmedebis gamomxatvelia, romelic adamians wmends da asufTavebs sulieri WuWyisgan. naTloba erTgvari simboloa axali adamianis Sobisa, radgan rogorc Cvili ibadeba wyliT savse dedis muclidan, aseve naTlobis wylidan amosuli adamiani ibadeba xelmeored, anu sulierad (Gavin, 2004: 265). berZnuli sityva baptisma, romelic xSirad sxvadasxva enaze iTargmneba rogorc `naTloba~, sityvasityviT niSnavs `daflvas~, wyalSi daflvas. arsebobs aseve kidev erTi wesi wylis simbolosTan da eklesiaSi mis praqtikul gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic romis kaTolikur eklesiaSi arsebobs. morwmuneni taZarSi Sesvlisas marjvena xelis TiTebs specialur TasSi Casxmul nakurTx wyalSi hyofen da pirjvars gamoisaxaven. religiur suvenirad iTvleba agreTve sxvadasxva wminda adgilebidan momlocvelTa mier Camotanili e.w. wminda wyalic (Renard, 2002: 148-9). aseve RvTismsaxurebis dros kaTolikuri eklesiis msaxurni ceremonialurad ibanen xelebs. aqve aRsaniSnavia fexTbanvis rituali, romelic qristes magaliTis mixedviT, aRdgomis dResaswaulamde ramdenime dRiT adre, did xuTSabaTs aResruleba. mniSvnelovani movlenebis (RvTismsaxureba, qorwili da sxva) win wyalSi ganbanvis ritualis aRsrulebis sakmaod mtkice tradicia arsebobs agreTve iudaizmSic (rogorc amas qvemoTac vnaxavT) da iaponur sintoistur religiaSic, romlis `sasuliero pirebi RvTismsaxurebis win ganbanvis rituals mimarTaven~ (Ellwood, 2007: 474). am rituals ara mxolod sasuliero pirebi aRasruleben, ara-

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med rigiTi morwmunenic taZarSi Sesvlis win. amitom iaponiaSi, yovel sintoistur taZarTan aris xelebis dasabani wylis avzi. sintoizmSi wyals calke RvTaebac ki hyavs, romlis saxelia suijini. igi aRiqmeba wyaroebis, mdinareebisa da tbebis damcvelad, `radgan wyali ganwmendisa da sicocxlis mamoZravebel umTavres saSualebas warmoadgens~ (Renard, 2002: 491). analogiuri tradicia islamSic gvxvdeba. yovel meCeTSi aucileblad unda iyos gamavali wyali ganbanvisTvis: locvis win dadgenilia ganwmendis ritualis Sesruleba. erTmaneTisgan ganarCeven Sinagan da garegan ganwmendas. Sinagani ganwmenda aResruleba sinanuliT, mowyalebis gacemiT, marxviT da zogadad, RvTismoSiSi cxovrebiT, garegani ganwmenda ki gulisxmobs pirisaxisa da xelebis dabanas. SariaTis Tanaxmad, ganbanva unda Sesruldes wyliT, magram Tu amis saSualeba ar aris, amis gakeTeba nebadarTulia sufTa qviSiTac an specialuri qviT (Tin./jaSi, 2010: Tavi 3.1.b). Tumca imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom islami udabnos klimatis pirobebSi warmoiSva, am wesidan sxva ufro saintereso gamonaklisicaa daSvebuli, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom muslims SeuZlia meCeTSi Sesvlisas ubralod ganbanvisTvis damaxasiaTebeli moZraobebi (motions of washing) Seasrulos xelebiT da amiT aRasrulos es wesi (Ellwood, 2007: 405). saWiroa aseve vaxsenoT iseTi iudaisturi Sesityveba, rogoricaa `ritualuri siwminde~ da `ritualuri uwmindureba~. am gansazRvrebiT aRiniSneba iudaizmSi gavrcelebuli Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac adamianis organizmidan gamoyofil zogierT nivTierebas, aseve avadmyofobas da cxovelebTan Sexebas, SeuZlia adamiani uwmindurebis mdgomareobaSi moiyvanos. am dros adamians ekrZaleboda taZarTan miaxloebac ki. magram adamianis ritualuri siwmindis mdgomareobaSi dabruneba SeeZlo sxvadasxva ganmwmend rituals (karantini, Tmis SeWra, tansacmlis recxva), romelTa Soris mniSvnelovani adgili eWira wylis sxurebasa da wyalSi ritualur STaflvas, ris Semdegac mas ufleba hqonda monawileoba mieRo normalur ojaxur Tu sataZro cxovrebaSi (, 2002: 247). msgavs iudaistur ganwmendaze saubrobs pilkingtonic. misi dakvirvebiT, Tanamedrove iudaizmSic ki izrdeba im qalTa ricxvi, romlebic yovel Tve wyliT ganwmendis rituals aRasruleben. es aqti ukavSirdeba qalis bunebrivi ciklisa da Svilis gaCenis Semdgom periods, aseve qorwinebis wina dRes. am ritualuri ganwmendisTvis aucilebelia, rom wyali bunebrivi warmoSobis iyos, anu aRebul iqnes mdinaris, wyaros, tbis, zRvis an wvimis wylebidan. qalTa umravlesoba am ritualisTvis specialur avzebs iyenebs, sadac garkveuli proporciiT wvimis wyalic aris gazavebuli. msgavsi rituali aResruleboda `iudaiz-

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mis istoriis yvela etapze da ara mxolod qalebis mier. mravali iudeveli mamakacic aRasrulebda am rituals SabaTisa da sxva religiuri dResaswaulebis wina dRes~ (, 2002: 92). iudaizmSi arsebobda agreTve sakvebis miRebis win xelebis ganbanvis sakmaod mkacri wesi, romelic ganuxrelad unda daecva yvela marTlmorwmune iudevels. swored am wesTan dakavSirebiT vxvdebiT Cven axal aRTqmaSi mcire incidents. ierusalimeli farisevlebi da mwignobrebi midian iesosTan da ekiTxebian: ratom arRveven Seni mowafeebi uxucesTa Cveulebas? radgan xels ar ibanen Wamis win (mT. 15:2). am SekiTxvaze iesos pasuxis erTi nawili ki Semdegnairad JRerda: adamians bilwavs ara pirSi Semavali, aramed is, rac piridan gamodis (mT. 15:11). wylis simbolo gamoiyeneba agreTve iudaistur literaturaSic. magaliTad, TalmudSi vkiTxulobT: rabi xanina ben idim erTxel Tqva: ratom emsgavseba Toris sityva wyals, rogorc weria: mwyurvalno, yvelani modiT wylebTan (isaia 55:1)? es imitom, rom rogorc wyali tovebs maRal adgilebs da dablobisken miedineba, ise Toris sityva Sordeba ampartavanT da miiwevs Tavmdabali adamianebisken (, 2002: 46). wylis TvisebebTan marjve Sedarebas vawydebiT aseve konfucianur moZRvrebaSi: `...adamianis buneba hgavs wylis dinebas. wyali swored iqiT miedineba, saiTac arxia gaWrili. wylis msgavsad, adamianis bunebac ise aRizrdeba, saiTac iqneba mimarTuli misi aRzrda. es ki imas niSnavs, rom adamianis buneba TavisTavad arc keTilia da arc boroti, aramed mTlianad damokidebulia garegan faqtorebze, romlebic mis formirebaze axdenen zegavlenas (Taylor, 2004: 109). wylis simbolosTan Sedarebebi gamoiyeneba Zen-budistur moZRvrebaSic. magaliTad, erT-erT Zvel budistur teqstSi vkiTxulobT, `tbis gamWirvale wyali hgavs im adamianis cnobierebas, romelmac miaRwia gasxivosnebas (...) msgavsad imisa, rogorc wyaros wyali uerTdeba tbas, aseve adamianis suli moipovebs simSvides bunebasTan SerwymiT~ (, 2003: 202). sxvaTa Soris, budizmSi arsebobs TxuTmetamde paraleli saxarebiseul epizodebTan. am paralelebze saubrobs edvard tomasi Tavis naSromSi. maTgan erT-erTi saintereso SemTxveva ukavSirdeba petre mociqulis wyalze siarulis msgavs movlenas (mT. 14:28) budizmSi. 190-e jatakaSi moTxrobilia, Tu rogor gaiara wylis zedapirze meditaciaSi myofma budas erTma mowafem, Tumca mdinaris Sua nawilSi talRebis danaxvisTanave `Semcirda misi sixaruli, romelsac meditaciaSi yofnis dros ganicdida da wyalSi CaZirva daiwyo. magram ganamtkica ra meditacia, kvlav ganagrZo wyalze siaruli, gadavida me-

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ore napirze, miesalma moZRvars da masTan erTad dajda~ (, 2003: 153). CineTis sinkretul religiur tradiciaSi arsebobs wylis mmarTveli drakonebi, romlebic pasuxismgebelni iyvnen qveyanaSi wylis reJimze, gvalvebsa da wyaldidobebze. religiaTmcodne vasilievis Tanaxmad, drakoni CineTSi yovelTvis iTvleboda ara mxolod wylis mmarTvelad, aramed wminda cxovelad, garkveulwilad CineTis imperatorisa da zogadad, CineTis simbolod (, 1998: 203). CineTSi drakoni, _ wylis simbolo, _ yovelTvis iyo Semosili zeciuri ZalauflebiT. wylis gamanayofierebeli es mistikuri Zala koncetrirebuli iyo RrublebSi, zeciur samyaroSi. ra mdgomareobaa am mxriv berZnul samyaroSi? hyavs Tu ara masac wyalTan dakavSirebuli RvTaeba an SeiniSneba Tu ara masSi wylis raimegvari kulti? mdinareTa kultze homerosi mogviTxrobs, romlebSic troelebi cocxal cxovelebs hyridnen. aseve tradiciulad cxenebsa da xarebs msxverplad swiravdnen poseidonsa da wylis sxva RvTaebebs. mirCa eliades Tanaxmad, sxva indoevropeli erebic swiravdnen msxverpls mdinareebs, magaliTad, frankebi, germanelebi, slavebi da sxvebi` (, 1999: $68). uZvelesi induri msoflSegrZnebis mixedviTac, wyali yofierebis sawyisia da rogorc samyaros Seqmnamde arsebobda Tvaluwvdeneli wyali, aseve wyali dafaravs yovelives kosmiuri ciklis dasasruls. induizmis panTeonSi RvTaeba varuna xdeba jer wvimis, Semdeg ki okeanis RmerTi. induistur da vedur miTologiaSi cnobili cecxlis RmerTi _ agnic wyalSia dabadebuli. erT-erTi versiiT es RvTaeba imaleba wyalSi `wyevlis ra Tevzebsa da bayayebs~ (, 2002a: 61). aseve wyalTan aris dakavSirebuli mTavari induisturi RvTaebis _ brahmasa da am samyaros Seqmna. miTis Tanaxmad, pirvelyofil wylebSi Cndeba oqros kvercxi, am kvercxSi ki brahma. Semdeg brahma sakuTari ZaliT hyofs or nawilad kvercxs, ris Sedegadac warmoiSveba ca da miwa. Semdeg brahma qmnis atmosferos, sawyis elementebs, rangiT masze dabla mdgom RvTaebebs, dros, planetebs, mdinareebs, adamianebs, cxovelebs (, 1998: 141). mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs agreTve wylis simbolos indusTa religiur praqtikaSic. erT-erT wminda adgilad, romlebsac indusi piligrimebi regularulad moilocaven, aRiarebulia RvTaeba indras Svilis amqveynad movlinebis adgili, sadac 12 weliwadSi erTxel gansakuTrebuli sadResaswaulo ritualebi aResruleba. aq milionobiT piligrimi Camodis da wminda mdinared miCneuli gangis wyalSi Cadis sulieri ganbanvis niSnad. mdinare gangze fantaven agreTve gardacvlil axlobelTa gvamebis kremaciis Sedegad darCenil

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ferfls. saerTod indusebi `aRiareben Svid wminda mdinares: gangi, iamuna, sarasvati, narmada, qauveri da godavari, romelTagan yvelaze wmindad mainc gangi iTvleba, radgan mis napirebze indusTaTvis Zvirfasi uamravi siwminde inaxeba~ (Park, 2005: 451). religiebsa da miTebSi wylis semantikaze msjelobisas ar SeiZleba yuradRebis miRma darCes miTi sayovelTao warRvnis Sesaxeb. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli bibliuri istoria, rogorc Cans, nawilia warRvnis miTebis ufro farTo da Zveli tradiciisa. Sumeruli tradiciiT noes prototipi gaxldaT _ ziusudra, xolo aqaduri tradiciis Tanaxmad mas erqva _ utnapiSti. warRvnis Temas vawydebiT aseve gilgameSis eposSic, romelmac saboloo forma Zv. w. 2000 wlisTvis miiRo3. warRvnis gilgameSiseuli versia sakmaod axlos dgas bibliur TxrobasTan. berZnuli miTologiac icnobs `adamianTa borotebiT gamowveul warRvnis miTs. zevsi qveynierebis gasanadgureblad adamianebs wyaldidobas ugzavnis~ (Ellwood, 2007: 152). msgavsi miTebi arsebobs indoeTSic da TiTqmis yvela xalxis religiur Tu miTologiur teqstebSi, Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom msgavsi miTebi `Zalzed iSviaTad gvxvdeba afrikaSi~ (mirCa, 2009: 50). warRvnasTan dakavSirebuli miTebis sakmaod mraval variantSi RmerTebis mier adamianebis ganadgurebis mizezi adamianebis codvebi iyo. zogjer mizezad gvevlineba RvTaebaTa survili kacobriobis ganadgurebisa. Suamdinarul tradiciidan wamosul miTebSi Znelia warRvnis mizezis dadgena. sxva tradiciiT, RmerTebis risxva gamowveul iqna adamianebis mier warmoqmnili autaneli xmauriT. Tumca miTebis umravlesoba warRvnis movlenis mizezad mainc adamianebis codvebs asaxelebs. aris Tu ara warRvna realuri istoriuli faqti? elvudis redaqtorobiT gamocemul `msoflio religiaTa enciklopediaSi~ am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT vkiTxulobT: `zogierTi adamiani (some people) waRvnis miTs istoriad aRiqvams, sxvebis azriT ki es ambavi SeTxzulia garkveuli religiuri mesijebis gadmosacemad... zogierTi mecnierisTvis, magaliTad, mirCa eliadesTvis, warRvnasTan dakavSirebuli ambebi universaluri miTologiuri modelis nawilia~ (Ellwood, 2007: 153). mirCa eliade marTlac am Tvalsazrisis momxre gaxldaT. gavec
arsebobs am Zeglis uSualod originalidan Sesrulebuli qarTuli Targmanic: gilgameSiani. Zveli Suamdinaruli eposi. aqaduridan da Sumerulidan Targmna zurab kiknaZem. Tb., 2009.
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noT uSualod mecnieris sityvebs am sakiTxze, romlebic, samwuxarod, ar aris citirebuli xsenebul enciklopediaSi da misi Tvalsazrisi zogadi perifraziT aris gadmocemuli, rac mkiTxvelisTvis SeiZleba mTlad gasagebi ar aRmoCndes. Tavis fundamentur samtomeulSi `rwmenisa da religiuri ideebis istoria~ mecnieri wers: `sarisko iqneboda ase Zalian gavrcelebuli miTi agvexsna im fenomeniT, romelTa geologiuri kvali ar aris aRmoCenili~ (, 2002b: $18). samwuxarod, dasaxelebul enciklopediaSi warmodgenili statia sruliad ar aris dawerili enciklopediisTvis damaxasiaTebeli stiliT, romelSic ar unda iyos warmodgenili mxolod erTi Tvalsazrisi. aq kargavs yovelgvar mniSvnelobas is garemoeba, Tu romeli Tvalsazrisia ufro metad damajerebeli: enciklopediaSi warmodgenili unda iyos yvela mniSvnelovani Sexeduleba, ori an meti. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ki namdvilad arsebobs gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi, romlebsac sxva mkvlevrebi gamoTqvamen. magaliTad, istorikosi vasilevi am sakiTxze wers: `is, rom msgavsi katastrofuli wyaldidoba realur faqts warmoadgens, amaze mowmobs ingliseli arqeologis l. vulis gaTxrebi 20-30-ian wlebSi, romlis drosac aRmoCenil iqna Slamis mravalmetriani fena, romelic erTmaneTisgan hyofda qalaqis uZveles da mogviano kulturul danaSrevebs~ (, 1998: 35). daskvna amrigad, rogorc zemoT mimoxiluli religiuri tradiciebidan da miTologiidan irkveva, wyali SeiZleba warmogvidges orsaxovani ianusiviT, romelic SeiZleba iyos rogorc destruqciuli, ise sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis matarebeli. miuxedavad amisa, wyali mainc sicocxlis mTavar wyarod gvevlineba ara mxolod simbolur, aramed biologiur donezec: adamianis sxeulis 70% xom swored wylisgan Sedgeba. literatura basili, 2000: basili didi. `eqvsTa dReTaTvis~ (homiliebi). Targmani Zveli berZnulidan // saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari. Tb., 2000. 2. bibl./saz., 2001: biblia. Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebi. Tb., saqarTvelos bibliuri sazogadoeba, 2001. 3. bibl./sapat., 1989: biblia. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo, 1989. 1.

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4. bibl./xar., 2004: am pirobiTi niSniT vixseniebT 1990 wels Tbilisis sasuliero akademiaSi Camoyalibebuli mTargmnelTa jgufis (a. xaranaulis xelmZRvanelobiT) mier ganxorcielebuli bibliis ramdenime wignis axlebur Targmans. maT mier Targmnili bibliis pirveli wignis teqsti, romelsac aq viyenebT, gamoqveynebulia gagrZelebebiT JurnalSi `rwmena da codna~ (2002-2003), aseve calke broSuris saxiT (wigni Seqmnisa, saqarTvelos sapatriarqo 2006). 5. Tin./jaSi, 2010: TinikaSvili daviT, jaSi zurab. msoflio religiebi. saxelmZRvanelo ufrosklaselTaTvis. Tb., mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, 2010. 6. mirCa, 2009: eliade, mirCa. miTis aspeqtebi. Tb., ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, 2009. 7. , 1998: . . . ., 1998 8. , 2003: , . -. . . M., 2003. 9. , 1999: . // IV , ., 1999, III. 10. , 1993: , , ., 1993. 11. , 1991: . . ., 1991. 12. , 1989: . . . . ., 1989, I. 13. , 1999: , . . . ., .: , 1999. 14. , 2002a: , . , . . . .: ; .: , 2002. 15. , 2002b: , . . ( 3 .), . 1: . , . 2- ., . ., , 2002. 16. , 2002: , . . ., 2002. 17. , 2003: , . . , ., 2003. 18. , 2002: , . . . ., Bibliotheca Judaica, 2002. 19. Gavin, 2004: Gavin DCosta. Church and Sacraments // The Blackwell Companion to Modern Theology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2004. 20. Ellwood, 2007: Ellwood, Robert (Ed.). The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Revised Edition, 2007. 21. Park, 2005: Park, Chris. Religion and Geography // The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. London & N-Y. Taylor &

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Francis Group, 2005. 22. Renard, 2002: Renard, John. The Handy Religion Answer Book. Detroit, Visible Ink Press, 2002. 23. Taylor, 2004: Taylor, Rodney. Confucianism. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, 2004.

zurab kiknaZe

zRva da xmeleTi qarTul miTosSi saqarTvelos istorias, Tumca qveyanas cali fexi zRvaSi edga (am sikoWles gamoxatavs istoriuli formula `nikofsiidan darubandamde~), ar axsovs raime mniSvnelovani urTierToba zRvasTan da, miTumetes, sazRvao brZolebi. karl Smitis naTqvami zogadad adamianze SeiZleba gavimeorT qarTuli sinamdvilis mimarT, rom qarTveli adamiani

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: Suamdinaruli miTologia; qarTuli miTologia I, jvari da saymo; Zveli aRTqmis wuTisofeli; moses xuTwigneulis Targmaneba. interesTa sfero: qarTuli folklori, mwerloba, miTologia; qristianuli Teologia; Zveli aRTqma; asiriologia, semitologia.

xmeleTis arsebaa, miwaze mosiarulea. igi dgas da gadaadgildeba dedamiwis myar zedapirze. es aris misi pozicia da misi niadagi... da, rac mniSvnelovania, es gansazRvravs mis STabeWdilebebs da msoflaRqmas [Smiti 2010:46]. mTa da bari _ ai, es aris saqarTveloSi mosaxle adamianis asparezi, da, ra Tqma unda, xevebi da xeobebi, da mdinareebi, Tumca ver davadasturebT, rom odesme Tundac mdinareebs raime gadamwyveti sameurneo an strategiuli mniSvneloba hqonodeT qveynis istoriaSi. wyaluxvi da mborgavi mdinareebi (rioni, enguri...) nakleb xelsayreli iyo sanaosnod, mxolod mTebSi moWrili da tivebad Sekruli xeebis transportirebisTvis Tu gamodgeboda. mdinareTa qseli arasodes gamxdara saxelmwifo-sameurneo politikis mniSvnelovani nawili, gansxvavebiT potamuri epoqis tigrosisa da evfratis auzisa, romlis arxebiT qselze iyo damyarebuli qveynis keTildReoba da siuxve, rom araferi vTqvaT civilizaciaze, romlis saxe garkveulwilad am orma mdinarem ganapiroba. arc am regionisTvisac ar uTamaSnia raime


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roli Soreul zRvas, romlis siSorem, SesaZloa, ganapiroba aq dasaxlebuli xalxebis moTopoeturi xedva zRvis mimarT. tipologiuri TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia, rom im xalxebis miTosSi, romelTa sameurneo da samxedro saqmianoba ar iyo dakavSirebuli zRvasTan, zRva maT warmodgenebSi monawileobs rogorc xmeleTs totalurad dapirispirebuli stiqia, qaosis saxe, romelic zRvaur urCxulebSia ganpirovnebuli. maTTvis zRva is zRvaria, romlis miRma adamianis, rogorc xmeleTis arsebis, dominacia wydeba, misi kvali ikargeba. is, rac xmeleTis erT kideze urwyuli udabnoa, xmeleTis meore kideze, mis dasalierSi, zRvauri stiqiaa, _ es aris TiamaTi, RmerTebisa da samyaros pirvelsaSo, romelic STanTqmiT emuqreba sofels. zRvidan zRvamde gaSlil saxelmwifos (`qvemo zRvidan zemo zRvamde~) zRvis realuri gamocdileba ar hqonia, da SesaZloa, amitomac misi xati miTosur warmodgenebSi iyo moqceuli. magram im xalxs, saxeldobr, elinebs, romlebic zRvas gaSinaurebuli iyvnen da zRvaosnobis Zveli gamocdileba hqondaT, ar SeuqmniaT zRvis miTosi. zRvaze isini iseve mogzauroben, rogorc xmeleTze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zRva maTi iseTive samSobloa, rogorc eladis miwa. magram davubrundeT qarTul xmeleTur sinamdviles. qarTul mentalobaSi zRvis Soreuloba qmnis masze warmodgenebs siucxoviT dawyebuli mtrobiT damTavrebuli. pirveli safexuri (siucxove) zRvasTan qarTuli damokidebulebisa Cans `vefxistyaosanSi~, sadac zRvaTa samefo, gulanSaros saxelwodebiT, poemis saxmeleTo samefoebis sruli antipodia. is TiTqos irealuri samyaroa qveynis kideze. avTandils iq mosaxvedrad uxdeba Tavis TavTan gaucxoeba, feriscvaleba: Tavisi tradiciebis daTmoba da socialuri tipis Secvlac, moymeobis kategoriidan misTvis SeuTavsebeli vaWrobis kategoriamde daSveba da sakuTari vinaobis dafarva. da sxva. Tumca zRvaTa samefo yvavis siuxviT, magram aRebmicemobaze damyarebuli es siuxve Tavisi warmoSobiT ver gauTanabrdeba arabeTis svian-davlaTian mefeTa siuxves, romelsac gulanSarosgan gansxvavebuli funqcia aqvs. es qveyana droebiTi, gardamavali safexuria gmiris gzaze, yvelaferi, rasac is aq xvdeba, mxolod saSualebaa miznis misaRwevad. gulanSaro saSualebaTa samefoa arabeTisa da indoeTis miznobrivi samefoebisgan gansxvavebiT da maT sapirispirod. poemis avtorma Sors gaswia Tvalsawieri, rogorc mogzaurma axali gamocdileba moitana zRvaTa samefodan1. magram is xom mainc jabanTa qveyanaa (~Tqven vaWarni jabanni xarT...~), sadac diaci dominirebs.
zRvis erTgvari nostalgia Cans pavle ingoroyvas eseSi `CaxruxaZe. poeti. mogzauri~ (kavkasioni 1-2, 1924, 3-4, 1924).
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magram zRvis aqtualoba mxolod poemis monapovaria da poemaSive rCeba. misi prototipi ar Cans qarTul cxovrebaSi. imave xanas, roca `vefxistyaosani~ daiwera, ekuTvnis Tamaris istoria, sadac zRva erTaderTxel aris naxsenebi da isic ara rogorc TavisTavadi realoba, rogorc samoqmedo asparezi, aramed rogorc xmeleTis sapirispiro stiqia, romelic daZleul-gardaqmnili unda iqnas. Tamaris didebis warmosaCenad. `istoriaTa da azmaTa~ avtori Tamarze ambobs: `knin-Ra da yovelsa zRuasa aRmoiwredda Tsad, viTarca Rrubeli yovelTa zeda msxurebeli tkbilTa wmaTa~ [yauxCiSvili 1959:148]. fraza amgvarad iTargmneba axal enaze: `cotac da, mTels zRvas TavisTvis amoxapavda, rogorc yvelasTvis tkbili wvimis masxurebeli Rrubeli~. aseTi metafora gamowveulia im garemoebiT, rom Tamars iseve, rogorc mis winaprebs, arasodes hqoniaT zRvasTan pragmatuli urTierTobis gamocdileba. am, SeiZleba iTqvas, gargantiuli metaforis arseboba swored zRvis siSoriT da masze bundovani warmodgeniT aris ganpirobebuli. Tavisi masStabiT es metafora Taviseburi miTologemaa, romelic SeiZleba migvaniSnebdes Tamaris, rogorc miTologiuri arsebis, kosmogoniur Rvawlze: Tamarma mTeli xmeleTi daimorCila da axla isRa darCa, rom, rogorc demiurgma, moaxdinos zRvis kosmizacia, anu ucxo da mtruli stiqia kacTaTvis sasargeblo movlenad gardaqmnas2. meore safexuri zRvis aRqmisa _ misi mtruli, agresiuli saxe xalxur warmodgenebSia dakristalebuli aseve miTologemebis saxiT. pirvelad zRvis agresiuloba `qarTlis moqcevis~ teqstSia dadasturebuli Teonimurad sakmaod bundovani, Tumca Sinaarsobrivad advilad amosacnobi miTologemis saxiT: `ege armaz da qaldevelTa RmerTi iTruSana yoladve mter arian. aman mas zeda zRua moadginis da man amis zeda erTi nu rame moawiis, viTarca aqus Cueuleba soflis mpyrobelTa~ [Zeglebi 1964:132-a]3. hqonda Tu ara raime kavSiri zRvasTan armazs, romelic qarTvelTa RmerTad aris moxseniebuli, Tumca am saxeli warmomavloba ahura-mazdasgan ueWveli unda iyos, amis garCevaSi ar SevalT, magram is ki cxadia, rom miTologema aSkarad zRvisa da xmeleTis samkvdro-sasicocxlo dasabamieri dapirispirebis models warmogvidgens. teqstis SeniSvna, romelic erTvis
`ram Semqmna adamianad, // ratom ar movel wvimada...~. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ am gvari redaqciiT aris warmodgenli es epizodi: `qaldevelTa RmerTi iTrujan da Cueni ese RmerTi armaz yovladve mter arian: aman same mas zeda zRua moaqcia, da aw man Suri iZia da mis mier moiwia ese~ [yauxCiSvili 1955: 91-92, Sdr. 106-107].
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iTruSanas rogorc gansazRvreba _ `viTarca aqus Cueuleba soflis mpyrobelTa~ _ aSkarad mianiSnebs mis xmeleTur bunebaze, miuxedavad imisa, rom, SesaZloa, es saxeli mazdeanuri cecxlis RmerTis saxelwodebis aTroSanis4 reminiscencia iyos [kekeliZe 1956:268-270]. asec rom iyos, zRvauri stiqiis metoqed xmeleTidan swored cecxlia bunebrivi, cecxli, rogorc xmeleTis, mSrali miwis warmomadgeneli. cxadia, am zRvaSi realur zRvas verafriT vigulisxmebT. is, ubralod, agresiis niSani an iaraRia ganrisxebuli FRvTaebis xelSi. zRvis agresiulobis miTologemis gamoZaxilia amiranis eposis `Savi zRva~ ukiduresad dawurul narativSi: ~Savma (gveleSapma) aiRo, Caylapa, Savi zRvisaken gaswia~. romelic mxolod fragmentad SemorCa amiranis isedac fragmentul eposs. aq `Savi zRva~ apokalifsuri xilvebis movlenaa, Sav gveleSapad ganpirovnebuli. es gveleSapi zRvis warmomadgenelia, is zRvis saxeliT esxmis xmeleTs da ylapavs amirans, rogorc xmeleTis mkvidrs, romlis Zlevamosileba, msgavsad elinTa anteosisa, mxolod xmeleTze vrceldeba, zRvaze ki ukan ixevs5. igive miTologema meordeba odnavi saxecvlilebiT vaJa-fSavelas striqonSi aseve apokalipsuri xilvebis Semcveli leqsidan (~Rame mTaSi~): `Savi zRvis6 Savi veSapi pirRia dagveRireba~. zRvis, zogadad wylis, aseve wyaluxvi mdinaris amgvarma aRqmam XX saukunis mwerlamde moaRwia. vasil barnovi sxvagvarad ar aRiqvams mdinares, Tundac nacnob, mSobliur mtkvars, Tu ara azvirTebis momentSi: `daRamebis xans camowmendilzed is mdinare azvirTdeboda; Tavis qerqSi ver eteoda, kideebzed miinTqreoda: mis sadinels mTlad iWerda gveleSapi uzarmazari, mocuravda igragneboda, xandaxan Tavs aiRebda, cecxlis Tvalebs abrialebda, alsa fSvenda aSkmul piridan~; misTvis zRvac cnobilia, zRva, `uZiro da umaZRari, ukido ram ukiane, mdinareT mnTqmeli~ (`mtkvris vaJi~, t. 8, 1963)7. amdenad, Tuki qarTul sinamdvileSi arsebobs zRvis miTosuri motivi, Tundac fragmentuli, gauSleli miTologemis saxiT, es ar unda iyos zRvasTan am xalxis urTierTobis asaxva, aramed universaluri arqetipuli modelis sruliad spontanuri gamovlena. am
SuSanikis martvilobis atroSan-is fonetikuri saxecvlileba. zRvis SuagulSi cidan Camokidebuli koSkidan yamaris motacebas is mxolodn sxvisi daxmarebiT SeZlebs. 6 es `Savi zRva~ aq xalxuri warmodgenebis zRvaa da ara realuri Savi zRva. 7 magaliTisTvis, niSandoblivia, rom konstantine WiWinaZis `rionis apologia~ mdinare rions swored misi gardareuli wyaluxvobis procesSi aRwers (pirvelad gamoqveynda `kavkasionSi~, 1-2, 1924).
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TvalsazrisiT ganvixiloT ori fSauri warmoSobis leqsi, romlebic, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini erTi mTqmelis piridan ar gamodian, maTi erTmaneTTan kavSiri advilad gamosacnobia. meore agrZelebs pirvels, magram TiToeuli maTgani, rogorc dasrulebuli TviTkmari narativi, sakuTriv Temas aviTarebs. I. qalma Tqva, Tamar nefema: dedav, sizmari vnaxeo: Cambarda saxmeleToi, vah, Tu ver Sevinaxeo. _ maSinve Candi, Tamaro, rodesac daibadeo. mesame Tve rom gagixda, akvanSiiTa asdeo. jer xel-pir Camaibane, memr pirjvar daisaxeo. Ciqila gadagexura, ver gavig, sad-ra waxveo. moxvedi meSvide welsa, sTqvi: Sua zRvai vnaxeo [qxp XI:#6-a]. II. Svidi wlis qali Tamari, mefed Tqves, dedofalio. zRvis piras SaviyareniT, Sagveqna saomario. zRvasa gadahkra Ciqila, gadaaqanna wyalnio. Sua zRvas Cadga samani, ar gadmoscildes cvario. kldeze gamarTa qalaqi, Saaba rkinis kario. Sig aaSena sioni, daadga oqros jvario [sixaruliZe I: 25-e]. pirveli narativi iwyeba Tamaris xmeleTze gamefebiT da mTavrdeba `Sua zRvis~ xilviT. frazaSi `Cambarda saxmeleToi~ _ zmnis usubieqto pasiuri forma mefis, rogorc xmeleTis mbrZaneblis, statusis primordialobis maCvenebelia. Tamari xmeleTis mbrZaneblad aris dabadebuli, magram misi SeZaxili `vah, Tu ver Sevinaxeo~ ufro mis movaleobasa da pasuxismgeblobaze laparakobs, vidre batonobis uflebaze. xmeleTi da mefe erTmaneTisTvis aris gaCenili. mefe xmeleTis patronia. Tamari ar aris xmeleTis Semqmneli, magram is demiurgia xmeleTisa, romelic zRvidan amoizarda da mas, visac is Cabarda, imTaviTve (`maSinve Candi, Tamaro~) avalia misi dacva da mfarveloba. ismis kiTxva, ras gulisxmobs xmeleTis ~Senaxva~ anu misi dacva-mfarveloba. visgan? ra safrTxisgan? ra moelis xmeleTs? amaze meore (II) narativi gascems pasuxs. aq ki yoveli striqoni raRac mniSvnelovani qmedebisken Semzadebas gamoxatavs: akvnidan adgoma, xel-piris dabana da pirjvris gadawera namdvilad ar gulisxmobs yoveldRiur yofiT qmedebebs. arc Ciqilaa erTsaxovani nivTi _ Tu, erTi mxriv, is qalis mowifulobis da, imavdroulad, misi pativis niSania, narativis meore nawilSi sruliad moulodnel aspeqtSi warmogvidgeba. bolo ori striqoni agebulia formulaze: wavel, vnaxe, movedi (igulisxmeba: gamarjvebuli), rac savsebiT gamoxatavs miToepiur na-


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rativs, romelic saxlidan gasuli gmiris aucilebel dabrunebas moiTxovs. `Sua zRvai~ anu zRvis Wipi8, romelic man ixila, ukanaskneli zRvaria, sadamdisac ki adamians miRweva SeuZlia. is xmeleTis antipoduri adgilia da, rogorc zRvis Suaguli, upirispirdeba xmeleTis centrs, sadac Tamars taxti udgas. meore narativSi irkveva, rom `Cambarda saxmeleToi~ Tamaris samefod koronacias gulisxmobs da rom is jer sizmarSi xdeba, savsebiT kanonzomieria qarTuli samefo miTosisTvis, Tu gavixsenebT analogiur konstruqcias, romelic pirveli qarTveli mefis gamefebas aRwers. farnavazi jer sizmarSi xedavs Tavis mefed cxebas, cxadSi ki uzurpatorze gamarjvebis Semdeg ipovebs gvirgvins da mefobas [kiknaZe 1984: 112-120]. Svidi ricxvi Tamaris niSani orive narativSi da orivegan sxvadasxva simbolikis Semcvelia: Tu pirvel narativSi Svidi weli misi gauCinarebis xangrZlivobaa da eTgvarad misi qmedebis saidumlos inaxavs, meoreSi Svidi weli misi mefed mowifulobis asakia _ orive SemTxvevaSi Svidi ar aris ariTmetikuli ricxvi. `Svidi aris ara Tamaris wlovanebis ricxvi, aramed misi individualobis, misi Rirsebis gamomxatveli ricxviTi niSani. Rirseba, SesaZloa, sxva raime niSniT yofiliyo gamoxatuli. `Svids aq ara aqvs raodenobrivi mniSvneloba, igi ar Sedgeba masze naklebi ricxvebisagan, ar warmoadgens maT jams (3+4, an 2+5, an 1+6). is erTi daunawevrebeli da ganuyofeli mTlianobaa, is martivi da Seudgenelia. es ganuyofloba aris misi simbolizmis safuZveli. Svidi Tamaris, rogorc demiurgis saxelia. `mefed Tqves _ is, rac Tamarma unda aRasrulos (rasac is am leqsis mixedviT asrulebs), mxolod mefed kurTxevis Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli. asea babilonur kosmogoniur miTosSi, sadac marduqi mxolod mas Semdeg gaemarTeba zRvaur urCxul TiamaTTan salaSqrod, rac RmerTebi mefed airCeven da samefo regaliebiT aRWuraven. `zRvis piras9 SaviyareniT, Sagveqna saomaria... _ mefis winamZRolobiT Seikriba laSqari, magram is ar Sekrebila istoriuli konkretuli mtris winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. misi mteri Tavad zRvaa, romelsac Tamari erTpirovnulad upirispirdeba _ laSqari aRar Cans
`vefxistyaosanSi~ es aris nestanis gadakargvis adgili. `zRvis piri~, rogorc toposi, xSiria `vefxistyaosanSi~. `zRvis piras~ dganan, moZraoben, xvdebian ucnobebs, ecnobian; roca xmeleTze imedi amoiwureba, `zRvis pirs~ mimarTaven d molodiniT savse mzeras miapyroben zRvas, vinZlo zRvis gzebze ipovon is, rac saxmeleTo gzebze ver hpoves. zRva moulodnel perspeqtivebs gadaSlis maT winaSe.
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_ da misi erTaderTi iaraRi am brZolaSi aris `Ciqila, romelSic miTosuri simbolizmi imaze mets xedavs, rasac is realobaSi, yofiT doneze warmoadgens. sagani gardaiqmneba, is TiTqos Tavis Tavze maRla dgeba, gadaaWarbebs sakuTar Tavs. Tamari zRvis napirze anu xmeleTisa da zRvis gasayarze dgas. omis mizani ki am gasayaris Sors gawevaa, raTa xmeleTi kvlav gamostacos zRvas, rogorc kosmogoniis dasabamSi moxda. zRvasa gadahkra Ciqila, gadaaqanna wyalnio. Sua zRvas Cadga samani, ar gadmoscildes cvario. am or striqonSi dawurulad aris gadmocemuli kosmogoniuri aqti, romelsac Zvel aRTqmaSi miTologemuri gamoxatulebebi aqvs: `romelman gardaaqcia zRua xmelad~ (fsalm. 65:6), `sazRvars dasdev da ara gardahfen, arRara miiqcian dafarvad qveyanisa~ (fsalm. 103:9), `Sen gakveTe zRva Seni ZaliT...~ (fsalm. 74:13), `gana Sen ara xar rahabis gamkveTeli, Taninis10 ganmgmiravi?~ (fsalm. 51:9), `da vTqvi: aqamde modi, iqiT aRar, aq Sewydes-meTqi Seni talRebis azvirTeba~ (iob. 38:11). Ciqila da samani is instrumentebia Tamar-demiurgis xelSi, romlebic zRvis usazRvro stiqias sazRvars udeben. Ciqilas tipologiur Sesatyvisad SegviZlia CavTvaloT moses kverTxi Tu xeli11, romliTac igi mewamul zRvas Suaze apobs, xolo masalobriv Sesatyvisad elias cnobili mosasxami (Zveli qarTuli teqstebiT xaleni), romliTac elise winaswarmetyveli iordanis dinebas aCerebs. sityvebi iobis wignidan `da vTqvi: aqamde modi, iqiT aRar~ zRvaSi uxilavi samnis Cadebaze mianiSnebs. `Sua zRvas Cadga samani...~ _ es aris Tamaris kosmogoniuri qmedebis centraluri aqti. aq samani erTsa da imave dros miwisa da wylis sazRvaric aris da samyaros RerZic (axis mundi), rogorc usazRvroebaSi Cadgmuli orientiri _ erT-erTi fundamenturi miTologemis realizacia.
rahabi da Tanini zRvauri urCxulebis saxelebia, romlebic zRvis personifikacias warmoadgenen. 11 `da daaRira xeli zRvas mosem da mTeli Rame midenida ufali zRvas aRmosavleTis Zlieri qariT, da xmeleTad aqcia zRva da gaipo wyali~ (gam. 14:21). fsalmunSi xels risxva cvlis: `da Serisxa mewamuli zRva da gaxma igi~ (fsalm. 105:9). risxvis gamoxatuleba iyo qserqses brZanebiT helespontos gaSoltva im faruli mizniT, rom igi srute advilgadasalax xmeleTad eqcia (Herod. VII,35).
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zustad amave terminologiiT mimarTavs mefsalmune samyaros Semoqmeds: `sazRvari dasdev~ (fsalm. 103/104:9) an roca meigave aRwers kosmogoniis aqts: `zRvas wess udgenda, rom wyali napirebidan ar gadmoRvriliyo (igavni 8:29)12. Tamari zRvars sdebs zRvasa da misgan gamotacebul xmeleTs Soris da daadgens samyaros Suagulsac. es ki dasabamieri kosmogoniuri aqtia Tavisi wmida saxiT. erT leqsSi, sadac Tamari ajamebs Tavis Sesaqmes, naTqvamia: Tamar dedofali viyav, Tavi zecamde aviRe, stambols xmali vkar, darubands, Sams sabalaxe aviRe, zRvaSi samnebi Cavyare, xmeleTi Cemsken maviRe, usieri mTa gavkafe, didi Saragza gaviRe, Rada-Ruda tye viare, qedzed saydari avige~ [qxp XI, 14]. aq TiTqmis arqetipurad aris gadmocemuli mefe-demiurgis funqcia. is xmeleTi, romelic Tamars sizmarSi Cabarda da romelic realobaSi man zRvas gamostaca (`Cemsken maviRe~)13, pirvelqmnil saxes atarebs da igi kosmizacias da mis gakacrielebas, Semdgom kulturul gardaqmnas, anu bunebis nedl mocemulobaSi adamianis anabeWds saWiroebs. usieri mTa da Saragza erTmaneTs iseve upirispirdebian, rogorc udaburi ganusazRvreli zRva da xmeleTi, zogadad da fundamenturad ki, rogorc qaosi da kosmosi. meore safexurze `RadaRuda tyis anu mouwesrigebeli, qaoturi sivrcis sapirispiroa kldeze agebuli qalaqi da qedze saydari, romlis mSenebloba gzebis gayvanis Semdeg kulturSemoqmedebiTi aqtis meore da albaT, sabo
am miTologemis Semcveli es sintagmebi _ mefsalmunis `sazRvari dasdev~ (gebul samTa) da meigavis `zRvas wess udgenda~ (sam le-am xukko) sinonimebia. wesi (ebr. hok), romelic amave dros sazRvris mniSvnelobasac Seicavs, konceptualurad gadmoscems imave moqmedebas, rasac _ xiluli sazRvris (ebr. gebul) gatareba. 13 realobis gamomxatveli karl Smitis debuleba `zRva ki ar aris xmeleTis nawili, aramed xmeleTia zRvis nawili~ [Smiti] universalur miTosur WeSmaritebas Seicavs. TiTqmis yvela kosmogonia xmeleTs zRvidan warmoSobilad miiCnevs, xolo kosmologiuri TvalTaxedviT xmeleTi kunZulia ukidegano okeaneSi. marTalia, bibliis TvalsazrisiT, adamiani miwis Svilia da miwasve unda daubrundes, Tavad miwa bevri xalxis esqatologiis Tanaxmad wylis stiqias, rogorc Tavis Taurmizezs, ubrundeba. noes warRvna amis klasikuri magaliTia.
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loo etapia. aq vxedavT am aqtis dasabams da dasasruls, dagvirgvinebas, lamis arqetipurs, yovel SemTxvevaSi, asea uZveles epikur tradiciebSi gaazrebuli mefis am ormxrivi mimarTulebiT moRvaweoba14. zRvasTan Serkinebuli Tamaris saxes Tan sdevs Ciqila da samani, rogorc misi demiurgobis erTmaneTisgan ganuyreli regalia. fSaur sadidebelSi es ori sagani mis kosmogoniur RvawlTan erTad ixsenieba: `Reles aqim-dedofalo, Ciqila-zinziliano, Sua zRvaSi samnis Cagdebo~. mxolod Tavsaburvelia am miTologemur epiTetSi Ciqila zinzilasTan erTad? Tamari aq Seqebulia, rogorc meomari RvTisSvili da Ciqila misi iseTive Tandayolili, `RvTisgan molocvili~ saWurvelia, rogoric aris laxti iaxsarisa Tu kopalas xelSi. zRvasTan Serkinebis Temis sxvagvari narativic arsebobs, sadac Ciqilas cvlis cecxli, romelic Tamars aRmoaCnda zRvis winaaRmdeg mis dasamorCileblad. `asrulda dedis sityvebi. Tamari Seiqna mpyrobeli marTla mTeli saqarTvelosi... yvelas qedi unda moexara imis didebis winaSe... Tamarma yvelas xarji dasdva. marto zRvaRa iyo Tavisufali da jer kidev ar uxrida qeds, magram isic male modrika Tamarma. ubrZana qars, moatanina zRvis pirze Calabze, Tiva-fiCxi, gadaayrevina zRvaSi da daasxa navTi, mere moakidebina ccxli; abrialda cecxli da gaerTxa boli zRvis piras. Sewuxda zRva, Sewuxdnen zRvis cxovelebi da gamougzavna kaci Tamars, oRond nu damwvav, da, rac ginda, is xarji gamomarTvio. Tamarma Seiwynara zRvis Txovna, gamoarTva kameCebi, qarva, mravali Tval-margalti da cxovelebi. amis Semdeg gaCndnen qveyanaze kameCebi da Tval-margaliti [sixaruliZe 1961: #41]. bunebrivia, rom cecxli samkvdro-sasicocxlod upirispirdebodes wyals. aq unda gavaxsenoT brZola armazsa da iTruSans Soris...
SeniSvna 1. ismis kiTxva: aris Tu ara cecxli iseTive atributi qalisa, rogorc Ciqila? SeiZleba aq movixmoT cecxlis, rogorc keriis, mdedruli

14 `gilgameSianSi gilgameSisa da enqidus SeRwevis mizani kedaris gauval tyeSi swored es aris: gzis gakvalva, SamaSisTvis, mzis RmerTisTvis gzis gaxsna usier tevrSi SesaRwevad da bnelis gasanaTeblad [kiknaZe 2009:59].


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buneba. sakidlisa da keriis simbolur sistemaSi keria mdedria. rogorc fiqroben, cecxlis warmodgenas qalis saxiT Soreuli warsuli aqvs [miTebi 1982:239]. igi ar SemoisazRvreba romelime konkretuli kulturiT, raki es idea neoliTur xanas swvdeba da bevri Zveli xalxis kulturisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. `cecxlis deda igivea, rac keria, romlis klasikuri gansaxiereba berZnuli hestiaa. Tumca cecxli gvian xanaSi mamakacma (berZn. hefestom, rom. vulkanusma) miitaca, mTel wyebaSi kulturebisa, maT Soris qarTulSi cecxli kvlav dedis prerogativad rCeba.

miuxedevad imisa, rom Tamari zRvis meomaria da, amdenadve, zRvis raRac nawilis dampyrobeli, rac Sua zRvaSi mis mier samnis CagdebiT aris miniSnebuli, igi isev da isev xmeleTis patronad rCeba, xmeleTze iSleba misi, rogorc demiurgis da kosmetoris, Semoqmedeba. zRvis elementi ar Sedis mis regaliebSi. zRva kvlav qaosis stiqiad rCeba, kvlav da kvlav STanTqmiT emuqreba adamianTa miwas. *** `msoflio istoria sazRvao da saxmeleTo saxelmwifoebs Soris dapirispirebis istoriaa. samxedro mecnierebis specialistma, frangma admiralma kasteqsma Tavis strategiul wigns ganmazogadebeli saTauri waumZRvara: zRva xmeleTis winaaRmdeg, La Mer contre la Terre. amiT igi didi tradiciis farglebSi darCa. xmeleTsa da zRvas Soris arsebuli elementuri dapirispireba adamianma odiTganve SeniSna. jer kidev XIX saukunis bolos ruseTsa da ingliss Soris imdroindeli daZabulobis gamoxatva erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli daTvisa da veSapis saxiT, sakmaod popularuli iyo. veSapi aq didi miTiuri Tevzi leviaTania... rac Seexeba daTvs, igi xmeleTze mcxovrebi cxovelis simboluri gansaxierebaa~ [Smiti 2010:54-55]. rogorc vxedavT, zRvisa da xmeleTis dapirispirebas, garda miTologiuri aspeqtisa, geopolitikuri aspeqtic aqvs, rac am niSniT istoriis agebis saSualebas iZleva. magram miToss moklebul axal droSic es dapirispireba miTosur saxeebSia simbolizebuli TiTqos imis saCveneblad da gasacnobiereblad, rom yovel, Tundac geopolitikur, movlenas fesvi miTosur winarewarsulSi, anu, ufro zustad, alCeringas xanaSi udgas, da istoriuli konstruqciebi da movlenebi mxolod im pirvelaqtebis paradigmebia. amas gulisxmobs, albaT, `didi tradicia~, romelsac dasabami Zlier droSi, mas Jamsa Sina (illo tempore) daedo. paradigmuli variaciebi exeba ara mxolod movlenebs, aramed simbolikasac. daTvi da veSapi, rogorc xmeleTisa da zRvis warmomadgenlebi, axali drois aratradiciuli saxeebia. Tu realur daTvsa da veSaps am dasabamieri dapirispirebis niS-

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nebad miviRebT, xmeleTi aSkarad negatiur aspeqtSi warmogvidgeba. is daTvurad agresiulia zRvis mimarT, rac gamoxatavs xmeleTis (resp. adamianis) swrafvas zRvis aTvisebisa da, bolos, misi stiqiis daokeba-damorCilebisken. es modeli safuZvlad udevs herman melvilis Txzulebas `mobi diks~, sadac aramiTosuri realuri veSapi da realuri adamiani samkvdro-sasicocxlod upirispirdebian erTmaneTs _ xmeleTi adamianis saxiT ebrZvis zRvas, zRva ki TeTri veSapis saxiT icavs Tavs. Tumca moqmedni savsebiT realuri, amqveyniuri arsebani arian, modeli dasabamieria, miTosSi hpovebs pirvel gamoxatulebebs. veSapze nadiroba, rac am wignis zedapirul Sinaarss Seadgens, savsebiT pragmatulia, magram am dasabamierobas grZnobs avtori, roca veSapmebrZols paTetikurad aTqmevinebs, rom igi asrulebs milioni wlebis winaT gacemul brZanebas da veraviTari gareSe Zala ver daaokebs mas, radgan es misi bedisweraa. am dasabamieri brZanebis aRsruleba niSnavs dasabamier miTosSi monawileobas15 da mis xelaxla Txzvas axal pirobebSi. ar SeiZleba SemTxveviTi iyos, Tumca es ar aris TxzulebaSi Tematizebuli, melvilis romanis preambulaSi motanili nawyveti ovidi meilis wignidan `nantakenis istoria: `1690-ian wlebSi ramdenime kaci idga maRal qedze da akvirdeboda, rogor laRobdnen veSapebi da rogor afrqvevdnen Sadrevnebs. erTma gaiSvira xeli zRvis tramalebisken da Tqva: iq Zevs mwvane mindori, sadac Cveni SvilTaSvilebis bavSvebi wavlen sazrdos mosapoveblad~. aq Soreul xilvaSi ganWvretilia imis Sedegi, rac moyva Tamaris qmedebas, roca man zRvas xmeleTi gamostaca. daTvze verafers vityviT, ramdenadac misi TaTebi verc realur da verc miTosur zRvas swvdeba (Tumca arsebobs TeTri daTvi _ yinulovani okeanis mkvidri, magram misi gamiTiureba ar momxdara im xalxSi, romelic mas icnobda), veSapze ki SegviZlia vilaparakoT, oRond ara mobi dikis TanamoZmeebze, aramed miTosur veSapze, rogorc is qarTul xalxur mentalobaSi damkvidrda. saba ganmartavs veSaps16, rogorc `did Tevzs~, romelsac iona
`asea, ase, ugunuro mokvdavno, noes warRvna jer ar dasrulebula, igi dRemde faravs Cveni saxelovani msoflios or mesameds~ _ ase qadagebs mezRvaurTa moqadage `mobi dikSi~. 16 es iranuli sityvaa _ viapa, rac TiTqos Sxamis mnTxevel arsebas niSnavs; qarTuli gvel-veSapi iranuli `aJi-viSapas~ sityvasityviTi Targmania [andronikaSvili 1966:238-239]. sabas leqsikoni icnobs gvelveSapsac (guelveSapi), magram ganumartavad stovebs.
15


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hyavda sam dRes Caylapuli. Tumca Zveli aRTqmis dedanSi am `didi Tevzis~ (dag gadol) saxeoba ar aris dakonkretebuli. ebrauli dag (Tevzi) berZnulad iTargmna rogorc kh'to", ZvelqarTulad _ veSapad, romelSic saxeobis daukonkreteblad zRvis didi cxoveli igulisxmeba. sityva `veSapi~ mxolod mogvianebiT miemagra am ZuZumwovara zRvis cxovels, rogorc nomenklaturuli saxeli. sityva veSapi qarTul xalxur sityvierebasa Tu mwerlobaSi zRvisa Tu xmeleTis drakonis _ gveleSapis aRmniSvnelia. sxvaTa Soris, gvxvdeba esqatologiur konteqstSi: `odes SeiZras veSapi igi didi, romel ars zRuasa Sina, da SeZris yoveli qveyana, vidremdis dairRvan mTani myarni...~ (Zeglebi 1964:133]. veSapis apokaliptur miTologemas icnobs `vefxistyaosani~: `mze veSapsa daebnela~ (1158,1)17. winaswarmetyvel ionas STanmTqmel `did TevzSi~ qristianuli egzegezisi jojoxeTis simbolos xedavs, vinaidan, alegoriulad aigivebs ionas am epizodTan qristes Casvlas jojoxeTSi da iqidan sam dReSi amosvlas (maTe, 12:40). es is veSapia, romelic STanTqavs xmeleTis warmomadgenels, mis mkvidrs, Tundac is gankacebuli RvTisSvili iyos. qriste naTlisRebis wylebSi amarcxebs mas: `...romelman Sehmusre wyalTa Sina Tavebi veSapisa~ [iadgari 1980:45]. kabalisturi tradiciiT, zRvisa da xmeleTis dapirispireba leviaTanisa da behemoTis SebrZolebis saxiT aris simbolizebuli18. am tradiciiT es arsebani erT dRes, meeqvse dRes, Seiqmnen, magram maT Soris Seurigebeli winaaRmdegobaa, da es gasagebic aris: erTi (leviaTani) zRvas, meore (behemoTi) (ix. iobis wigni 40:15-24; 41:4-26) xmeleTs ganasaxierebs. kabalistur tradiciaSi behemoTi uzarmazari veluri xaria19 (Sor ha-bar), romelic rqebiT Cxveravs leviaTans. sxva tradiciiT, romelic ezras III wignis laTinursa da slavur versiebSia asaxuli, behemoTs20 enoq _ saxeliT Tu vimsjelebT, adamianuri arseba enacvleba, rac savsebiT kanonzomieria, radgan swored adamiania xmeleTis patroni da Semnaxveli. ezras am pasaJis mixedviT, gamCenma samyaros wyliani nawili leviaTans misca, xmeleTi ki _ enoxs: `enoxs ki mi
veSapis Sesaxeb qarTul sinamdvileSi dawvrilebiT ix. [qerqaZe 1974:176-178]. vsargeblob [Smiti 1010:55]. 19 dabadebis wignSi behemah RvTis mier meeqvse dRes gaCenil cxovelTa erTi kategoriaa, romelic Sinaur cxovelebad _ sapirispirod velis cxovelTa (xaiaT ha-sade) moiazreba. es, ZiriTadad, msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvia. 20 III ezras Zvel qarTul TargmanSi bemoT (<behemoT) [qurcikiZe 1970:357].
18 17

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eci erTi nawili, romelic mesame dRes gaSra... leviaTans ki mieci meSvide nawili, wyliani~ (III ezra, 6:49-52), rac erTgvarad gamoxatavs wylisa da xmelis Sefardebas Cvens planetaze. magram erTmaneTis sapirispiro Zalebi am Sefardebis darRvevas eswrafian. da swored es Seadgens dasabamieri miTosis Temas. Tamarisa da zRvis brZola miTosur analogs poulobs zRvis urCxulisa da kosmosis sawyisis matarebeli RvTaebis dasabamier da, amavdroulad, maradiul dapirispirebaSi. es aris is modeli, romlis epikuri varianti `enum eliSis~ saxiT aris warmodgenili. am liturgiul poemaSi (misi inscenireba xdeboda yovel axal wels, roca unda ganaxlebuliyo erTdroulad samyaro, mefoba, buneba, weliwadi _ anu kosmoss xelaxla unda gaemarjva qaosze) marduqi RmerTebisgan gadmocemuli (Tu fSaur termins vixmarT, `molocvili~) laxtiT Suaze apobs zRvis gveleSaps TiamaTs, romelic miTosur warmosaxvaSi ara mxolod qaoss ganasaxierebs, aramed amavdroulad RmerTebis dedac aris. am elementaruli aqtiT _ ganpobiT TiTqos marduqi, romelic brZolis dawyebis win STainTqmeba TiamaTis mier, meored ibadeba misi saSodan, raTa Seqmnas samyaro da mSvenieri nivTebi. es aqti miTologemurad ugaritul eposSi `Sen gasrise laTani, damRupveli gveli, bolo mouRe daklaknil gvels, Zliers, SvidTavians~ _ [aistlaitneri:15] da (axleburi gaazrebiT) ebraul tradiciaSia gamoTqmuli: "Sen gakveTe zRva Seni ZaliT; wyalze daulewe Tavi Tanins. Sen gauWeWye Tavi leviaTans" (fsalm. 74:13-14). fsalmunebsa da ugaritul miTosSi sxvadasxva saxelis matarebeli (Tanin, leviaTan, rahab, laTan) zRvauri urCxulis (gveleSapis) antagonisti baalia (baal), avdrisa da Weqa-quxilis RmerTi. Tu Ciqiliani Tamari zRvasTan brZolaSi xmeleTis Zalebs ganasaxierebs, ugaritul miTosSi laxtiani baalia xmeleTis personifikacia. Tamari leqsis sityvebi _ `Cambarda saxmeleToi, vah, Tu ver Sevinaxeo~ _ zust semantikur paralels poulobs baalis, rogorc miTologiuri personaJis, statusSi. Tavad sityva baal _ `patroni~, romelic TiTqmis yvela semitur enaSi am mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba, miuTiTebs mis miTologiur funqciaze: baali miwis patronia, romelsac Cabarebuli aqvs miwa mis dasamuSaveblad, gasanayofiereblad da `Sesanaxad~. miwa, zogadad, xmeleTi, `mSrali adgili~ baalis sakuTrebaa, romelsac is, rogorc mawvimebeli RmerTi, rwyavs da anayofierebs. is acocxlebs miwas, romelic mis gareSe mkvdaria. am gacocxlebiT is miwis patroni _ baali xdeba. baali, rogorc miwis macxovari, rogorc soteri, imavdroulad, rogorc am sityvis semantika laparakobs, mxsnelic aris. dasabamSi man, rogorc Tamarma, gamoixsna miwa


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(xmeleTi), gamostaca zRvas. oRond es aqti mas Jams (illo tempore), `preistoriaSi~ moxda, `istoriaSi~ ki mas periodulad uxdeba am aqtis ganmeoreba. zRvasTan, Tavis pirvel antagonistTan, brZolaSi is kargavs miwas da miwasTan erTad Tavis Tavsac, raTa aRdges da kvlav moipovos miwa, kvlav gaxdes misi patroni. sad aris xmeleTi baalis aryofnis periodSi? is STanTqmulia zRvis mier, rogorc Sesaqmemde, roca xmeleTi jer kidev ar iyo Seqmnili da, rogorc embrioni, zRvis stiqiaSi imyofeboda. baalisa (xmeleTis) da iamis (zRvis) ugaritul miTosSi dakristalda zRvis ganuwyveteli muqara ugaritis, rogorc xmeleTis (ugariti naxevarkunZulad aris SeWrili zRvaSi), mimarT. miTosma gamoxata aseve erTianoba miwisa da misi patronisa, rom patroni ar arsebobs umiwod (uxmeleTod) da miwa (xmeleTi) upatronod. mas moelian, rogorc siZes, rogorc wvimas moelis gamSrali miwa. mawvimebeli baalisa da miwis urTierTobam, ahvesa da israelis miwis kavSirad gadaazrebulma, rogorc saqorwino kavSirma, Zveli aRTqmis metaforul-miTologemur enaSi hpova gamoZaxili. `aRar gerqmeva Sen mitovebuli da Sens qveyanas aRar erqmeva ukacrieli, radgan gewodeba Cemi sasurveli da qveyanas _ dapatronebuli, radgan Sen hsurxar ufals (ahves) da Seni qveyana dapatrondeba... da, rogorc xarobs siZe dedofliT, ase gaixarebs SeniT Seni RmerTi~ (es. 62:4,5b). anTropomorfulad warmodgenil baals Tavis brZolaSi xelT laxti upyria, romelic misi, rogorc mexismtyorcnelis, mTavari iaraRia, magram amave dros is misi regaliac aris, da swored amgvarad SeWurvils gamosaxavdnen mas bareliefebze. laxtiT igi sawvimar Rrublebs krebs, rogorc RrubelTSemkrebi (nefelogereta, homerosiseuli epiTeti) zevsi, da miTve akvesebs cecxls RrublebSi, raTa zeciuri cecxlidan macocxlebeli wyali (wvima) warmoSvas. meore mxriv, laxtiT is warRvnis wlebs ugeriebs xmeleTs, ganapobs niaRvars, raTa xmeleTze cvaric ki ar gadmovardes. magram, roca baali zoomorfulad warmodgenili, moqmedebs xmeleTze, misi iaraRi xaris rqebia. xarSi, rogorc Tavis wmida cxovelSi, baali xmeleTze axorcielebs Tavis, rogorc miwis ganmayofiereblis, miwaTmoqmedis funqcias. magram mas xmeleTis dacva-Senaxvac akisria, romelic mas memkvidreobiT aqvs miRebuli kosmogoniuri miTosidan21.
kanonzomieria, rom kosmetor marduqis saxelSi `xaris~ aRmniSveli Sumeruli sityvaa (amar) CaSifruli: amar-uTuq `mzis xbo~. mzec kanonzomieria mis saxelSi, rogorc miwaTmoqmedTa mnaTobi, mTvaris _ mwyemsTa da momTabareTa mnaTobis _ sapirispirod.
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gveleSapi, xari da sofeli. xaris gamorCeuli adgili miwaTmoqmedi xalxis da, kerZod, qarTveli xalxis sameurneo cxovrebaSi mravalmxriv aris dadasturebuli [janeliZe 1948:66-69; oqroSiZe 1969:131-157]. mis gamosaxulebas qristianuli taZris frontonzec ki vxvdebiT, rac misi kultis gadmonaSTad aris miCneuli, TiTqos qristianobam ver daZlia misi Tayvaniscema da am saxiT Semoinaxa. bunebrivia, zRaprebSic hpovebda xaris figura Tavis adgils, magram Zneli iqneba misi am saxis ganxilva kultis obieqtad. Tuki odesme saqarTveloSi arsebobda xaris kulti, amis naSTi ramenairad wes-CveulebaSi unda SemorCeniliyo, rogorc rwmenis gadmonaSTi. xaris Sewirva dResaswaulebze (gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos jvar-xatTa dResasawaulebze) ver CaiTvleba misi kultis dadasturebad. msxverplSewirvas, msxverpls, mis wilobebs, mis sisxls metad mniSvnelovani funqcia akisria tradiciul sazogadoebaSi (rasac dRemde vadasturebT), magram aq sakulto Rirseba ekuTvnis ara samsxverplo cxovels, aramed imas, vis saxelzec msxverpli iwireba. xaris kulti, rogorc aseTi, misi wmida saxiT Zvel egvipteSia dadasturebuli. apisi, ufro sworad, xapi namdvilad Tayvaniscemis obieqtia, rac misadmi mopyrobaSi gamoixateba. Tumca am SemTxvevaSic sifrTxile gvmarTebs: xari, rogorc xaria, Tayvaniscemis sagani Tu Tavad RvTaeba (egvipturi ptaxi an rae), romlis inkarnaciad miiCneva igi da romlis RvTiuri suli hgies masSi [ermani 1905:26], da atarebs mis RvTiur nayofierebas? [klee 1941:78]. is faqti, rom ikrZaleboda xapisniSniani xaris22 SeZena da dakvla piradi miznebisTvis [klee 1941:76-7], ar unda mowmobdes maincdamainc mis Tayvaniscemas. aseve ikrZaleba kopalasadmi Sewiruli, Tavisuflad gaSvebuli kuratebis dakvla, magram am mokrZalebis mizezi kopalaa da ara Tavad kurati. magram, rogorc kuratebi arian miCneuli `samsaxurad~, aseve xapi Tavisi ritualuri rboliT yanebze maTi ganayofierebis mizniT adamianis samsaxurSia Camdgari [miTebi 1980:92]. xaris mxridan adamianis samsaxuris saukeTeso dadasturebas vpovebT avestas 29-e gaTaSi, sadac xaris suli (Geush Urvan), mas Semdeg, rac ahuramazdam mis gansxeulebas _ xvastags (saqonels, naxirs) zaraTuStra mouvlina mzrunvelad, sazeimod debs aRTqmas: `hoi, ahurav, aw gvyavs Semwe: ganmzadebul varT samsaxurad TqvenTa msgavsisa~ [avesta 1979:13]. xaris Civili upatio mopyrobisaTvis ar aris ucxo qarTuli
22

rogorc cnobilia, RvTaebis inkarnacias xedavdnen ara nebismier, aramed gansakuTrebuli, iSviaTi Seferilobis egzemplarebSi: xapi unda yofiliyo Savi xari TeTri niSniT an TeTri xari Savi niSniT Sublze (nikora).


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folklorisTvis da, SesaZloa, miTosisTvis, romelsac mivakuTvnebT am leqss, Tumca mas xaris kultis kvalis dadasturebad ver miviCnebT. xarma Sestira gamCensa margalitisa cremliTa: miSvele, Cemo gamCeno, sisxli momadga yelSia, Semaben pirubanelni, saxres miSenen welSia. guTnisdedisa xvnaSia saxre gadmomkres TavSia. daCoqili SemogbRavi maRla meufes caSia. miyrian rkinis tabiksa, megrixebian yelzeda. ar memarTleba, meufev, avago rqisa wverzeda? [kotetiSvili 1961:151]. aRsaniSnavia xaris ormagi samsaxuri _ rogorc miwaTmoqmedisa sameurneo yofaSi, da rogorc msxverplisa sakulto yofaSi. xari da sofeli ganuyofeli erTobaa. xari ar Sordeba sofels, ar tovebs mis sazRvrebs. is sofelSi, soflisTvis cxovrobs da Sromobs, soflis saZovrebze ikvebeba, gansxvavebiT cxvrisgan, romelic mudmiv mgzavrobaSia, Sors eZebs sakvebs. sxvaa cxvris miTosis semantika, romelic efuZneba simravles da am simravleSi individis gaTqvefas. amitomac cxvari, cxvris fara erT mbrZanebels damorCilebuli xalxis miTosur-poeturi sinonimia, rac ar iTqmis msxvilfexa saqonlis naxirze. xarisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic individualobad esaxeba patrons misi mkveTri funqcionaluri datvirTvis gamo, cxvari patrons farad warmoudgeba, ara individualobad. erTeuli aq Serwymulia faraSi, romlis funqcionaluri datvirTva mis mTlianobaSia. amitom aris, rom cxvars, gansxvavebiT xarisgan, patroni sakuTar saxels ar arqmevs. patronisTvis funqciis matarebeli mTeli faraa, rogorc erTiani da ganuyofeli dovlaTi, da ara calkeuli cxvari, romlis individualoba faraSi ikargeba23. roca saxarebis igavSi mwyemss asi cxvrisgan Semdgari faridan erTi cxvari daekargeba, am dakargviT da Semdeg moZiebiT iRebs es cxvari individualobas, da is sxvebisagan erTbaSad gamoirCeva patronis TvalSi: patronma icno igi da cno masSi individualoba. patroni gulSi Caikravs mas da ambobs, rom `Ze ese Cemi momkudar iyo da gacocxlda, warwymedul iyo da ipova~ (l. 15:24). ufro metic, patrons ukve SeuZlia sakuTari saxeli Searqvas mas, saxeli, romelic misi axa
qarTul enaSi sityva cxvari gamoxatavs cxvrebis mTel koleqtivs, magram xari _ arasodes. cxvari Tavis TavSi, gramatikuli kategoriis gareSe, Seicavs mravlobiTis ideas. Tumca miTosi icnobs raRac niSniT faridan gamorCeul individualobebs, rogoric aris oqrosbewviani an oTxrqa-oTxyura cxvrebi.
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li statusis gamomxatveli iqneba. xari ki imTaviTve atarebs saxels. patronma imTaviTve cno masSi individualoba. xarisa da soflis ganuyofeli erTobis safuZvelia xaris pasuxismgebloba soflisadmi, rac cxvars ar gaaCnia. adamianic ar moiTxovs misgan imaze mets, risi mocemac mas SeuZlia. cxvrisTvis sofeli mxolod teritoriaa dasabinaveblad, xars ki Tavad SeuZlia Seqmnas es teritoria. mas SeuZlia daasaxlos xalxi teritoriaze. qarTuli folklori icnobs xars, romelic gzas ukvalavs tyveobidan samSobloSi dabrunebulebs. gavrcelebuli siuJeti gviCvenebs, rom mTeli gza tyveobidan Sinisaken xarisTvis samsaxuri da, bolos, TviTmsxverplSewirvaa, riTac mTavrdeba misi svla. gavecnoT am andrezis or variants: I. rodesac sparselebs saqarTvelodan tyveebi wausxamT, maT Soris erTi moxevis qalic yofila, bavSviani. qali aTengenobis wina dRiT akvanTan mjdara daRonebuli da wverisangelozobaze ocnebobda Turme. am dros Cvenebia angelozi da uTqvams: adeq, nu tiri. Tarodan gamoiRe Cemi sayure da xevis gzas gaudeqio. dRe me gmalav da Rame Cemi SuqiT gatarebo. iqve xaric gaCenila, sparsangelozi xaris rqaze damjdara da qals win gaZRolia. snoSi qali aTengenobas misula da maSinve wverisangelozSi asula. sayure aq yoCis jvrisTvis Seubams, xaric dauklavT da sparsangelozic iq dafrenilao. [andrezebi:345] II. roca Turme lekebma daitaces saqarTvelo, waiyvanes da tyved Cayares Svidi aTasi, lomisis joric [jvari] wauRia. im TaTrebSi aRarc balRi gaCndis, aRarc mosavali. bolos, Sewuxda is xalxi, waviden molasTan. iman uTxra:es xalxi da is jori Tu ar daabruneTo, sul daswydebiTo. marTlac, sul ase iyvis-ke. adgen da, romelic mZle xari hyvanda, daakres Sublze is jori xarsa da moixmes mTeli xalxi da uTxres: Tavisuflebi xarTo. is xari unda gamauZRves win, is ki trialebs. Turme erTi koWli qali kiden aklda. isic gamaatanes. gamouZRveba es xari. sadac dawvebodis, yvelgan niSi aaSenes. fasanaurs aqeTacaa niSi. wverze ro movida, iq ganisvena suli, gaskda. [andrezebi:257] v. bardaveliZis erTi Canaweris mixedviT, gveleSaps erwoSi warRvna moaqvs, mxolod erTi adamiani gadaurCeba mas _ noe, romelic kidobniT mTis wvers miadgeba. sapirispirod bibliuri teqstisa, warRvnis wylebis ukuqceva kidobnidan gadmosuli xaris damsaxurebaa.


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noes `Svindisferi mozveri~ RamiT uCumrad ebrZvis gveleSaps, magram verafers akl ms, Tavad ki dasisxlianebuli brundeba sofelSi. noe rkinas gadaakravs mis rqebs da isev gauSvebs gveleSapTan sabrZolvelad. rkinisrqebiani mozveri gafatravs gveleSaps da gaaqcevs, gaqceuls Tan wyali gahyveba da am medini wylisgan iori warmoiSveba. ase icleba erwo wylisgan, mTis mwvervalidan Camosuli noe erwoSi dasaxldeba [bardaveliZe 1941:36]. v. bardaveliZe am teqsts samarTlianad sinkretuls uwodebs. aSkaraa, rom adgilobriv Tqmulebaze bibliuri gadmocemaa damynobili, Tumca unda iTqvas, bunebrivadac, radgan warRvnis miTosTan gveleSapis miTologema organulad aris dakavSirebuli. SesaZlebelia, es siuJeti warRvnis miTosis wreSi gangvexila, magram mas aklia am miTosis damaxasiaTebeli eTosi, rac cxadi xdeba sxva variantebTan misi Sedarebisas. warRvna mxolod erTi epizodia teqstisa, romelSic ZiriTadi mainc xarisa da gveleSapis orTabrZolaa. aSkaraa, rom gveleSapi warRvnis wylebis da Tavad warRvnis gansaxierebaa. ai, miTosi Tavisi wmida saxiT, arqetipuri simartiviT, xalxur monaTxrobSi: sofeli yofila maRla mTebzeda da, rac dablobSia, iq tba yofila. kurati yofila kopalasi da is dadenila wyalze. devi yofila am wyalSi. is kurati saRamoobiT daRlili modenila. ubrZolia im devTana. memre almasebi ausxam im rqebze da wamosula es kurati da Sahbmia da dauWria es devi. gaqceula devi. orxevi roa, iq gaurRvevia da gawurula es tba, damSrala. [Tsufa 29974]. (aq devi gveleSapis funqciiT gvevlineba, rac arcTu iSviaTia qarTul folklorSi). am miTosis e. virsalaZiseuli varianti gadmogvcems erwos preistorias, im xanas, roca mTel am teritoriaze, sadac soflebia gaSenebuli, tba iyo. da, bunebrivia, tbaSi gveleSapi budobda. gveleSapi Tavs esxmis sofels, stacebs saqonels, adamianebs, awiokebs mosaxleobas... xalxis uCumrad gveleSaps Ram-RamobiT xatis (wm. giorgis sanebis jvaris) almasisrqebiani kurati ebrZvis (es RvTis brZanebiT xdeba) da mxolod mecxre dRes daamarcxebs _ gaufatravs almasis rqebiT mucels da gaaqcevs. gaqceuls wyali gahyveba ukan da tbac daicleba, natbeurze mosaxleoba gaSendeba. gveleSapma sxva kvalic dastova reliefze: mdinare aZeZis daklaknili kalapoti gveleSapis namuSevaria, misi nakvalevia [xalxuri sibrZne 1964:246]. Tavisi wmida saxiT, warRvnis epizodis Seurevlad, xarisa da gveleSapis miTosi aseve Sildur CanawerSia realizebuli:

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uZiro tbis maRla goraze iyo RvTismSoblis samWeduri. tbas dapatronebuli hyavda gveleSapi. gveleSapsa da nekresis xarebs xSirad hqondaT brZola. erTxel gveleSapma xars rqa mostexa. xarma mariam RvTismSobels miaSura. mariamma gamokvera jvari da daakra rqaze. xari isev SeebrZola gveleSaps da daamarcxa. amis Semdgom xalxma SeZlo tbasTan axlos misvla, misces gza da amoaSres tba [fak165 gv. 83]. miTosis ganvrcobili varanti `kaxeTis zRvis~ warsulze gviambobs: roca kaxeTi zRvasa sWeria, boWormis wmida giorgis hyolia erTi kurati, romelic dro da dro daikargeboda xolme. Semdeg, roca Seityves, rom kurati zRvis pirze midis, zRvidam gveleSapi gamodis, romelic kurats ebrZvis, kuratic Tavisas cdilobs magram gveleSapis kans verafers aklebs, _ maSin adgnen wm. giorgis ymebi da kurats rqebze almasebi aasxes. kurati isev wavida gveleSapis saomrad. gveleSapic gamovida da Seibnen. gveleSapis kanma almasiani rqebis Sexebaze dahkarga winandeli Tviseba. gveleSapma igrZno es, SeSinebuli ise Zlierad Securda zRvaSi, rom Tavi veRar Seikava, eca im goras, romelic Siraqis bolos, sadac exla alazani da iori miCxrialeben, iyo gaWimuli da zRvas agubebda, gaangria igi da zRvac gadavarda. kaxeTi ganTavisuflda wylisagan, gaSra, xalxma maRlobebidam Zirs daiwia da daiwyo cxovreba iq, sadac exla cxovrobs. [fSavliSvili 1894]. rogorc vxedavT, gadmocemebSi soflis saxsnelad erTmaneTs enacvlebian wm. giorgis, kopalasa da nekresis RvTismSoblisadmi Sewiruli pirutyvebi. xari xmeleTis warmomadgenelia. is ebrZvis gveleSaps, romlis saxiTac zRva (wylis stiqia) eqspansias axorcielebs xmeleTis mimarT. amitomac xari, rogorc xmeleTis arseba, xmeleTis mxsnelic aris. miTosuri orTabrZola, rogorc wesi, ori sxvadasxva (gansxvavebuli, dapirispirebuli) stiqiis warmomadgenelTa Soris xdeba. ase ebrZvian erTmaneTs ZvelTaZveli, jer miTosuri, mere igavarakuli antagonistebi: arwivi, cis arseba, da gveli, miwis arseba. magram is Sre, sadac xari gamoCndeba, Suasknels ekuTvnis, swored im sferos,


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romelic adamianebiT aris dasaxlebuli. adamiani da xari erT sknels, erT `ezos~ ekuTvnian. aseve oriveni erTad ebrZvian gveleSaps, romelic safrTxes uqmnis maT sknels.
SeniSvna 2. uelsSi arsebobs gadmocema uZiro e. w. `wveriani tbis~ Sesaxeb, (Llyn Barfog), sadac gveleSapi budobda. gveleSapi periodulad tboravda tbis irgvliv mimdebare xmeleTs. gmiri hu Zlieri (Hu the Mighty) grZelrqiani xarebis daxmarebiT tbidan gamoaTrevs gveleSaps da ixsnis sofels [devid hantis (David Hunt) gamouqveynebeli naSromidan `britanuli folkloruli tradiciebi~ (British Folklore Traditions)]. am hus pirvelad SemouRia uReli. sxva versiiT, gveleSapisTvis mefe arturs jaWvi gamoubams da Tavisi raSis daxmarebiT gamouTrevia. maxlobel qvaze arturis cxenis nalis anabeWdic yofila (ix. http://www.kingarthursknights.com/theland/llynbarfog.asp ix. agr. http://www.legendofkingarthur.co.uk/wales/llyn-barfog.htm).

literatura avesta 1979: avestas gaTebi: galobani, Targmna giorgi axvledianma, Tsu gam-oba, Tb., 1979. aistlaitneri 1964: Die mytholigischen und kultische Texte aus Ras Schamra, bersetzt von J. Aistleitner, Zweite Auflage, Akadmiai kiad, Budapest, 1964. andrezebi 2008: zurab kiknaZe. andrezebi (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis religiur-miTologiuri gadmocemebi), ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis gam-ba, Tb., 2009. andronikaSvili 1966: mzia andronikaSvili. narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tsu gam-ba, Tb., 1966. bardaveliZe 1941: vera bardavliZe, ivris fSavlebSi (dRiuri), Tb., `kviirioni~, 1941-2003. ermani 1905: Adolf Erman. Die gyptische Religion, Berlin, 1905. Tsufa: Tbilisis saxlmwifo universitetis folkloruli arqivi iadgari 1980: uZvelesi iadgari, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1980. kekeliZe 1956: korneli kekeliZe, etiudebi literaturis istoriidan I, Tb., Tsu gam-ba, 1956. kiknaZe 1984: zurab kiknaZe. farnavazis sizmari, macne, enisa da literaturis seria, # 1, 1984. klee 1941: Herman Klee. Der Gtterglaube im alten Aegypten, Mitteilungen der vorderasiatisch-aegyptischen Gesellschaft, 45. Band, 1941, Leipzig. kotetiSvili 1961: vaxtang kotetiSvili, xalxuri poezia, `sabWoTa mwerali~, Tb., 1961. miTebi 1980: , , -

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, ., 1980. miTebi 1982: , , , ., 1982. oqroSiZe 1969: Tamar oqroSiZe, qarTuli fantastikuri zRapris personaJebi (xari), kreb. qarTuli folklori III, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1969. sixaruliZe I: qsenia sixaruliZe (red.). qarTuli xalxuri saistorio sityviereba, Tb., 1961. fak: SoTa rusTavelis literaturis institutis folkloruli arqivi (kaxeTi). fSavliSvili 1894: fSavliSvili, xalxis Tqmuleba kaxeTis Sesaxeb `iveria, 1894, #66. qerqaZe 1974: irine qerqaZe. cxovelebis aRmniSvneli leqsika Zvel qarTulSi, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1974. qurcikiZe 1970: Zveli aRTqmis apokrifebis qarTuli versiebi (XXVIII ss. xelnawerTa mixedviT), w. I, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada... c. qurcikiZem, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1970. qxp XI: qarTuli xalxuri poezia Tormet tomad, `mecniereba~, Tb. 1984. Smiti 2010: karl Smiti. xmeleTi da zRva, msoflio-istoriuli ganazreba, filosofia-sociologiis da Tanamedrove klasikuri teqstebi III, grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universiteti, Tb., 2010. Smiti: . , http://www.luxaur.narod.ru/biblio/2/tr/schmitt05.htm yauxCiSvili 1955: s. yauxCiSvili (red.). qarTlis cxovreba I, `saxelgami~, Tb., 1955. yauxCiSvili 1959: s. yauxCiSvili (red.). qarTlis cxovreba, II, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1959. Zeglebi 1964: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi I, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1964. janeliZe 1948: dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli xalxuri sawyisebi, wigni pirveli, `saxelgami~, Tb., 1948. xalxuri sibrZne 1964: xalxuri sibrZne III, qarTuli eposi: legendebi., Tqmulebebi, gadmocemebi, `nakaduli~, Tb., 1964.

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miT cremli Cemi zRvad gaxda... (daviT guramiSvili) me-18 saukunis saqarTvelosTvis geografiuli terminebi _ CrdiloeTi, aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi _ calsaxad politikuri mniSvnelobebiT itvirTeba da iwyeba sruliad axali tipis wesrigis formireba. swored am periodSi uxdeba moRvaweoba daviT guramiSvils (1705-1792), poets, samxedro pirs, mxatvarsa da gamomgonebels, romlis TxzulebaTa krebuli qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi araerTi siaxlis garda Tavisi internacionaluri xmebiTacaa gamorCeuli: aq sagangebodaa moSlili enobrivi da Janrobrivi sazRvrebi... daviTiani RvTisken mimavali gzis Ziebis wignia. esaa sulis moZraobis amsaxveli erTgvari ruka, romelzec realuri geografiuli konturebicaa moniSnuli: qveynebi (saqarTvelo, ruseT-ukraina, prusia...), qalaqebi (moskovi, peterburgi, magdeburgi...), daba-soflebi (zubovka, gorisubani, lamisyana...). wignSi warmodgenilia wylis aRmniSvneli terminebic (wyaro, mdinare, tba) pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobebiT, magram sul ramdenjermea naxsenebi Sesakrebeli wyalTa (sulxan-sabas gansazRvrebiT) _ zRva.

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro fakultetis doqtoranti literaturis mimarTulebiT. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, semiotika.

158 zRvis politikuri semantika Tanadrouli qarTl-kaxeTis umZimesi mdgomareobis aRwerisas daviT guramiSvili mogviTxrobs imis Sesaxeb, rom kaxeTis mmarTvelma gamahmadianebulma konstantinem (mahmad-yuli-xanma) vaxtang VI-s gaugzavna saidumlo wigni, romelic vizualuri da verbaluri kodebisagan Sedgeboda. naxatze gamosaxuli yofila cecxlSemovlebuli walmebis (vazis nasxlavebis) gora. am gziT alegoriulad miniSnebuli iyo erTianobis aucilebloba. Setyobinebis sworad gaSifvris Semdeg vaxtangma brZana: amad gvisaxavs erT gorad orive qveynis walamsa, mas Rvari veRar Seswvdebis, ver daSlis, verca walamsa, mSvidobas Txovlobs simdabliT, amad Tavs uxris alamsa, qarTls isev Cvenve gvanebebs, kaxeTiT gvaZlevs salamsa. Tu orad dadgas, iqnebis oriv patara gorebi; daqrolebs qari, gardaqcevs, zRvas SerTavs niaRorebi, tialT venaxTa mosWamen daTvni, ZaRlni da Rorebi, warwymedili ars, vinc ra sTqvas ZmasTan Zmis dasaSorebi. vaxtangi saidumlo Setyobinebis arss wvdeba da amiT gamoxatavs Tavis mzaobas dakavSireba-gaerTianebisTvis (sxva sakiTxia, rom, sabolood, es ver moxerxda). mis naTqvamSi arsad figurirebs cecxli, romelic konstantines naxatis mTavar kods warmoadgenda (swored cecxliT iyo miniSnebuli aRmosavleTidan momavali saSineli safrTxe); mis nacvlad mocemul teqstSi Cndeba niaRvari, rogorc gamanadgurebeli Zala, romelic, faqtobrivad, vaxtangis verbalur diskursSi iseTive funqciiTaa warmodgenili, rogoriTac cecxli iyo datvirTuli konstantines vizualur narativSi. vaxtangis mixedviT, gaTiSulobis SemTxvevaSi, or patara gorad dayofili qarTli da kaxeTi ganadgurdeba (daqrolebs qari, gardaqcevs, zRvas SerTavs niaRorebi. tialT venaxTa mosWamen daTvni, ZaRlni da Rorebi). naTelia, rom teqstSi mocemuli zRvis saxe ar ukavSirdeba konkretul geografiul warmodgenas da simboluri mniSvnelobiTaa datvirTuli: esaa qaosi, saSineli araraoba, romelic qarisa da niaRvris meSveobiT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos waSlis, rogorc myar, istoriuli mniSvnelobis sivrces da sabolood SeierTebs (gaaqrobs) mas.
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zRvis religiuri semantika mamao Cvenos motivze agebul akrostixul leqsSi (romelsac daviT guramiSvili iambikod saxeldebs) locva, odes daviTs tyveobasa Sina moSivda da RmerTs puri sTxova aris aseTi strofi: n u S e m i y v a n e b Rrma zRvaTa, rom ar davinTqeo, C v e n Senad sadidebelad mTlad gangvarineo, g a n s a c d e l s a mogvaride, kargo menaveo, a r a m e d m i x s e n, viT moses Sua ganupeo! pirvel striqonSi naxsenebi Rrma zRva mTeli strofis saxismetyvelebas gansazRvravs. masSi danTqma sulier sikvdils niSnavs da am gansacdelisgan adamianis xsna mxolod karg menaves (RmerTs) SeuZlia. cxadia, aq dasaxelebuli zRva mxolod religiuri (da araviTar SemTxvevaSi, geografiuli) semantikiTaa datvirTuli. am fonze ki kidev ufro TvalsaCino xdeba ukanasknel striqonSi, egviptidan israelis gamosvlis istoriis gaxsenebisas, realuri, mewamuli zRvis dausaxelebloba (am aRsaniSnis nulovani markeriT xazi esmeba zRvis, rogorc geografiuli mocemulobis, umniSvnelobas). zRvis ambivalenturi semantika daviT guramiSvilis mixedviT, ruseTs gadaxvewil vaxtang VI-s xelmwife anam ubrZana: me miWiravs zRvis midamo gaRma mxari, solaRsa da darubandsa, baqosa dgas Cemi jari da es miwebi uboZa saganmgeblod. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, zRva swored geografiuli mniSvnelobiTaa datvirTuli da is gulisxmobs kaspiis zRvas. poeti mogviTxrobs, rom amis Semdeg vaxtangma da baqarma aaSenebines navebi, raTa edilis (volgis) gavliT misuliyvnen darubands. maT Tan gaiyoles etikic (gzis mimTiTebeli). magram sami Tvis xetialis Semdeg mixvdnen, rom gza abneodaT: viremdis zRvaTa bagemdis Cven CavidodiT naviTa, gardatrialda sawuTro mrudisa sabrunaviTa... vaxtangs moaxsenes, rom Samaxia (qalaqi Semaxa) aiRo Tamaz-xanma (nadir-Sahma). vaxtangi, romelic isedac gaurkvevel mdgomareobaSi iyo, dilemis winaSe aRmoCnda: an unda gaegrZelebina gza, an ruseTs dabrunebuliyo.

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swored am dros warmoTqva Tavisi qveynis ubedobaze momCivanma bagrationma daviTianSi zRvis saxesTan dakavSirebiT yvelaze STambeWdavi sityvebi: axla ra vqna, sad wavide? gza Semeqna daxlarTuli, qari qris da afra gaSliT var xomaldiT zRvas SerTuli... es striqonebi SeiZleba samgvarad ganvixiloT: 1) sityvasityviT doneze, rogorc empiriuli realobis asaxva; 2) alegoriul doneze, rogorc istoriulpolitikuri viTarebis asaxva; 3) simbolur doneze, rogorc wignis avtoris sulieri mdgomareobis asaxva. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, warmodgenilia realuri empiriuli faqti: vaxtangsa da mis amalas (romelSic daviT guramiSvilic iyo) marTlac aebnaT gza, mxari ecvalaT da sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi araswori mimarTulebiT midiodnen (am konteqstSi, zRva aRniSnavs ara kaspiis zRvas, aramed _ mdinare volgas). meore SemTxvevaSi, igive striqonebi alegoriuli mniSvnelobiT gaigeba: aq warmodgenilia arsebuli politikuri viTareba: vaxtangma, romelmac datova samSoblo da peterburgidanac wamovida, raTa xelmwifis mier boZebul kaspiispireTSi misuliyo, Seityo, rom Tamazxanma pozicia gaimagra, daikava calkeuli qalaqebi da gza Sekruli iyo (am konteqstSi, zRva aRniSnavs ugzoobas, uorientaciobas, gaurkvevlobas). rac Seexeba mesame SemTxvevas, warmodgenili sityvebi, mTeli wignis koncefciis gaTvaliswinebiT, simbolurad asaxavs Tavad daviT guramiSvilis samSoblodan Sors gatarebul dramatul cxovrebas (aq ki zRva aRniSnavs mTel amqveyniur arsebobas, wuTisofels). zRvis filosofiuri semantika dabolos, zRva daviTianSi Cndeba kvlav pirvel (a) wignSi da is ukavSirdeba wuTisoflis saxes: sawuTros soflis samduravSi guramiSvili wers: midis-modis es sofeli, qartexilTa zRvisebr Relavs! ukan dasdevs dro da Jami, mis naqselavs qsovs da sTelavs... amave Tavis dasawyisSi, mxolod, zRvis dausaxeleblad, igive azri TiTqmis identuri sityvieri formulirebiTaa gamoTqmuli: naTobs da bindobs sawuTro, qcevadi, mobrunavia! wams myudro qari aqrolis, wuTze damusris navia.


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aq warmodgenil paralelur saxeebSi (erT SemTxvevaSi, zRvis leqsikuri markeriT, meore SemTxvevaSi ki uimisod) daviT guramiSvili calsaxad miuTiTebs ara konkretuli geografiuli mocemulobis, aramed _ stiqiis bunebaze. zRvis bibliuri semantika da daviTiani bibliasTan daviTianis mimarTebis fundamenturi sakiTxi sxvadasxva dros araerTma mkvlevarma Seiswavla. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kvlevis es mimarTuleba (gansakuTrebiT _ me-20 saukunis meore naxevridan) daviTianis Seswavlis faqtobrivad erTaderT (da yvelaze mniSvnelovan) gzas warmoadgens. am fonze, kidev ufro saintereso xdeba imis naTelyofa, ra semantikiT tvirTavs daviTianis avtori Tavis krebulSi zRvas, rogorc niSans. zemoT ganxilul magaliTebze dayrdnobiT, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom daviT guramiSvili am sakiTxSic bibliur tradicias emyareba. magram Tavad Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebSi zRva araa calsaxad erTi mniSvnelobis niSani. mis saxes ramdenime ganzomileba aqvs. maTgan ki gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia sami aspeqti: 1) zRva, rogorc sasikvdilo saSiSroeba, romlis fskerzec boroteba budobs; 2) aqedan gamomdinare, zRva, rogorc dasaTrguni stiqia, romlis daZleviTac gandiddeba ufali; 3) dabolos, zRva, rogorc axali qveynisTvis ucxo elementi. daviTianSi warmodgenili zRva swored am aspeqtebs ukavSirdeba: igia saSiSi, momakvdinebeli stiqia (sivrce), romelic adamians daRupviT emuqreba. misi daZleva ki mxolod RvTis SemweobiTaa SesaZlebeli. sabolood ki, is, rogorc amqveyniurobisa da gansacdelis simbolo, esqatologiur momavalSi aRar iarsebebs (pirvandeli saxiT). daviTianSi zRva arasodesaa mSvidi, is sul Relavs: sadac ki guramiSvili zRvas axsenebs, iqve qarsac asaxelebs. am gziT poeti mkiTxvels gansakuTrebuli daZabulobis gancdas uqmnis. es gancdaa danTqmis, daRupvis SiSi, romelic gamoscada petrem, roca qristesken zRvaze fexiT mimavalma, Zlieri qarisgan SeSinebulma, CaZirva daiwyo da RmerTs SehRaRada: ufalo, mixsen me!

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_______________ 1 wyalTan daviTians araliteraturuli xasiaTis kavSiric aqvs: cnobilia, rom mirian batoniSvils, romlisTvisac daviT guramiSvilma specialurad gadanusxa Tavisi krebuli, xelnaweri mdinareSi Cauvarda. sabolood ki ufliswulma uvneblad Camoitana es wigni saqarTveloSi; garda amisa, daviTianis avtografSi CarTulia sarwyavisa da wisqvilis ambavi da moxazuloba (proeqti, naxazebiT, xarjTaRricxviTa da komentarebiT), romelic poeturi nawarmoebebisa da samxedro dokumentaciisagan radikalurad gansxavebuli kuTxiT warmoaCens daviT guramiSvilis pirovnebas. 2 daviT guramiSvili, daviTiani (TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli), Tbilisi, saxelgami, 1955, gv. 61; 247-248. 3 daviTianis es monakveTi pirdapir exmianeba fsalmunis sityvebs: macxovne me, RmerTo, rameTu Sevides wyalni sulad Cemdadmde, davinTq me uysa ufskrulisasa, da ara ars daTmenai; moved me siRrmesa zRvisasa da moqcevaman damnTqa me (fsalm. 68, 1-2). 4 iqve, gv. 81; 384. 5 gamosvlaTa wigni. 14, 8-30. 6 daviTiani, gv. 95, 483. 7 iqve, gv. 95; 489, 1-2. 8 iqve, gv. 96; 491, 1-2. 9 iqve, gv. 105; 561, 1-2. 10 iqve, gv. 103; 549, 1-2. 11 am TvalsazrisiT, upirveles yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia zRvis mxecis, leviaTanis, saxe; danielis winaswarmetyveleba qarebis amovardnasa da zRvidan amomaval mxecebze (dan. 7, 2-7), agreTve, esaias winaswarmetyveleba saSinel sasjelze (es. 5, 30), rasac axali aRTqmidan exmianeba lukas saxareba (luk. 21, 25). 12 am TvalsazrisiT, aRsaniSnavia fsalmunTa sityvebi: Sen ganamtkice ZaliTa SeniTa zRuai, Sen Sehmusre Tavebi veSapTai wyalTa zeda (fsalm. 73, 13), gixiles Sen wyalTa, RmerTo, gixiles Sen wyalTa da SeeSina, SeZrwundes ufskrulni (fsalm. 76, 16); iobis wigni, 38, 8-11; axali aRTqmidan ki qristes gavla zRvaze (maTe, 8, 23-27; maTe 14, 24-32; markozi, 4, 36-41; markozi 6, 47-51; luka 8, 22-25; ioane 6, 16-22), rasac exmianeba fsalmunis sityvebi: zRvasa zeda arian gzani Senni da alagni Senni wyalTa zeda mravalTa, da kualni Senni ara sacnaur iqmnen (fsalm. 76, 19). 13 amaze miuTiTebs ioanes gamocxadebis sityvebi: vixile axali ca da axali miwa, vinaidan pirveli ca da pirveli miwa gardaxdnen, da zRva aRar iyo (gamocx. 21, 1), magram ioanesave gamocxadebis mixedviT, iqneba brolis msgavsi minis zRva (gamocx. 4,6). 14 daviT guramiSvilisTvis zRvis siRrmeSi Sesvla gansacdelSi Sesvlas niSnavs. am azrs igi paraleluri leqsikuri erTeulebiTac naTelyofs: sauflo locvis sityvebs: nu Semiyvaneb Cven gansacdelsa daviTianSi enacvleba striqoni: nu Semiyvaneb Rrma zRvaTa. 15 maTe, 14, 30.

xaTuna maisaSvili

zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva-Sina da zRva-gareTa...


statia Seexeba zRvis niSnis mniSvnelobebis farglebs qarTul mediur teqstebSi. Tormet CaRrmavebul interviuze dafuZnebuli kvleva pasuxobs SekiTxvebs: ramdenad Tavsdeba `zRva~ mediuri Rirebulebrivi kriteriumebis sistemaSi; ramdenad `sayvareli~ saxe da xatia igi qarTuli kulturisTvis zogadad da qarTuli mediisTvis kerZod; ramdenad eTavseba igi arqetipur xatebsa da warsulis gamocdilebas? ras kiTxulobs mimRebi `zRvis~ niSanSi da am niSnis miRma? da mTavari: zRva `Sin~ aris Tu `gareT~? rogor da ratom cocxloben niSnebi mediaSi? arsebobs iseTi niSnebi, cnebebi, sakiTxebi, Temebi, romlebic mediuri teqstebis, Setyobinebebis SinaarsSi advilad aRweven, - Setyobinebis avtoris mier socialuri, politikuri, ideologiuri konteqstis zedapirze oden nadirobis Sedegad, da arsebobs iseTebic, romlebsac mediuri Rirebulebis mosapoveblad am konteqstis siRrmeebidan sWirdeba kultivacia (manhaimi, j.b., 1998). magram Tundac RirebulebaSeZenil, warmatebiT kultivirebul niSans, sakiTxs an Temas ar aqvs garantia imisa, rom igi didi xniT damkvidrdeba

filosofiis doqtori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: erovnuli identobis reprezentacia 1990-1991 wlebis qarTul beWdur mediaSi (2010, sakvalifikacio naSromi filosofiis doqtoris xarisxis mosapoveblad); Sesavali masobrivi komunikaciis TeoriaSi (2007, monografia). gamoqveynebuli aqvs 5 samecniero statia. interesebis sfero: masobrivi komunikacia, media, semiologia mediaSi, mediis sociologia.

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xaTuna maisaSvili

mediur sivrceSi da didxans SeinarCunebs mimRebi auditoriis interess Tavisi Tavis mimarT. am SeRwevadobas, mediur velSi aqtualurobis SenarCunebas, gaSuqebis intensivobis uzrunvelyofas, konkretuli cnebis sayvarel, axlobel saxed da xatad gadaqcevas ganapirobebs sociumis Rirebulebrivi da kulturuli gavlenebi, Tavad mediumis ideologiuri da organizaciuli faqtorebi. Rirebulebrivi da kulturuli gavlenebis mxriv, romelime niSanma, cnebam, sakiTxma mediuri Rirebuleba rom SeiZinos, igi unda akmayofilebdes Semdeg kriteriumebs (es kriteriumebi gamomuSavebulia dasavluri mediuri standartebis mixedviT galtungi da ruge (1965), citirebuli makqueilis mier (2005)): mas unda ukavSirdebodes farTomasStabiani movlenebi; igi axlos unda iyos `Sin~-Tan an `Sinauri sivrcis~-is nawils unda warmoadgendes; unda gaaCndes mkafio da araozrovani mniSvneloba; unda iyos socialur-politikuri konteqstis relevanturi; TanxmobaSi unda modiodes kulturul arqetipur xatebTan an warsulis gamocdilebasTan; misi signifikaciis Tanrigebi unda Slides farTo mniSvnelobiT vels, romelic mocemuli kulturuli wiaRidan izrdeba; mas unda ukavSirdebodes sazogadoebrivad mniSvnelovani qmedeba. organizaciuli faqtorebis mxriv, Temebis, cnebebis, sakiTxebis aqtualizacia mediaSi ukavSirdeba saredaqcio politikis maformirebel iseT mniSvnelovan fenomenebs, rogorebicaa: `karibWis dacva~ da `garemo, romelSic mediuri dRis wesrigi iqmneba~. midgoma Cven pasuxi unda gavceT SekiTxvas: aris Tu ara, da Tu aris, ramdenad aris, qarTuli zRva `Sin~-is, Sinauri sivrcis nawili? zRvis cnebis analizi mediur SinaarsSi moiTxovs analizis or plasts: pirveli - es aris konkretuli cnebis Tematuri konteqstualizacia da meore am cnebis, rogorc niSnis, mniSvneloba konkretul kulturul garemoSi, romelic warmoCenilia mediur teqstSi. analizis orive done ukavSirdeba mediuri teqstis mimarT struqturalistur/semiologiur midgomas. struqturalisturi midgoma Seexeba ara mxolod konvenciur verbalur enebs, aramed niSnebis nebismier sistemas, romelsac kvazienobrivi, enismagvari, maxasiaTeblebi aqvs. meorec, igi nakleb yurad-


zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva Sina da zRva gareTa...

165

Rebas uTmobs TavisTavad niSans an niSanTa sistemas da met yuradRebas miapyrobs arCeul mediur teqstebsa da teqstSi arsebul mniSvnelobebs kulturis farglebSi. struqturalisturi midgoma TiTqmis Tanabrad exeba rogorc kulturul, ise enobriv mniSvnelobebs, romelTa SigniT operirebisTvis niSanTa sistemis codna mxolod instrumentia, magram ara TviTkmari instrumenti. am instrumentariumSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs konotaciur da denotaciur mniSvnelobebs anu im asociaciebs, saxeebsa da xatebs, romlebic iqmneba da gamoixateba niSnebis kombinaciebiTa da am kombinaciebis gansazRvruli gamoyenebiT. denotacia rolan bartis mier aRwerilia, rogorc `aRniSnvis, signifikaciis pirveli Tanrigi~ (barti, 1967), vinaidan igi aRwers kavSirs Tavad niSnis SigniT aRmniSvnelsa (fizikuri aspeqti) da aRniSnuls (mentaluri aspeqti) Soris. niSnis cxadi da pirdapiri mniSvneloba misi denotaciaa. konotacia ukavSirdeba signifikaciis meore Tanrigs da gamoxatavs niSanTan asociaciurad dakavSirebul mniSvnelobas. es `asociaciurad dakavSirebuli~ mniSvnelobis farglebi Zalian farToa. swored konotaciaSi iSleba konkretuli kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobiTi velis, am velis kulturuli kodebis mTeli speqtri: erTi mxriv, Tavad asociaciebi, metaforebi, erTi sibrtyis Tvisebis meore sibrtyeSi gadatana, simboloebi da, meore mxriv, maTi gamoyenebis relevanturoba. signifikaciis, saxeldebis am meore plastis, meore donis amoqmedeba mimRebis, mkiTxvelis mxridan kulturis ufro Rrma codnas moiTxovs. rolan barti am ZiriTad ideas miTis cnebis SemotaniTa da damkvidrebiT afarToebs. Zalian xSirad raime niSniT aRniSnuli sagani Tavis adgils poulobs mniSvnelobebis ufro farTo, diskretul sistemaSi, romelic gasagebi xdeba konkretul kulturasTan identificirebuli adamianebisTvis. miTebi warmoadgens Rirebulebrivad gajerebuli ideebis nakrebs, romlebic am konkretuli kulturidan warmodgeba. mediuri teqstebi es aris stilizebuli konvenciebisa da kodebis safuZvelze Seqmnili `teqstebi~, romlebic Zalian xSirad Seicaven Riad an farulad miTebsa da kulturulad `sayvarel~, `Zvirfas~ saxeebsa da xatebs. mediuri asaxvis analizis Sedegad Cven miviRebT pasuxs, romelic ara mxolod erTi dargisTvis, mediisTvis, iqneba mniSvnelobis mqone, aramed, zogadad, mTeli kulturisTvis.

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meTodi

xaTuna maisaSvili

kvlevis meTodad gamoyenebulia naratiuli, CaRrmavebuli `pirispiri interviu~, romelic 12 respondentTan Sedga. respondentebis SerCevis principi emyareba miznobrivi SerCevis princips. interviusTvis SerCeuli Tormetive pirovnebisTvis zRva konkretuli interesis matarebeli cnebaa: cxra respondentisTvis igi profesiuli interesis (an potenciuri interesis) sferoa (saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis specialisti, ekonomisti, istorikosi, Jurnalisti, konfliqtologi, garemos damcveli), samisTvis ki zRva cxovrebis wesis nawils warmoadgens, adgils, romelic gajerebulia cocxali, cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT, maT Soris maTi piradi gamocdilebiT (afxazeTidan devnilebi). intervius kiTxvebi moicavs rogorc SekiTxvebs respondentebis mier mediuri produqciis moxmarebis Sesaxeb, maTi damokidebulebebis Sesaxeb, aseve moicavs kiTxvebs, gamomdinareT zemoT aRniSnuli mediuri Rirebulebebis sistemis kriteriumebidan, aseve konkretuli mediuri nimuSebidan. Cemi daSvebaa, rom respondentebs Camoyalibebuli da ganviTarebuli aqvT `TavianTi yoveldRiuri mediuri Teoria~ es termini ekuTvnis denis makqueils da aRniSnavs mediis gacnobierebul momxmarebelSi Camoyalibebul principebs ama Tu im sakiTxis mimarT, Tematikas, striqonebs Soris wasakiTx, dafarul teqsts da ase Semdeg. es meTodi saSualebas gvaZlevs: SevadaroT mediuri Sinaarsisa da `socialuri realobis~ percefcia; asaxvas Tu ara mediuri Sinaarsi, an unda asaxavdes Tu ara socialur realobas da Tu es asea, rogors da vis realobas asaxavs igi; aRviqvaT mediuri Sinaarsi rogorc socialuri da kulturuli Rirebulebebisa da rwmenebis asaxva. ganxilva rogorc gviCvenebs monacemebis analizi, masSi upirates mniSvnelobas iZens `zRvis~ pozicionireba, misi moTavseba drosa da sivrceSi, misi realuroba Tu warmosaxviToba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, analizi pasuxs gagvcems SekiTxvebze: ramdenad Sors an axlos aris zRva Cvengan? (es `siaxlove~ da `siSore~ vrceldeba drois istoriul vertikalze, dRevandelobis horizontul kontinuumze, auditoriis interesze zRvis mimarT, zogadad, da konkretuli sazRvao Temebisadmi, kerZod...); ramdenad aris zRva socialuri realobis nawili? da Tu zRvis xati mediaSi warmosaxvis fsiqologiiT


zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva Sina da zRva gareTa...

167

aris gamyarebuli, maSin ra kravs da asuldgmulebs am warmosaxviTobas? respondenti, romelic profesiiT Jurnalistia, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ixsenebs meoce saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli mediaTeoretikosis uolter lipmanis adreul Sexedulebas erovnul mediaSi `sazogadoebrivi azris~ CamoyalibebasTan dakavSirebiT: `jer kidev 30-ian wlebSi lipmani gamodioda im tendenciis winaaRmdeg, rom gazeTebi ganxiluli yofiliyo mxolod rogorc sazogadoebrivi sainformacio momsaxurebis forma. igi amtkicebda, rom nebismieri mediuri Tema zustad unda morgeboda auditoriis interess, morgeboda im geografiul sivrces, romelSic igi vrceldeboda, da Tanac ara mxolod im stereotipebiT, romlebic isedac myarad arsebobda sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi, aramed am stereotipebis manipulaciiT. mxolod aseTi manipulaciis meSveobiT SeiZenda Tema an niSani mkafio mniSvnelobas. mimaCnia, rom dRes qarTul mediaSi Cveni mkiTxvelisTvis zRvis mniSvnelobis Sexseneba mxolod `argonavtebis~ an stalinuri epoqis miTebiT igivea, rac Sotlandieli mkiTxvelisTvis `kiltis gadacma~ misTvis informaciis miwodebisas.~ SesaZloa, amgvari ganmeorebadi da arc Tu axali stereotipebi mkiTxveli auditoriis interess ar iwvevdes da am ukanasknels, marTlac, gansxvavebuli mada hqondes mediaSi gaSuqebuli Temebis mimarT, magram unda vaRiaroT, rom zRvis Temas, bevri sxva Temisa da sakiTxisgan gansxvavebiT, didxans gahyveba amosaval wertilad - mimdinare movlenebis ganvlilebTan Sedarebis, harmonizebis mizniT - qarTuli zRvis es warsuli da misi yvelaze gavrcelebuli stereotipebi.

`didi gacvla~ warsulsa da momavalSi.


`Cveni yvelaze didi istoriuli da kulturuli gacvla maRalganviTarebul civilizebul antikur samyarosTan zRviT moxda. zRviT Semovida saqarTveloSi ZvelberZnuli sulieri da materialuri kultura da zRviT gavida medicina, liTonis dnobis teqnologia da Rvino. mas Semdeg zRviT arc mteri mosula da arc moyvare. ganviTareba modioda samxreTidan an aRmosavleTidan. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi zRva iseve, rogorc kavkasionis qedi, bunebriv zRvars, zRudes, kedels qmnida gare samyarosTan.~ erT-erTi respondentis am citataSi gadmocemuli zRvis es saxe yvelaze gavrcelebuli da cnobierebaSi yvelze Rrmad CabeWdili sazRvao xatia. aq zRvis niSanSi erTmaneTs mkveTrad enacvleba gaxsni-

168

xaTuna maisaSvili

loba da daxSuloba; zRva gare samyarosTan komunikaciis arxic aris da misgan damfaravi zRudec. zRviT Semdgari `didi gacvla~ gvxvdeba mediur teqstebSi, romlebic Seexeba `Savi zRvis ekonomikuri sabWos~ potencials da saqarTvelos SesaZleblobebs am aliansSi. es Tema gansakuTrebul aqtualobas qarTul mediaSi im periodSi iZens, roca saqarTvelo damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa TanamegobrobaSi (`modernizebul sabWoTa kavSirSi~- aseTi epiTetiT xSirad moixsenieba dsT) Sedis. eqspertebi, analitikosebi da Jurnalistebi iwyeben dsT-s alternativis Zebnas da Savi zRvis irgvliv gaSlili saxelmwifoebis ekonomikuri TanamSromloba maT erT-erT aseT alternativad esaxebaT. mxolod Teoriuli, hipoTezuri mosazrebebiT, zRva saqarTvelosTvis regionSi TanamSromlobis RerZi unda gaxdes da Seasustos ruseTsa da sxva yofil sabWoTa respublikebze misi ekonomikuri mibmuloba. modaluri Tu imperatiuli diskursi ukve wesad inergeba am mimarTebiT: warsulis gamocdileba am mxriv ar arsebobs, da amitom zRva Cndeba deklaraciuli tipis momavalze orientirebul mediur teqstebSi: ekonomikuri Tu sagareo politikuri ganviTarebis koncefciebSi, calkeuli eqspertebisa Tu eqspertTa jgufebis samxedro doqtrinebis proeqtebSi. respondentebis naerTi SefasebiT, zRva mediaSi Cndeba, rogorc warsulis gamouyenebeli SesaZlebloba da momavali ganviTarebis Sansi. aq, am SemTxvevaSi, awmyo ar arsebobs da zRva ar aris mimdinare drois niSani. stalinuri Savi zRvis sanapiro da mimdinare mniSvnelobebi. Jurnalistika Tu piari qarTuli zRvis meore, yvelaze gavrcelebuli xati meoce saukunis 30-iani wlebidan mSenebare miTs exeba sakuroroto da dasasvenebeli infrastruqturis iqamde uprecedento mSeneblobas Savi zRvis sanapiroze. stalinis am sloganma, romelic mimarTuli iyo sazogadoebis yuradRebis gadatanaze represiebidan pozitiur, sazogadoebis Semkvrel da gamaerTianebel miTebze, xorcSesxma erT-erT didi `saxalxo~ proeqtSi hpova Savi zRvis sanapiro sabWoTa xalxis, rusi xalxis dasvenebis, garTobis erT-erT yvelaze sayvarel adgilad iqca. `sabWoTa saqarTvelos sazRvao sanapiro ar yofila saqarTvelos zRva. fizikurad, geografiulad igi isev ekuTvnoda saqarTvelos, magram socialurad da politikurad es iyo sabWoTa rusuli proeqti, romlis ganxorcielebis adgiladac saqarTvelo SeirCa da misi sargebelic mxolod lokaciis kvalobaze ganisazRvreboda. Savi


zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva Sina da zRva gareTa...

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zRvis floti sabWoTa samoqalaqo Tu samxedro navigaciis nawili iyo, sazRvao mimosvlac mkacrad kontroldeboda~. respondentebis umravlesoba im azrs iziarebs, rom zRvis Tema aqtualuri qarTul mediaSi sakurorto sezonis moaxloebisas xdeba, media aSuqebs yvelafers, rac potenciur damsvenebels daainteresebs: zRvis wylis sinjebs, sanitaruli mdgomareobas sanapiro zolze, gesThausebis, sastumroebis fasebs, saSualo sadReRamiso xarjebs, gasarTob infrastruqturas, anonsirdeba diskoTekebze mowveuli dijeebis vinaoba, samTavrobo sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis samsaxuris TanamSromlebi aqtiurad muSaoben mediasTan baTumSi mimdinare `grandiozuli~ mSeneblobebisa da proeqtebis gasaSuqeblad da baTumisTvis regionuli mniSvnelobis kurortisa da gasarTobi Tu sastumroebis biznesis centris reputaciis Sesaqmnelad. mediur asaxvaSi Zalian xSirad Cndeba quCaSi Cawerili interviuebi ucxoel turistebTan (teqstebSi) da baTumis axalmSeneblobebis fotoebi, romlebzedac gamosaxulia kiCuri arqiteqturis nayofi _ kvazigoTikur stilSi agebuli axali Senobebi. `am mediaSi asaxul samTavrobo pairSi cxadad Cans xedva ara baTumidan, ara saqarTvelodan zRvisken, aramed zRvis mxridan baTumisken. qarTveli mkiTxvelisTvis Tu mayureblisTvis xedvis amgvari kuTxe gaurkvevlobis Semcvelia: mas aiZuleben, movlenebs Sexedos sxvisi investoris, ucxoeli damsveneblis, yovel SemTxvevaSi, araTavisi - TvaliT da sagnebisa da movlenebis amgvar refleqsias endos. niSandoblivi iyo erT-erTi, savaraudod, samaTavrobo piaris Sedegad Seqmnili, grZeli qronometraJis mqone siuJeti, romelSic aWaris lamis mTeli mosaxleoba potenciuri damsaqmeblis interesis kuTxiT iyo ganxiluli da Sefasebuli.~ Aan: `TviT mSeneblobisa da ganaxlebuli arqiteqturuli iersaxis Sesaxeb Seqmnil publikaciebSi Jurnalistebi iviwyeben erT-erT mTavar Temas: ramdenad Cans zRvis faqtoris gavlena baTumis axal mSeneblobebze, ufro sworad ratom ar Cans saerTod~. respondentebis azriT, amgvari reprezentaciiT mimRebis TvalsawierSi zRva da zRvaze gaSenebuli yvelaze didi qalaqi ikargeba rogorc `Sin~-is nawili, rogorc familaruli sivrce. igi ikiTxeba da ganixileba, rogorc dominaturi diskursiT `dakveTili realoba~ da ara is socialuri realoba, romlis miRebis interesic auditorias aqvs. respondentebis umravlesobas miaCnia, rom am SemTxvevaSi saqme aqvs ara mediur komunikaciasTan, aramed konkretul mizanze orientirebul komunikaciasTan, romelic samTavrobo sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis instrumenti xdeba; rom auditorias informacias ara

170

xaTuna maisaSvili

obieqturi Jurnalistebi, aramed dainteresebuli presis agentebi awvdian. respondentebis umravlesobas aseve miaCnia, rom am samTavrobo piarSi Semodis kidev erTi zRvasTan dakavSirebuli socialuri fenomeni: qarTuli elitis mibmuloba zRvasTan, rogorc misi dasvenebisa da garTobis, sakuTrebis qonis adgilTan. baTumSi mowyobili nacionaluri arxebis sainformacio programebis sazafxulo studiebic, respondentebis azriT, samTavrobo sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis am aspeqtis gamovlinebaa. `adgilobrivi (aWaris) elita `marginalizebulia~, afxazeTis did, saporto qalaqebSi mcxovrebi elita, saerTod, devnilobaSi imyofeba, misi adgili, rogorc elitisa, dedaqalaqis politikurma elitam daikava. es Zalian saxifaTo tendenciaa~. rogorc vxedavT, aq viRebT sakmaod farTo mniSvnelobiT vels: zRva da adgili zRvasTan rekreacia, mSenebloba, investicia, ganviTareba,elituroba, konfliqti. . . imavdroulad ikargeba, mediuri Rirebulebis TvalsazrisiT, Zalian mniSvnelovani ram: zRva kargavs `Sinaurobis~ Rirebulebas, da igi `ucxos~ mijnaze gadaadgildeba. iseve, rogorc stalinuri epoqis Savi zRva. sruli harmonia Tanamedrove mediuri xatebisa warsulis xatebTan.

`dakarguli zRva~
esec gavrcelebuli stereotipia da, rogorc wesi, `dakarguli zRva~ dakarguli afxazeTis struqturul konotaciad gamoiyeneba, Tumca respondentebis umravlesobas miaCnia, rom `zRvis~ dakargva kidev bevrjer `amoikiTxes~ maT mediur teqstebSi da es teqstebi ar exeboda konfliqts afxazeTSi. TvalsaCinoebisTvis or amonarids moviyvan interviuebidan: `. . . SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis dros saqarTvelos flotis gemebis jarTad gayidva ar niSnavda mxolod konkretuli samxedro, infrastruqturuli Tu teqnikuri mniSvnelobis sakiTxis gadawyvetas. es niSnavda flotze, flotis yolaze uaris Tqmas. ai, am uaridan momdinareobs uaryofis mTeli jaWvi: ara floti ara sazRvao usafrTxoeba ara zRva. samwuxarod, maSindel mediaSi ufro metad ganixileboda am `garigebis~ finansur-teqnikuri mxareebi, vidre misi konceptualuri mniSvneloba~; da: `Savi zRvis ekologia, misi ekosistemebis mdgomareoba, brakonieruli Tu unebarTvo TevzWera an Zalian fragmentulad, an saerTod ar gvxvdeba mediur teqstebSi. es garemoeba or Zalian sagangaSo


zRvis niSani da miTebi qarTul mediaSi, anu zRva Sina da zRva gareTa...

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simptomze mianiSnebs: marginalizebulia garemosdacviTi idea da marginalizebulia zRva saqarTvelos saerTo ekologiuri sistemidan~. rodesac vxvdebiT marginalizebul cnebebs, yovelTvis gviCndeba SekiTxva, ra aris an sad aris is centri, romlis mimarTac esa Tu is idea an cneba gariyuli aRmoCndeba. orive zemoT moxmobili magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom centri aris gabatonebuli, saxelmwifo-politikuri Tu ideologiuri diskursi, romlis mimarTac zRva meorexarisxovan mdgomareobaSia, rogorc usafrTxoebiTi sistemis nawili: erTia saxelmwifoTaSorisi urTierTobebis usafrTxoeba da meorea ekologiuri usafrTxoeba. media axdens am diskursis transmisias da ar uRrmavdeba marginalizebuli cnebisa Tu niSnis reprezentaciis sxva kuTxiT kultivaciis mizniT. zRvis mistika zRvis cneba sruliad unikalur mniSvnelobebs iZens im mediur teqstebSi, romlebic afxazeTis omis, qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtisa da afxazeTidan devnilebis istoriebs warmogviCens. Tavidanve SegviZlia, daskvnis saxiT vTqvaT, rom aq zRva aris is centri, RerZi, romlis mimarTac ganlagebulia: identobis safuZveli, omi da mSvidoba, awmyo da warsuli, sicocxle da sikvdili, amqveyniuri da imqveyniuri. afxazeTSi datovebuli saxlis adgilmdebareobac zRvidan gadaTvlili metrebiT izomeba. reportaJSi `isinic oqros napiridan arian~ Jurnalistebi maia gogolaZe da lia toklikiSvili aRweren droebiT TavSesafars TbilisTan axlos, romelSic devnilebi cxovroben, aRweren am adamianebis axlandel garemos, yofasa da ganwyobas. gacnobierebuli mkiTxvelisTvis saTauridanve cxadi xdeba, rom franc kafkas novelis aluzia `oqros napirze~ dabrunebis SeuZleblobaze miuTiTebs. am TavSesafris TiToeuli binadari TiTqos kafkaseuli wiTeli peteris istorias hyveba bunebrivi samyarodan ucxo samyaroSi adaptaciis istorias: `me warmoSobiT oqros napiridan var. dacxra qariSxali, romelic Cemi Soreuli warsulidan qroda. da Soreuli xvreli, saidanac erT dros me aq gamovedi, imdenad daviwrovda, rom tyavgauZrobladac veRar gavetevi Sig ukan dasabruneblad~ (`sityva~, 2, 2008). Mes ganwyoba kidev ufro mZafri xdeba, roca Jurnalistebi aRweren erT fotos erT-erT oTaxSi, romelzec gadaRebulia, rogor kocnis kaci zRvas, oCamCireSi Separuli. ara miwas, aramed zRvas, romelic afxazeTis yvelaze gamokveTili niSan-indeqsia. `Cemi saxli soxumSi TiTqmis zRvis piras idga. diliT, roca samsaxurSi mivdiodi, marcxniv yovelTvis zRva iyo, marjvniv qala-

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qi. dRes marjvena nawili Tbilisma amoavso, marcxniv sicariele maqvs, saSineli sicariele. rom ara es siTeTre, albaT, ukeT viqnebodi.~ rogorc miuTiTebs respondentis es sityvebi, mtkivneuli xdeba ara gansazRvruli komponentis, am SemTxvevaSi zRvis, amoReba sasicocxlo garemodan, anu binadrobis fizikuri ubnidan, aramed cnobierebaSi arsebuli vizualur-sivrcobrivi xatidan. aq aRwerili mentaluri SegrZneba Zalian hgavs tvinis marjvena sferos dazianebiT daavadebuli adamianis mier aRqmul suraTs fizikuri da socialuri realobisa, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom unarSezRuduli adamiani ver acnobierebs Tavisi aRqmis paTologiurobas, aq ki fsiqikurad janmrTeli adamiani marginalizebuli xdeba samyaros aRqmaSi, mis warmosaxviT saxeSi gaCenili `TeTri laqebis gamo~. eqspertebi miiCneven, rom `qarTul medias, iseve, rogorc mTlianad qarTul sazogadoebas, axasiaTebs devnilebis cxovrebis madezintegrirebeli diskursiT warmoCena. am adamianisTvis zRva mxolod mexsierebis is ubani ar aris, romelic misi aRqmis marcxena nawils avsebda. zRvispira, saporto qalaqebSi cxovreba qmnida sruliad gansakuTrebul socialur ganwyobas iq mcxovrebTa Soris. jer kidev sabWoTa droSi, mosaxleobis TviTSegnebis Camoyalibebis mxriv, mimdinareobda moZraoba, romelic naklebad eqvemdebareboda administraciul kontrols: zRvispira, saporto qalaqebSi TviT dedaqalaqisgan gansxvavebuli mentalitetis mqone adamianebis jgufebi iqmneboda - TiTqos ufro axlos myofebi dasavleTis akrZalul zonasTan, ufro Tavisuflebi, meti xelmisawvdomobiT aseve akrZalul dasavlur saqonelze, dawyebuli saReWi rezinebiT, damTavrebuli iaponuri magnitofonebiT, romlebic garkveul socialur prestiJs sZenda maT mflobelebs.~ zRvis dakargva socialuri prestiJis, mSvidi cxovrebis dakargvasTanac igivdeba am Taobis adamianebisTvis. cxovreba zRvis piras garkveuli gagebiT `wina cxovrebis~ konotacias iZens. afxazi da qarTveli mwerlebis omis Semdgomi an mimdinare drois interviueebSi, maT esseebSi zRva Zalian xSirad warmoCndeba, rogorc saerTo identobis safuZveli, rogorc adgili, sadac ar yofila omi, sisxlisRvra, SuRli miwisgan gansxvavebiT. Tumca aq zRva Cndeba maTi bavSvobis adgilad, sadac isini mxolod sikvdilis Semdeg dabrundebian. `aRavin damrCa, zRvaze sabanaod mivipatiJo. . . saRamo xans, roca sicxe cxreba, magididan vdgebi, Tavs vanebeb Cems nawerebs, swored ise, rogorc is biZakacebi stovebdnen nards, da auCqarebelad mivdivar zRvisken, frutuniT mivabijeb talRebSi, fexebiT wyals vaSxefeb. . . magram zRva ukve is ar aris, rac iyo, sxva zRvaa momwvano Tu indigo Salisferia, mosawyeni, zedmetad mariliani~. afxazi mwerlis


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daur zanTarias moTxrobis `nemsis yunwi~ am monakveTSi, romelis qarTuli Targmanis internetgazeTma `axalma 7 dRem~ gamoaqveyna (Targmani guram odiSariasi), mkafiod moCans zRvis niSnis dinamika, niSnis cxovreba: warsulis cocxali zRvidan awmyosa Tu momavlis mkvdari zRvisken. iq, sadac xmeleTze naomarTa Serigeba unda Sedges. meoce saukunis dasawyisSi simbolistur mimarTulebaSi damkvidrebuli niSnebis mixedviT, swored es momwvano Tu indigo Salisferia sikvdilis feri. sakuTriv narativis ganviTarebac aqeT mihyavs mwerals: `sanam gankiTxvis dRes xidze aRmoCndeba, jer `nemsis yunwSi unda gaaRwios Cemma sulma (`nemsis yunwi~ viwro adgili zRvis SesarTavTan, sadac afxazi, qarTveli Tu sxva erovnebis bavSvebi banaobdnen, mSoblebis daukiTxavad x. m.). imedi maqvs, gafarTovdeba da gamatarebs nemsis yunwi, Tundac imitom, rom umravlesoba Tqvengani, romlebic aq mfarvelobdiT da mpatronobdiT, romlebic ase meZvirfasebodiT da miyvardiT, didi xania, rac gaRma napirze imyofebiT. rodesac xids miRma Tvals mogkravT, mzeras darcxvenilad aRar agaridebT, Tumca kvlav codvaSi vimyofebi... o, rogor gamoviqcevi Tqvenken, rogorc ki nemsis yunws gamovaRwev... gamoviqcevi da gzadagza codvebs Camovicileb, rogorc bavSvobaSi tansacmels viSorebdi zRvasTan miaxloebisas~. aq zRvis niSnis konotaciuri veli imdenad iSleba, rom TiTqmis yvela masTan asociaciurad dakavSirebuli cnebac icvlis Tavisi denotaciuri mniSvnelobis plasts, Tanrigs da meorad mniSvnelobas iZens da viRebT: zRva _ sicocxle, umankoeba, codviloba, ganwmenda, dabruneba, Sexvedris adgili, sikvdili. zRvis sanapiros konotacias, rogorc sikvdilisa da sicocxlis Soris gamavali gamyofi xazisa, vxvdebiT Jurnalist lia toklikiSvilis narkvevSi `mkvdari qalaqis Canawerebi~ (`axali 7 dRe~, `meoce saukune~). narkvevi agebulia mTlianad dokumentur masalaze, igi mogviTxrobs soxumeli pensioneri qalis, vera naWyebias istorias, romlis erTaderTi invalidi vaJi maSin waiyvanes Sinidan afxazebma, roca deda puris rigSi idga. narkvevSi dazustebiT ar Cans, daxvrites Tu ara vera naWyebias Svili, ar Cans aravin, visac biWis ambavi ecodineboda. Cans mxolod puris rigidan gamogdebuli, afxazi gogonebis mier Seuracxyofili mxcovani qalis tanjva, Svilis saflavis amao Zebna da sul erTi da igive sizmari: `yovel Rame isev soxumSi var, sanapirodan meZaxis Svili... ras unda niSnavdes netav... sanapiroze Tu daxvrites, zRvidan rom meZaxis biWi~. sanapiroc aseTive gaurkvevlobaa, miwaa Tu zRva, sicocxle Tu sikvdili. erT-erTi respondentis pasuxi migviTiTebs, rom sivrce, romelic ara xedviT, aramed kognitiurad, auditorulad Semodis adamia-

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nebis cnobierebaSi, TavisTavad am adamianebis cocxali cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT itvirTeba. `me TviTon viyavi tyveTa gacvlis procesis monawile. tyveebi zRviT gadagvyavda. ase ufro usafrTxod miiCneoda. erTxel, roca zRvaSi gavediT, erTma moxucma afxazma wamoiwyo simRera, romelic iqamde arasdros msmenoda da, rogorc Cans, arc sxvebs gaegonaT. . . Zalian sevdiani, sulisSemZvreli bgerebi iyo. roca vikiTxe, ra simReras mReroda, mipasuxa, rom am simReras afxazi muhajirebi mRerodnen, roca isini TurqeTSi gadahyavdaT zRviT. TviTonac ar icoda, ratom da saidan gaaxsenda es simRera. Ees adgilis mexsierebaa, albaT, romelic Seaxsenebs, rom zRviT gasavleli gza es tyvis gzaa, samSoblodan iZulebiT wasvlis gzaa~. aq vxvdebiT zRvis erT-erT ganzogadebul simbolur saxes: adgili, romelic odesRac `Sin~ iyo, adgili, romelsac aqvs mexsiereba, gaziarebuli istoria, erTad yofnis gamocdileba, magram axla masSi mosaxvedrad an `nemsis yunwi~ unda gaiaro an is xvreli, saidanac axla civi sio uberavs. es ukve `Sin~ aRar aris. `rusi samxedroebis patrulirebam afxazeTis sanapirosTan mSvidobiani zRvis xatsac gamoacala safuZveli. dRes xmeleTma da zRvam TiTqos adgilebi gacvales. zRva mometebul safrTxed iqca~. daskvna globalizaciis epoqaSi postmodernistuli epistemologiebi (mediac codnis erT-erT yvelaze Zlier da gavlenian gamavrceleblad gvevlineba) sul ufro da ufro met mniSvnelobas aniWeben adgilis gamocdilebas da adgilis, garemos aRqmas. mas xSirad garemos niWsac ki uwodeben. adamianebi garemos Sesaxeb informacias ar iReben mxolod uSualo gamocdilebiT, aramed gaSualebuliTac, mediis meSveobiT. amitom mkvlevrebi xazgasmiT aRniSnaven mediis rols `warmosaxviTi erTobis~ fenomenis adgilis gancdaze gavrcelebaSic, raTa igi ar iqces `absoluturi sivrcis~ nawilad, aramed SeiZinos iseTi niSan-Tvisebebi, romlebic identobis safuZvlad iqceva adamianebis mravalricxovani jgufebisTvis, anu iqceva `Sin~-ad. zRvis niSani qarTul mediaSi moklebulia swored `Sinauri~ adgilis maxasiaTeblebs. rogori kuTxiTac, romeli Tematuri rakursiTac unda iyos is warmoCenili, zRva yovelTvis `Sors~ rCeba.


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literatura Barthes, R. (1967) Elements of Semiology. London: Cape Burgelin, O. (1972) `Structural Analysis and Mass Communication~, in D. McQuail (ed.) Sociology of Mass Communications, pp.313-28. Harmondsworth: Penguin Galtung, J. and Ruge, M. (1965) `The Structure of Foreign News~, Journal of Peace Research, 1:64-90 Manheim, J.B. (1998) `The news shapers: strategic communication as a third force in news-making~, in D. Graber, D. McQuail and P. Norris (eds.) The Politics of News: the News of Politics, pp.94-109. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly Press McQuail, D. (2005) McQuails Mass Communication Theory. London: SAGE Publications

aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe
arekvlis fenomeni, rogorc yviTeli feris Tandayolili Tviseba zRvis uZrav silurjesTan mimarTebaSi Jan-mari gustav le klezios `oqrosmaZieblis~ mixedviT ...EnuTu talRebis moZrav sarkeebze mzis reverberaciam amiria goneba? ase mgonia, drois miRma vimyofebode, sxva samyaroSi, sruliad gansxvavebulSi, imdenad Sors yvelafrisagan, rasac vicnobdi, TiTqos veRarasodes mivagnebde imas, rac davtove. swored amis gamoa, rom am Tavbrusxvevas vgrZnob, am gulisrevis SegrZnebas: meSinia samudamod davtovo CemSi is, rac viyavi, da ukan dabrunebis imedic ar davitovo1. XX saukunis meore naxevris evropisaTvis afrikis da aRmosavleTis qveynebs ukve aRar axldaT siaxlis is gancda, rogorc es erTi an ori saukunis win SeimCneoda.Amiuxedavad amisa, franguli kulturis garemoSi aRzrdili le kleziosTvis, romelic erTdroulad morisis kunZulidanaa da amave dros _ franguli da inglisuri warmoSobisac, indielTa samyaro uaRresad mniSvnelovania da mis nawarmoebebSi yovelTvis siaxlis nota Semoaqvs.Ffaqtobrivad, samxreTuli samyaroebisadmi interesi, ro
Le Clzio, Le chercheur dor, Gallimard, folio, 1985, p. 181-182. teqstSi moyvanili yvela citatis Targmani Sesrulebulia statiis avtoris mier.
1

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori (eqsi-marselis universiteti, safrangeTi), asocirebuli profesori (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), miwveuli mkvlevari (anTropologiur mecnierebaTa fondi/Fondation Maison des Sciences de lHomme, parizi, safrangeTi). kvlevis saTauri : devnidan totalitarizmamde: literaturuli TviTcenzuris ganviTarebis etapebi`. cxovrebaSi~ (frangulad). gamomcemloba zekari, Tbilisi, 2003; `zurgi. feri. naxatis mimarTulebiT~ (frangulad). gamomcemloba lampari, Tbilisi, 2003.
gamoqveynebuli monografiebi: `erTi feri Cems or


arekvlis fenomeni, rogorc yviTeli feris Tandayolili Tviseba...

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melic gansakuTrebiT XIX saukuneSi gaZlierda da Tavis apogeas XX saukunis ocian wlebSi miaRwia, mudmivad daucxromeli rCeba; Aadamianebi TiTqos WeSmaritebis saZieblad mziani qveynebisken miemgzavrebian, Tumca amave dros acnobiereben, rom sxvagan cxovreba niSnavs gamousworebel cvlilebas, romelic maT Tan sdevs da saidanac ukan dabruneba SeuZlebeli xdeba [`meSinia samudamod davtovo CemSi is, rac viyavi, ukan dabrunebis imedic ar davitovo~]. swored amgvar cvlilebaze saubrobs `oqrosmaZieblis~ protagonisti, rodesac ambobs: `saWiro iyo yvela es dRe zRvaSi, es sinaTle, es damwvroba mzeze da qarze, es Rameebi, raTa Cavwvdomodi da Tvali amxeloda~. sinaTlis reverberacia, mwveli mzis Suqi es is faqtorebia, romlebic irrealobis SegrZnebas badeben [`Tavbrusxveva~] da Semdeg SiSs `gonebis arevis~, gagiJebis winaSe. sainteresoa, rom yvelgan reverberaciis am fenomens Tan erTvis zRvis, wylis elementis arseboba. swored `talRebis moZravi sarkeebi~ uwyobs xels arekvlis ganxorcielebas da am halucinaciuri reverberaciis fonze gonebis arevis SegrZnebis dabadebas. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom nawarmoebis ZiriTadi idea Ziebis da TviTSemecnebis Temis irgvliv aris agebuli, romelic mogzaurobis gziT miiRweva. es mogzauroba ki xorcieldeba ara xmeleTis meSveobiT, aramed zRvis gadalaxvis gziT [`saWiro iyo yvela es dRe zRvaSi~]. amave dros, irrealobis SegrZnebas amwvavebs is faqti, rom ucxooba da gansxvavebuloba [`sxva samyaroSi, sruliad gansxvavebulSi~] iwvevs or samyaros Soris meryeobis SegrZnebas, sadac es ori samyaro gancalkevebulad arsebobs, erTi meoresTan kavSiris gareSe. Agarda amisa, am adgilebs/samyaroebs Soris gansxvavebas safuZvlad udevs sinaTlis sxvanairi reverberacia, romelic moqmedebs mxedvelobaze, gonebaze, da geografiuli gansxvavebis garda, drois sxvagvarobis SegrZnebasac iwvevs [`drois gareT / drois miRma vimyofebode~]. kunZuli horizontis kideze uecrad Cndeba. is wylidan amodis, saRamos yviTel caSi, maRali lurji mTebiT bnel wyalze aRmocendeba. SesaZloa Tavdapirvelad zRvis frinvelebma miiqcies Cemi yuradReba, romlebsac Cvens Tavze gahqondaT Jivil-xivili2. es sxva sinaTle, romelsac Seswevs unari dRis nebismier monakveTSi Tavbrusxvevis SegrZneba dabados adamianSi (`sinaTle damabrmave
2

Ibid., p. 183.

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aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe

belia, Tavbrusxvevas vgrZnob~3), yviTeli ferisaa. van gogis tiloebis msgavsad, romlebic safrangeTis samxreTSia daxatuli, le klezios nawarmoebSic ca ireklavs da sinaTlisgan sesxulobs yviTel fers, romelic swored reverberacias, mzis sxivebis difuzias warmoadgens. yviTeli sinaTlis es dominirebadi arekvla yvelaferTan erTad irrealur elementsac moicavs is kunZuls araraSi uecrad warmoaCens, yviTlad gadaqceul sicarieleSi [`is wylidan amodis, saRamos yviTel caSi~], sadac wyali isev gadamwyvet Tanmdev faqtorad gvevlineba: kunZuli yviTel sicarieleSi moCveneba-cxads4 Soris meryeobs swored imis gamo, rom Sua zRvaSi wylidan uecrad ibadeba da mas moCvenebis statuss sZens. maSasadame halucinaciur zemoqmedebas zRvis faqtori kidev ufro amZafrebs5. rac Seexeba cis feris modifikacias, Cven is gvainteresebs imdenad, ramdenadac cis realuri feri Cveulebriv, lurjsa da cisfer tonalobebs Soris meryeobs, aq ki yviTlad Seferili gvvevlineba. meores mxriv, kunZuli zRvidan amodis, magram Cndeba swored caSi orive TvalsazrisiT (wyali/ca) avtors fantastikis elementi Semoaqvs, sadac realoba yviTeli reverberaciis safuZvelze icvleba. kunZuli cisa da zRvis sivrceSi dakidebuli Cndeba, zRvis zeviT [`wyalze~] da atmosferoSi - caSi. yviTelSi dakidebuli, es xmeleTi TiTqos `muq~ ufro sworad ki `lurj~ wyalze tivtivebs. mTebic analogiuri ferisaa. sibace/sinaTle [yviTeli] upirispirdeba sibneles [silurjes], romelsac xmeleTic [mTebi] miekuTvneba, miuxedavad imisa, rom is zRvidan siyviTleSi ibadeba. es harmoniuli diqromatizmi `oqrosmaZiebelSi~ or tonalobas Soris mudmivi balansis dacvas uwyobs xels. Tumca Kkamiusgan gansxvavebiT, le kleziosTan lurjisa da yviTlis urTierTgawonasworebuloba kidev ufro gaZlierebulia im fundamenturi urTierTdapirispirebuli orferovnebiT, romelsac Savi da TeTri warmoadgens: `diliT, zRva Savia, Caketili. es didi Savi mdinaris qviSis da tamarindis gamo xdeba, es lavis mtveris bralia~6. zRva erTdroulad Savicaa da lurjic, maSasadame muqi feris: `[...] da bolos muqi zRva, mbzinvare, romelmac rifis meore mxares daido bina~. swored zRvis simuqe mZafr kontrastSia yviTeli feris sibacesTan. Savi, lurji Tu muqi feris zRva
3 4

Ibid., p. 180. kunZuli horizontis kideze uecrad Cndeba ( Lle apparat sur la ligne de lhorizon ) : originalSi naxmari sityva apparat niSnavs gamoCenas, warmoCenas, magram amave dros moCvenebiT gamocxadebis niunssac atarebs. 5 rac Seexeba xmeleTis zRvidan dabadebas, amas mogvianebiT ganvavrcobT. 6 Ibid., p. 14.


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179

sinaTlis sibacis winaSe erTmniSvnelovnad moiazrebs bnels naTelis sapirispirod. Aaqedan gamomdinare, lurjisa da yviTlis urTierTdapirispirebuli harmonia agreTve niSnavs qromatul dapirispirebas, sadac zRva/mze da sibnele/sinaTle erTmaneTis paralelurad Tanaarsebobs. `maRali muqi zRvis Zaladobrivi mZvinvarebis Semdeg, qariSxlisa da wylis Sxefebis Semdeg, aq Tavs ise vgrZnob, rogorc Tbil sizmarSi, romelic sinaTliTaa gaJRenTili. saxeze, zurgze mzis mcxunvarebis SegrZneba~7. Ees urTierTkavSiri mzesa da zRvas Soris mudam Tan sdevs Txrobis ganviTarebas. aris ra bneli da lurji, zRva Tavis TavSi Caketvis unars moicavs, wred qcevis unars [`zRva Savia, Caketili~], misken mimarTuli mzis sxivebis wyalze gafantvisas is TiTqos Txevad saxes kargavs da kedlad gardaiqmneba: Aaq zRvis xma musikasaviT lamazia. Qqars moaqvs talRebi, romlebic sadRac, Zalian Sors, marjnis fesvebze imsxvrevian da me kldeebSi TiToeuli vibraciis xma mesmis, xma, romelic cisken iswrafis. TiTqos horizontze kedeli iyos, romelsac zRva exeTqeba, mTeli Tavisi siZlieriT8. kandinskis Teoriis9 msgavsad, aqac lurji feris Seuryev bunebas vawydebiT, sadac zRva, aris Caketil elementad warmodgenili (mis winsvlas sivrcis garRvevas horizontis virtualuri kedeli uSlis xels), TavisTavad ukve cirkularul moZraobas moiazrebs da Tavad iqceva kedlad, solaruli gafantuli sinaTlis winaSe ikumSeba (lurji zogadad ukansvliT xasiaTdeba, xolo yviTeli winsvliT, sadac yviTeli mayureblisken mimavali feria, lurjisgan gansxvavebiT). Aamgvarad, feris geometriuli eqsterierizacia, sxvanairad rom vTqvaT feris garegani forma ufro metad gasagebi xdeba. wre interierisken ikvreba da Sesabamisad ikumSeba samkuTxedis geometriuli gamosaxulebis eqsterierisken mimarTuli winsvlis, Zalisxmevis winaSe. A `magram mze zRvisken Cadis, mas liTonad aqcevs, gaumWvirvale SuSad~10. Tu wriuli/cirkularuli moZraobis energia sakuTari
7 8

Ibid., p. 56. Ibid., gv. 15-16. 9 ix. Wassily Kandinsky, Du spirituel dans l'art et dans la peinture en particulier, Paris, Denol, 1985. 10 Ibid., p. 56.

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aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe

centrisken aris mimarTuli, samkuTxedis energia sapirispirodaa orientirebuli da centridanul Zalas warmoadgens. swored am centrisken mimarTul energiasa (lurji) da centridanul energias (yviTeli) Soris koordinirebaze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba aixsnas mzis Suqis zRvaze zegavlenis unari da mas metalisebri simyare SesZinos. swored am ori opoziciurad moqmedi Zalis urTierTmimarTebis Sedegad Cadis mze zRvis mimarTulebiT (zRvaSi) da gafantuli/difuzuri sinaTlis meSveobiT aviwrovebs mas, raTa masze maqsimaluri gavlena moaxdinos. ismis SekiTxva: ratom akeTebs le klezio aqcents zRvis liTonad gardasaxvaze, miTumetes, rom amis Sesaxeb ramdenjerme imeorebs teqstSi? `magram Zalian male, mzis reverberacia mwvavs, Tvalebze binds mfens. Cems Tavze zRvis usasrulobaa, romelic lurjia da myari da gars ertymis kunZuls~11. gadametebuli ar iqneboda imis Tqma, rom zRva mTels romanSi lurj ferad da `liTonis~ msgavsadaa warmodgenili, rogorc `myari~ da uryevi elementi, misi bunebrivi Txevadi mdgomareobisgan gansxvavebiT, xolo mzis sinaTle mudmivad misken miiltvis, raTa mis sivrceze gavlena moaxdinos, Seaviwrovos da areali SemouRobos. Aam TvalsazrisiT, termini `liTonis~ xmareba mizanSewonili da aucilebelic ki xdeba zRva TiTqos Seviwroebis momentSi adgilze iyineba, myar nivTierebad iqceva, raTa misken momarTul sinaTles winaaRmdegoba gauwios, sinaTles, romelic gasasvlels uketavs [`TiTqos horizontze kedeli iyos, romelsac zRva exeTqeba, mTeli Tavisi siZlieriT~]. lurj ferad ara mxolod Seferili, aramed lurji bunebis mqone zRva, liTonis/metalis Tvisebis matareblad gardaisaxeba da winaaRmdegobis gaweva sinaTlis centridanuli energiis mimarT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeeZleba, Tuki sakuTar Caketil, wriul formas SeinarCunebs, gansxvavebiT sinaTlisgan, romelic centridanuli Zalis Sesabamisad sakuTar formas scildeba. koordinacia am ori tipis moZraobas Soris (centrisken mimarTuli da centridanuli), romelsac lurji da yviTeli feri moiazrebs, maTi eqsteriorizaciis meSveobiT xorcieldeba.
is mxrebs iCeCavs da mets arafers ambobs. SesaZloa icis, rom `zetas~ bortze darCenaze uari vTqvi da amitom Cems mimarT interess aRar iCens. is isev mzis yurebis tkbobaSi efloba, romelic sinaTlis uSvelebel atolze amodis, TiTqos wylidan amoedineba da uRrublo cisken miemarTeba12.
11 12

Ibid., p. 327. Ibid., p. 179.


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mzis zegavleniT zRvis metalad transformacia, romelic misi moZraobis dabrkolebas iwvevs (metals ar axasiaTebs welvadi buneba, elastiuroba, Cveulebriv pirobebSi is sakuTar formaSi Caketili rCeba), sakuTari traeqtoriis garRvevis bunebis matarebel sinaTles kidev ufro meti moqmedebis areals aZlevs, raTa man zRvaze miitanos ieriSi. zemoT moyvanil monakveTSi sinaTle TiTqos qvevidan, wylidan amodis da cisken miemarTeba, rac Tavis mxriv ewinaaRmdegeba lurjis centrisken mimarTul moZraobas. aRniSnuli fenomenis axsna mdgomareobs swored sinaTlis mier arekvlis TvisebaSi. amgvarad, metalad qceuli zRva, sadac lurji da Savi/muqi feri Tavis rols asrulebs, arekvlis moqmedebis ganxorcielebas uwyobs xels. amitomac xdeba, rom areklili sinaTle warmoCndeba, rogorc qvevidan zeviT gare sivrcisken [ca], sworxazovnad mimarTuli. uZravi da metalisebri koncefciis matarebeli zRva, `zRvis napralis armqone kedeli~ bolos da bolos yviTeli sinaTlis eqspansiur moZraobas nebdeba. sainteresoa, rom paul klee Tavis `dRiurSi~, `italiuri STabeWdilebebi~-sadmi miZRvnil TavSi, zRvis analogiur Tvisebaze saubrobs: `dRisiT, quCabandebSi mwveli mze, qveviT zRvis metalisebri anareklebi, mzis mozRvavebuli sinaTle, TvalTdabneleba~13. `mozRvavebuli~ sinaTle le klezioseuli zRvis `metalisebr~ elvarebas kidev erTxel usvams xazs. SesaZloa msgavseba gamoikveTos folkneriseuli agvistos sinaTlis ormagi sikvdilis momaswavebel ZalasTan, sadac lurji ver umklavdeba yviTlis `mozRvavebul~ energias (`Light in August~). Mmetalad gardaqmnili zRva xels uwyobs sinaTlis arekvlas da amgvarad wylis lurji feris sinaTlis yviTel ferad transformacias, rogorc es agreTve gvxvdeba rembos `saxarebiseul prozaSi~. halucinaciuri sinaTlis efeqti wylis siaxlovisas indielTa samyaro le kleziosTan da paul kleeseuli italiis saxe [...] maTrobeli sinaTle isadgurebs CemSi. Mmze horizonts exeba, Tumca Rames zRvaze aRelveba ar moaqvs. piriqiT, simSvide modis im samyarodan, sadac Cven erTaderTi cocxali arsebani varT zRvis zedapirze. ca oqrosfrad da alisfrad ifereba. zenitSi myofi mzis
13

Paul Klee, Journal, Imresssions italiennes (Octobre 1901 mai 1902) , trad. par Pierre Klossowski, Paris, Bernard Grasset, 1959. p. 64.

182

aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe

qveS Zlier muqi zRva amjerad iseTi gluvi da msubuqia, iisferi bolis msgavsi, romelic horizontis RrublebSi ifanteba da mzes Crdilavs14. nawarmoebis sqematuri harmonia `oqrosmaZiebelSi~ miRweulia lurji-yviTeli ormagi fonis wre-samkuTxedis geometriul gamoxatulebaSi, sadac mogzaurobis Tema aucilebel faqtorad gvevlineba. Pprotagonisti-mTxrobelis mogzauroba wriulad viTardeba, sadac gamokveTilia mogzaurobis sawyisi da saboloo mizani da sabolood sqematur sisruleSi gadadis. rogorc romanSi `Light in August~ lina, fexmZime, Tavisi sayvarlis saZieblad midis, le kleziosTanac protagonisti-mTxrobeli aleqsi saganZuris saZieblad miemgzavreba kunZul rodrigesze. Oorive romanSi Ziebis saboloo mizani mogzaurobis perioSi transformacias ganicdis da orive protagonisti sabolood sakuTriv mogzaurobis ZiebaSia, rac am SemTxvevaSi sakuTari Tavis Ziebas utoldeba. folknerTan es mogzauroba xmeleTze mimdinareobs, xolo le kleziosTan zRvis meSveobiT xorcieldeba. niSandoblivia, rom `oqrosmaZiebelSi~ imis magivrad, rom miwa mzesTan yofiliyo dapirispirebuli, swored zRva ikavebs adgils mzis sawinaaRmdego RerZze. kontrasti miwa-mze aq Canacvlebulia kontrastiT zRva-mze ; avtori xmarobs sityvaTSeTanxmebas ara `miwis zedapiri~ (rac SesaZloa ufro logikurad gveCvenos), aramed is araordinarulad irCevs `zRvis zedapirs~. zRvaSi mogzauroba movlenad iqca. rogorc Ramis genua, romelic Tavisi Warbi sinaTlidan TandaTan sibneleSi Caesvena, savse mTvaris naTebam STanTqa, im sizmris msgavsad, romelic erTidan meoreSi gadaedineba. [...] romi epikuria, genua dramatuli15. wyali, romelic mzesTan Tanaarsebobs, sruliad sxva xasiaTs iRebs. M~zRvaSi mogzauroba~ finalurad movlenad iqceva, riskenac mas `Warbi~ sinaTle ubiZgebs. Ppaul klee aRniSnavs, Tu ramdenad gansxvavdeba es sinaTle CrdiloeTis qalaqebis sinaTlisagan `Warbi sinaTle~ im eqspansiuri sinaTlis sinonimuri xdeba, romelzedac le klezio saubrobs da romelic paul kleesTan genuas `dramatul~ aspeqts sZens.
14 15

Le Clzio, Le chercheur dor, Gallimard, folio, 1985, p. 138. Paul Klee, Journal, Impressions italiennes (Octobre 1901 mai 1902) , trad. par Pierre Klossowski, Paris, Bernard Grasset, 1959. p. 65.


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es dramatuli Tu SemaSfoTebeli iersaxe `oqrosmaZiebelSi~ ramdenjermea xazgasmuli. Mmzis Casvlisas aRelveba, SeSfoTeba qreba [`Rames ar moaqvs aRelveba~], movlena nawarmoebSi mzis zenitSi yofnisas viTardeba, anu swored maSin, rodesac sinaTle apogeas aRwevs [`zenitSi myofi mzis qveS Zlier muqi zRva amjerad iseTi gluvi da msubuqia~]. swored am dros zRva yvelaze ufro `muqia/bneli~ da Tavis metalisebr zedapirze sinaTlis arekvlis fenomenis ganviTarebas uwyobs xels; maSin, rodesac dRis dasasruls horizontis mkveTri, gamokveTili xazi [`metali~] qreba da lurji bolos da bolos gare sivrcisken miemarTeba, ifanteba [`boli~, `msubuqi~]. `Semdeg amas mohyva oqrosfrad Seferili dRe, romelic apriliseul bundovanebaSi daikarga~16. sinaTlis oqrosferi TiTqos aleqsis gadaadgilebas mTeli misi mogzaurobis manZilze Tan sdevs: vfiqrob im adgilze, saiTkenac mivemgzavrebi da Cemi guli kidev ufro Zlierad cems. zRva gluvi gzaa, raTa saidumlos, idumals miagno. Ooqro sinaTleSia, Cems irgvliv, zRvis sarkis qveS dafaruli. vfiqrob imaze, Tu ra melis am mogzaurobis dasasruls, romelic im xmeleTs hgavs, sadac adre vyofilvar da romelic davkarge. Ggemi mexsierebis sarkeze micuravs. [...] aq, zetas gembanze, romelic dasustebuli sinaTlis bindSi nela miiwevs win, momavalze fiqri Tabrus mxvevs. Tvalebs vxuWav, rom cis damabrmavebeli sikaSkaSe aRar davinaxo, zRvis napralis armqone kedeli17. oqro aq feris (oqrosferi) da nivTieri materiis (metali) ormag cnebas moiazrebs. erTi mxriv, is mogzaurobis saboloo daniSnulebas warmoadgens (aleqsi saganZurs eZebs, maSasadame misi Zieba materialur safuZvels atarebs), meore mxriv, is protagonistis irgvliv sivrceSi iCens Tavs sinaTleSi, romelic mas gars artyia da gadaadgilebis yvela momentSi Tan sdevs [`oqro sinaTleSia, Cems irgvliv~]. protagonisti-mTxrobeli zRvas warmoaCens rogorc gzas, romelsac mihyveba da miaCnia, rom swored mis siRrmeSi (zRvis wiaRSi) miagnebs `saidumlos~ [`zRvis sarkis qveS dafaruli~]. maSasadame, swored zRva miiCneva, rogorc saboloo daniSnuleba, rogorc mogzaurobis dasabami, kide. miuxedavad imisa, rom protagonisti mzis si
16 17

Ibid., gv. 90. Le Clzio, Le chercheur dor, Gallimard, folio, 1985, p. 131.

184

aTinaT mamacaSvili-kobaxiZe

naTleSi oqros yvelganmyofobas acnobierebs, is mainc wylis safaris qveS agrZelebs mis Zebnas. davakonkretoT: wylis sarkis qveS. aSkaraa, rom sarke warmoCndeba, rogorc gasaRebi-sityva, rasac mTxrobeli jer kidev ver acnobierebs. TiToeuli zRvasTan dakavSirebuli termini gamoyenebulia wylis mier arekvlis fenomenis ganxorcielebis Tvisebis xazgasasmelad: `sarke~, `gluvi~ (swored gluvi zedapiri uwyobs xels arekvlis fenomenis realizebas). aqedan gamomdinare, teqsti gvauwyebs, Tu ramdenad warmoadgens `sinaTlis oqro~ ubralo sityvebis TamaSs, sadac Ziebis sagans (metali oqro) mivyavarT WeSmaritebis aRmoCenamde da romelic swored mzeSi, sinaTleSi da zRvaSi erToblivad mdgomareobs da rac Tavidanve STagonebuli iyo im faqtiT, rom oqro `sinaTleSi~, `irgvliv~ iyo gafantuli, da rom zRvaze mogzaurobis meSveobiT napovni ganZi yovelTvis am mogzaurobis gareT imyofeboda zRvis gareT, romelic mxolod sarkes warmoadgenda, anarekls. 1839 wels terneris mier Sesrulebuli tilo `The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up~ sinaTlis analogiur reprezentacias emyareba. mzis Suqi, romelic gare sivrcisken aris mimarTuli da horizontalurad vrceldeba (rac TavisTavad, kandinskis mxatvruli Teoriis Tanaxmad, samkuTxedis geometriuli figuris winapirobad SegviZlia miviCnioT), grZeldeba wyalze, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mis monoqromatul Seferilobas iRebs da yviTlad warmoCndeba. `sinaTle auzSi vazis ukanaskneli foTlebis msgavsad iyo gayviTlebuli~18 wers artur rembo. le kleziosTvisac `oqrosmaZiebelSi~ saidumlo zRvis SigniT, zRvaSi imaleba, magram mzis sinaTle ireklavs wylis zedapirs da swored vertikaluri arekvlis faqtoris meSveobiT es saidumlo zRvidan sinaTleSi amohyavs. ludvig vitgenStaini teqstSi `Canawerebi ferebis Sesaxeb~ werda: `Cven ar vsaubrobT oqros ferze da rasac masSi vgulisxmobT, sulac ar aris yviTeli. oqros feri warmoadgens im zedapiris Tvisebas, romelic brwyinavs an brWyvialebs~19. arekvlis fenomeni maSasadame oqrosfers axasiaTebs sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, mbrwyinav yviTels, sadac zedapiris roli gadamwyvetad gvevlineba. aqedan gamomdinare: `oqrosferi zedapiris feria~20. am maxasiaTeblis (brwyinva
Arthur Rimbaud, Proses en marges de lvangile, uvres compltes, d. prsente et tablie par Louis Forestier, Robert Laffont, 1992, p. 134. 19 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Remarques sur les couleurs, trad. par Grard Granel, d. bilingue, Trans-Europ-Repress et Grard Granel, 1984 pour la 2me dition, 4me dition, (I, 33), p. 13. 20 Ibid., (III, 100), p. 39.
18


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185

leba) TandarTviT yviTeli oqrosfer zedapirad gadaiqceva: `sinaTle axla zRvidan modis, misi feris siRrmidan. ca bacia, TiTqmis ferisgan daclili, da me zRvis lurj sivrces da cis sicarieles gavcqeri, vuyureb iqamde, sanam Tavbru ar damexveva~21. swored arekvlis erTaderTi mizezis gamo warmoCndeba, rom sinaTle qvevidan zeviT adis zRvidan caSi, vertikalurad. TiTqos lurji feridan ibadebodes oqrosferi, magram oqro mudam da yovelTvis mzis sinaTleSi arsebobda. mzis Suqis am halucinaciur reverberacias Tan axlavs `Tavbrus xveva~, TvalT dabneleba, rac, Tavis mxriv, WeSmaritebis dafarvas realobis deformirebas uwyobs xels. Tvalebis wvas vgrZnob, iqneb sicxe maqvs? Cemi saxis kani, kiseri, mklavebi, Cemi zurgi yvelaferi mwvavs. mzis sicxem, am saaTebis manZilze Tavisi daRi daasva Cems sxeuls. mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi mze wvavda [...] zRvasac, talRebis Txems, xatavda ra cisartyelebs zRvis qafSi22. realurad TvalTdabindebis mizezi sinaTlis eqstremalur sicxeSi mdgomareobs. mbrwyinavi da kaSkaSa feri oqrosferi winmswrebad gvevlineba im fenomenisa, romelic sinaTlis qvevidan zeviT ganvrcobas warmoaCens. swored is axdens zRvis Tandayolili feris lurjis transformacias im ferad, romelic sinamdvileSi mxolod reverberacias warmoadgenda. swored zRvaSi da zRvis meSveobiT sruldeba protagonistimTxrobelis Zieba, Tumca WeSmariteba yovelTvis am mogzaurobis gareT, zRvisa da mzis gareT arsebobda, TviT adamianSi, magram `saWiro iyo yvela es dRe zRvaSi, raTa gamego da Cavwvdomodi~.

21 22

Le Clzio, Le chercheur dor, Gallimard, folio, 1985, p. 130. Ibid., p. 130.

murad mTvareliZe

cisferyanwelTa zRva Sesavlis magier


meoce saukunis ociani wlebis dasawyisia. qarTveli simbolisti poetebi tician tabiZe, paolo iaSvili, valerian gafrindaSvili da nikolo miwiSvili qobuleTSi, zRvis sanapiroze sxedan... zRva boboqrobs, Rmuis, magram am qariSxalsac aqvs Tavisi musika da poetebs beTxoveni agondebaT: aqac batonobs sastiki qari Cven meduzebi gamogveTxoven, modis talRebze Savi lotbari mRvrie cilindriT, mRvrie beTxoven. zRvis es saocari misteria poet ZmebSi Teatris asociacias aRZravs. da es arcaa gasakviri, radgan cxovreba isedac hgavs Teatrs. isini wuTiT iviwyeben sayvarel Tbiliss da zRvis moZraobiT datyvevebulni, grZnoben, rom maTTanac mova axali hangi, romelic maT epoqis Sesaferi leqsebis SeqmnaSi daexmareba. da aris amaSi raRac simboluri, radgan kargad xvdebian, rom Zveli gziT siaruli maTTvis ukve Zalze saxifaToa. zRvis moZraoba mwerlobaSi, zogadad, erTgvari ganaxlebis simbolod unda miviCnioT, rasac simbolistebisaTvis im periodSi arsebiTi mniSvneloba hqonda. es ganaxleba SemoqmedebiTi ganaxlebaa, rac maTi fizikuri ganadgurebisagan gamoxsnis erTaderT saSualebas warmoadgenda.

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos ganaTlebis mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi, xaSuris IX sajaro skolis direqtori.
mTavari monografiebi da wignebi: ilia WavWavaZe da

qarTuli aforistuli metyveleba (1995); Zveli qarTuli aforistuli metyveleba (1996); maTi bednieri da ubeduri dReebi (akaki wereTeli da bagration daviTaSvilebis ojaxi) (2000); maTi poeziis muza (2002); dedaSvilobis naTeli (2003); sami qarTuli ojaxi (2005); yifianebi (2008); qronikebi tician tabiZis cxovrebidan (2010); sityvaSi gacxadebuli mwuxareba (akaki wereTlis epitafiebi) (2010).
samecniero interesebis sfero: Zveli, axali da uax-

lesi qarTuli literatura, kulturologia.


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Tumca zRvis Relvas, am grgvinvas poetebi araerTgvarad aRiqvamen. maTi damokidebuleba zRvis RelvasTan dakavSirebiT sxvadasxvagvaria: magram buRraobs, aRar mSviddeba, delfinebs swrafad moaloginebs, moswons ticians wyalis dineba da zRvas paolo dedas aginebs. talRebs peSvebiT iWers nikolo da eSinia dinj valerians, fiqrobs talRebiT ar CaviqoloT, magram talRebi tkbilad mRerian. ase gaacocxla cisferyanwelTa Zmobis erTma rCeulma warmomadgenelma valerian gafrindaSvilma Tanamokalme megobrebis damokidebuleba zRvisadmi leqsSi ,,oTxi poetis Sexvedra zRvasTan. *** iseve, rogorc mTeli qarTuli mwerlobisaTvis, zRva axlobeli Temaa qarTveli simbolistebisTvisac, da es srulebiT bunebrivia. zRvis mistifikacia, poeturi aRmafrenisaTvis misi mniSvneloba kargad esmodaT rogorc sakuTriv cisferyanwelebs, ise sazogadod, meoce saukunis qarTvel mwerlebs. qarTveli simbolistebis poeziaze am kuTxiT dakvirvebam saSualeba mogvca, gamogveyo ramdenime sakiTxi, romelTac zRvasTan mimarTebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba aqvs daTmobili. zRva, rogorc poetur saxeTa seria: vfiqrob, davas ar unda iwvevdes is garemoeba, rom poezia, ritmTan erTad, warmoadgens saxeTa erTgvar erTobliobas. qarTul, iseve rogorc evropul literaturaSi, zRva aris simbolo, romelSic erTmaneTTan aris Serwymuli realuri da idealuri, namdvili da warmosaxviTi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zRvasTan mimarTebisas qarTveli simbolistebi gvTavazoben saxeebiT azrovnebis uaRresad saintereso, STambeWdav nimuSebs, riTac isini ara marto qmnian erTgvar poetur xats, aramed, amasTanave Zerwaven sakuTar mimarTebas zRvis, rogorc fenomenisadmi. ase magaliTad: zRva SeiZleba hgavdes kankels: ,,zRva varaySia rogorc kankeli (t. tabiZe, ,,ase mgonia). Tavis mxriv, poeziaSi ,,kankelisa da ,,varayis Semotana zRvis metaforul gaazrebas uaRresad sainteresos xdis. dasaSvebia, warmovidginoT asec: zRva poetisaTvis SeiZleba iyos erTgvari sarkmeli sul sxva samyaroSi gadasaxedad. es ki imas niSnavs, rom zRva konkretulad ticianTan aRiqmeba, rogorc realobidan gasvlis erT-erTi saSualeba.

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qarTvel simbolistebTan, sxva SemoqmedTa msgavsad, zRvas miewereba sulieri arsebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi, xdeba zRvis personifikacia. amitomaa, rom zRvac cocxali adamianiviT SeiZleba mRerodes: ,,mReris Savi zRva mkerdis zanzariT, aCqarebuli aRvarebuli (g. leoniZe, ,,zRva, arasimbolisturi periodi), an sulac zRva SeiZleba nanas umRerodes masTan misul adamianebs: ,,aq zRvis naninas mousmenen RamiT balRebi (p. iaSvili ,,malTayva). zRva adamianiviT SeiZleba iyos keTili, an avzniani; ,,zRva avzniani iyo mRelvare (v. gafrindaSvili ,,oTxi poetis Sexvedra zRvasTan), man SeiZleba ixetialos ,,zRvis xetiali _ maradis laRi (S. karmeli). garda amisa, zRvasTan mimarTebisas qarTveli poetebi xSirad iyeneben iseT saxeebs, romlebic konkretulad zRvisTvis araa niSandoblivi, magram, mocemul konteqstSi Zalze bunebrivad aRiqmebian. ase magaliTad, iseve, rogorc mindors, zRvas SeiZleba hqondes Tavisi ialaRebi: ,,nadirs swams mxolod zRvis ialaRi amoborcvili dabal miwidan (p. iaSvili ,,cirki zRvis piras). zRvis poetur mistifikacias qarTvel simbolistTa naazrevSi erTgvarad erwymis meore, aseve mniSvnelovani momenti zRva, rogorc peizaJis aRqmisa da Zerwvis erTgvari saSualeba. zRva peizaJisaTvis: zRva gansakuTrebuladaa dakavSirebuli adamianis grZnobad samyarosTan. iseve, rogorc gansxvavebuli realuri garemo iwvevs erTgvar poetur aRmafrenas, rac Semdgom asaxvas hpovebs xelovanis SemoqmedebaSi, zRvac aseve, da ufro metad aRviZebs masSi SemoqmedebiT impulsebs. zogadad, peizaJi mxatvruli nawarmoebis ganuyofeli nawilia. rac Seexeba zRvis peizaJis warmosaxvas cisferyanwel poetebTan, am TvalsazrisiT ikveTeba ramdenime sakiTxi: peizaJi peizaJisaTvis: qarTveli simbolistebi arcTu iSviaTad zRvis peizaJs qmnian mxolodamxolod rogorc leqsis erTgvar samkauls. leqsis mxatvruli RirebulebisaTvis aucilebel aqsesuars. ,,zRva ise iyo mSvidi da wynari, rom aRarc maxsovs iyo Tu ara, erTad gaaRo cam Svidi kari da zRvas sartyelad gadauara (t. tabiZe ,,sentimentaluri mogzauroba); ,,mziani dRea, zRvis napiri Cumi, mSvidia, gaxedav talRebs, rogor ferad ferad midian (p. iaSvili ,,malTayva), ,,ai napiri, zRvis kenWebiT gadaqarguli (p. iaSvili, ,,malTayva); ,,baTumis baRi zRvas gadacqeris, baTumis baRTan zRvis Srialia, zRvaze gizgizebs sxivTa namqeri, Tu es avardnil cecxlis alia?! (k. nadiraZe, ,,baTumis baRTan); ,,saRamo aris cis cxeli Tvali, zRvas Caugorda farCis ubeSi, mTvarem varskvlavni SuqiT moxala da Seimala Semdeg RrublebSi (S. afxaiZe ,,simRera). zRva da poetis sulieri samyaro: qarTvel simbolistebTan,


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iseve, rogorc sxva poetebTan, zRva erTgvarad ukavSirdeba maT sulier samyaros. SemoqmedTa erTi nawili zRvis talRebSi, maT xmaurSi eZiebs sakuTari ganwyobilebebis identifikacias. am SemTxvevaSi yuradReba ZiriTadad maxvildeba zRvis mimarTebaze, erTi mxriv, poetis gulTan, anu realurad arsebul saganTan da meore mxriv, Semoqmedis sulTan, rogorc grZnobadisa da aRqmadis erTobliobasTan. guli zRvasaviT mSfoTvare. ,,Sordebi rions da zRva gagitans da guli zRvaze mRelvared SfoTavs (t. tabiZe, ,,gelis kolxida axal orfeoss); ,,rogorc afris tkacuni, movardnili zRvidan, iseTi vaJkacuri gaqaneba minda (p. iaSvili ,,rogorc afris tkacuni); ,,miyvars zRva mzeSi daoqroili, misTvis rom guli talRis tolia (g. leoniZe ,,Tolia); ,,movitan zRvao, SenTan Cems guls TasiviT avsils, kaeSniT savse rom vismino Seni galoba (kolau nadiraZe, ,,dafiqreba zRvasTan). amave dros, zRva aris ganmartoebisa da am ganmartoebis Sedegad miRweuli sulieri aRmafrenis an piriqiT, minoruli ganwyobilebis sagani: ,,vsargeblob zRvaze ganmartoebiT (t. tabiZe ,,qarTlis cxovreba). zRva da ganmartoeba xSir SemTxvevaSi poetis arsebaSi asadgurebs gansakuTrebul sulier simSvides ,,saRamovdeba, siCume didi, rogorc naTeli Semodis CemSi (k. nadiraZe ,,zRvasTan); ,,vijeqi martod, Soridan frTxilad modga siCume da gulSi Cajda (k. nadiraZe ,,zRvis piras). zRva da istoria: unda SevniSnoT, rom qarTvel simbolistebSi zRva xSirad iwvevs istoriis Soreuli foliantebis gacocxlebas da es bunebrivicaa, zRvasTan aris dakavSirebuli kacobriobis istoriis araerTi mniSvnelovani furceli. qarTvel simbolistTa SemoqmedebaSi, istoriasTan mimarTebisas, zRvas ramdenime sakiTxi ukavSirdeba da maTgan erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovania argonavtebis Tema: ,,ismis zvirTebis zaTqi, gangaSi, rogorc simRera argonavtelTa, agvistos Ramis civ kamaraSi zRva da xmeleTi isev gamTelda (t. tabiZe, ,,argonavtebi). citirebuli strofi ramdenime TvalsazrisiT aris saintereso: upirveles yovlisa, imiT, rom poeti argonavtebis simReras adarebs zRvis zaTqsa da gangaSs. gangaSi TavisTavad aris ubedurebis mauwyebeli. ese igi, argonavtebis simRerac qarTvelTaTvis ubedurebasTan asocirdeba. argonavtebs qarTvelisaTvis moaqvT sikvdili da Zarcva, amitomac am Temis Semotana poeziaSi sikvdilTan erTad iwvevs sicivis asociacias (,,agvistos Ramis civ kamaraSi). xolo rac Seexeba bolo striqons, zRvisa da xmeleTis Sesayari literaturaSi ganasaxierebs amqveyniuri da imqveyniuri samyaroebis gadak-

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veTis adgils, rac TavisTavad warmoadgens sikvdil-sicocxlis mijnas. amdenad, am strofSi srulyofiladaa warmoCenili argonavtebis mosvlisadmi qarTvelis damokidebuleba: argonavtebma mravali usiamovneba moutanes qarTvelebs, amitomac zRvis zaTqis gagonebisas qarTvel poets maSinve zRvidan mosuli ubedureba axsendeba da aqve Cndeba sikvdilis asociaciac. magram ramdenadac qarTvelTaTvis ,,argos gamoCena ubedurebis mauwyebelia, samSobloSi dabrunebuli argonavtebis xomaldis sayviris xma ukve bednierebis niSania: ,,Sors, sadRac sWeqda argos sayviri da gaTanguli sisxliT da mziTa, Sin brundeboda elinTa gmiri _ kolxeTis oqro gahqonda tvirTad! (k. nadiraZe, ,,afxazeTSi). yuradRebas ipyrobs kidev erTi garemoeba: qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi imdenad didia argonavtebis mier saqarTvelodan waRebuli ganZis ukan dabrunebis survili, rom es poeziaSic aisaxeba: ,,aha, zRvam piri Cemsken ibruna, moexeTqeba naburTalevi, medeas oqro Tu damibruna, urCi-Tavnebis lurji Tvalebi. zvirTis qeCoze vxedav iazons, Subs vtyorcni, gana davemalebi? wynarad iwyeba dRe saziano, medeas farCis abrwyinvalebiT (g. leoniZe ,,zRva da medea). medeas dabrunebis Tema me-20 saukunis qarTul poeziaSi misi ganviTarebis yvela etapze aris aqtualuri. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, medeasadmi qarTvelis damokidebuleba mkveTrad pozitiuria, xolo iasonisadmi calsaxad negatiuri, gansxvavebiT berZnuli literaturisagan, romelSic am personaJebisadmi damokidebuleba erTmniSvnelovnad sapirispiroa. amitomac qarTul poeziaSi mudmivad figurirebs samSobloSi medeas dabrunebis Tema ,,axal iazons samSobloSi momyavs medea, oqros sawmisad, _ cecxliani, RvTaebis Cadri (S. karmeli, ,,salambos trirema). cisferyanwelTaTvis gansakuTrebulad sayvareli poetia publius ovidius nazoni. misi saxeli yvelaze xSirad tician tabiZis leqsebSi dasturdeba. ticianTan Savi zRvis CrdiloeTi nawili warmoudgenelic kia ovidiusis gareSe. Savi zRvisa da ovidiusis saxelis dakavSireba erTmaneTTan, gamowveulia ovidusis biografiis tragikuli furclebiT. rogorc cnobilia, Zv. w. 8 wels romis imperatorma oqtaviane avgustusma nazoni romidan gaaZeva da Savi zRvispira qalaq tomisSi gadaasaxla. amitomac cisferyanwel poetebs Savi zRvis es midamoebi yovelTvis axseneben nazons da mis tragedias maSin ovidi stiroda aq roms, da iq darCenil Svilebis alerss, foladis naWeds droc veRar aqrobs, romic ver uZlebs aduRebul leqss; ,,tiroda am zRviT ovidi nazon ufro ki romsa da sakuTar Tavs, rac unda ena gadamirazon, me vityvi Cveni gzebis daburRvas (t. tabiZe, ,,qarTlis cxovreba). ticianisaTvis didi romaeli poetis satkiva-


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ri imdenad axlobelia, rom mas SeuZlia am satkivris gagrZeleba (da mec vagrZeleb gauwyvetav leqss). anapaSi myofi ticiani ali arseniSvilisadmi miZRvnil leqsSic ar iviwyebs nazonsa da mis satkivars (da geficebi mec ovidis damwuxrebul lands). nazoni qarTvel simbolistTaTvis imitomac aris Zvirfasi, rom misi wuxili garkveulwilad ukavSirdeba Sav zRvas. aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia erTi garemoeba: cisferyanweli poeti Salva afxaiZe zRvaze Seqmnili ciklis erT leqss saTaurad aZlevs nazonis zRvas, rac vfiqrob, aris erTgvari siaxle, radganac aseTi saxeldebiT Savi zRva manamde arsad ar gvxvdeba (,,es zRva xiblavda nazonis Tvalebs, Relavda vneba mis gulSic ase: amitom aris axlac gvawvalebs misi leqsebis Cven siZvirfase (S. afxaiZe, ,,nazonis zRva). nazonis saxels simbolistTa poeziaSi bunebrivad ukavSirdeba romi da bizantia. ,,zRvis talRas axsovs warsuli kargad, mas axsovs romi da bizantia (v. gafrindaSvili, ,,zRva). artur rembo: cnobilia, Tu ra gavlena moaxdina qarTvel simbolistebze artur rembom. mis poeziasTan erTad qarTveli simbolistebisaTvis aseve axlobelia rembos piradi xvedri, rac garkveulwilad zRvasTan aris dakavSirebuli. amitomac agondebaT zRvaze myof poetebs didi frangi poeti: ,,rembo ufexo da naTrevala ucqeris globuss dakecil gzebiT, mas mZime tvirTi qveynad evala udabnoebiT da sastik zRvebiT (S. karmeli, ,,rembos sikvdili); ,,bevri legenda Tvlems msrbolav zRvaSi, zed hqrian qarni da zefirebi, rembom ixila talRebis svlaSi antiur dramis didi gmirebi (v. gafrindaSvili, wignidan ,,zRva). bibliuri da miTologiuri personaJebi: iseve, rogorc mTeli qarTuli mwerloba, meoce saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli poeziisaTvis ucxo ar aris bibliuri da miTologiuri Temebisa da personaJebis Semotana. am TvalsazrisiT qarTvel simbolistebTan gvxvdeba ramdenime saintereso momenti. mose: ,,magram sadave Seni leqsis daxris darials, axloa mose poeziis mewamul zRvaSi (t. tabiZe, ,,valerian gafrindaSvils). amorZali: ,,Tavisi Tavi zRvam gaimeta, gahyva amorZals, rogorc Sleifi (v. gafrindaSvili, ,,zRva). ikarosi: ,,daviRupebi frTadaSlili zRvaSi ikaros (S. karmeli, ,,gasvenebebi). dabolos, qarTvel simbolistebTan zRva erTgvarad ukavSirdeba samSoblos, Tavisuflebisaken mis swrafvas, amdenad is aRiqmeba rogorc mamulis Tavisuflebis erTgvari simbolo, oRond erTi dazustebiT: mxiaruli, laRad mRelvare zRva Tavisufali samSoblos sim-

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boluri xatia, xolo, moqufruli, daxuruli zRva _ Tavisuflebadakarguli qveynisa. amis dasturad gamodgeba Tundac paolo iaSvilis leqsi ,,dacemul baToms, sadac zRvisa da mzis metaforuli SerwymiT warmodgenilia samSoblosagan CamoSorebuli qalaqis umZimesi xvedri: ,,iisfer zRvaSi mze Camavali Zvelebur lxeniT Tvals veRar aRebs, an: ,,ukve SeiZra zRvasTan lerwami _ baTomis caze me vxedav yvavebs. samSoblos Tavisuflebis STambeWdav saxes qmnis giorgi leoniZe leqsSi ,,Savi zRvis pirs Savi muxa, oRond masSi gansxvavebuladaa warmodgenili zRvis simboluri mniSvneloba. leqsi 1925 welsaa dawerili da masSi kargad ikiTxeba wina wels saqarTveloSi datrialebuli tragedia: martodmarto Srialebda Savi zRvis pirs Savi muxa da ramdenic hqonda bzari, cas imdenjer daequxa. zRvis Citebi Jivilis xmiT eseodnen tyeTa narCens, niskartebiT zed afendnen cisartyelis CamonaWrebs. niskartebiT cidan sxivi da cvar-nami CamohqondaT da ramdenic egalobaT xes imdeni bzari hqonda. Savi zRvis pirs Savi muxa martodmarto Srialebda, titvel mkerdze ilewavda talRebs nisliT mfSvinvareTa. muxa idga rogorc vefxvi, vefxvze ufro mrisxaneda da ramdensac zRva dahkravda, imden fesvebs imatebda. vfiqrobT, aq zRva im qartexilebis saxe-simboloa, romelsac aTaswlovani muxa _ saqarTvelo saukuneTa manZilze uZlebda, anu zRva, am SemTxvevaSi, erTad ganasaxierebs droTa svlasac da gansacdel-qariSxlebsac, xolo oblad mis pirze mdgomi muxa eulad darCenil qristianul qveyanas. Tumca, Tu Rrmad CavukvirdebiT leqss da gansakuTrebiT mis finals, advilad SevniSnavT, rom swored zRvis zaTqi aZlevs mas gamZleobasac da Tavisuflebis SenarCunebis survilsac. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom evropul literaturaSi zRva da zRvasTan dakavSirebuli terminebi simbolurad gana-


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saxierebs survils, miswrafebas, Tavisuflebas, martoobas, sikvdils, xelaxla dabadebas. qarTuli poezia xSir SemTxvevaSi Tanxvdeba aRniSnul simboloTa gaazrebas, Tumca warmosaxvis masStabis TvalsazrisiT, is kidev ufro mravalferovania. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zogadad qarTuli poeziisaTvis zRvis Tema ara mxolod axlobelia, aramed masTan dakavSirebulia erTi mxriv, SemoqmedTa piradi gancdebi, maTi sulieri mdgomareoba, xolo, meore mxriv, qarTveli poetebi swored zRvas ukavSireben kacobriobis mier ganvlili istoriis araerT furcels. da rac gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, zRvaSi isini pouloben udides muxts, rac ase aucilebelia SemoqmedebiTi procesisaTvis. literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. afxaiZe S., leqsebi, Tb. 1954 gafrindaSvili v., leqsebi, Tb. 1937 iaSvili p., leqsebi, poema, moTxrobebi, Targmanebi, Tb. 1957 karmeli S., babiloni, Tb. 2000 leoniZe g., saqarTvelos cremlebi, Tb. 2000 nadiraZe k., erTtomeuli, Tb. 1979 tabiZe t., leqsebi, poemebi miniaturebi sam tomad. t. I, Tb. 1966 Literature and Lore of the sea, ed. P.A. Carlson, Amsterdam, Editions Rodopi B. V., 1986 9. Matthiessen F. O., American Renaissance, New York, Oxford University Press, 1941

TaTia mTvareliZe maia SuxoSvili


TaTia mTvareliZe. iv. java-

xiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis klasikuri filologiisa da siZveleTmcodneobis programis doqtoranti. gamoqveynebuli samecniero naSromebi: ebraelTa mimarT epistoles avtorobis sakiTxisaTvis; o{ti da wJ~ kavSirebis funqcia Zvel berZnul enaSi; mijaWvuli gmirebi kavkasiur miTologiaSi da maTi tipologiuri msgavsebebi promeTesTan; poeziisa da prozis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi Zvel berZnul gnomur poeziasa da oratorul prozaSi. samecniero interesebis sfero: antikuri literatura, miTologia, klasikuri enebi.

zRvis gaazrebis ZvelberZnuli modeli


antikurobidan moyolebuli dRemde berZenTa warmodgenaSi zRva ufro metia, vidre mxolod Sesakrebeli wyalTa...~ radganac berZnuli civilizaciis warmateba garkveulwilad berZnuli tomebis mier xmelTaSua zRvis aTvisebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. saukuneTa manZilze xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi ekonomikurma da samxedro hegemoniam berZnebi zRvis xalxad aqcia, ramac TavisTavad ganapiroba maTi gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba zRvisadmi. saberZneTis geografiuli mdebareobisa da aTaswlovani gamocdilebis gamo, zRvis faqtori dRemde inarCunebs aqtualobas da berZenTa yoveldRiuri cxovrebis ganuyofel nawilad rCeba. berZnebisa da zRvis amgvarma harmoniulma Tanaarsebobam udidesi gavlena iqonia maT azrovnebasa da msoflmxedvelobaze. yvelaferma aman ki asaxva berZnul miTopoetur da filosofiur naazrevSi hpova. moxsenebis mizania, warmoadginos Zvel berZnul tradiciaSi zRvis gaazrebis specifika da gansazRvros zRvis is modeli, romelic saerToa miTosis, filosofiisa da poeturi naazrevisaTvis. berZnuli literaturisa da zRvis samyaros Sexvedris pirveli adgili homerosis poemebia, romlebic Tavis mxriv, im mravalsaukunovani gzis gagrZelebas warmoadgens, rac berZnulma miTopoeturma azrovnebam ganvlo. am gzis sawyis etapze wamyvani roli miTologias eniWeboda. ber-

maia SuxoSvili. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis sadoqtoro programis "klasikuri filologia da siZveleTmcodneoba" doqtoranti. gamoqveynebuli samecniero naSromebi:

platonis sofistis struqturuli da kompoziciuri organizacia, gamosaxulebis Seqmnis xelovnebasa da adamianis sxvadasxva saqmianobis aRmniSvneli terminebi platonis sofistSi, dialogis Janri platonTan da misi mimarTeba dialeqtikur meTodTan, sofistikis raoba da sofistTa moZraobis arsebiTi maxasiaTeblebi, ,,sokrate moqalaqe da filosofosi (qsenofonisa da platonis TxzulebaTa mixedviT), ,,ironia rogorc sokrates SexedulebaTa gamoxatvis meTodi. samecniero interesebis sfero: Zveli berZnuli literatura, Zveli berZnuli filosofia.


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Znul miTologiaSi zRvis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobaze miuTiTebs is movlena, rom RmerTebs, qalRmerTebsa Tu RvTaebebs Soris erT-erTi gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs e. w. zRvis Zalebs. Tavad Talasa aris okeanosis meuRle, romelic Sobs eTersa da hemeras. zRvis qafidan iSva Zvel berZenTaTvis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro saamayo da mSvenieri qalRmerTi afrodite. zRvis RvTiur Zalebs miekuTvnebian nereidebi da sirenebi. Zvel berZnul miTologiaSi uxvad vxvdebiT zRvis mier naSob mdinareebsa Tu patar-patara wyaroebs, rogorebicaa asoposi, alfeiosi, ilisosi, skamandrosi, kaikosi, ermosi, kaustrosi, maiandrosi, anu zRvas Sobis, dabadebis funqcia ukve Zvel berZnul miTologiaSi aqvs, rac mogvianebiT filosofiur naazrevSic aisaxeba. homerosidan moyolebuli Zvel berZnul mxatvrul literaturaSi zRvis eqsponirebis sami gza SeiniSneba: 1. xdeba konkretuli gmirebis, sulieri Tu usulo sagnebis an movlenebis aRWurva zRvisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiT; 2. xdeba zRvis aRWurva sxva sulieri Tu usulo sagnebis/movlenebis niSan-TvisebebiT; 3. xdeba zRvasTan dakavSirebuli movlenebisa da situaciebis metaforuli axsna. amis damadastureblad SegviZlia ramdenime magaliTi movitanoT berZnuli literaturidan: 1. zRvis upirvelesi niSani berZenTaTvis misi cvalebadi bunebaa. esqilesTan zRvis am niSniT maxasiaTebel araerT metaforas vxvdebiT: `zRva aris, mas vin amoaSrobs? mraval mewamul dinebas aSlis. ras moelode misgan, es xom aravin icis~1. swored zRvis cvalebadi buneba ganapirobebs berZenTa ormag damokidebulebas misadmi, razedac qvemoT SevCerdebiT. 2. homerosTan zRvis epiTetebs Soris yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba epiTeti poliav WaRara. miTologiuri azrovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ama Tu im bunebrivi movlenis personificireba, rac metaforebisa da epiTetebis donezec aisaxeba. zemoTYmotanil magaliTSi saqme gvaqvs metad saintereso SemTxvevasTan: berZnul kosmogoniaSi zRvis warmoSoba pirvelsave etapze xdeba. okeanosi, romelic meore Taobis RmerTebs ganekuTvneba, mSoblebis uranosisa da geas msgavsad, samyaros Seqmnis procesis Tanamonawilea. amitom, berZenTa warmodgenaSi okeanosi, anu zRva Zveli RmerTia, risi xazgasmac berZnul literaturaSi araerTgzis xdeba. homerosis poemebSi sakuTriv zRvis personificirebas adgili ar aqvs. Tumca, zemoT dasaxelebuli epiTeti `WaRara~ im periodis azrovnebis Sedegia, rodesac Talasa jer kidev RmerTTa Soris moiazreboda.
1

Aesch. Ag. 944

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3. zRvasTan dakavSirebuli situaciis saintereso metaforul axsnas vxvdebiT esqiles tragediaSi sparselebi~, romelic saberZneTTan gamarTul salamisis brZolaSi sparseTis mefis qserqse pirvelis damarcxebas asaxavs (Zv. w. 480/79 w.). dariosis aCrdili, romelic tragediis meore epizodSi Cndeba, asabuTebs Tavisi vaJis, qserqses sazRvao brZolaSi damarcxebis mizezebs da maTgan upirvelesad qserqses hibriss miiCnevs, rac SemdegSi mdgomareobs: qserqsem moindoma helespontisa da wminda bosforisTvis, rogorc monisTvis, borkilebi daedo. `qserqsem zRvas kiserze uReli daadga~ anu gasasvlelebi gardaqmna, da jaWvebi zRvaze xidad gakida, zed ki uricxvi jari gadaatara~.2 aRniSnuli striqonebi asaxavs istoriul faqts, rodesac qserqsem sakuTari jari bosforis sruteze gadaatara erTmaneTze gadabmuli sazRvao xomaldebisagan agebuli xidiT. dariosis dasaxelebul sityvebs mosdevs SeniSvna: `gonganusjelad SeebrZola qserqse RmerTebs, radganac scada daemarcxebina poseidoni, albaT goneba rame senma Tu daubinda Cems Svils3~. amdenad, esqiles mxatvruli azrovnebis konteqstSi adgili aqvs realuri istoriuli faqtis da miTologiuri warmodgenebis Tanaarsebobas: zRvaze xidis gadeba niSnavs zRvis Seborkvas~, rasac aucileblad mohyveba zRvis RmerTis, poseidonis risxva. zRvis Seuracxyofa imdenad dauSvebelia berZenisaTvis, rom TviT esqilec ki, romlis mTavari mizani am tragediis werisas berZenTa gandideba, maTi simamacisa da Zalmosilebis warmoCena iyo, sparselTa damarcxebis mTavar mizezad zRvis Seuracxyofas asaxelebs da ara berZenTa samxedro upiratesobas. jer kidev homerosTan SeiniSneba is ormagi mimarTeba zRvisadmi, rasac dualizms uwodeben da rac berZnuli xasiaTis erT-erTi niSanTvisebaa. berZenTa amgvari damokidebuleba TanxvedraSia odisevsis zRvasTan mimarTebasTan: troas omSi aTwliani monawileobis Semdeg, omze aranakleb rTuli aTwliani xetialisas, rogorc odisevsisaTvis iyo zRva, erTi mxriv, sakuTari Tavis Ziebisa da Secnobis, xolo meore mxriv, daRupvis, fizikuri ganadgurebis adgili, aseve berZenTa cnobierebaSi aisaxeba amgvari dualizmi: berZnisTvis zRva aris macocxlebelica da momakvdinebelic, romelic mudmivad izidavs berZnul suls, brZolisunarianobas sZens mas da sakuTari Tavis Secnobis gzaze yovelTvis Tan sdevs. berZenTa amgvari ormagi damokidebuleba zRvisadmi berZnul literaturaSi dadasturebul zRvis epiTetebsa da metaforebSic aisa
2 3

Aesch. PV 745-748 Aesch. PV 749-751


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xeba. tragedia, erTi mxriv, mihyveba homerosiseul gzas da gadmoaqvs is epiTetebi, saxeebi da metaforebi, rac homerosTan dasturdeba, xolo meore mxriv, qmnis sruliad axal poetur enas. berZnul literaturaSi zRvis epiTetebis 2 jgufi SegviZlia gamovyoT. pirvel jgufSi erTiandeba dadebiTi semantikis mqone epiTetebi, xolo meore jgufSi _ uaryofiTi semantikis. am ori jgufis epiTetebs organuli kavSiri aqvT erTmaneTTan da TiToeuli uaryofiTi epiTeti Seicavs dadebiT semantikasac da piriqiT, dadebiTi semantikis mqone epiTetebi atareben garkveulwilad uaryofiT datvirTvas. es movlena ki sxva araferia, Tu ara isev da isev berZnuli dualizmis erT-erTi gamovlineba. magaliTisaTvis movitanT zRvis esqileseul epiTets, romelmac gansakuTrebuli popularoba daimsaxura Semdgomi xanis poetur nawarmoebebSi. agamemnoni klitemnestras uambobs Tavs gardaxdili brZolebis ambavs: `rodesac gamoCnda mzis brwyinvale naTeli, vixileT aqavel mezRvaur da meniCbe vaJkacTa gvamebiT ayvavebuli zRva~.4 evripidesTan vxvdebiT saxes `sisxliT ayvavebuli zRva~5. sisxli da gvamebi TavisTavad uaryofiTi semantikis matarebelia, magram epiTeti `ayvavebuli~ mas dadebiT mniSvnelobas sZens da amiT amcirebs zRvis, rogorc momakvdinebeli Zalis, interpretirebis SesaZleblobas. rodesac Zvelma berZnebma pirvelad scades miTologiuri azrovnebis daZleva da daiwyes samyaros warmoSobis mecnieruli, sistematizebuli kvleva, maT winaSe pirvelad daisva samyaros warmoSobis sakiTxi. SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom pirvelma berZenma filosofosma, Talesma samyaros pirvelsawyisad wyali daasaxela. kerZod, man Tqva, rom yoveli sagani aris wyali (u{dwr) an wyali aris yoveli sagnis qvemdebare.6 amgvarad, Talesma wyali miiCnia yvelafris mTavar Semadgenel elementad. wyali, misi azriT, aris cocxali. cocxali ki aris is, rac TavisiT moqmedebs da risi moqmedebac garedan ar ganisazRvreba.7 rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, zRvis upirvelesi Tviseba, misi cvalebadoba, Talesamdec araerTgzis iyo xazgasmuli mxatvrul literaturaSi da am niSniT gamorCeul mraval epiTetsa Tu metaforas vxvdebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom zRvasTan dakavSirebulma qmnadobis funqciam filosofiaSi swored berZnuli mxatvruli azrovnebis sferodan gadainacvla. platonis Semoqmedeba garkveulwilad axal, gardamtex moments
4 5

Aesch. Ag. 636 Eur. IT 300 6 Arist. Metaph. 983 b. 18. D V 1. A 12 7 Arist. Metaph. 983 b. 18. D V 1. A 12

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warmoadgens Zvel berZnul filosofiur naazrevSi. platoni, erTi mxriv, ubrundeba tradicias da xazs usvams adamianisa da zRvis mWidro kavSirsa da urTierTdamokidebulebas, meore mxriv ki, mas Semoaqvs zRvis tradiciuli niSan-Tvisebis (macocxlebeli) sapirispiro maxasiaTebeli (damangreveli), rac dakavSirebulia atlantisis miTTan. sxvadasxva dialogSi (~filebosi~, ~politikosi~, ~saxelmwifo~, ~nadimi~) platoni araerTgzis asaxelebs zRvas (pevlago~) da mas ukavSirebs bunebis da adamianebis macocxlebel Zalas. igi xSirad saubrobs imaze, rom zRva aZlevs adamianebs sazrdos Tevzis saxiT, rom zRva aris yovlis mSobeli, aseve yovlis mfarveli.8 amdenad im dualistur damokidebulebas zRvisadmi, romelic jer kidev miTologiidan iRebs saTaves, garkveulwilad platonis filosofiac avlens. platoni atlantisis miTis gadmocemisas dasZens, rom atlantisis civilizacia swored wyalma (zRvam) Seiwira da misi gaqrobis mizezi misive geografiuli mdebareoba gaxda (mas oTxi mxridan wyali ertya gars)9. amgvarad, zemoT ganxiluli magaliTebis safuZvelzec ki SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT zRvis gaazrebis ZvelberZnuli modeli, romelic dualizmis principebs emyareba: berZenisaTvis zRva ormagi funqciis matarebelia _ dadebiTisa da uaryofiTisa, erTsa da imave dros. zRvis dadebiT funqcias gansazRvravs misi macocxlebeli Zala, maSin rodesac misi uaryofiTi funqciis ganmsazRvrelad misive damangreveli buneba gvevlineba. es ormagi funqcia ganapirobebs zRvis mTavar maxasiaTebels mis amoucnob bunebas. zRvis gaazrebis aRniSnuli modeli dRemde cocxlobs berZnul azrovnebaSi, rac imiT gamoixateba, rom zRvis Tanamedrove berZnuli saxismetyveleba mTlianad efuZneba antikur paradigmas da erTian sistemaSi Tavsdeba. literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. antikuri filosofiis narkvevebi, Tbilisi, 1983 gaTri u., berZeni filosofosebi, Tbilisi, 1983. gordeziani r., berZnuli literatura I, Tbilisi 2002 Aeschylus, vol I, II., ed. Alan H. Sommerstein, Loeb Classical Library, 2009 5. Aristotelis, Metaphysica, Oxonii, vol.I, 1923 6. Euripides, vol. III-V, ed. David Kovacs, Loeb Classical Library No. 9, rev. 1998-2005
Phileb. 13a, Phaed. 21 e, Polit. 32 c. R. P. 25 e.

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7. Greene W. Ch., The Sea in the Greek Poets, The North American Review, Vol. 199, No. 700 (Mar., 1914), pp. 427-443 8. Plato, Opera, recognovit I. Burnet, vol. I, Oxonii, 1905. Semoklebebi: Aesch. Ag. = Aeschylus, Agamemnon Aesch. PV = Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus Arist. metaph. = Aristoteles, Metaphysica Eur. IT = Euripides, Iphigenia in Taurus Phaed. = Plato, Phaedrus Phileb. = Plato, Philebus R. P. = Plato, Res Publica Polit. = Plato, Politicus

inga milorava

zRvis sivrculi modeli modernistul teqstSi


zRvis sivrculi modeli, rogorc mxatvruli nawarmoebis qronotopis forma, Zalian mniSvnelovania mravali kulturisaTvis, iseve rogorc `mTis~, `gzis~ da a.S. modelebi. dasavluri Tu aRmosavluri kulturebi sxvadasxva epoqaSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, CvenTvis xiluli drouli xazis saTavidan dRemde uxvad iyeneben maT da esTetikurad araerTgvarovan, Tumca sakmaod sagulisxmo Sedegebs iReben ama Tu im mxatvruli realobis Taviseburebebis gamovlenisa TvalsazrisiT. qarTul mxatvrul azrovneba, SeiZleba iTqvas, gansxvavebul da bevri TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmo suraTs qmnis. tradiciulad iTvleba, rom zRva ar TamaSobs raime gadamwyvet rols qarTuli literaturisa da xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargSis mxatvrul sivrceSi. ver davadasturebT zRvis mniSvnelovan funqcias verc yofiTi, verc warmosaxviTi sibrtyeebisa da Sreebis ganviTarebaSi. istoriuli movlenebiTa da bataliebiT mdidar saqarTvelos istoriaSi ar Cans Tundac erTi gadamwyveti sazRvao brZola da arc Zlieri flotis arsebobazea miniSneba. ar gvyolia sazRvao gzebis dasalaSqrad Tavgadadebuli mogzaurebi da, saerTod, zRva TiTqos Caikarga im movlenaTa da saxeTa marTlac zRvaSi, romliTac sakmaod mdidaria saqarTvelos xorcieli da sulieri cxovreba. aTaswlovani mwerlobis adreuli nimuSebi TiTqmis ar gvaZlevs zRvis mxatvruli gaazrebis

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli; marketinguli da mediakomunikaciebis saswavlo universitetis sruli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi: niko lorTqifaniZis mxatvruli dro da sivrce (1995); me-20 saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTuli moTxroba (modernizmi) (2003); statiebis krebulebi: literaturuli werilebi (2000); alublisferi fardis miRma (2009). interesTa sfero: me-20 da 21-e saukunis saliteraturo procesebi, poetika, kritika, filosofia, xelovnebis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi.


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mkveTr magaliTs, ar Cans misi funqcia. gamonaklisia isev `vefxistyaosani~, romlis mravalSrian da mravalplanian mxatvrul samyaroSi moiZebna zRvis adgilic da Tanac Taviseburi interpretaciis saSualebebic gaCnda. zRva am harmoniuli samyaros organuli nawilia da, savaraudod, swored Sinagani da garegani harmoniulobisa da daunawevreblobis gamo gaxda SesaZlebeli am feradovan sivrceSi zRvis Rirseuli arseboba. `vefxistyaosani~ erTgvari samyaros zemodelia, romelSic zeca, dedamiwa Tavisi siuxviTa da mravalferovnebiT da adamiani aseve Tavisi Sinagani simdidriTa da mravalsaxeobiT erT mTlianobadaa gaazrebuli da mas araferi aklia, anu samyaro warmodgenilia `uTvalavi feriTa~ da masSi zRvac ikavebs Tavis bunebriv adgils. gmirebi Sedian zRvaSi, eZeben dakarguls, ibrZvian,. tarieli amirbaria, e. i. mas flotic abaria. zRva TiTqos yoveldRiurobis nawili gamxdara da am TvalsazrisiT exmianeba msoflio literaturaSi gavrcelebul mxatvrul saxeebs. magram SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom aqac gamovlinda zRvisadmi qarTuli kulturis damokidebuleba: davarma zRvaSi gadaagdo nestan- darejani. kidobani, romelSic dasaRupad ganwiruli umSvenieresi mefis asulia momwyvdeuli, aravin unda ixilos, aRarasodes dabrundes iq, sadac sicocxle, siyvaruli, bednierebaa, anu zRva aris dasasruli davarisTvis. sikvdilis win mas Skarad imedi aqvs, rom sabolood iZia Suri nestan-darejanze da iq gaistumra, sadac dasasrulia, saidanac aravin dabrundeba. misi gancda aseTia. magram `vefxistyaosani~ Tavisi Sinagani harmoniiT, romelic SemdgomSi arsad, arc erTi qarTuli literaturuli nawarmoebis mxatvrul drosa da sivrceSi aRar ganmeorebula, ar scnobs raime dadgenil CarCos. nestani, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTaderTi gmiria, romelic zRvis wiaRidan amovida da ukan daubrunda sicocxles. is wylebis mistikuri wiaRidan Secvlili amodis da Tavisi tkivilisa da tanjvis gziT miemarTeba siyvarulisa da bednierebisaken, romliskenac yvela gmiri aseve TavTavisi gziT mieSureba. ase rom, rogorc Cans, `vefxistyaosani~ gamonaklisia an, ufro sworad, zemxatvruli samyaro, romelic imdenad uaxlovdeba pirvelsawyiss, kosmiur harmonias, rom garkveuli eTnikur-kulturuli kompleqsebisaTvis masSi adgili aRar rCeba. es kompleqsi ki Skarad arsebobs, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom arc manamde da arc SedarebiTY gvian periodebSi xelovnebasa da literaturaSi arsad gvxvdeba zRvis esTetikur-simboluri funqciebis Ziebis kvali. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi ar aris marinisti mxatvari, maSin roca am JanrSi muSaoben im qveynebis warmomadgenlebi, romelTa siaxlovesac ki ar aris zRva. am movlenis axsna Znelia, magram mizezi aucileblad iarsebebs da is sadRac eris cnobierebis siRrmeSia saZiebeli. miTologias Tu mivmarTavT, xomaldi `argo~, romelic zRviT

202

inga milorava

movida, gaxda kolxeTis samefos ubedurebisa da misi siZlieris dakargvis mizezi, magram es berZnuli miTia da qarTveli eris cnobierebis gamoZaxilad ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos, Tumca gamoricxuli ar aris, rom raRac gavlena mainc moexdina masze. samagierod es miTi xazs usvams, Tu rogoria sxva xalxebis, am SemTxvevaSi, Zveli berZnebis damokidebuleba zRvisadmi. isini eswrafian mis gadalaxvas, daZlevas, miiltvian zRvis iqiT mdebare miwisken, raTa iqidan wamoiRon, Seimaton, Tundac miiTvison is, rac maT gaaZlierebs. zRva ar aris maTTvis gadaulaxavi zRvari, piriqiT, is eZaxis, iwvevs am adamianebs da isinic ebrZvian da amarcxeben mas. marTlac Zalian sainteresoa, rogor aRiqvamdnen zRvas im kulturaTa warmomadgenlebi, romlebmac, Cvengan gansxvavebiT, yvelanairad `gamoiyenes~ igi - praqtikuladac da esTetikuradac? maTTvis zRva aris is, rasac unda Seerkino, ajobo, gadalaxo. zRva (okeane) aris ara bolo mijna, dasasruli, aramed dasawyisi, romlis iqiTac iwyeba raRac axali da imaleba pirovnebis da eris gafarToebis SesaZlebloba. evropuli literatura, Semdgom ukve amerikulic (sxvaTa Soris, aRmosavluric, Tundac `aTas erTi Rame~ gavixsenoT zRvebze saocari mogzaurobebiTa da sindbad mezRvauriT) gamosaxavs gmirebs, romlebic ar epuebian am sakralur sivrces, piriqiT, cdiloben misi praqtikuli, miwieri mniSvneloba wamoswion win. Tumca aris mfrinavi holandielis legendac, romelic zRvidan vergamoRwevas da mis mistikur arss usvams xazs, mgaram am legendaSic ki mudmivad arsebobs imedi, rom raRac ZaliT, Tundac siyvarulis meSveobiT daiZleva mojadoebuli wre da usasrulo xetials bolo moeReba. da mainc, Tu davukvirdebiT, am SemTxvevaSic aRsasrulisTvis ar aris zRva. aRsasruli mxolod miwaze SeiZleba dadges. zRva ki moqmedebis, moZraobis, mudmivi mogzaurobis adgilia, romlis dasasrulic, rogoric unda iyos is, napirzea, miwaze. sikvdili Tu Svebaa maradiuli xetialiT daRlilisTvis, is mxolod miwaze SeiZleba moipovos. ZiriTadad mainc, yvela nawarmoebi, romelSic aris zRva, erTi da imave gancdis gamomxatvelia. SeiZleba es nawarmoebebi ar iyos Janrulad da mxatvruli RirebulebiT msagavsi. Tundac zedapiruli magaliTisTvis SevadaroT erTmaneTs stivensonis `ganZTa kunZuli~, melvilis `mobi diki~, tomas moris `utopia~ da hemingueis `moxuci da zRva~. erTi SexedviT sruliad gansxvavebuli mxatvruli samyaroebia, magram TiTqmis yvelgan SenarCunebulia winaaRmdegobis daZlevis suliskveTeba da zRvis gadalaxvisadmi dauokebeli swrafva. qarTuli literatura ki am mxriv uCveulod mwiria. SeasaZloa, poeziaSi, lirikaSi ufro aisaxa zRvis Tema, magram aq aqcenti ufro grZnobierebazea gadatanili da zRvis funqciis gaazrebisaTvis da misdami garkveuli kulturis gansakuTrebuli damokidebulebis warmoCenisaTvis sakmarisi masala ar Cans, Tundac nawarmoebis movle-


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naTa planis, moqmedebis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT. mxolod mogvianebiT, ukve modernistul prozaSi gvxvdeba ramdenime nawarmoebi, romlebic SeiZleba ase Tu ise CaiTvalos zRvis modelis gaazrebisa da mxatvruli realizaciis nimuSad. l. qiaCelis `Tavadis qali maia~ gviCvenebs zRvas, rogorc dasasruls, bolo zRvars, sikvdils. masSi zRvam SeiTavsa modernistul sistemaSi arsebuli sikvdilis yvela esTetikuri funqcia, maT Soris umTavresi: simSvidis mopovebis, tkivilisa da tanjvisgan gaTavisuflebis saSualeba. zRva adamianis dinamikidan statikaSi gadasvlas uzrunvelyofs. igi nTqavs dros, movlenebs, sicocxles. maia midis lurj zRvasTan, romelic zmanebasaviT Rrma da uszRvroa. `saRamos moaxloeba lurji qviSa da lurji zRva. lurji ca da amave feris tyeebi da maT Soris dakarguli zRaprebis lurji zmaneba~ (qiaCeli 1985: 259). Tavadis qali maia TandaTan uaxlovdeba zRvas, e. i. uaxlovdeba sikvdils. igi zRvis talRebs swiravs Zvirfas da mSvenier nivTebs mogonebebis nivTier xatebs. bolo TavSesafarma zRva-sikvdilma STanTqa yovelive: warsuli, awmyo, momavali, daRlili sxeuli, grZnobebi. zRvis talRebSi inTqmeba dro da sivrce. `_ ho, es zRva dRes ra rig maSinebs, dafi! meCveneba, TiTqos sikvdilsac lurji feri aqvs, rogorc zRvas da rogorc zRva ise, didia, ise Rrmaa sikvdili~ (qiaCeli 1985: 276). Cans, leo qiaCelis warmosaxvaSi zRva sabolood damkvidrda, rogorc sikvdilisa da amavdroulad, Svebis esTetikuri simboluri saxe. `almasgir kibulanSi~ kidev ufro feradovani suraTi iqmneba. zRvis lurj mrTrTolav sxeuls daemata mTvaris vercxlis diskos aTinaTebi. imavdroulad mTvare gaazrebulia rogorc qalRmerTi dali, rac idumalebis SegrZnebas badebs da mistikur elfers aniWebs moqmedebas. dalad gardaqmnili mTvaris Tmas Tan mohyveba saocreba, romelic aerTebs miwas da zecas da es aris zRva. `...Tvalwin gaugebari sakvirveleba gadaeSala haerisa da wylis usazRvroeba erTmaneTSi areuliyo da usaxeobas qveyniereba CaenTqa, es iyo zRva inguris SesarTavTan~ (qiaCeli 1985: 289). am samyaroSi Tavisuflad dasrialeben Crdilebi, zmanebani da modis sikvdili, rogorc Sveba. aq SeiZleba davinaxoT miniSneba cnobierebis siRrmeSi arsebul im modelze, romelic zRvas cis miwier anareklad aRiqvams da amitom aniWebs mas sasufevlis, gansasveneblis funqcias aqve, miwaze. es SeiZleba romeliRac warmarTuli modelis farulad da gauazreblad Semonaxuli xsovnac iyos, Tumca raimes mtkiceba Znelia. `haki aZbaSi~ modernistuli prozis tendenciebi ukve sakmaod ganeitralebulia da mxolod SigadaSig, mxatvruli qsovilis wminda esTetikuri damuSavebis doneze gamokrTis. Sesabamisad, bevri movlena aRar aris zedmiwevniT esTetizebuli, magram zRvis, rogorc bolo navsayudelis simboluri saxe, inarCunebs Tavis mxatvrul mizandasaxulobas. zRvidan modis safrTxe, gemi `Smidti~ (axali drois `ar-

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go~), zRva aireklavs moaxloebul tragikul movlenebs. stiqiis mrisxanebaSi ilandeba adamianTa samyaros mRelvareba. magram is, amave dros, sruli simSvidis erTaderTi aRmTqmelicaa. mis wiaRSi gadava yvela, visac axali epoqa ar miscems arsebobis saSualebas, zRva ki miiRebs, rogorc mSobeli Svils. aseve zRvaSi miaqvs TaraS emxvaris sxeuli engurs (k. gamsaxurdia, `mTvaris motaceba~). TaraSic aseve poulobs ukanasknel navsayudels maradiuli wylebis wiaRSi. sagulisxmoa, rom mogvianebiT o. WilaZe aqcevs gansakuTrebul yuradRebas zRvis models da `rkinis TeatrSi~ imeorebs mis amgvar funqcias _ zRva aris erTderTi adgili, dasasruli, sadac SeiZleba simSvidis mopoveba, saboloo TavSesafari misTvis, vinc cxovrebis nakadSi veRar Zlebs. amis naTeli magaliTia msaxiobisa da zRvis suraTi, roca simSvidis mosapoveblad adamiani droebiT, magram isev zRvas miaSurebs, da ufro metad ki, natos saboloo Serwyma zRvasTan. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mxolod modernistuli teqstebi Zalian mwiri masalaa, Tanac SedarebiT axali imisTvis, rom calkeuli kulturis mier ama Tu im fenomenis aRqmaze vimsjeloT. amasTan Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sruliad Tanamedrove mxatvrul interpretacias aka morCilaZis `Santa Esperansa~ Si, naTlad Cans, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi, zRvisadmi damokidebuleba Seicvleba, is arc ise gaqvavebulia da erTxelac iqneba, zRva dakargavs Tavis saboloo navsayudlis statuss, Tundac sxva kulturebisa da mxatvruli azrovnebis gavleniT. Tumca mocemul mwir masalaze dayrdnobiTac SeiZleba gamovTqvaT varaudi, rom mocemul teqstebSi aisaxa Soreuli gamoZaxili im SegrZnebisa Tu garkveuli kompleqsisa, romelic sxva kulturebisTvis niSneuli da sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli dinamikurobis, gafarToebisa da ganviTarebis sapirispirod, zRvaSi xedavs statikur sawyiss, aRiqvams mas ara rogorc gzis dasawyiss, aramed dasasruls, simSvides da ar apirebs gadalaxos, gadacuros Tavisi sulis bolo navsayudeli. ra moutana amgvarma aRqmam qveyanas sxvadasxva, mxatvruli sistemebis Tu sruliad aramxatvruli, metic, pragmatuli TvalsazrisiT, esec calke gansjas saWiroebs. Tumca naTelia, rom modernistulma teqstebma aSkarad asaxes garkveuli formis mqone modeli da Sorsmimavali fesvebis mqone tendencia. literatura qiaCeli 1985: l. qiaCeli, Txz. oTx tomad, t. II, Tb., 1985.

ada nemsaZe

zRva, rogorc sivrcis maidentificirebeli niSani oTar WilaZis romanSi `gzaze erTi kaci midioda~
XX saukunis II naxevridan qarTulma literaturam gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia droisa da sivrcis problemebs. swored aqedan iwyeba miTosuri, bibliuri Tu antikuri modelebis aRorZineba da maTi gamoyeneba sxvadasxva simboluri datvirTviT, rasac Tan axlavs dro-sivrculi problemebis axleburi gaazreba. droisa da sivrcis problemas garkveuli kavSiri aqvs identifikaciis problemasTanac. darRveuli identobis mizezi isev garemoSia saZiebeli. identobis dadgena rTuli, mtkivneuli da xangrZlivi procesia, romelsac sWirdeba konkretuli sivrce da konkretuli dro, romelSic unda moxdes misi mopoveba. oTar WilaZis pirveli romani `gzaze erTi kaci midioda~ mefe aietis samefos cxovrebiT iwyeba. vanelebi uCveulo ambis mowmeni xdebian: zRvam, romelic `yvela vanelis fanjridan moCanda~ da romlis `gabmuli, gauTavebeli qSenac~ yvela vanelis WerqveS ismoda, erTi nabijiT daixia ukan. ufro zustad ki: `es imdroindeli ambavia, roca vani zRvispira qalaqi iyo; roca kolxeTis miwaze pirvelma berZenma daadga fexi da moridebulad iTxova TavSesafari. zRvamac swored am dRes gabeda da xangrZlivi yoymanis Semdeg pirveli nabiji gadadga

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: sivrcis identifikaciis rRveva oTar WilaZis romanSi gzaze erTi kaci midioda; oTar WilaZis yovelman Cemman mpovnelman: TviTidentifikaciis krizisi; identobis problema Tanamedrove qarTul mwerlobaSi; Txa da gigos postmodernuli versia. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, semiotika.

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ukan~ (WilaZe 1986: 9). am faqts, ra Tqma unda, Tavisi mizezi hqonda da igi sakmaod mniSvnelovanic iyo. zRvis ukan gabruneba uSualod ukavSirdeba Zveli kolxeTis miwaze pirveli ucxo tomelis gamoCenas. am dRis Semdeg zRva nabij-nabij Sordeboda vans: ase moxda friqses sikvdilisa da misi vaJebis gaparvis Semdegac, erTi sityviT, `sakmarisi iyo, rame ucnauri ambavi momxdariyo qalaqSi, zRvac maSinve isargeblebda da ukan daixevda~ (WilaZe 1986: 84). bartis semiologiuri koncefciis Tanaxmad, pirvelad enobriv struqturas, romelSic zRva vanis identificirebuli sivrcis Semadgeneli elementia, gadafaravs meoradi enobrivi struqtura, sadac niSani iZens mniSvnelobaTa mTel speqtrs, da swored es mniSvnelobebia, CvenTvis, umTavresi. zRvis ukusvliT sivrcis ara marto moculobrivi deformireba xdeba, aramed Sinaarsobrivic. wyali - siwmindis, sisufTavis, umankoebis universaluri simbolo - nel-nela Sordeba harmoniul sivrces. igi midis vanidan Sors, raTa gascildes momavali didi borotebis `sadgurs~. `gzaze erTi kaci midioda~ rTuli miTologiuri qveteqstebiT datvirTuli romania. rogorc e. meletinski SeniSnavs, miTologizmi XX saukunis literaturis saxasiaTo gamovlinebas warmoadgens, rogorc mxatvruli xerxi da rogorc am xerxis ukan mdgomi msoflaRqma (meletinski 1976: 295). romanSic Zveli kolxeTis samefos miRma dgas avtoris msoflaRqmis mTeli sistema da miTologizmi misTvis, am SemTxvevaSi, saukeTeso mxatvruli xerxia avtoriseuli xedvisa da sinamdvilis interpretaciis gadmosacemad, romelic erTgvarad iniRbeba miTSi. miTosuri struqturebis transformaciis nebismieri niuansic ki raRac mniSvnelovanze miTiTebaa. aseTi niuansia zRvis TandaTanobiTi ukansvlac, rac romanis manZilze permanentulad da daJinebiT mimdinareobs _ iwyeba romanis siuJetTan erTad da aietis samefos daqceviT mTavrdeba. zRvas, da zogadad, wyals, uaRresad farTo simboluri veli aqvs. gavixsenoT jer kidev antikuri warmodgena samyaros Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac, wyali mis Semadgenel oTx elements Soris erTerTia. wylis, miwis, cecxlisa da haerisagan `daxsnili~ adamiani ukve fizikuri samyaros mkvidri aRaraa. wylis simbolika erT-erTi mTavaria qristianul kulturaSic. igi aris RvTis wyaloba (dab. 27-28; fsalm. 132. 3), urjuloebs ufali sjis gvalviT (3 mef. 18. 18), naTlobisas, roca sxeuli da suli iwmindeba borotebisagan, aseve gamoiyeneba wyali (maTe 3. 13-17) (mcxeTuri ...). bevr kulturaSi igi sicocxlis upirvelesi wyaroa, uformo, usazRvro, amouwuravi da moulodnelobebiT savse. zRva materiis saxea, ufro mniSvnelovanic ki, vidre miwa, magram amis garda aris aRdgenis, xelaxali aRorZinebis


zRva, rogorc sivrcis maidentificirebeli niSani oTar WilaZis romanSi...

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simboloc (tresideri...). zogadad, unda SevniSnoT, rom simboloTa leqsikonebi ar aris universaluri nebismieri mxatvruli teqstis analizisas. rac ufro didi da TavisTavadia mwerali, miT ufro gansxvavebulia misi simboluri Tu metaforuli samyaro. Tumc aris zogi myari simbolo, romlis mniSvnelobebi garkveulwilad Tanxvdeba leqsikonSi ganmartebuls. aseT simbolos warmoadgens zRva oTar WilaZis mxatvrul sistemaSi. friqses gamoCenamde vani idealuri samyaros mikromodelia. sociokulturuli sivrce rom myari iyos, aucilebelia misi yvela komponenti amtkicebdes am simyares. kolxeTSi es marTlac asea. Zveli vanis Sida sivrce uaRresad mowesrigebulia. sistema isea awyobili, rom misi Semadgeneli elementebi, yvela erTad da TiToeuli cal-calke, qmnian idealuri samyaros models. garkveuli niSan-simboloebis SemotaniT avtori kodirebuli saxiT saubrobs konkretulze da, amave dros, masSi gulisxmobs movlenaTa mravlobiTobas. aseT kodebs warmoadgenen: SavTvaleba malalos saxli, dariaCangis baRi, baxas sardafi, boCia da foTola, oqromWedlebis ubani da a.S. friqses gamoCena ki aietis samefos rRvevis pirveli niSania, ris signalsac swored zRva iZleva. zRvis ukan daxeva pirdapir ukavSirdeba siwmindis, samarTlianobis, sikeTis, anu dadebiTi sawyisis moSlas da mis uaryofiTiT Canacvlebas moaswavebs. Sedegad, erTimeoris miyolebiT Cndeba axal-axali niSnebi, rac kolxeTis sivrcis rRvevaze miuTiTebs: dariaCangi gauCinardeba, oqros ubani daiqceva, boCia da foTola berdebian, baxa kvdeba da a.S. davubrundeT Cvens gansaxilvel simbolos - zRvas. simbolo, zogadad, Tavis TavSi garkveul informacias Seicavs, romlis gageba moiTxovs sxvadasxva xasiaTis kodebis wvdomas da amoxsnas. mas aqvs zogadi niSnebi, rac asociaciurad, vizualurad an funqcionalurad ukavSirdeba ama Tu im movlenas an ambavs da amiT SesaZlebeli xdeba misi mniSvnelobis gaxsna. i. lotmani mxatvruli teqstis agebis principebze wers: mxatvruli nawarmoebis Seqmna moaswavebs Tvisobrivad axal etaps teqstis struqturis garTulebaSi. mravalSriani da semiotikurad araerTgvarovani teqsti, romelsac ZaluZs, CaerTos rTul urTierTobebSi rogorc garemomcvel kulturul konteqstTan, ise mkiTxvel auditoriasTan, aRar aris elementaruli Setyobineba, romelic mimarTulia adresantidan adresatisken. rogorc ki mas gauCndeba informaciis kondensirebis unari, igi SeiZens sxovnas. struqturuli garTulebis aseT stadiaze teqsti aRmoaCens inteleqtualuri mowyobis Tvisebas: is ara mxolod gadascems masSi garedan Cadebul informacias, aramed cvlis mas da SeimuSavebs axals (lotmani 1992: 130). oTar WilaZis mravalSriani, semiotikuri struqturis mqone mxatvruli teqsti did informacias gvaZlevs.

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pirvelad enobriv sistemaSi zRva SesaZloa ganvixiloT, rogorc siwmindis ukusvla. xolo ufro Rrma semiotikur vels iZens igi maSin, roca Zveli vanis sivrcis maidentificirebel mTavar niSnad moviazrebT. vani maradiuli dro-sivrcea. dro, rogorc amowurvadi, Seuqcevadi kategoria, vanSi jer ar damdgara. aq arc sikvdilis eSiniaT, arc gansacdelis gaegebaT rame. sruliad bednieri qveyana bavSvurad gulubryvilo, sikeTiT savse da sifxizlemoklebulia. rogorc meletinski aRniSnavs, miTologizmi TavisTavad iZleva socialur-istoriuli da sivrciT-droiTi sazRvrebidan gamosvlis saSualebas. `miTologiuri dro Tanamedrove romanSi gamoaZevebs obieqtur istoriul dros imiT, rom gansazRvruli drois moqmedebebs da movlenebs aqcevs mudmivi prototipebis gansaxierebad. istoriis msoflio dro gadadis miTis udroo samyaroSi, rac gamoxatulebas poulobs sivrcul formaSi~ (meletinski 1976: 296). swored am movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme aRniSnul romanSic. vanSi dro ar aris, aq aris maradiuli dro, u-dro-o dro, romelic mudmivia da cvlilebas ar ganicdis. amitomac vanSi maradiulia yvela dadebiTi sawyisi. uaryofiTi sawyisi Zvel vanSi saerTod ar arsebobs. e. i., sivrcis simyaris mizezi aris misi Sinagani mowesrigebuloba, dro-sivrcis Sinagani wonasworoba. miTologiis Tanaxmad, qaosi da kosmosi erTimeoreSi gardamavali mdgomareobebia - qaosis mowesrigeba kosmosiT mTavrdeba, kosmosis Sinagani rRvevis Sedegad ki isev qaosi warmoiSoba; samyaro maradmoZravia, mas xan mowesrigebuli forma aqvs, xan _ mouwesrigebeli. am TvalsazrisiT, aietis samefoc kosmosia, sadac yvelas da yvelafers (xalxsac da zRvasac) Tavisi adgili uWiravs. magram yvelaferi es xdeba manam, sanam zRva erTi nabijiT ukan daixevs. zRvis ukusvliT iwyeba im mowesrigebuli sivrcis rRveva, romelic identificirebuli iyo dadebiT sawyisTan. romanis simboloebisaTvis erTi Tvalis gadavlebac ki sakmarisia, raTa SevniSnoT, rom maTi nawili dadebiTia, nawili ki _ uaryofiTi. amasTan, dadebiTi simboloebi (dariaCangis baRi, SavTvaleba malalo, baxas sardafi, boCia, oqromWedlebis ubani...) Zveli vanis atributebia, xolo uaryofiTi (oyajados sasaxle Tavisi cucaTi da kamaTi, uxeiros darRveuli ojaxi, kusas saxli Tavisi gembanisxela sawoliTa da unayofo coliT) _ axali vanisa. axali vani sivrcis TviTidentifikaciis rRvevis Sedegia. sanam vanSi aris maradiuli dro _ yvavis dariaCangis baRi, TavianT saqmes akeTeben baxa, malalo, boCia, oqromWedlebi - sivrce aris mowesrigebuli da myari anu identifikaciaganxorcielebuli. xolo roca Zveli vani daemxoba da aietis mmarTvelobas oyajados mmarTveloba cvlis, sivrcis identoba ukve aRar dasturdeba. amaze metyveleben romanis uaryofiTi pa-


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saJebi. yvelaze mniSvnelovani da TvalnaTlivi niSani ki aris Waobis gaCena: `zRvisgan mitovebuli miwa, axalSobilis kaniviT sveli da daWmuWnili, TandaTan gaizarda, gafarTovda da samgloviaro arSiasaviT gauyva mTel sanapiros. mere vansa da zRvas Sua uzarmazari Waobi gaCnda, urCxulis amonarwyeviviT mwvane, dabuStuli da lorwoiani~ (WilaZe 1986: 10). amrigad, aietis samefos dacemis anu sivrcis identifikaciis rRvevis pirveli maniSnebeli aris zRvis ukan daxeva, rac uSualod mohyveba pirveli ucxo tomelis (friqses) gamoCenas kolxeTSi. zRva nel-nela Sordeba im harmoniul sivrces, romelTan erTadac igi maradiul sikeTes, macocxlebel da ganmwmend stiqias ganasaxierebda. uaryofiTis damkvidrebis anu sivrcis Canacvlebis erT-erT pirvel niSnad ki gvevlineba mwvane lorwoiani Waobis gaCena zRvisgan mitovebul adgilze. Zveli da axali vani saerTo wertils veRar poulobs. sivrcis cvalebadobis suraTi erovnuli identobis dakargvis, istoriuli kataklizmis metaforad gvevlineba. sivrcis identobaSi Separuli zemoaRniSnuli rRveva nel-nela, friqses zrdasTan erTad, Rrmavdeba romanSi. axali etapi, ufro seriozuli safexuri am procesSi aris mefis Zlivsgamomjobinebuli siZis saqcieli, roca man valis gadaxda daapira im sikeTisaTvis, sruliad ucxo bavSvs rom aRmouCines vanSi: `qalaqSi wylis Semoyvana RmerTebma damavales, raTa amiT mainc gadagixadoT madloba, upatrono bavSvs TavSesafari rom momeciTo~ (WilaZe 1986: 41). sikeTis dafaseba anu madliereba TavisTavad kargi saqcielia da adamians dadebiTad axasiaTebs. TiTqos arc friqses ganzraxva iyo ukeTuri, sikeTisTvis valis ukan dabrunebas rom apirebda, magram misma keTilma survilma uneburad sawinaaRmdego Sinaarsi SeiZina da ase daubrunda ukan madlis Camdens. `berZnis wyarom~ pirvelad aniSna vanelebs, raRac axali rom iwyeboda maT cxovrebaSi da es axali maincdamainc kargi ar unda yofiliyo. Tuki im myari sivrcis rRveva, aietis samefo rom erqva, zRvis ukan gabrunebiT daiwyo, igi kidev ufro gaRrmavda qalaqSi ucxotomelis mier wylis SemoyvaniT. friqsem madlobis Tqma maincdamainc wyaros aSenebiT gadawyvita da aietis ukve wyalSemdgar taxts exla pirdapir miuSva es stiqia. friqsec ise grZnobda mis gverdiT Tavs, `TiTqos ocdaxuTi wlis winaT dakargul saxlSi dabrunebuliyo~ (WilaZe 1986: 156). samSoblos mowyvetilma friqsem wyaros saxiT dasayrdeni gaiCina Suagul vanSi, Tavisi, sakuTari `berZnis wyaro~. es ki sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara samefos Zlierebasa da mTlianobaSi (igive sivrcis identobaSi) Separuli axali mniSvnelovani bzari. wyals aqvs ambivalenturi simboluri mniSvnelobebi. Tuki igi

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ganwmendis, ganaxlebis, sicocxlis niSania, meore mxriv, esaa gancalkevebis, ganmartoebis simboloc (magaliTad, zRvis an mdinaris gadakveTa niSnavs sikvdils). ramdenadac wyals aqvs rogorc sicocxlis, ise sikvdilis Zala, mas SeuZlia ara marto SeaerTos, aramed ganacalkeos kidec (tresideri...). swored am funqcias atarebs `berZnis wyaro~. zedapirze amotanili pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT wylis Semosvla qalaqSi ar aris uaryofiTi pasaJi (metadre, Tu gavixsenebT, rom vanSi manamde wyaro ar arsebobda), magram teqstis Rrma enobrivi da azrobrivi qsovilis gaTvaliswinebiT, igi aSkarad gamoxatuli uaryofiTi niSania. aq wyali, romelmac pirvelma miuTiTa vanelebs romeliRac axali drois dawyebaze, aseve mTavari mimaniSnebelia sivrcis identifikaciis rRvevisa. miuxedavad imisa, rom identifikaciis moSla uaryofiTi procesia da bevri ubedurebis saTavec, zRvas aq uaryofiT datvirTvas ver mivawerT. piriqiT, wyali imitomac midis vanidan Sors, raTa gascildes borotebas. Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, igi ver Seegueba im sibinZuris gverdiT cxovrebas, vans rom moelis. amitom midis dRiTidRe ufro da ufro Sors. zRvis ukusvlis Canacvleba qalaqSi Semoyvanili wyliT SeuZlebelia. es ori sxvadasxva stiqiaa. pirveli Tavisi nebiT wasuli da borotebas garidebuli, meore _ adamianis xeliT Semoyvanili da borotebis Semomtani. wylis gaparva SeumCneveli darCa qalaqis mcxovrebTaTvis. maTi yuradReba imdenad gadaerTo axal-axal da uCveulo ambebze (romelTa naklebobac namdvilad aRar ganicdeboda im dRis mere), rom umTavresi gamoeparaT. erTaderTi kaci, romelmac zRvis gaparva SeniSna, bedia iyo da isic imdenad daabnia aman, rom xma ver amoiRo. uaryofiTi sawyisis TandaTanobiT gaZlierebaze miuTiTebs bedias Tokic, romliTac igi yoveldRiurad zomavs TiTqmis yoveldRiurad gazrdil manZils qalaqsa da zRvas Soris. ase dakarges vanelebma zRva, igive sikeTe, bedniereba, ukvdaveba, maradiuloba anu yvelaferi is, rac sivrcis identobis damadasturebel niSnebs miekuTvneba. problema gadaiWreba mxolod finalur scenaSi, farnaozis warmosaxvaSi, roca Waobi ukan ixevs da zRva isev ikavebs Tavis adgils: `mere baRs gadaRma zRvam amoifSvina, mZlavri sunTqviT kenweroebi gadazniqa da farnaozs Tavbru daaxvia usasrulo silurjem. ...mere bavSvs yuris bibiloze akoca da uTxra: ai, aseTi iqneba samyaro~ (WilaZe 1986: 535). ukan dabrunebuli zRva semiotikis metaenis struqturis farglebSi mowesrigebuli sivrcis aRdgenis mTavari da ZiriTadi niSania.


zRva, rogorc sivrcis maidentificirebeli niSani oTar WilaZis romanSi...

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literatura lotmani 1992: . . . .1. , 1992. meletinski 1976: . . . .: , 1976. mcxeTuri... mcxeTuri xelnaweri, gamosacemad moamzada el. doCanaSvilma, Tb., 1982; 1983; tresideri... . http: // www. gumer.info/bibliotek_buks/Culture/JekTresidder/348.php; internet WilaZe 1986: WilaZe o. rCeuli Txzulebani 3 tomad. tomi 1. Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1986.

izabela petriaSvili manana rusieSvili

izabela petriaSvili

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis semantikuri da pragmatikuli Taviseburebebi (monografia); konteqstisa da vokabularis roli reklamaSi; deiqsisis kategoriebis realizacia avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi; avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis lingvistur-stilisturi Taviseburebani (inglisuri romanis masalaze); referencia da implikacia avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi; sametyvelo aqtebis Teoria avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis pragmatuli analizis WrilSi. interesTa sfero: lingvisturi pragmatika, stilistika, sociolingvistika.
manana rusieSvili

zRvis xati qarTul da inglisur folklorSi


naSromi exeba zRvis xatis adgilsa da mis konotacias qarTul da inglisur folklorSi leqsebSi, zRaprebSi, legendebsa da TqmulebebSi. cxadia, orive enis kulturasa da folklorSi zRvas mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia, rac bunebrivia, radganac orive qveyana zRvis piras mdebareobs da, amdenad, sisxlxorceulad dakavSirebulia masTan. Cveni sakvlevi qveynebisa da kulturebis am saerTo niSanma, ra Tqma, unda gaamZafra Cveni interesi aRniSnuli Temisadmi. imis gamosakvlevad, Tu ra datvirTva aqvs zRvis xats da rogor aris zRvis xasiaTi warmoCenili qarTulsa da inglisur enebSi, dakvirveba vawarmoeT zRvis xatze da mis mrvalwaxnagovan konotaciaze aRniSnuli masalis farglebSi. kvlevam gamoavlina zRvis semiotikuri modelis parametrebi da misi konotaciuri msgavseba-gansxvavebebi qarTuli da inglisuri kulturisa da cxovrebis wesidan gamomdinare, warmoaCina termin "zRvis" gamoyenebis ramdenime mimarTuleba; magaliTad, "zRvis" rogorc fizikuri substanciis aqtualizacia; "zRvis" metaforuli xati da misi kulturul- specifikuri fesvebi rogorc qarTul, ise inglisur folklorSi. cnobilia, rom mravali xalxuri warmodgenis aRdgena swored enaSi daleqili da daculi frazeologiisa da idioma-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografia: andaza( 2005); statiebi: erving gofmanis Teoriis evoluciis Taobaze (2006);. ratom ar aris p. braunisa da s. levinsonis lingvisturi Tavazianobis modeli universaluri (2006); inferenciuli komunikaciis Taobaze (2008); iumoris verbaluri gamoxatvis ramdenime lingvisturi xerxis Sesaxeb (2008); interesTa sfero: pragmatikis Teoria, sociolingvistika, semiotika.


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tikis meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli.e kvlevam saintereso Sedegebi gviCvena rogorc enobrivi, ise kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT.
prof. Tamaz beraZe erT-erT naSromSi vrclad mimoixilavs ~Savi zRvis~ toponimikas, saidanac vigebT, rom Sav zRvas sxvadasxva xalxebi, romlebic uZveles xanaSi Savi zRvis piras cxovrobdnen, sxvadasxva saxels uwodebdnen. magaliTad, asirielebi _ `zemo zRvas~ da `did zRvas~, iranuli modgmis tomebi _ `axSianas~ _ ,,Rrmas~, ,,Savs~ uwodebdnen. Zvelma berZnebma am zRvis saxeli maTgan gadaiRes, mxolod maTTvis gaugebari `axSiana~ berZnul sityva `avqsinusad~ gaiazres, rac `arastumarTmoyvares~ niSnavs. Zveli berZnebisaTvis Savi zRvis amgvari saxelwodeba gasagebi iyo, radgan Tavdapirvelad isini cudad icnobdnen am zRvas da masze naosnoba did siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. Zv. w VII-VI ss., mas Semdeg, rac berZnebi kargad gaecvnen Savi zRvis napirebs da am zRvaze naosnoba aiTvises, Sav zRvas saxeli Seucvales da `evqsinus pontos~ anu `stumarTmoyvare zRva~ uwodes (gv. 3). es mcire toponimikuri eqskursi dasturia imisa, Tu ramdenad mravalmxrivi da araerTgvarovani SeiZleba iyos erTi da igive fenomenis aRqma sxvadasxva xalxebisa da kulturebis mier. qarTul folklorSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, Savi zRvis TiTqmis yvela es Tviseba, iqneba es pozitiuri Tu negatiuri, realizebulia, rac, umetes SemTxvevaSi misi metaforuli konotaciis sawyisad iqceva. iseve, rogorc saqarTvelo, didi britaneTic sisxlxorceulad aris dakavSirebuli zRvasTan. ufro metic, inglisur/britanul kulturaSi zRva udidesi mniSvnelobis mqonea, radganac imis gamo, rom britaneTi kunZulia, mxolod zRvis saSualebiT SeeZlo dakavSireboda am kunZulze mcxovrebi adamiani samyaros. Sesabamisad, zRva iyo adgili, sadac simamace da vaJkacoba unda gamoeCina Wabuks. amis gamo mezRvauri erTob dafasebuli da saWiro adamiani iyo. aseve, pativiscemis Rirsi iyo is vaWaric, romelic zRvas samjer gadakveTda. am dros mas eniWeboda specialuri sigeli. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ingliselisaTvis zRva iyo asparezi ara marto sabrZolvelad da imperiis Sesaqmnelad, aramed, ekonomikuri Tu savaWro kavSirebis gasabmelad da, ubralod, sakvebis mopovebis saSualebac. zRvasTan fizikuri siaxlovis gamo (romelmac gamoiwvia, sabolooo jamSi, inglisis imperiis Seqmna) inglisuri folklori

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gaJRenTilia zRvis TematikiT. Cveni kvlevis miznebisaTvis gavaanalizeT zRvis an zRvis Tematikis Semcveli Cvens xelT arsebuli legendebi, zRaprebi, xalxuri poezia, aseve mcire formebi (idiomatika, andazebi) da gamokvlevebi qarTuli da inglisuri/britanuli folkloris Sesaxeb, ris Sedegadac SesaZlebeli gaxda zRvis semiotikuri modelis dadgena, romlis gamoyenebac sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT xorcieldeba: 1. zRva, rogorc fizikuri substancia, wylis stiqionis simbolika a) zRvis gadacurva asocirdeba siZneleebis da dabrkolebebis gadalaxvasTan. zRva gvevlineba erTgvar sajildao qvad, Zalisa da Zalauflebis sapirwoned. aqedan gamomdinare, gmirebi/personaJebi, iqneba es poeziaSi, legendebsa Tu zRaprebSi, aucileblad gadaivlian zRvas sasurveli Sedegis misaRwevad. gavixsenoT Tundac, qarTul zRaprebSi erTerTi yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli fraza cxra mTa da cxra zRva gadaiara... amgvari xati aqtualuria rogorc qarTul, ise inglisur zRaprebSi, sadac mTavari gmiri, mefe Tu raindi zRvis talRis SeCerebas cdilobs, raTa kidev erTxel daadasturos sakuTari uZleveloba da siZliere. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom rogorc wesi, qarTul zRaprebSi zRvis xati ufro metad pozitiuria, radgan zRapris gmirs eZleva Zala am dabrkolebis gadasalaxad, da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am mxriv, zRva erTgvar damxmaredac ki gvevlineba (propis klasifikaciis mixedviT). sapirispiro mdgomareobaa inglisur zraprebSi: yvela amgvari mcdeloba zRvis, rogorc dabrkolebis gadalaxvisa, marcxiT mTavrdeba. magaliTad, Great Canute and the Sea. Cveni mosazrebis dasadastureblad gvsurs ramdenime magaliTi moviyvanoT qarTuli zRaprebidan: `wavida isev naxevarqaTama, da mivida erT zRvasTan. daRonda naxevarqaTama: rogor unda gadavideo. ifiqra, gaaRo piri da Caylapa es zRva da mSralze gavida zRvis gaRma~ (ambavi naxevarqaTamasi) `erT alagas SeniSnes, erTi kaci zRvas dayudebia da srutavs. Zalian Zneli saqme ar aris, magodena zRvas srutav?~ (sizmara)


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`gadaRvara wyali biWma, gaCnda saSineli zRva. Relavs zRva Savad, sikvdils uqadis yvelas, magram Rori ar udrkeba zvirTebis cemas da micuravs~ (wiqara) zRvis aseTive xati aris realizebuli TqmulebaSi `amiranze~, rodesac amirani eubneba Tavis Zmas, badris: `badro, maTxove TeTroni, zRvaSi gavide ngreviTa, gavide, gamoviyvano, qalia TeTri mze-viTa.~ (`ambavi amiranisa~, gv. 302) amirani gadaivlis zRvas da itacebs mSvenier yamars, zeciur, mziur qaliSvils, RrubelTa winamZRolis Svils gazafxulissimbolur saxes (Tqmuleba amiranze). qarTul xalxur poeziaSic vxvdebiT zRvis, rogorc dabrkolebebis gadalaxvis, simbolos. magaliTad, `Tavfaravneli Wabuki~, romlis gmiric yovel Rame gadacuravs zRvas Tavis SeyvarebulTan Sesaxvedrad; qalwuli anTebul sanTels tovebs napirze, raTa Wabuks gza miaswavlos, magram boroti dedabris SelocviT sanTeli qariSxlis dros qreba. Wabuki ver agnebs napirs da iRupeba. `Tavfaravneli Wabuki aspanas qalsa Fhyvarobda, zRva hqonda wina savali gasvlas Sig ara zarobda~. (gv. 29. `Tavfaravneli Wabuki~) miuxedavad tragikuli dasasrulisa, zRvis xati aqac pozitiuria, radgan, rom ara boroti Zalebis Careva, Wabuki SeZlebda zRvis gadalaxvas. am leqsis paralelebi arsebobs msoflio folklorSi: Zvel saberZneTi arsebobda miTosi herosa da leanderosis Sesaxeb, romlis fabulac udevs safuZvlad ovidiusis baladas, aseve, Sileris baladas ~hero da leanderi~, da sxv. v. kotetiSvilis azriT, yvela niSnis mixedviT `Tavfaravneli Wabuki~ aris zRvis dionises qarTuli saxe (gv. 337) (Cven amas mxolod informaciisTvis aRvniSnavT, radgan es sakiTxi cdeba Cveni kvlevis farglebs). b) britanul folklorSi zRvis xati relizebulia, rogorc saSiSi da sastiki substancia: zRva/tba ara marto aZlevs sakvebs britaneTis mcxovrebT, aramed sjis kidec maT, rodesac isini qristes WeSmarit doqtrinas uaryofen. magaliTad, erT-erTi legendis mixedviT, SopSirSi, bomeris tbasTan gaSenebuli qalaqi wyalma Caylapa aRdgomis dRes, radganac misi mosaxleoba ganerida qristianobas da daubrunda warmarTobas. A

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zRvis dasjis iaraRad qceva, ra Tqma unda, wylis damangrevel ZalasTan asocirdeba. unda iTqvas, rom am funqciiT zRva (da saerTod, wyali) ramdenime inglisur legendaSi gvxvdeba. Yyovel maTganSi icvleba konkretuli adgili, SurisZiebisa da/an dasjis sababi, magram ucvleli rCeba zRvis funqcia da misi sisastike. mezRvauris profesia did riskTan rom aris dakavSirebuli, kidev erTxel dasturdeba Semdeg andazebSic: He that would go to sea for pleasure, would go to hell for a pastime (is, vinc zRvaSi siamovnebisTvis midis, jojoxeTSic drois gasatareblad wava). Smooth seas do not make skilful sailors (wynar zRvaSi kargi mezRvauri ver gamoxval). zRva saSiSi fenomenia mezRvaurTaTvisac. britanuli folklori Seicavs mezRvaurebis mier Seqmnil crurwmenaTa da locvebis nimuSebs, romlebic zRvis risxvis Tavidan asacileblad Seiqmna. magaliTad, `Wash upon a sailing day, and you will wash your man away~ (Tu zRvaSi gasvlis dRes ibanaveb, Sens mamakacs (satrfos, meuRles) wyals gaatan). aRelvebuli zRvisagan Tavis dasacavad mezRvaurebi mimarTavdnen tatuirebas, marcxena yuris bibiloSi oqros sayures atarebdnen, dahqondaT Savi naxSiris naWeri, sxvadasxva saxis amuletebi da a.S, romlebic maT daxrCobisagan icavda. wylis stiqionis simbolikiTaa gamsWvaluli leqsi `qarTleli qalis tirili~ (gv, 78.), romelic warmoadgens uZvelesi Tqmulebis sasimRero formas. `Sensa das waiyvaneben ... Seacureben zRvasao, zRva dahkravs, qviSa dahlekavs ZuZukokoba qalsao, imisi qamxis sartyeli gars Semourtyams zRvasao, imisi movis perangi perad moedo zRvasao.~ g) zRva, rogorc maradqalur sawyissa da siyvarulTan dakavSirebuli simbolo, realizebulia qarTul xalxur poeziaSi, kerZod leqsebSi, romlebic Tamar mefesTan aris dakavSirebuli (gv. 144. `Tamar dedofal viyavi~, gv. 257. `Tamaris epitafia~): `zRvaSi Cavyare samnebi, xmeleTi Cemsken movigde.~


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`Tamar mefe da xonTqari, maRalma RmerTma wahkida, zRvaSi CauSva xomaldi, zed almasebi dahkida~ aq erTdroulad realizdeba zRvis rogorc fizikuri, ise simboluri xati. zRvaSi Cahyara/CauSva xomaldi. arsebobs, agreTve, Tqmuleba, romlis mixedviTac Tamari Sav zRvasTan midis da ZiZa maSin gauSvebs datyvevebul ciskars (v. kotetiSvili, 377). sazogadod, folklorSi wyalSi gayvana qorwinebis simboloa. zRvaSi Secureba da daxrCobac xSirad gaTxovebas niSnavs. (v. kotetiSvili, 360) d) zRvis, gamoyeneba qarTul folklorSi xSirad dakavSirebulia konkretul saxelwodebasTan, anu Sav zRvasTan, rac, bunebrivia, ganpirobebulia saqarTvelos geografiuli adgilmdebareobiT. magaliTad: `Savma aiRo, Caylapa, Savi zRvisaken gaswia.~ (`ambavi amiranisa~, gv. 300) `Caxedavs yarsis qalaqsa, napirsa Savi zRvisia.~ (gv. 148. `biWuri~) 2. zRvis metaforuli xati da misi kulturul-specifikuri fesvebi qarTul da inglisur folklorSi zRvis metaforuli konotaciis gasagebad xSirad is epiTetebi gvexmareba, romlebic, rogorc wesi, zRvas axasiaTebs. zRva, rogorc didi moculobis sivrcis substancia, gvxvdeba orive qveynis folklorsa da zepirmetyvelebaSi andazebsa da idiomebSi. magaliTad, inglisur enaSi: from sea to shining sea (zRvidan zRvamde, anu didi moculobis/raodenobis, bevri) _ The new insect pest spread from sea to shining sea in a matter of months axali mavnebeli mweri didi raodenobiT gavrcelda ramdenime TveSi. agreTve, qarTul xalxur poeziaSi: `safrangeTisa atlaso uZiro zRvaSi naSobo~ (gv. 31.) `gemSiac rom Semityues iq idga didi zRvao. (gv. 155-156. `yuri damigdeT biWebo~)

swored uZiro, didi, dauSreteli mniSvnelobebia realizebuli Semdeg qarTul andazebSi: zRva ise ar daSreba, gubis tola

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ar darCeso; cvari cvars emata zRvad gadaiqcao; zRvas gadarCenili cvarma daaxrCoo; zRva kovziT dailiao; zRva fafad idga, ubedurs kovzic ar xvdao. es metafora aris realizebuli, agreTve, Semdeg leqsebSic: muarda gunbris wyalzeda, elviT enaTa Tvalio daewafa da zRva gaSra, gaglija mosarTavio` (gv. 69-70. `qali xvaramze~)

`gaxsovdes, kovzsa pawias didi zRva daulevia~ (gv. 245. `nu iamayeb~)

britanul idiomatikaSi zRva, ZiriTadad, SiSis momgvreli, Semacbunebeli, damabneveli da ubedurebis momtani fenomenia. am xatidan iRebs saTaves metaforuli gadaazreba Semdeg idiomebSi: magaliTad, (all) at sea (about something) _ niSnavs dabnevas, Secbunebas: When it comes to higher math, John is totally at sea rodesac saqme exeba umaRles maTematikas, joni mTlianad dabneulia. aqedan, idiomis Semoklebuli forma at sea: Bill was at sea over the calculus problem. Reading economic theory leaves me feeling at sea. zRva gvevlineba rogorc dilemis opoziciis erT-erTi wevri Semdeg erTeulSi: between the devil and the deep blue sea eSmaksa da Rrma lurj zRvas Soris; He had a dilemma on his hands. He was clearly between the devil and the deep blue sea. zRvis miqceva-moqcevis cvlileba gevvelineba mniSvnelovani cvlilebis simbolod Semdeg erTeulSi: sea change: This is not the time for a sea change in our manufacturing division. There are too many orders at the moment. qarTul-xalxur satrfialo leqsebSi adamianis garegnobis da xasiaTis saCveneblad, rom Cvens mier gaanalizebul masalaSi qarTuli folkloridan zRvis feris gadmocemisas, ixmareba Savi da ara lurji, rac, vfiqrobT, dakavSirebulia Savi zRvis toponimikasTan. magaliTad, iseTi myari Sesityvebebi, rogorebicaa zRvis piras amosuli lerwami _ tanis dasaxasiaTeblad: `tani migigavs lerwamsa zRvis pirasa amosulsa ... Tvalwamwami yorans gigavs Savi zRvidan amosulsa~ (gv. 39. `sayvarelo, Seni qeba~)


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`safurcles zurab movida, lerwami zRvis pirisao~ (gv. 232. `zurab erisTavze~) `Sen, mamuka WavWavaZe, ... zRvis pirs gazrdilo lerwamo~ (gv. 261. `mamuka WavWavaZe~) `Tavad da Tavad erqvalo ... iqeT da aqeT warbebo, zRvaSi gveleSapisebro~ (gv. 55. `Tavad da Tavad erqvalo~) garda garegnobisa, adamianis bunebis, misi xasiaTis gadmocemisasac xSirad aris miniSneba zRvis cvalebad, mRelvare, boboqar xasiaTze: `kacis sicocxle zRvasaviT gaqandeb-gamoqandeba, Sexvdeba Savsa dReebsa, guli iq gamoaCndeba~ (gv. 252) `ise aris kacis guli viT morevi Savi zRvisa~ (gv. 157) aq, Cveni azriT, orive mniSvnelobaa realizebuli, rogorc pirdapiri, dakavSirebuli Savi zRvis toponimikasTan, ise metaforuli _ Savi, rogorc bneli, saSineli ram. am inglisur andazaSi zRvis muxanaTuri, moRalaturi xasiaTia warmoCenili: No matter how treacherous is the sea, a woman will always be more so. zRva rac unda muxanaTuri iyos, qali masze ufro moRalatea. leqsSi `sanTlis guTans~ (gv. 176) xazgasmulia adamianis usazRvro (zogjer, ararealuri) unarebi: `sanTlis guTans gavakeTeb, Sig Sevabam uRel devsa, zRvaSi vxnav da zRvaSi vTesav, mSralze vanadireb Tevzsa~ Cven mier gaanalizebuli masalidan moyvanili es magaliTebi

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izabela petriaSvili, manana rusieSvili

imis mimaniSnebelia, rom rogorc qarTul, ise inglisur kulturaSi folklorSi, metyvelebaSi, andazebsa Tu idiomur gamonaTqvamebSi, zRvis xati myarad aris fesvgadgmuli. dResac xSirad viyenebT iseT Sedarebebs, rogorebicaa zRvasaviT mRelvare, aboboqrebul zRvasaviT, da a.S. daskvna: kvlevam gamoavlina zRvis semiotikuri modelis parametrebi da misi konotaciuri msgavseba-gansxvavebebi qarTuli da inglisuri kulturisa da cxovrebis wesidan gamomdinare, warmoaCina termin "zRvis" gamoyenebis ramdenime mimarTuleba; magaliTad, "zRvis" rogorc fizikuri substanciis aqtualizacia; "zRvis" metaforuli xati da misi kulturul-specifikuri fesvebi rogorc qarTul, ise inglisur folklorSi. cnobilia, rom mravali xalxuri warmodgenis aRdgena swored enaSi daleqili da daculi frazeologiisa da idiomatikis meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli.e Cven mier gaanalizebul masalaze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia erTgvari zogadi daskvnis gamotana, rom zRvis xati qarTul folklorsa da kulturaSi ufro dadebiTi xasiaTisaa, xolo inglisurSi _ ufro uaryofiTi Tvisebebis matarebelia. vfiqrobT, kvlevis Sedegebi saintereso da Rirebulia rogorc enobrivi, ise kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT. bibliografia: T. beraZe, samxedro-sazRvao saqmis istoriidan, Tbilisi, 2008 v. kotetiSvili. xalxuri poezia. Tbilisi, 1972 qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi: http://www.kartuli-zgaprebi.narod.ru/sia.htm miTebi da xalxuri Tqmulebebi: http://saunje.ge/index.php?option=com_content&view=articl e&id=94%3A2010-02-14-22-05-06&catid=1%3A2010-0124-19-54-07&Itemid=7&lang=ka qarTuli miTosi, xalxuri Tqmulebebi da maTi analogiebi: http://elita.ge/index.php?showtopic=1705&st=45 qarTuli folklori poezia: http://www.alazani.ge/poetry-poeziageorgian+folklore-geo.html?georgian-folk iberiul-kavkasiur xalxTa miTologia: http://samotxis-dedopali.piczo.com/?g=50019281&cr=4


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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs. 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cambridge Idioms Dictionary, 2nd ed. Copyright Cambridge University Press 2006. Reproduced with permission. Tqmulebebi da legendebi amirani: http://children.wanex.net/mcerloba/tqmulebebi_da_legendebi /amirani.htm

mamia faRava malxaz CoxaraZe

Woroxis auzi erTiani kulturuli sivrce


Woroxis auzi erTiani kulturuli sivrcea. igi kolxuri kulturisa da metalurgiis uZvelesi keraa (ix. kaxiZe, mamulaZe 2000; rexviaSvili 1964...). Zveli kolxeTi rom Woroxis xeobasTanacaa dakavSirebuli, amis dasturad isic gamodgeba, rom `Woroxi kolxuri sityvaa da etimologiurad ukavSirdeba maWaxelsa da aWaras (ix. faRava 2003: 404-405; faRava, mgelaZe 2005:4-18). aRvniSnavT, rom saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebTan erTad, es regioni amiranis moqmedebis arealicaa. amiranis Sesaxeb TqmulebaSi moxsenebuli CabalxeTi SeiZleba davukavSiroT balxs, taoSi, eliasxevis xeobaSi mdebare sofels (faRava 2004: 182-186)... Woroxis calkeul qveynebs (aWara, SavSeTi, klarjeTi, tao, speri...) saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mWidro urTierToba hqondaT. amis Tqmis saSualebas gvaZlevs Zveli saxmeleTo gzebis sistema, Woroxze ganviTarebuli naosnoba, meurneobis tipi da sxv. Cans, saqaravno gzebiT erTmaneTs ukavSirdeboda aWara SavSeTi _ klarjeTi tao speri olTisi TorTumi... SavSeTSi, taosa da klarjeTSi (sadac jer kidev xelSesaxebia qarTuli fenomeni, Tumca qarTuli yofis `namsxvrevebi~ garkveuli danaSrevis saxiT Woroxis yvela `qveyanaSi~ gvxvdeba), vxvdebiT iseT Tqmulebebs, poe-

mamia faRava: filologiis

mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis (baTumi) sruli profesori, qarTvelologiis institutis direqtori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: nawilaki axal qarTulSi (2009), samxruli kiloebi da qarTuli samwerlobo ena (1998, Tanaavtori), qarTuli enis samxruli kiloebis fonematuri struqtura (2003). wigni: qarTuli enis praqtikuli kursi da praqtikuli stilistikis sakiTxebi (2005, Tanaavtori). interesTa sfero: qarTuli enis struqtura da istoria, qarTuli dialeqtologia... malxaz CoxaraZe: filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis (baTumi) asocirebuli profesori. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, dokumenturi filmi, ucxoeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa msoflmxedvelobis problemebi...


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tur nimuSebs, miTologiur gadmocemebs, romelTa msgavsi Senaxula aWaraSi da sxva kuTxeebSic. bevria saerTo aseve yofaSi, metyvelebaSi... miuxedavad imisa, rom Woroxis auzi erTiani kulturuli sivrcea, aq istoriulad Camoyalibda ramdenime qveyana Tavisi metyvelebiT, eTnografiuli yofiT, folkloriT... problema didia da calke kvlevas saWiroebs (aseTi kvlevebis SesaZlebloba mas Semdeg mogvecema, rodesac saTanadod gveqneba Seswavlili TiToeuli qveyana). amjerad mxolod problemis dasmiTa da zogierTi masalis moyvaniT davkmayofildebiT. *** 1. 1904 wlis 2 agvistos n. marma TeTraqeTSi (SavSeTi) iusuf baseliZisagan Caiwera leqsi `orTabaTumi~, romelic ase JRers: `gogo Civis: `ver wavyvebi, serdalaa Cemi qmari. sadac wava, iq mivagneb, Tu ginda Tavi momWari. karze fexi gadavadgi, muxlma demiwyo kankali. baxCi bolos rom Caveli, saxSic Seiqna xriali, Cemma Zmama momaZaxa, `Tu degewie, dagkali~?! maSin gulma gemiwyalda, Tu Seyara siZe-yaini, dine Cemidan meSinoda, RmerTo, Sen is momikali! yaivani ase mqonda, erTi qua Samovkari, bnel RameSi rom mobZandiT, (ix. mari 1911:134). Tqven xom ara xarT firali? firalobas ukeTesia, fexze Cevicva zankali. gamCenelma gadmogvxeda, mogviqrola erTi qali, maSinaSi rom CavjeqiT, SigniT devkliteT kari. fezli begma karze modga, isaxela misi gvari. fezli begsac Tu ikiTxav, sanjaR begis Svili ari. gareT Cxuboba rom Seqna, maSin Civian: `suTi ari~, momiyvanes aspaTebi, demiyenes erTi qali, mis sityvasac vin miiRebs, xuTasi kacis n-i!~

Camweris SeniSvniT, leqsSi aRwerili ambebi orTabaTumSi momxdara, baTumis maxlobel sofelSi. Cveni mxriv sifrTxiliT davamatebdiT, rom leqsi Semnili unda iyos baTumSi. varaudis safuZvels gvaZlevs masSi gamoyenebuli baTumuri (aWaruli) metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli dialeqturi formebi. aqve SevniSnavT, rom n. mars sqolioSi Catanili da ganmartebuli

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aqvs sityvebi. zogierTi ganmarteba, vfiqrobT, arasworia: serdalaa `sardali~. serdala- mamakacis saxelia aWaraSi. amdenad `serdalaa Cemi qmari~ niSnavs ara `sardaliao~ Cemi qmari, aramed ` serdala ariso Cemi qmari. dine `nene~ deda. `dine~ `dedas~ ar niSnavs, `dine~ bebiaa (dine<did nene < didi nene Sdr. dideda). 2. yuradsaRebia, rom imerxevSi cekvaven orTabaTums. orTabaTumi xorumis saxeobaa. orTabaTumuri xorumi orTabaTumSi daiviwyes, Seinaxes SavSeTSi (klarjeTSic). SavSeTSi, klarjeTsa da taoSi daculia iseTi Tqmuleba-gadmocemebi, aWaraSi rom gvxvdeba. moviyvanT zogierT nimuSs: 3. taoSi CaviwereT gadmocema: `ormoci wlis win aJdaa (gveleSapi avt.) dedeebs duunaxian da Rvari Cumovda, aqovroba aavso, Rvari Camosula qi. wyalma wamuvda, aJda wumoiRo. RmerTis saqmea iSta. duunaxian aJda, ori Tavi qonebia, wuuRia xevSi, dakarqula qi, veRar duunaxian... jeraven, ar jeraven, hama duunaxian qi. axla erTi Tve Seiqna, kidev iyo aJda. duunaxian, ar jeraven qi. am xarRSi iyo (gviCvenebs arxs avt.), arevla, Carevla, dakarqula. axla erTi Tvis Sig gaxda. xalR vebneviT, hama ar jeraven. wyali ar wamosuliyo, xalR SeWamda. RmerT Rvari mohyavs, ima mihyavs... Rvari wamosula, dakarqula...~ igive Tqmuleba gvxvdeba baTumSic (yorolisTavSi, orTabaTumis sakrebulo). sofels patara mdinare Camoudis, romelzec wisqvili iyo gamarTuli. mdinaridan wisqvilamde wyali arxiT midioda. mogviTxroben: `Toroxapani (kokispiruli avt.) wvima mosula. cqiniovlidan Rvari wamosula, xevi uuvsia. wyals gveleSapi wamuuRia, Savi da didi. wvimas guduuRia. gveleSapi wisqvilis bendSi ver gatevla, veRar wesula. wioda, wvalobda, mara ver midioda. isev wamosula Toroxapani, adidebula Rele da gveleSapic wuuRia. wiviliT Ceara meger Rele gveleSapma...~ 4. SavSeTSi, maCxateTSi CaviwereT Tqmuleba: `RamiT kacma wisqvilSi safqvavi waiRo. Ramis gaTeva muuwia. SuaRamisas jinebi movidnen wisqvilSi. sama deiwyes. mocekvaveebs es kacic SeuerTda. `jinebi amboben qi... xuTSabaTi, xuTSabaTio. a kacic iZaxs xuTSabaTi, xuTSabaTi. dafantvixan jineb uTqvian qi: a (kaci) Cvensavef samobda, Cven xuTSabaTio vTqviT, amanac xuTSabaTi Tqva. Cveneburia, mo elugi vuyoTo (davumadloTo), gavasworoTo (es kaci kuziani yofila. avt.). gaaswores. Camovda sofelSi. soflierma kacma kiTxa, ragvar gaswordi kuzidano?


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_ wisqvilSi viyav, jinebi movden, visameT, xuTSabaTi vTqviT da jinebma gamaswores kuzidano, _ uTxra gasworebulma kacma. wevda miore kuzianmac wisqvilSi. movden SuaRameze jinebma. dewyes sama. iseni xuTSabaTio amboben, a jumao, _ iZaxs (juma iyo da...). dafantvixan jinebma Tqves qi: ra elugi vuyoT amaso? meore kuzic davamatoTo, jinebma. movda dilaze a kaci ori kuziT~... zustad imave Tqmulebas gaigonebT baTumSic, qobuleTSic. moviyvanT qobuleTur variants: `erTma kacma RamiT wisqvilSi simindi weiRo, Rameda geeTia. SvaRameze jazebi movden, Caabes xorumi, Tan iZaxian: xuTSabaTi, xuTSabaTio. a kacic, wisqvilSi Rames rom aTevda, Cieba xorumSi, cekvavs, Tan iZaxis xuTSabaTi, xuTSabaTio... rum unda daSliliyven, jazebma erTmanefSi Tqves: Cveneburi kacia, mTeli Rame CvenTan erTad isama, xuTSafaTi vTqviT, manac xuTSafaTi Tqva. modi davajildovoTo. _ raiTo, ikiTxes. _ raiTda kuzi guusworoTo (kuziani yofila ai kaci). mosula dilaze ai kaci ukuzoT. miore kuziani kacic yofila im sofelSi. ukiTxavs mezoblisTvin, kuzi rafer moirCineo, rafer gaswordio. muuyva am kacma Ramis ambavi wisqvilSi gadaxdenili. wesula miore kuzianic wisqvilSi, simindi wuuRia, Rameda aTios. SvaRame rum Seiqna, movden jazebma, Cieben xorumSi, Tan iZaxian, xuTSafaTi, xuTSafaTio. Cieba ai kacic, zaTi amiza wevda wisqvilSi, cekvavs... jazebi ityvian xuTSafaTio, ai iZaxis jumao (paraskevi). jazebi amboben xuTSabaTio, agi jumao (juma Rame iyo da imitom). ialonze daSlixan jazebma Tqves: ai Cveni kaci araa. Cven xuTSafaTi vTqviT, aman - jumao. moi davsajoTo! riTo? ukiTxvan da gaduwyvetian: guSin kacs kuzi rom movxseniT, amas davadgaTo. movda dilaze ai kaci ori kuziT. asea, sxvis xorumSi rom Ciebmebi, maTeburai unda isamo...~ 5. aWaraSi gvxvdeba mcire warRvnis legendebi sxvadasxva variaciiT (maxaraSvili 2002:147). moviyvanT erT nimuSs: `soflis TavSi erTi tpai yofila. iqa erTi buRa yofila tpaSi Sian. ai vernebel kac yolia erTi buRa. ava es buRa tpasTan da Wedulobs. saRamoze Camua, rom moRaluli, Sieri. dilaze guuSveben da Cumad miyvebian, had midiso. ava buRai kidev, esenica uCumai uyureben. Camua saRamos buRa. gava patroni ustasTan da kinidan biziviT qiebs gaakeTebiebs, Camuacvams qiebze, Sekravs karqa TeliT. gouSobs buRas, wava kidev iqa, axlac deiWedebian, daxevs im tpis buRas. dawyevlis,

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moskdeba da sofeli gaxdeba verana~ (Tandilava 1978:69). imave legendas moismenT SavSeTSi: `golSi ari cxovrobda. gamovdoda wylidan da soflis ar eWedeboda. modioda meger saRamos ari sisxliani. patronma meger ar qebi duuqliba. kidev eWeda soflis ar wylis arma, veRar muugo, gafatra soflis arma. golis ari wyalSi rom Sevda, gawiTlda meger wyali... barem imasac aRvniSnavT, rom SavSeTis, klarjeTis, taos soflebSi getyvian, rom maTi `dedeebi baTumidam~ arian mosuli... arc aWarisTvis aris ucxo SavSebi, klarjebi, parxlebi... arc klarjulia (yurZnis jiSia avt.) ucxo aWaraSi da arc SavSura lobio (Tumca SavSeTSi ar ician lobios es jiSi). 6. taoSi, aWarasa da SavSeTSi CaviwereT erTi da imave leqsis sxvadasxva varianti. moviyvanT ramdenime nimuSs: SavSeTi: `gaRma serSi mifrinavs, yvavia Tu yarTali, nazliari devnaxe, tyvilia Tu marTali~. tao: `maRla-maRla ra frinavs, yvavia Tu yarTali? erTi gogo devnaxe, tyvilia Tu marTali? SavSeTi: `midis-modis paraxoti, adesaSi rigdeba, Cemi mogebuli fara, bariSnebSi rigdeba~. aWara: `midis-modis paraxoti, adesaSi brundeba, Cemi naSvari fulebi, am bariSnebs undeba~ SavSeTi: `Sam Salaxo, Salaxo, moglejilo balaxo, TeTri kaba macvia, ar wemecxo talaxo~. aWara: `ax Salaxo, Salaxo, moglejilo balaxo, TeTri kaba macvia, ar wemesva, talaxo~...


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* ** Woroxis auzSi dasturdeba saerTo yofiTi elementebi. marTalia, regionSi Zlieria Turqulis gavlena, magram mainc SeiZleba gamoiyos qarTuli kulturis Taviseburebebi. aq yofis yvela elements _ materialur kulturas, sulier memkvidreobas, sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs, sameurneo saqmianobas, adaTobriv tradiciebs daekisra eTnikuri funqcia. swored erovnuli tradiciebiT daupirispirda Woroxis qveynebis qarTveloba ucxo kulturas da scada, SeenarCunebina TviTmyofadoba... es Cans dasaxlebis tipSi, sacxovrebeli da sameurneo nagebobebis mSeneblobasa da dagegmarebaSi, ojaxsa da saojaxo urTierTobebSi da a. S. 1. istoriul SavSeTsa da klarjeTSi dasaxleba atarebs sakarmidamo xasiaTs: jguf-jgufad gafantuli saxlebi, zogjer uwesrigod ganlagebuli, xSirad seruli an gzis gaswvriv dasaxlebiT. dasaxlebis msgavsi tipi aRwerilia aWaraSi (ix. robaqiZe 1960; robaqiZe, mgelaZe 2005; mgelaZe 2009: 393-403). 2. SavSuri sacxovrebeli umetesad erTiandeba qarTuli mTiani sacxovreblis tipSi. saxlebi warmodgenilia vertikalur WrilSi, sadac pirveli sarTuli saqonlis sadgomia. TiToeuli saTavsos funqciuri daniSnuleba xSirad emTxveva aWaruli saxlisas, Tumca arsebobs zogierTi terminologiuri sxvaobac, rac arcaa gasakviri. sayuradReboa termini `ezo-kari. aWarelisagan gansxvavebiT SavSeli saxlis Sua gamyof derefans ezos uwodebs, xolo ezos - kars. `kari `ezos mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba qvemoaWarulSic: `karSi gavida niSnavs `ezoSi gavida~. SavSeTSi Senaxulia mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebuli terminologia: virxida (saxuravis qiriSi), dokani (qiriSis sayrdeni), diregi//direRi (boZi), kvanti (sigrZeze dawyobili qiriSi. Sdr. `uRleulT gadasabmeli latani, Rvedisa wil (saba), sabervela (saxuravis ficari. Sdr. `qaris Sesaberavi~(saba)... mniSvnelovania, rom SavSeTSi SemounaxavT `qori~ sabZlis aRsaniSnavad, rac Woroxis sxva qveynebSi ar gvxvdeba. 3. saerTo bevria sameurneo yofaSic: simbiozuri formiT ganviTarebuli mesaqonleoba da miwaTmoqmedeba, pureulis zogierTi jiSi (qeri, Wvavi, dika...), meurneobasTan dakavSirebuli toponimebi: naqeri, dolianTa, Wuavis sagorebelai... inventari: meruli, kevri... saerToa sameurneo saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli rwmena-warmodgenebi: xvna-Tesvis dawyebisas xaris qedze kvercxis damtvreva, marcvleulis Teslis mopnevisas warmoTqmuli locva, Tesvisas stumris, frinvelisa da sxvaTa wilis gaTvaliswineba, mTvaris sisavsis mixed-

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viT sameurneo saqmianobis warmarTva da a.S. 4. stumar-maspinZloba: stumris (mosafiris) oTaxi (oda), kerZebi (sinori, eriSta, rZis produqtebi...), purobisas gamoyenebuli terminologia, mag.: `bZaneT, batono~. aWaraSi `bZanebas `mirTmevis mniSvnelobiT adasturebs T. saxokia (ix.saxokia 1985:62). termini cocxalia dResac... 5. transporti: xari araba (uremi), uRruli (marxili) da masTan dakavSirebuli terminologia: saqeduri (calmarxilze uRlis funqciiT), sacuravi, kofo, sayari, xeli, uReli... 6. dResaswaulebi: marioba (SavSeTi, klarjeTi, tao), aWaruli SuamTobis badali, tardeba agvistos pirvel kviraSi (aWaraSi mariobis Sua periodSi). adre mariobaze scodniaT Teatraluri warmodgenebic: berobnoba (berikaobis saxecvlili forma). SuamTobaze aWaraSic icodnen sanaxaobiTi warmodgenebi, mag. zirikobia... 7. qorwili: aqaur qorwils etyoba Turqulis kvali, magram mainc inarCunebs qarTul xasiaTs: saqorwino urTierTobis sxvadasxva norma, winasaqorwino urTierToba, ojaxis wevrTa urTierTobis normebi, rZlis statusi... saerToa Woroxis qveynebSi. motanili masala, vfiqrobT, sakmarisi dasturia imisa, rom Woroxis qveynebis yofaSi saerTo fena gamoiyos... *** Woroxis auzSi istoriulad Camoyalibda samxruli metyvelebis tipi, romelic JamTa viTarebaSi namsxvrevebad iqca da ise moaRwia Cvenamde. miuxedavad fragmentulobisa, SesaZlebelia, samxrul metyvelebaSi gamoiyos ramdenime dialeqti, esenia: aWaruli kilokavebiT: zemoaWaruli, qvemoaWaruli da qobuleTuri. SavSuri kilokavebiT: imerxeuli da maWaxluri; klarjuli kilokavebiT: livanuri da murRuluri (momavalma kvlevebma SeiZleba daazustos klarjulis kilokauri Sedgeniloba); taouri gadarCenilia mxolod amiertaos ramdenime sofelSi. taouris kilokaur Sedgenilobaze saubari SeuZlebelia masalis simcirisa da naklebmoRweulobis gamo. CamoTvlili dialeqtebi erTmaneTTan axlos mdgomi kiloebia, axasiaTebT saerTo fonetikuri da morfologiuri gardaqmnebi da qmnian qarTuli enis dialeqtTa samxrul jgufs. daismis kiTxva: ra maxasiaTeblebiT gamoiyofa aRniSnuli dia-


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leqtebi? (arafers vambobT aWarulze, romlis dialeqtobaze aravin kamaTobs). CamovTvliT zogierT maxasiaTebels: 1. SavSuri sxva samxruli kiloebisagan gansxvavdeba: a. -s povnierebiT: baala, ari, evi... Tumca SavSurSi s ar aqvs fonologiuri Rirebuleba, ver qmnis opozicias xsTan. b. a-o>a-a: gamaatara, gadmaaxta... g. Z:z TanxmovanTmonacvleobiT: ze (Ze<rZe), zuzu (ZuZu)... 2. klarjuli: a. Z:c TanxmovanTmonacvleoba: oZdacxra, ormoZdaxuTi... ar gvxvdeba Z:z monacvleoba, igi SavSuris kuTvnileba Cans. b. zogjer Temis niSani mosalodneli araa, magram ixmareba: vWamav, baneben... g. TaviseburebebiT gamoirCeva saxelisa da zmnis urTierToba: Cveni Cai maradid zroxebma Zovnen (Sdr. Zroxebi Zovden); akvanebi davarwevdi (Sdr. akvnebs davarwevdi)... S da O zmnasTan ricxvSi SeTanxmeba: yaniebi gvqonden; stumrebi myavden... 3. taouri: a. mkveTrad gamoxatuli tonuri maxvili sityvaSi bolodan meore marcvalze: naxe, movida... b. ocobiTi Tvlis sistema: xuTmoci, Svidoci, aToci... g. kiTxviTi a nawilaki: me ar vsvia? mea Tu? Sen xara? daiZebneba sxva maxasiaTeblebic, romliTac samxruli kiloebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian. literatura Tandilava 1978: z. Tandilava, legenda sofel vernebze. macne/e, 2, Tbilisi. kaxiZe, mamulaZe 2000: a. kaxiZe, S. mamulaZe, Woroxis auzi kolxuri kulturis uZvelesi kera, baTumi. mari 1911: . , , . ... , . - , VII, . maxaraSvili 2002: g. maxaraSvili, mcire warRvnis legenda aWaris zepirsityvierebaSi (vernebis tba). bsu Sromebi, IV, baTumi. mgelaZe 2009: n. mgelaZe, dasaxlebis formebi. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, II, baTumi. rexviaSvili 1964: qarTuli xalxuri metalurgia, Tbilisi. robaqiZe 1960: a. robaqiZe, dasaxlebis formaTa sakiTxisaTvis aWara-

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Si. baTumis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis Sromebi, I, Tbilisi. robaqiZe, mgelaZe 2005: a. robaqiZe, vl. mgelaZe, dasaxlebis tipografia da morfologia aWaraSi. bsu Sromebi, VIII, baTumi. saba: s.s. orbeliani, sityvis kona, Tbilisi 1949. saxokia 1985: T. saxokia, mogzaurobani (guria, aWara, samurzayano, afxazeTi), baTumi. faRava 2004: m. faRava, CabalxeTis lokalizaciisaTvis. saistorio macne, XIII, baTumi. faRava, mgelaZe 2005: m. faRava, n. mgelaZe, aWara, maWaxeli, Woroxi etimologiis cda. bsu Sromebi, VII, baTumi. faRava 2003: M. Pagava, On History and Struqture of Shree Kartvelian Bases (War, Wor, Wax). smam, t. 168, #2, Tbilisi.

rostom CxeiZe

zRva da qarTvelebi
recenzia Tamaz beraZis wignze `zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi~ (1981 weli) Zveli berZeni avtorebi, _ epikosebi, tragikosebi, leqsikografebi, komentatorebi _ zogi vrclad, zogic uaRresad mokled, sul ramdenime sityviT, magram, ise xatovnad, iseTi sruli ueWvelobiT aRweren Tu mxolod migvaniSneben oqros sawmisis Tqmulebaze, ise gviyvebian argonavtebis laSqrobis ambavs, ise cocxlad, mZafrad da amaRelveblad, lamisaa, TviTonve daijeron da Cvenc dagvajeron argonavtebis vaJkacoba, siCauqe da simamace, lamisaa, simarTled mogvaCvenon da dagvarwmunon iazonis keTilSobilur swrafvaSi oqros sawmisis mosapoveblad, mcire zadi ra aris, isic ki ar ureviao da, bolosdabolos, ZlevamosilebiT dasrulebuli laSqroba aucileblobad dagvisazRvron; Tumca me mopovebis nacvlad xelSi Cagdebas ufro vityodi, xolo xelSi Cagdeba niuansobrivad waglejvas ufro SeiTavsebs da igulisxmebs, Tu moparvas, es maTma mimdevrebma arkvion. berZen avtorTagan ufro sarwmuno evripide unda iyos, vinc pirvelma gamoaaSkarava TanamemamuleTa saukuneobiT nakowiwebi da naloliavebi Tqmulebis WeSmariti arsi, gamoaaSkarava mikerZoebulad moTxrobili ambis namdvili buneba, cxadyo berZenTa saguldagulod miCqmaluli dam-

mwerali, filologiur mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli, 50-mde wignisa (originalurisa Tu Targmnilis) da 1000-mde samecniero narkvevisa da literaturuli da publicisturi eseis avtori, aleqsandre orbelianis sazogadoebis Tavmjdomare, Jurnal `Cveni mwerlobis~ mTavari redaqtori.

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pyrobluri zraxvani, gaaSiSvla iazonis mzakvruli miswrafebani, riTac oqros sawmisis Tu argonavtebis Tqmuleba SedarebiT naTeli da gasagebi gaxada. am gziT Tu avxsniT Tundac im epizods, argonavtebs kolxebi rom daedevnebian. berZeni avtorebi imgvarad warmogvisaxaven, imgvarad gvixataven am devnas, rom STabeWdileba gvrCeba, Tu ra mamacurad garbian berZnebi, ra veragulad misdeven kolxebi, Tumca sul sxvagvari STabeWdileba unda gvrCebodes da, albaT, veragobasa dasimamaces adgili unda hqondes Senacvlebuli, berZenTa eqspediciis damagvirgvinebel afsirtes mkvlelobis faqts swori axsna rom moeZebnos... manamdec sainteresoa: rogorc ar unda aRweron berZnebma TavianTi xomaldi, rogori uebro amgebic ar unda gamouZebnon, rogori mizezebic da axsnac ar unda Cxrikon da eZion, Tu rogor moxda, rom maT legendarul xomalds kolxi zRvaosnebi daewivnen, aSkarad Cans, rom `frTamal frTosanTa gundi~ (apolonios rodoselis sityvebia) legendarul argoze ufro swrafi yofila. `argonavtikis~ avtori am xatovan frazas kolxTa sanaosnod aRWurvisa da dadevnebis metad saxier suraTSi CaurTavs. swored am suraTis analiziT iwyebs qarTuli zRvaosnobis istoriul mimoxilvas Tamaz beraZe metad saWiro, da winaswar vityvi, mSvenier wignSi `zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi~ (`nakaduli~, 1981). mkvlevari am pasaJs iyenebs, rogorc uZveles istoriul cnobas, risi moSveliebiTac kolxTa samefoSi mravalricxovani flotis arsebobas adasturebs _ `gamarTes yvela sabrZolo gemi, swrafad aRWurves imave dResa. zRvaSi CauSves sanapiroze Camwkrivebuli uricxvi gemi~. Tumca, unda SevniSno, rom TargmanSi, romelsac mkvlevari erT-erT Tavis epigrafadac iyenebs, gemi anaqronizmia, unda iyos navi (avtoris ufro vrceli ganmartebiT, Soreuli naosnobisaTvis gamosayenebeli afriani didi sazRvao navi, mogviano terminologiiT _ xomaldi). da swored misi agebulebis daxasiaTebis Semdeg dasZens avtori, `isini ufro Cqara curavdnen, vidre argonavtebis legendaruli `argoo~. qristes dabadebamde meore aTaswleulSi aserigad ganviTarebuli qarTuli naosnobis arsebobas Cveni naosnobis saTaveebi kidev ufro, da vin icis, ramdeni saukuniT Sors gadaaqvs. eris kultura mxolod literatura arasdros yofila, arc Tugind xelovneba, kultura eris erTiani cxovrebaa, mTliani da ganuyofeli. erTian cxovrebas vambob, cal-calke da nawil-nawil rom ar Camovyve; ase yofila yvela erisTvis da CvenTvisac ase yofila. ase erTiani, mTliani gaazreba qarTveli eris kulturisa, wvdoma misi bunebisa, klasikuri saxiT didi iliasagan gadmogveca, didi ilias moniSnul gzas daadgnen ivane javaxiSvili da pavle ingoroyva, ro-


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melTac qarTuli civilizaciis erTiani, ganuwyveteli procesis, mTliani suraTis aRdgena scades da iseT Soreul epoqebs gadaswvdnen, iseTi siRrmeebi moixiles, ise sworad gaarkvies Cven Tvalwin arsebuli movlenebi, imdeni dafaruli SesaZleblobebi gaamJRavnes da saaSkaraoze gamoitanes, rom lamisaa aRarc vujerebT, es veeba, grandiozuli samyaro ise gvabnevs; etyoba, ivane javaxiSvilis mzeraa saWiro, pavle ingoroyvas mzeraa saWiro, da Tu Tvali ar gviWris, unda verwmunoT mainc, amxela da amdeni xnis kultura xelidan rom ar gamogvecalos; patara, Cia, albaT, ufro ioli mosavlelia, ufro ioli SesanarCunebeli, magram saukuneebiT mopovebuls rogor unda SevelioT, qars rogor unda gavatanoT, Torem sxvani, nebiT Tu uneblieT, sxvagvarad sjian, TavianTi erovnuli xasiaTidan, erovnuli bunebidan gamomdinare, sxvagvarad xsnian yvelafers, sxva saxiT warmogvidgenen, oqros sawmisis Tqmulebisa ar iyos. Sors rom ar gavyveT, Tamaz beraZis wignSive SeiZleba migvedevnebina Tvali Savi zRvis saxelwodebaTa analizisaTvis. Sav zRvas asirielebi `zemo zRvad~ icnobdnen (mkvlevris ganmartebiT, esaa Savi zRvis uZvelesi saxeli, romelsac asiriel mefeTa qr. dab-mde XIII-XII ss-iT daTariRebuli warwerebiT mouRwevia), xolo TviT saxeli `Savi~, dRes rogorc vuwodebT da ager frangi moris reinalic ki gagviocebia (`...saqarTvelo iq mdebareobda, sadac ueWvelad dResac mdebareobs, _ or zRvas Sua, romelTagan erTs, RmerTma icis, ratom, Savs uwodeben~), zRvis sanapiroze mcxovreb iranuli modgmis tomebs SeurqmeviaT, maTi gamoTqmiT, `axSiana~, rac Rrmas, Savs niSnavs. `Zvelma berZnebma am zRvis saxeli maTgan gadaiRes, _ wers mkvlevari, _ mxolod maTTvis gaugebari `axSiani~ berZnul sityva `avqsinusad~ gaiazres, rac `arastumarTmoyvares~ niSnavs~. `Zveli berZnebisaTvis Savi zRvis amgvari saxelwodeba gasagebi iyo, radgan Tavdapirvelad isini cudad icnobdnen am zRvas da masze naosnoba did siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli~, _ ganmartavs avtori, romelic epigrafad motanil strabonis sityvebs eyrdnoba; straboni `avqsinuss~ Tavis axsnas uZebnis, radgan misi `axSianadan~ warmomavloba, etyoba, dakargulia da saxelwodebas ki etimologiis garkveva esaWiroeba. avqsinusis _ arastumarTmoyvares _ straboniseuli etimologia amgvaria: `maSin ar SeiZleboda am zRvaze curva da iwodeboda is arastumarTmoyvared, misi mRelvarebisa da irgvliv mcxovrebi tomebis velurobis gamo~.

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`xolo Semdeg, _ ganagrZobs straboni, _ mas stumarTmoyvare ewoda, radgan ionielebma sanapiroze qalaqebi aages~. mkvlevari am frazas SedarebiT vrclad ganmartavs: `Zv. w. VII-VI ss, berZnebi kargad gaecnen Savi zRvis napirebs, aiTvises masze naosnoba. aseT pirobebSi zRvis Zveli saxelwodeba gaugebrad da damamcireblad JRerda maTTvis, amitom maT Sav zRvas saxeli Seucvales da `evqsinus pontos~ _ stumarTmoyvare zRva uwodes~. es ganmarteba strabonis etimologiuri Ziebis qveteqstia, yovel SemTxvevaSi, amgvarad gavige strabonis sityvebi da meCveneba, rom qveteqsti bolomde mainc araa mkafiod gaxsnili, Tumca, ra Tqma unda, avtori ar iyo valdebuli, yovelmxriv gaeanalizebina berZeni istorikosis sityvebi. imas, rom berZnebi `kargad gaecnen Savi zRvis sanapiroebs~ da `aiTvises masze naosnoba~, ramdenime sityviT mainc davumatebdi, rom es gacnobaca da aTvisebac, ionielTa mier sanapiroze agebuli qalaqebic, sabolood mainc berZenTa dampyroblur swrafvaze migvaniSnebs, ltolvaze _ rac SeiZleba meti mxare Semoimtkicon, gaaberZnon anu `civilizacia Seitanon~, imis miuxedavad, sWirdeba Tu ara vinmes Tavsmoxveuli civilizacia, ara ziareba ucxo kulturasTan, ara gaTvaliswineba misi Rirsebebisa, ara gamSobliurebis cda kargisa da mosawonisa, isev da isev erovnuli bunebis, erovnuli xasiaTis Sesabamisad, aramed dakargva TviTmyofadobisa, damcireba da gadagvareba sakuTari kulturisa, rogorc ar unda uyurebdnen sxvebi am kulturas, rogorc ar unda arafrad agdebdnen. strabonic xom amasve ambobs: irgvliv mcxovrebi tomebis velurobis gamoo. tomebi velurni arian, sanam berZnebi SemoaRwevdnen, zRva _ arastumarTmoyvare da tomebic _ albaT arastumarTmoyvareni; berZnuli axalSenebis daarsebis mere ki zRva da mTeli is garemo ukve stumarTmoyvare xdeba. sityvebi kargaven TavianT adrindel, ZiriTad mniSvnelobas da ucxo da gaurkvevel Sinaarss iZenen. da mizezi amgvari etimologiebisa d zRvis napiris mcxovrebTa velur tomebad monaTvlisa, Turme imis brali yofila, rom berZnebs maTTvis Sinaarsgamoclili da, amdenad, bundovani `axSiana~, rogorme romelime berZnuli sityvisaTvis miemsgavsebinaT da axsna mere eZiaT. erT-erTi uZvelesi saxelwodebis `Savi zRvis~ xelaxla gavrcelebas XIII saukunidan mkvlevari kvlav enobrivi SecdomiT xsnis. konstantinepolsada Savi zRvis sanapiro qalaqebSi mozRvavebuli italielebisaTvis zRva `mari maiusi~ (`didi zRva~) iyo. `sityva `maius~ ki fonetikurad Zalze axloa berZnul `maurosTan~, rac am enaze Savs niSnavs. amitom berZnebma `maius~ (didi) `maurosad~ gaiazres da pontos zRvasac `mauros Talassa~, anu Savi zRva uwodes~.


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es saxeli TurqebSi `kara denizis~ formiTaa cnobili. qarTul enaSi termini `Savi zRva~, mkvlevris varaudiT, jer xalxur metyvelebaSi damkvidrebula da Semdeg gavrcelebula mwerlobaSi. am da sxva uamrav, sakuTari Sexedulebebisamebr gamoZebnil saxelebSi Caikarga Savi zRvis uZvelesi qarTuli saxeli. Tavdapirvelad Sav zRvas ubralod `zRuas~ uwodebdneno, avtori rom miuTiTebs, moRweuli masalebis mixedviT unda gamohqondes aseTi daskvna. raime xelCasaWidi rom moiZevebodes, risi meSveobiTac upirvelesi saxelis Tundac savaraudo formis aRdgena iqneboda SesaZlebeli, argonavtebis dadevnebis epizodis sagulisxmod da mSvenivrad gamoyenebisa ar iyos, mkvlevari uTuod miagnebda, gamoarCevda da mogvawodebda, magram roca sxva gza araa, am ubralo `zRuiT~ unda davkmayofildeT. amiranis TqmulebaSi, _ argonavtebis gadmocemaze bevrad adrindel, uZveles qarTul miTologiur TqmulebaSi, _ gveleSapi rom hylapavs amirans da am epizods gviandeli, bevrnairad damaxinjebuli variantebi ase aboloeben _ `Savma aiRo, Caylapa, Savi zRvisaken gaswiao~ _ aq Savi zRva xom arc pirvandelia da arc qarTuli; da Zvel epoqebSi romeli saxeli cvlida, vin icis. oRond `zRuaze~ mainc nu vityviT Tavdapirveliao, `jerjerobiT sxvebze ufro adreuli~ rom gveTqva, albaT ufro zusti iqneboda. Savi zRvis saxelwodebaTa avtoriseuli analizi mxolod imitom ar moviSvelie, rom mTlianobaSi gvenaxa, Tu ra sxvadasxvagvaria Sexedulebani Tundac Sav zRvaze, rogor icvleba garemos, viTarebis, ubralo gaugebrobis mixedviTac ki, oRond mudam sakuTari bunebis Sesabamisad, axlebur gaazrebebs rogor axal etimologiebs usadageben; imis Cvenebac mindoda, am erT patara nawilSi rogori mravalmxrivia avtori, romelic mravali qarTuli da ucxo, istoriuli, geografiuli Tu mxatvruli Txzulebebis, eTnografiuli masalebis, dialeqturi monacemebis, leqsikonebis meSveobiT, sxvadasxva mkvlevarTa naSromebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saintereso lingvisturi ZiebebiT maxvilgonivrul mignebebs gvTavazobs da sayuradRebo suraTs warmogvidgens; iseTi STabeWdileba mrCeba, rom avtori `Sav zRvas~ kompoziciur RerZad iyenebs, raTa uamrav masalas mouyaros Tavi mis garSemo, gamoarCios, daalagos da ise warmogvidginos. mTeli wigni amgvaradaa dawerili da Tvalwin gveSleba qarTuli zRvaosnobis (Zveli terminologiiT: navTmavloba, zRvaTmavloba) istoria, sxvadasxva saxis navTa tipebi da maTi agebuleba, navsadgurebis daxasiaTeba, savaWro Tu politikuri urTierToba ucxo qveynebTan, sazRvao brZolebi.

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Zvel qarTul sanaosno terminologias rom gadavxedoT, mkvlevris mier saguldagulod daZebnils, Sekrebilsa da gaanalizebuls, SesamCnevi gaxdeba, rom rogorc mTels Cvens enaSi, zRvaosnobis terminologiaSic mravalia ucxo warmomavlobis sityva, Semosuli im enebidan, romelTanac raime urTierToba gvqonia saukuneebis manZilze; amitomac eZiebs mkvlevari TviTeuli saxelis etimologias, iqneba es navTa (xomaldTa) tipebi (vTqvaT, sabaseuli saxelwodebanic rom CamovTvaloT: varcli, kopano, karapa, karWapa, xumaldi, karafiTa, orCxomeli, oleWkanderi, katarRa...), romelime calkeuli nawilis saxelwodeba Tu ekipaJis Semadgenloba. mkvlevari ZirisZirobamde Casdevs TiToeul termins, oRond Zalze frTxilad da faqizad epyroba maT analizs, iTvaliswinebs ara marto sityvaTa garegnul, fonetikur msgavsebas, aramed sxva pirobebsac. vTqvaT, aseTs: `xuamaldi~ _ `xuamaldis~ etimologiis garkveva dReisaTvis ver xerxdeba. garegnulad es termini berZnul `xelandos~ _ xelandons~ mogvagonebs. ase ewodeboda bizantiaSi erTi tipis sazRvao samxedro navebs; magram qarTuli enis kanonebis gaTvaliswineba uflebas ar gvaZlevs berZnuli `xelandonidan~ qarTuli `xomaldis~ warmoSoba vivaraudoT. miT ufro, rom `xelandoni~ mravalniCbiani samxedro navia, maSin roca `xuamaldi~ afriani navi Cans~. avtori sanaosno terminologiis kvlevisas araerT wyaros mimarTavs, magram ZiriTadad sulxan-sabas `sityvis konasa~ da evropaSi mogzaurobis wigns eyrdnoba (mkvlevris dakvirvebiT, evropaSi mogzaurobis wignSi ufro sruli masala amoikribeba zRvaosnobis Sesaxeb, vidre sityvis konaSi aqvs sabas Tavmoyrili) da sulxan-sabas qarTuli sanaosno terminologiis pirvel Semkreb-mkvlevrad saxavs. roca masala naklebia, dakargula an iseTi sruli saxiT ver mouRwevia, mkvlevari sagulisxmo dakvirvebebiT aRadgens savaraudo viTarebas. swored amgvari dakvirvebebia saWiro, raime manam umniSvnelod miCneulma da gauTvaliswinebelma faqtma marTebuli daskvnebisaken rom gvibiZgos. iseve, rogorc argonavtebis dadevnebis epizodma, mkvlevars uZveles da uxsovar xanaSi qarTuli naosnobis ganviTarebis maRali done avaraudebina, rusTavelis poemaze dakvirveba (`SoTa rusTaveli... zRvaosnobis mxolod adgilobriv qarTul terminologias iyenebs. aq ver SexvdebiT verc evropuli da verc aRmosavluri zRvaosnobisaTvis damaxasiaTebel saxelwodebebs. amitom SoTa rusTavels Tavisi codna zRvaosnobis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos sinamdvilidan unda aeRo~) saSualebas aZlevs, am drosac Cvens qveyanaSi naosnobis maRali done ivaraudos. qarTuli zRvaosnobis maRal


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dones VII-XIV saukunis saqarTveloSi, avtoris dakvirvebiT, cxadyofs mdidari qarTuli sazRvaosno terminologia, am periodis qarTuli mwerlobis ZeglebSi rom moipoveba, radgan `aseTi terminologiis SemuSaveba warmoudgenelia im qveyanaSi, sadac zRvaosnoba ar aris ganviTarebuli~. amasTan, `ucxo enidan ama Tu im TxzulebaTa Targmnis dros qarTveli mTargmneli an ucvlelad gadmoitanda sazRvao termins, an SecdomiT Targmnida~. mkvlevars bevri sakiTxi aqvs wamoWrili da gaanalizebuli. misTvis zRvaosnoba calke mdgomi araa, erTian, qarTul kulturasaa Cawnuli da amitom mTel kulturas iTvaliswinebs, bevr, erTi SexedviT, sruliad gansxvavebul, monapovars iyenebs da erT wignad hkravs. Tumca wignSi Tavmoyrili uamravi masala isea dalagebuli da mowodebuli, ise ostaturad gamTlianebuli, avtoris ena iseTi sada da mkafioa, iseTi cocxali, rom mxatvruli nawarmoebiviT ikiTxeba da, amdenad, `zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi~ mxatvrul monografiad gvevlineba qarTuli zRvaosnobis Sesaxeb. `avtori Zalian sainteresod hyveba~, _ aRniSnulia anotaciaSi da wignis daxurvis Semdeg mkiTxveli irwmunebs, rom es mxolod litoni sityvebi ar yofila. esec wignis erT-erTi mTavari Rirsebaa. ...Tavis droze galaktions CauniSnavs dRiurebSi: `1921-22 w. qarTul presaSi gamohqveynda ilia WavWavaZis didi megobris artur laistis werili: `zRva da qarTvelebi~. daaxloebiT am werilis Sinaarsi aseTi iyo: saqarTvelos aqvs mSvenieri zRvis sanapiroebi, miuxedavad amisa, qarTul literaturaSi ara sCans zRvis Tematika, motivebio. rusTavelis ukvdav `vefxistyaosanSi~ zRva mxolod gakvriTaa naxsenebio da sxva. daskvna iseTi iyo, rom qarTvelebs TiTqos sazogadoT ar uyvarT zRva. marTali aris Tu ara artur laistis es Sexeduleba, es mkvlevarebis saqmea, erTi ram ki udavoa, zRvis Tematika qarTul literaturaSi rusTavelis Semdeg ara sCanda, es moZraoba daiwyo mxolod meoce saukunis qarTulma literaturam~. amgvari msjeloba bunebrivi iyo, roca am saxis erTi ganzogadebuli saxis naSromic ki ar gvqonda, sadac aRwerili iqneboda ara marto `naosnobis saSualebani, maTi agebuleba, tipebi, ekipaJis Semadgenloba, sanaosno terminologia~, aramed mTeli istoriuli fonic; bevri ram miukvleveli da amouxsneli rCeboda, bevri ram gauTvaliswinebeli. Tamaz beraZis wigni ki germaneli swavlulis mier wamoWril sakiTxebs sul sxvagvarad gagvaazrebinebs. 1982

maia jaliaSvili

zRvis simbolika cisferyanwelebTan


cisferyanwelebma, rogorc simbolizmis esTetikis erTgulma raindebma, buneba gaiazres, rogorc simboloebis usasrulo sivrce, maTi gamocnobis momlodine. zRva maT poeziaSi erTi mravalsaxovani simboloa, romelic moicavs cisa da sarkis simbolikasac. tician tabiZis, paolo iaSvilis, valerian gafrindaSvilis, sandro cirekiZis, kolau nadiraZis SemoqmedebaSi zRva, erTi mxriv, inarCunebs tradiciul gagebas (bibliiT nasazrdoeb qarTul literaturasa (`cxovrebis zRvai aRZrul ars~), Tu bibliuri elferiT Semosil folklorul teqstebSi warmodgenils (`Tavfaravneli Wabuki~), meore mxriv, axali SinaarsiT itvirTeba, is aris `peizaJi ukuRma~, xan `uZvelesi dramis~ msaxiobi (valerian gafrindaSvili), xan `saweri magida~ (kolau nadiraZe), xan `mijnuri~ (paolo iaSvili). artur rembos `mTvral xomaldSi~ zRva poeziis usazRvro sivrces ganasaxierebs, romelic poets yovelgvari CarCosgan aTavisuflebs. xomaldi poetis sulis simboloa da is, mTvrali, STagonebis eqstaziT realobas ganridebuli, zRvaSi, rogorc kosmosis sivrceSi, ise daxetialobs. zRva sarkesaviT ireklavs poetis martoobasa da Tavganwirulobas:

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis literaturis institutis qarTuli literaturis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi: sandro cirekiZe da qarTuli simbolizmi (1994), qarTuli modernistuli romani (2006), wignebi: ''sicocxlis saidumlo'' literaturuli werilebi) (2006), Sexvedra wignSi (literaturuli werilebi) (2009). seriidan qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi': mixeil javaxiSvilis (or nawilad) (2000, 2008), giorgi leoniZe (2001), tician tabiZe, paolo iaSvili (2002), aleqsandre yazbegi (or nawilad) (2004),ilia WavWavaZe(or nawilad) (2007), grigol robaqiZe (2009). interesTa sfero: litmcodneoba, naratologia, poetika, kritika, qristianuli xelovneba, RvTismetyveleba, kulturologia.


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`Tavisufali, cas iisfer nislSi vxedavdi da kedeliviT mivarRvevdi da mivdiodi, ca mewamuli mironcxebul moleqseTaTvis laJvardis duJiT da mzis xavsiT iyo diadi~ (gegeWkori 1990: 90). zRva xan nirvanacaa _ poeziis navsayudeli. `zRvasTan mdebare Sor qveyanaSi~ cxovrobs simbolistTa gamorCeuli kerpis, edgar pos, saocnebo qali _ anabel li: `is ueWvelad iyo odesme _ zRvasTan mdebare Sor qveyanaSi, iq saocnebo cxovrobda qali, da visac erqva anabel li~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 398). zRva maradqaluris stiqiaa, romlis wiaRidan warmoiSvebian zRapruli arsebebi, fantasmagoriad rom gadaaqceven uferul realobas. cisferyanwelTa poeziaSi zRvasTan aris DdakavSirebuli niJaris simbolikac _ niJaraSi momwydeuli `nagiJari zRva~ xmaurobs. zRva, erTdroulad, ganasaxierebs amoucnobi samyaros usasrulobac da, amave dros, sasrulobisken swrafvasac (`zRvas enatreba, iyos patara~). zRvis talRa xan mZvinvare afTaria, xan rkinis urCxuli _ eifeli da xan unazesi Sleifi (valerian gafrindaSvili). ase rom, zRva cisferyanwelTa poeziaSi tropuli metyvelebis mniSvnelovani komponentia, is gvevlineba erTgvar kulturul kodad da iZleva mravalgvari gaSifvris saSualebas konkretuli mxatvruli teqstis konteqstis Sesabamisad. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom `simbolo arsebobs mocemul teqstamde da misgan damoukideblad: igi mwerlis mexsierebaSi xvdeba kulturis mexsierebis siRrmidan da cocxldeba axal teqstSi, axal niadagSi moxvedrili marcvlisdagvarad. reminiscencia, gzavnili, citata _ axali teqstis organuli nawilebi, funqcionireben mxolod mis sinqroniaSi. isini teqstidan mexsierebis siRrmeSi aRweven, xolo simbolo _ mexsierebis siRrmidan teqstSi. amitom SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom is, rac Semoqmedebis procesSi simboloa (mexsierebis sugestiuri meqanizmi), mkiTxvelis aRqmaSi realizdeba, rogorc reminiscencia, ramdenadac Semoqmedebisa da aRqmis procesebi upirispirdeba erTmaneTs: pirvelSi saboloo teqsti warmoadgens Sedegs, meoreSi _ sawyis wertils (~simbolo kulturis sistemaSi~ (lotmani 2007: 39). `zRva axal leqsebs dagvawerinebs~, _ wers valerian gafrindaSvili leqsSi `oTxi poetis Sexvedra zRvasTan~. aq, rogorc erTgvar manifestSi _ oTxi poeti, rogorc oTxi `maxarobeli~ axali poeziisa _ simbolisturi esTetikis zRvaSi `naTlavs~ mkiTxvelebs. zRva cocxal arsebasaviT egebeba poetebs: paolo iaSvils, tician tabiZes, kolau nadiraZesa da valerian gafrindaSvils:

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`zRva avzniani iyo mRelvare, cisken mihqonda Jirafis yeli, kvnesda, Rmuoda zRva moelvare, rogorc orsuli qalis muceli~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 164). zRvis xmauri wamoativtivebs musikas; `mRvrie beThovenisas~, romelsac poeti `Sav lotbars~ uwodebs. epiTeti `Savi~, am SemTxvevaSi, warmoaCens beThovenis musikis saidumlos, mis gonebamiuwvdomel siRrmes. poetebis zRvasTan Sexvedra es aris `Teatri~ _ ori stiqia poeturi da Teatraluri xvdeba erTmaneTs _ isini TiTqos erTmaneTs ejibrebian: ucbad movarda talRa mSieri, kidev dabnelda lurji kamara, da iyo wuTiT zRva bednieri _ man poetebi daasamara~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 164). zRva da poetebi erTmaneTs hgvanan _ maT uyvarT mRelvareba, TamaSi, zRvars gadasvla, moulodneli afeTqeba. isini erTmaneTis energiiT ivsebian. poetebisTvis zRva STagonebis wyaroa. wyali aqac ganaxlebis simboloa. akaki baqraZe werilSi `mTvaris motaceba~ sagangebo yuradRebas amaxvilebs TaraSis daRupvaze mdinare engurSi: `qarTul miTologiaSi wylis RmerTi igri sicocxlis sawyisia, _ wers akaki baqraZe, _ mdinare enguris saxeli am warmarTuli RmerTis saxelidan aris warmoebuli. igris sadidebeli Tve igrika, saba orbelianis ganmartebiT, aprilia. TaraS emxvari engurSi swored aprilSi daixrCo. usafuZvlo ar iqneba daskvna: aqac sikvdilis saSualebiT xelmeored aRorZineba-ganaxlebis azria gatarebuli, radgan TaraSis sikvdili im RmerTis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli, romelsac, marTalia, xandaxan sikvdili mohqonda (igris gamoCenas wyaldidobac da qariSxalic mohyveboda), magram mainc sicocxlis sawyisi iyo. uimisod veraferi ixarebda~ (baqraZe 2000: 74). fridrix nicSe poetebze wers, rom isini `zRvis STamomavalni arian~ (nicSe 1993: 101). amgvarad, xazs usvams maTi bunebis stiqiurobas, SemoqmedebiTi cxovrebis mRelvarebas, STagonebis wyaroTa `sibneles~. zRvis simbolikis mravalferovnebiTa da filosofiuri siRrmiT gamoirCeva valerian gafrindaSvilis leqsi `zRva~. aq zRva simboloa usasrulobisa, sasruloba rom swyuria, srulyofilebisa, nakluli yofa rom enatreba: `zRvas moewyina Tavis simZime bumberazoba, grigali, mexi, naxa sizmarSi tba mocimcime


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da Cinel qalis mtkivani fexi~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 125). ra aris amgvari `swrafvis~ saidumlo? grigol robaqiZe amas sxvadyofnis misterias uwodebs: es aris modernizmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niRbis esTetika. `im kultebSi, saca `cvla~ yofis saidumlod iyo gamocxadebuli, `qceva~ maskiT xdeboda. magaliTad, dionisos kultSi. `me~ unda gaixsnas, unda gairRves. arsi unda gadavides yovladSi. pirovneba unda eziaros zepirovnuls. es aris dionisos fenomeni. da mere rogori iyo rituali am fenomenis maskis afareba, maskis, romelic dionisos saxavda~ (robaqiZe 1989: 341). am SemTxvevaSi, cisferyanwelTa poeziaSi warmoCenili zRva SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc erTgvari niRabi, romlis saSualebiTac poetebi cdilobdnen `me~-s sazRvrebis gadalaxvas da zepirovnulTan ziarebas. zRvasTan siaxloves axali SegrZnebebi moaqvs. poeti TiTqos gardaisaxeba zRvad da amgvarad warmoaCens axal da ucnaur SegrZnebebs. zRvis saocari wyurvilis gamosaxatavad poeti Sedarebebs, epiTetebsa da metaforebs moixmobs. zRvas enatreba iyos Citi, kolibriviT nazi da patara, varskvlaviviT brwyinvale, tbasaviT mocimcime. poetis azriT, yovelive, erTferovani da mudmivi, mosawyenia, Tundac Zliereba, sisrule an srulyofileba: `surs beWdis TvalSi ganmartoeba da gahyves smeniT mcire nakaduls, rom saqanelas msubuq sinaze Camoekidos, rogorc kakadu~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 126). yovelive miiswrafvis sapirispirosken _ es samyaros kanonzomierebas gamoxatavs. amitomac izidavs zRvas niRbiani qali, niRabi mis namdvil saxes malavs da ocnebas asxams frTebs: niRbis miRma SeiZleba uamravi saxe warmoidgino. amitomac zRva swiravs Tavs da amorZals `SleifiviT~ mihyveba. poetisTvis zRva mkurnalicaa, ganmaaxlebeli: `Seni talRebis didi amaliT da ZlierebiT kvlav gamaxare. Seni qafisa Tund natamali Semomafrqvie, rogorc wamali da Cemi saxe SxefiT daRvare~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 268). aq zRva im Zalas ganasaxierebs, romelic daumorCilebelia, romlis nebas veraferi modreks da gaanadgurebs. es Zlieri neba upirispirdeba cxovrebis WidilSi dauZlurebuli da daTrgunuli poetis arsebas, romelic wylis ganmwmend stiqiaSi xedavs xsnas. amave dros, zRva inaxavs margalitebs, romelTa mopoveba mxolod tanjviT

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SeiZleba. niJara ki poetisTvis miZRvnili saCuqaria zRvisa, romelic megobariviT TanaugrZnobs poets da niJaraSi momwydeuli xmebiT Seaxsenebs Sori sivrceebis saidumlos amosaxsnelad: `mraval idumal mziT moqsovili da mewamuli, rogorc marjani, gadamafare talRa soveli, ukanasknelad SenTan moveli _ an momkali da an momarCine~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 268). zRva simboloa gardasuli dReebis xsovnisac. masSi, rogorc sarkeSi, poets SeuZlia dainaxos sakuTari, erisa Tu mTeli kacobriobis mRelvare cxovrebis suraTebi. mWvretelis sulis siRrmezea damokidebuli, aqoCril talRaTa CqerebSi dainaxavs Tu ara welTa sarkofagebSi Camarxul warsuls: `bevri legenda Tvlems msrbolav zRvaSi, zed hqrian qarni da zefirebi. rembom ixila talRebis svlaSi antiur dramis didi gmirebi~ (gafrindaSvili 1990: 273). evqsinus ponto (stumarTmoyvare zRva), igive Savi zRva tician tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebuli STambeWdaobiT aris warmodgenili leqsSi `evqsinis ponti~. poetisTvis Savi zRva simboloa uSoresi warsulisa, roca iqmneboda miTebi: `Zveli miTosis talRebi mirtyams~. upirvelesad ki, poets axsendeba oqros sawmisis miTi: `rogorc sakire drakonis ybebiT irweva oqros verZebis tyavi, Senze ocnebis grigals avyevi da sixaruli mklavs aurwyavi~ (tabiZe 1985: 129). poetis warmosaxvaSi zRva acocxlebs miTis calkeul epizods da mkiTxvelis Tvalwin warmodgebian nacnobi personaJebi. Tanve, miTi mas samyaros idumal erTanobas SeagrZnobinebs: `ismis zvirTebis zaTqi, gangaSi, rogorc simRera argonavtelTa, agvistos Ramis cis kamaraSi zRva da xmeleTi isev gamTelda~ (tabiZe 1985: 129). Savi zRvis saxe ixateba leqsSi `medeas simRera~. aq mTavari tragikuli medeaa, romelmac iazonis siyvaruls samSoblo anacvala. misi simRera moTqmaa, ufro zustad, zRvis xmaurian talRebSi poets medeas ganwiruli xma Caesmis, amitomac xatavs aseT suraTs: `Sua Ramea, Zrwis qariSxali, zRva boboqari kvnesis, Rrialebs, Cans, poseidon gannrisxebula


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da adamis ZeT warRvnas uqadis~ (tabiZe 1985: 42). leqsi aris medeas monologi. `oblad STenili~ gulmokluli qali zRvaSi sikvdils mieswrafis, raTa amgvarad daamTavros tragedia, radgan cxovrebam `misi ltolvani ver daitia~. paolo iaSvilisTvis zRva simboloa SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebisa: `rogorc afris tkacuni movardnili zRvidan, iseTi vaJkacuri gaqroleba minda~ (iaSvili 2006: 72). tician tabiZisa da paolo iaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi, rogorc sazogadod, cisferyanwelTa nawarmoebebSi, zRvisa da mdinaris simbolika erTmaneTs gadakveTs. kolau nadiraZisTvisac zRva cocxali arsebaa, romelTan siaxlove SemoqmedebiTi ZalebiT aRavsebs. leqsSi `dafiqreba zRvasTan~ poeti zRvis xmaurs galobasaviT ganicdis, amgvarad, zRvasTan siaxlove mas amaRlebul fiqrebs aRuZravs, daafiqrebs yovelives warmavlobaze, sakuTar arsebobaze. es fiqri mas sulis ufskrulSi Caaxedebs da sakuTar araraobasac mwared SeagrZnobinebs. aq mas SiSic eufleba, radgan grZnobs usazRvro samyaros winaSe Tavis ubadruk simcires, Tanve ucnauri ZalmosilebiT iWreba mis sulSi sxivi sixarulisa, zRvis talRaTa mZlavri mimoqcevebi, erTi mxriv ki Trgunaven, magram, meore mxriv, `diadsa da mokamkame~ fiqrebsac aRuZraven. poets esmis zRvis ena da cdilobs Caswvdes mis azrTa dinebas. leqsSi filosofiuri dafiqrebaa adamianis droSi arsebobis tkivilze, rac iwvevs skefsiss: `sad aris is dro, ros varskvlavebs vapyrobdi Tvalebs da netareba mefrqveoda ciT monaberi. carielia es simaRle, me rom mawvalebs carielia da ar aris iq araferi~ (nadiraZe 2010: 46). zRva am leqsSi simboloa RvTaebrivisa, miuwvdomlisa, romelic ubiZgebs iqiTken, `uzenaesSi rom eZios Tavis msgavseba~, amgvarad aRidginos xateba RvTisa, codviTdacemuls rom daukargavs: `magram rac sufevs Cem gareSe _ CemSia isev... sikvdilic igiv sicocxlea, radgan fiqria! mxolod sad aris TviT sicocxlis dasabamisi? sad davdge locvad, Tu taZrisTvis ver mimignia?!~ (nadiraZe 2010: 46). leqsis lirikuli gmiri ganicdis gaorebas, es mas tanjavs. swored am wuTebSi eufleba gancda imisa, rom `laJvardi matyuaraa~ da misi siRrme arafers malavs, rom `bgerebi nazi, surneleba, ferTa an-

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Teba~ moCveneba da sizmaria. Tumca, zRva misTvis iqceva dakarguli taZris navlad, radgan misi talRebis xma kvlavac galobasaviT Caesmis da rogorc taZarSi, zRvis napirze, eufleba simSvidis gancda, radgan Seicnoba wuTisoflis kanonzomierebas: `da Tu gaqroba aris xvedri yoveli arsis, Tu sawuTroman es marguna, viTa wyaloba _ movitan, zRvao, SenTan Cems guls, TasiviT avsils, kaeSniT saves rom vismino Seni galoba!~ (nadiraZe 2010: 46). zRvis napiri poetisTvis simboloa, agreTve, samyaros Seqmnis pirveli dReebisa, roca suli iqceoda wyalTa zeda: `me TiTqos wamiT amexsna Tvali da is dRe vigrZen idumal ZaliT, roca sicocxle pirvelad gaCnda... vxedavdi pirvel gaCenis dilas~ (nadiraZe 2010: 75). poeti warmosaxviT emsgavseba odisevss, zRvaTa sivrceebSi danTqmuli, aTasgvar xifaTs gadarCenili, saocari gznebiT rom moiswrafoda Sinisaken. `Sin~ kolau nadiraZisTvis imis gacnobierebaa, Tu `vin aris, sidam mosula, sad aris, wava sadao~ (guramiSvili). leqsSi `ganTiadi zRvaze~ swored es gancdebia warmoCenili: `xedav samyaros da yoveli feri da nivTi Semodis SenSi da poulobs sakuTar saxes. wamoweq zRvasTan, daisvene, igrZen da mixvdi, rom erTi wuTiT saswauli Sen mainc naxe~ (nadiraZe 2010: 92). zRvasTan siaxlove iwvevs poetis `gasxivosnebas~, es edareba erTgvar eqstazs, rodesac fiqriT swvdeba sicocxlis sawyisebs: `vzivar zRvis piras, dro uxmod midis, mze darCa qvebze da bavSvis TmebSi... saRamovdeba. siCume didi, rogorc naTeli, Semodis CemSi~ (nadiraZe 2010: 67). sandro cirekiZis miniaturaSi `zRvaze~ daxatulia `qariSxliT damTvrali zRva~ _ igive cxovreba, romelic dasaRupavad miaqanebs patara navs, romelSic beds SeWidebuli adamianebi sxedan. isini TavgamodebiT cdiloben gadarCenas. Tumca ician: `arc maT navs uweria bedis wignSi maradiuli gzis galeva da moCvenebuli sinaTlis daWera~ (cirekiZe 2010: 76). miniaturaSi Cans dakarguli adamianebis tkivili. sayovelTao gaucxoebas daumkvidrebia adgili adamianTa gulebSi. RvTis, gadarCenis imedi aRar Cans, radgan RmerTi mokvda (nicSe), amitomac yovelgvari sinaTle iluziad, moCvenebad qceula, qveyanas ki `bneli, mZlavri, Seubralebeli Caxutebia~ (cirekiZe 2010: 76). am zRvas ukve mravali umsxverplia: `am talRaTa gminva moCvenebis msxverplTa moT-


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qmaa~. mware WeSmaritebaa, rom gamosavali ar arsebobs. aq XX saukunis sulieri krizisi mTeli simZafriT irekleba. am miniaturis gmiris sulsa, gulsa da gonebaSi dasadgurebul daRupvis eWvs mainc ebrZvis warmosaxva, romelic realobaze, sinamdvileze aRmatebul samyaros qmnis _ axal ganzomilebas, sizmareuls, naocnebars, simbolistTaTvis ase Cveulsa da maxlobels. amitomac cdilobs `simarTle momxibvleli zRapriT~ gaarTos. mas `cru netarebis sios alersi~ urCevnia mware, uxeS, gautanel realobasTan Seguebas. Tu realur samyaroSi maTi Tavganwirva amaod Caivlis da sicocxles gamoesalmebian, es mainc ar iqneba maTi dasasruli, radgan `qariSxali Cvens naRvlian zRaparsac uambobs Tavganwirul mgzavrebs~. es, erT mxriv, sxvebs `siZneles gzisas~ gauadvilebs (baraTaSvili), meore mxriv, kidev erTxel warmoaCens `SeTxzuli~ samyaros upiratesobs, sadac yvela tkivils mxatvruli sityva dasZlevs da nebismier tanjvas esTetikur Rirebulebad gadaaqcevs. sandro cirekiZis sxva miniaturaSi `patara mezRvaurebi~ zRva Seucnobel usasrulobas ganasaxierebs, romliskenac miiswrafvian adamianebi. bavSobaSi zRva mogzaurobis saocnebo sivrceebs gadauSlis cnobiswadiliT SepyrobilT. rac unda boboqrobdes zRva, saSiSad da avad scemdnen talRebi, mainc yovelTvis arsebobs rwmena Soreuli kunZulisa, romelic zRvisgan gariyulebs Seifarebs. kunZuli zRvaSi simboloa samoTxisa, romelic Soridan anaTebs da sikvdilis SiSs aqrobs. es kunZuli kargad `Cans~ bavSvobaSi, rodesac mzera dawmendilia da samyarosTan urTierToba uSualo. talRebTan brZolaSi izrdeba da iwrToba adamiani, magram yvelas rodi SerCeba Zala gadarCenisa. miniaturaSi daxatulia, rogor iRupeba or patara mezRvaurTagan erTi: `SiSma aitana oboli mezRvauri, akankalebul xelSi uWiravs niCabi. _ mec rom veRar gavcuro kunZulze? _ gauelva da gadabrunebul navs gaxeda~ (cirekiZe 2010: 111). amgvarad, zRva, rogorc simbolo, cisferyanwelTa SemoqmedebaSi mravalferovani aspeqtiT warmoCnda. garda tradiciuli mniSvnelobisa, man calkeul konteqstSi axali da originaluri Sinaarsi SeiZina. literatura baqraZe 200: akaki baqraZe, miTologiuri engadi, gamomcemloba `nekeri~, 2000 gafrindaSvili 1990: gafrindaSvili valerian, leqsebi, poema, Targmanebi, eseebi, werilebi, mwerlis arqividan, gamocemloba `merani~, Tbilisi, 1990

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gegeWkori 1990: givi gegeWkori, franguli poezia, gamomcemloba `saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1990 iaSvili 2006: paolo iaSvili, asi leqsi, gamomcemloba `inteleqti~, 2006 lotmani 2007: iuri lotmani, ~simbolo kulturis sistemaSi~, Jurnali `semiotika~, N1, Tbilisi, 2007 nadiraZe 2010: kolau nadiraZe, asi leqsi, gamomcemloba `inteleqti~, Tbilisi, 2010 nicSe 1993: fridrix nicSe `ese ityoda zaratustra~, Tbilisi, 1993 robaqiZeE1989: robaqiZeE grigol, `gvelis perangi~, `falestra~, Tb. 1989 tabiZe 1985: tician tabiZe, leqsebi, poemebi, proza, werilebi, gamomcemloba `merani~, Tb. 1985 cirekiZe 2010: cirekiZe sandro, raindTa landebi (miniaturebi, literaturuli werilebi, Targmani, piradi werilebi), quTaisi, 2010

ramaz xalvaSi

andria mociqulis misioneruli mogzaurobebi SavizRvispireTsa da saqarTveloSi


mociqulTa qadageba uZvelesi qristianuli centrebis prestiJs ganapirobebda, ris gamoc romis, aleqsandriis, antioqiisa da ierusalimis eklesiebis upiratesoba nikeis msoflio saeklesio krebam (325 w.) gansazRvra. meore msoflio saeklesio krebam (381 w.) aRmosavluri qristianobis centrad konstantinopoli gamoacxada da statusiT romis eklesias gautola: `kostantinopolisa episkopossa aqundin warCinebulebapativisa, swori hromisa episkoposisa, vinaTgan axali hromi ars igi~ (sjuliskanoni 1975: 261). konstantinopolis gaZlierebas mohyva misi episkoposebis aRzeveba da amavdroulad aqtualoba SeiZina wm. andrias qadagebis SavizRvispirul-balkanurma lokalizaciam, romelic mociqulis misionerul moRvaweobas konstantinopolis SemogarenTan akavSirebda. apokrifebSi wm. andrias misioneruli mogzaurobebis Sesaxeb ori gansxvavebuli tradicia Camoyalibda. teqstebis erT nawilSi mociqulis qadageba ukavSirdeba SavizRvispireTis qveynebs, xolo meore nawilSi skviTeTs (esbroki 1974: 141; georgika I: 29-30; enciklopedia II: 372; TamaraSvili 1995: 166; mimoslva 2008: 114-115; anania [jafariZe] 2009: 127-130). saqarTvelo Sedioda wm. andrias qadagebis orive ZiriTad marSrutSi (Saviz-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli filologiis departamentis xelmZRvaneli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: tbel abuserisZis saxismetyveleba, tbel abuserisZis galobani mwvalebelTa SeCuenebisani, sveticxovlis saswauli ninos cxovrebis arqetipSi, asurel mamaTa hagiografiuli cikli (VIIXVIII ss.), xalxur-karnavaluri elementebi hagiografiaSi, andria pirvelwodebulis qadageba saqarTveloSi (Zveli qarTuli literaturuli wyaroebisa da axali qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT), sparsuli gavlenis SiSi vefxistyaosanSi, cxenTa Sejibrebis interteqsti qarTul poeziaSi... interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, teqstologia, semiotika.

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RvispireTi, skviTeTi), amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom sofroniusi (IV-V ss.), doroTeos tvireli (VI s.) da fsevdo-epifane kvipreli (VI-VII ss.) ufro akonkreteben wm. andrias qadagebis iberiul-kavkasiur marSruts da adreul wyaroebSi naxsenebi sebastopolisisa (dRevandeli soxumi) da afsarosis (dRevandeli gonio) garda SeaqvT: mdinare fazisi (Woroxi), kolxeTi (romelic Sida an meore eTiopiad ixsenieba, afrikis eTiopiisagan gamijnvis mizniT), iberia, susania (Zv. qarTuli sosangeTi), fusta (Zv. qarTuli fostafori) da alania (Zv. qarTuli ovseTi). dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom istoriul wyaroebSi andria mociqulis saqarTveloSi qadagebis marSruti droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda sxvadasxva politikuri faqtoris zegavleniT. am TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba gamoiyos ramdenime etapi: 1) pirvel etaps qmnian adreuli periodis berZnul-romauli teqstebi da maTi qarTuli Targmanebi. am drois ucxoel avtorebs wm. andrias misionerul marSrutSi SeaqvT saqarTveloSi arsebuli Zveli berZnuli axalSenebi da romauli samyaros strategiuli centrebi. am periodis Zeglia qarTuli `mravalTavi~, romlis arqetipebi V-VI saukuneebiT TariRdeba. Cvenamde moaRwia am krebulis gviandelma nusxebma. erT-erT maTganSi, `klarjul mravalTavSi~ (X s.), daculia doroTeos tvirelis homilia `aTormetTa mociqulTa mosasenebeli~, romelSic avtori wm. andrias qadagebas dasavleTi da samxreTi saqarTvelos geografiul punqtebs (sebastopolisi, afsarelTa banaki, md. fazisi, eTiopia) ukavSirebs (mravalTavi 1991: 387). 2) VII-IX saukuneebis bizantiur literaturaSi Camoyalibda wm. andria mociqulis vrceli kanonikuri cxovrebani, romlebic apokrifuli teqstebis gadamuSavebis Sedegad Seiqmna. maTgan yvelaze adreulia e. w. Narratio (VII s.). yvelaze meti popularoba ki moipova epifane monazvnis `andria pirvelwodebulis cxovrebam~, romelic 815843 wlebs Sorisaa dawerili (enciklopedia II: 371). epifane monazonma andria pirvelwodebulis qadageba, pavle mociqulis mimosvlaTa analogiiT (saqme 13.1-14.28; 15.36-18.22; 18.2321.17) sam mogzaurobad dayo da saqarTvelos qristianizaciis sakiTxs didi adgili dauTmo. `cxovrebis~ mixedviT, mociqulma iqadaga lazikis qalaq trapezuntSi, iberiaSi, fazisSi, susaniaSi, fustaSi da abazgiaSi did sebastopolisSi (georgika IV: 58-59). epifane monazvnis `andria pirvelwodebulis cxovrebis~ gadamuSavebas warmoadgens nikita-daviT paflagonielis (890) `andria mociqulis mimoslva~, romelic qarTulad efTvime aTonelma Targmna 1011 wels. `mimoslvis~ teqstiT, andria pirvelwodebulma samive mi-


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sioneruli mogzaurobis dros iqadaga saqarTveloSi (marTalia, meore mogzaurobis dros mxolod trapezuntSi, magram epifane monazvnisa da nikita paflagonielis mixedviT, isic qarTvelTa, `lazTa qalaqia~): pirveli mogzaurobis dros mociqulma mravalni qalaqni da dabnebi pontoisani gananaTlna, mivida trapezundSi (sofelsa megrelTasa), Semdeg queyanasa qarTlisasa da bolos parTiis gziT dabrunda ierusalimSi (mimosvla 2008: 174-175). meore mogzaurobis dros andria mociqulma moinaxula trapezundi (megrelTa qveyana) da maTca Seiwynares qadageba mociqulisa (mimosvla 2008: 187). bolo, mesame mogzaurobis dros wm. andria simon kananelTan da mataTasTan erTad Semovida queyanad qarTlisa da vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa, sosangeTSi moaqcia dedakaci mTavari, iq mataTa datova da simon kananelTan erTad gadavida oseTsa da afxazeTSi. sevastiaSi (soxumSi) is daSorda simonsac da jiqeTSi gadavida, sadac saswaulebrivad gadaurCa sikvdils (mimosvla 2008: 188-189). 3) XI saukunis meore naxevarSi leonti mrovelma mociqulTa qadagebaze informacia saqarTvelos oficialur istoriaSi `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Seitana da ZiriTadi aqcenti dasavleTi saqarTvelos (egris-afxazeTis) moqcevaze gadaitana. amasTanave, daazusta, rom `mimoslvaSi~ naxsenebi gamonaTqvami `vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa~ gulisxmobs wm. andrias qadagebas `gzasa klarjeTisasa~ (qca I: 38, 42). analogiur azrs aviTarebs efrem mcire, romelic aRniSnavs, rom andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga dasavleT saqarTveloSi afxazeTSi, xolo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi qarTlSi qristianoba iqadaga macxovris sxva mowafem barTlomem (efrem mcire, 1959: 4). 4) calke etapad unda gamoiyos ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebis `Zegliswera~ (1104 w.), romelSic wm. andrias qadagebis faqti mTel saqarTvelozea ganzogadebuli da aRniSnulia, rom mociqulma saxareba iqadaga `yovelsa queyanasa saqarTvelosasa~ (sjuliskanoni 1975: 545), riTac wm. andria cxaddeba sruliad saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblad da misi eklesiuri da politikuri erTianobis safuZvlad. 5) leonti mroveliseuli tradicia (Sdr.: `warvida gzasa klarjeTisasa~) ganaviTara arsen berma, romelic `ninos cxovrebis~ metafrasul redaqciaSi sityvasityviT misdevs `mimoslvis~ efTvimeseul Targmans da damatebiT aRniSnavs, rom mociqulma iqadaga nigalis provinciaSi. nigali iseve, rogorc klarjeTi, Woroxis auzis qveyanaa. magram am SemTxvevaSi avtors sxva argumentic aqvs. nigali teqstSi `mimoslviseuli~ Woroxis (`vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa~) adgils ki ar ikavebs, aramed cvlis pirvelwyaros sosangeTs (xalvaSi 2009: 203).

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6) wm. andria mociqulis saqarTveloSi qadagebasTan dakavSirebiT ramdenadme gansxvavebul tradicias Cauyara safuZveli ioane anCelma (rkinaelma), romelmac Tamaris zeobis dros dawera himnografiuli kanoni `galobani anCis xatisani. sagaloblis mixedviT, wm. andria saqarTveloSi hierapolisidan Semovida da anCaSi macxovris xati SemoabrZana (sulava, 2003:298-299). wm. andrias qadageba `uRaRTa RadoTa klarjeTisaTa exmianeba mociqulis misioneruli marSrutis leonti mroveliseul lokalizacias `gzasa klarjeTisasa. 7) XIII-XV saukuneebSi Seiqmna `mimoslvis~ qarTuli redaqcia. igi sruli saxiT A-161 xelnawerSia warmodgenili (mimosvla 2008: 129-133). am redaqciis avtori Tanamedroveobis gadasaxedidan kiTxulobs~ istoriul dokuments, iTvaliswinebs literaturul tradicias da `mimoslvis~ efTvimeseul TargmanSi Seaqvs istoriul-geografiuli Sinaarsis glosebi, romelTa umravlesoba wm. andrias misionerul mogzaurobebSi mesxeTis farTo planiT warmoCenas isaxavs miznad. Woroxis auzTan (tao-klarjeTi-nigali) erTad glosebSi Cndeba mtkvris auzis qveynebi artaani da kola. rogorc cnobilia, `mimoslvis~ teqstSi mxolod mdinare Woroxia naxsenebi (xalvaSi 2009: 205-209). 8) Semdgom etaps qmnis mesxuri gadmocema, romelic literaturulad yvaryvare da mzeWabuk aTabagebis karnaxiTa da uSualo monawileobiT gaformda (1486-1515). es Zegli wm. andrias misioneruli mogzaurobebis mesxur marSruts ormxriv ganavrcobs: Woroxis auzis qveynebSi damatebiT asaxelebs aWaras, xolo mtkvris auzis qveynebSi samcxes. gadmocemaSi `mimoslvis~ efTvimeseuli Targmani tendenciurad, separatistuli suliskveTebiTaa gadamuSavebuli. wm. andrias qadageba da mis mier pirveli qarTveli episkoposis xeldasxma dakavSirebulia samcxe-saaTabagos saeklesio centrTan awyurTan, riTac xazgasmulia saeklesio damoukideblobis mosurne mesxeTis eklesiis `samociqulo~ xasiaTi (xalvaSi 2009: 206-209). mesxuri gadmocemis pirveli literaturuli varianti fiqsirdeba manuel ritoris (1460-1550 ww.) berZnul TxzulebaSi `Txroba awyuris xatsa da saswaulebze~, romelic 1500-1504 wlebSia dawerili konstantinopolis patriarqis ioakime I-is (1498-1502, 1504 ww.) dakveTiT. ioakime I-ma 1500-1501 wlebSi imogzaura samcxe-saaTabagoSi saxsrebis mozidvis mizniT da aTabagebis ojaxisgan didi saboZvari miiRo. aqedan gamomdinare, niSandoblivia, rom `Txroba~ maT mimarT madlierebis gamoxatvas isaxavs miznad. manuelis `Txroba~ awyuris xatis vrcel matianes warmoadgens da Sedgeba oTxi ZiriTadi nawilisagan: a) mesxuri gadmocema wm. an-


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drias aWarasa da samcxeSi qadagebis Sesaxeb; b) herakle keisris droindeli qronika; g) xatis datyveveba uzun-hasanis mier (1477 w.); d) xatis datyveveba iayub yaenis mier. sagulisxmoa, rom awyuris xatis matianis qarTuli versia fragmentebad daunawilebiaT da XVIII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi CanarTebis saxiT SeutaniaT `axali qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesabamis qronologiur monakveTebSi: a) mesxuri gadmocema aderki mefis qronikaSi (qca I: 39-42); b) herakle keisris droindeli qronika `vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebaSi~ (qca I: 224); g) uzun-hasanisa da iayub yaenis mier xatis datyvevebis saswaulebi sakuTriv `axal qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ (qca II: 480-481; 482-486). mesxuri gadmocemis berZnuli da qarTuli versiebi SinaarsiTa da struqturiT msgavsi teqstebia. es arcaa gasakviri, radgan manuelis Txzulebas awyuris xatis matianis berZnuli Targmani udevs safuZvlad. Tumca maT Soris gansxvavebebic iCens Tavs: a) gadmocemis Sesaval nawilSi manueli aRniSnavs, rom awyuris xati luka maxarebelma dawera (qarTul versiis mixedviT ki, xati xelTuqmnelia); b) berZnul versiaSi aWaraSi qadagebazea saubari, qarTul versiaSi didaWaraSi qadagebaze; g) berZnuli versiis mixedviT, awyuris xats gaaCnda ori asli, romelTagan pirvelis adgilsamyofeli aWaraa, xolo meoris Satberdi da a. S. gansxvavebebia mesxuri gadmocemis daskvniT nawilSic. qarTul versiaSi mokled aris aRniSnuli, rom wm. andria awyuridan `waremarTa sxuaTaca adgilTa qadagebad saxarebisa~ (qca I: 42). berZnul versiaSi ki aRniSnulia, rom awyuridan wasuli `mociquli miiwia adgilad, romelsac Rrma () ewodeba, sadac aris navsadguri (havani), iqidan wavida sebastopolisSi da qadagebiT ganvlo samegrelo, afxazeTi, savromatia, sugdea da guTeTi, gadascura ponto da mopirdapire sanapiroze bizantionSi Cavida. aq episkoposad staqe daadgina, samocdaaT mociqulTagan erT-erTi, da Trakiis herakliisken gaemarTa. iq man xeli daasxa episkopos apeless, imave samocdaaTTagan erT-erTs, ganvlo mTeli rumineTi da SeCerda peloponesSi, sadac, aqaiis patraSi, anTipatma egeatma sikvdiliT dasaja, jvarze, TaviT qvemoT. aseTia, mokled, moTxroba wminda mociqulze~. samarTlianad aRniSnavs r. bartikiani, rom berZnuli teqstis -Si baTumi igulisxmeba (bartikiani 1987: 76). saxelwodeba berZnul literaturaSi pliniusisa da arianes droidan gvxvdeba da gadmogvcems adgilobriv toponims (baT-om-i). berZnebs es saxelwodeba gaazrebuli aqvT, rogorc berZnuli `Rrma~. amgvar mniSvnelobas Seesabameba baTumis laTinuri saxelwodeba Portus altus (georgika II: 22). sagulisxmoa, rom XV saukunis bizantieli is-

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torikosi laonike xarkokondile, manuel ritoris msgavsad, baTums -d ixseniebs (georgika VIII: 91). amrigad, manuelis `Txrobis~ mixedviT, wm. andria awyuridan baTumSi Cavida: `miiwia adgilad, romelsac baTumi () ewodeba, sadac aris navsadguri (havani)~ da iqidan sebastopolisSi, anu cxumSi gaemgzavra. baTumi wm. andrias qadagebis marSrutSi mxolod manuel ritoris teqstSi gvxvdeba. es niSandoblivicaa, radgan baTumis navsadgurma (`havanma~) saerTaSoriso funqcia gvian, XII saukunidan, SeiZina, roca wina aziis saxmeleTo gzebze Turq-selCukebi gabatondnen da msoflio satranzito gzebma saqarTveloSi gadmoinacvla. `abreSumis gzis~ erTi Sto am dros baTumze, aWarasa da samcxeze gadioda (beraZe 1981: 167). mesxuri gadmocemis qarTuli versiis mixedviTac, wm. andria pirvelwodebuli swored am gzas mihyveba da samcxeSi (awyurSi) aWaridan (didaWaridan) gadadis. cxadia, ioakime konstantinopoleli patriarqis dros saxmeleTo gzis es monakveTi baTumis havanze gadioda da swored amgvari warmodgena aisaxa manuel ritoris TxzulebaSi. 9) `mimoslvis~ gansxvavebuli redaqcia Semogvinaxa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ urbnulma nusxam, romelic gverds uvlis mociqulis mesxeTSi qadagebas, samagierod, ganavrcobs qarTlisadmi miZRvnil monakveTs. urbnul redaqciaSi dadasturebuli tendencia ganaviTara Teimuraz batoniSvilma, romelmac `iveriis istoriaSi~ kidev ufro daakonkreta wm. andrias qadagebis marSruti da masSi Seitana: mcxeTa, gremi da stefanwminda. garda amisa, mTlianad Secvala mesxuri gadmocemis geografia da awyuris magivroba biWvinTas daakisra: `xolo odes miiqca mociquli andria iveriad, xati igi dedisa RuTisa vedrebiTa muneburTa erTaTa dauteva mun biWvintas; xolo biWvintisa RuTis-mSoblisa xati, romelica asvenies awca quemosa saqarTvelosa Sina, maxlobelad quTaisis qalaqisa, monastersa samitropolitos genaTlias (ese igi gelaTs), romelica ars friad mravliTa simdidriTa Semkul Rirs saxsovarisa mefisa bagrat meoTxisagan, sruliad iveriis TT-mpyrobelisa, daviTian-bagratovanisa, ityvian mas xatsa, romel igi ars romelica mociqulman andria moasvena TT da anu ars igi ueWvelad originali xatisa misgan gardamoxatuli~ (Teimuraz batoniSvili 1848: 145-146). ase rom, qarTuli qristianobis uZvelesi centri biWvinTa wm. andrias misionerul marSrutSi gvian (XIX s.-Si) Seitanes. amgvarad, wm. andrias SavizRvispireTsa da saqarTveloSi qadagebaze adreuli periodis berZnul-romauli teqstebi mogviTxroben. VII-IX saukuneebSi Camoyalibda wm. andrias cxovrebis kanonikuri re-


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daqciebi. XI saukunidan iqmneboda wm. andrias cxovrebis adgilobrivi, qarTuli, redaqciebi, romelTa Camoyalibebaze zegavlenas axdenda sxvadasxva istoriul-politikuri faqtori. wm. andrias sazRvao marSruti ki Savi zRvis garda moicavda xmelTaSua, egeosis, marmarilosa da yirimis zRvebs, amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom igi qristianul tradiciaSi mezRvaurebis mfarvelad iTvleba. literatura 1. 2. 3. anania [jafariZe] 2009: anania [jafariZe], saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, Tb., 2009. arsen beri 1971: arsen beri, ninos cxovreba // Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, III (metafrasuli redaqciebi XI-XIII ss.), Tb., 1971. bartikiani 1987: ., , (1- . XVI .), - II, // Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, 266, istoria, arqeologia, xelovnebaTmcodneoba, eTnografia, Tb., 1987. beraZe 1981: beraZe T., zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1981. georgika I: georgika, t. I, berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosces da ganmartebebi daurTes al. gamyreliZem da s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1961. georgika II: georgika, t. I, berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosces da ganmartebebi daurTes al. gamyreliZem da s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1965. georgika IV: georgika, t. IV1-2, berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca da ganmartebebi daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1941, 1952. georgika VIII: georgika, t. VIII, berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca da ganmartebebi daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1970. enciklopedia II: . . 2. , 2000. esbroki 1974: Esbroeck M., Lassomption de la vierge dans un transitus Pseudo-Basilien // Analecta Bollandiana 92, 1974. efrem mcire 1959: efrem mcire, uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moisenebis, T. bregaZis gamocema, Tb., 1959. TamaraSvili 1995: TamaraSvili m., qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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dRemde, Tb., 1995. 13. Teimuraz batoniSvili 1848: Teimuraz batoniSvili, istoria dawyebiTgan iveriisa, sanktpeterburRi, 1848. 14. mimoslva 2008: mimoslva andria mociqulisa, Zveli qarTuli Targmanis teqsti gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva daurTo m. kobiaSvilma, Tb., 2008. 15. mravalTavi 1991: klarjuli mravalTavi, T. mgalobliSvilis gamocema, Tb., 1991. 16. sulava 2003: sulava n., XII-XIII saukuneebis qarTuli himnografia, Tb., 2003. 17. sjuliskanoni 1975: didi sjuliskanoni, gamosacemad moamzades e. gabiZaSvilma, e. giunaSvilma, m. dolaqiZem, g. ninuam, Tb., 1975. 18. qca I: qarTlis cxovreba, I, s. yauxCiSvilis gamocema, Tb., 1955 19. qca II: qarTlis cxovreba, II, s. yauxCiSvilis gamocema, Tb., 1959 20. xalvaSi 2009: xalvaSi r., andria pirvelwodebulis qadageba saqarTveloSi (Zveli qarTuli literaturuli wyaroebisa da `axali qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT) // gonio-afsarosi, VIII, baTumi, 2009.

gia joxaZe

koncepti zRva qarTul Suasaukuneobriv narativSi


(,,qarTlis cxovreba IV-XV ss.) damoukidebeli saqarTvelos erT-erTi mesaWe grigol lorTqifaniZe 1925 wels Tavis `politikur anderZSi~ werda: Sav zRvas unda SeveCvioT da davuZmobildeT; droa, viswavloT curva, Torem sakacobrio kulturam gaiara samdinaro, sazRvao, saokeano kulturis periodebi da kinaRam sahaero okeanis stadiaSi gadadis, da Cven ki, ase vTqvaT, paliastomis epoqaSic ki ar SevsulvarT, mgoni... miT umetes unda davumegobrdeT zRvas, rom CvenTvis didi xania, gadawyvetilia erTi ZiriTadi sakiTxi _ kulturuli orientacia evropaze. am qveTavs erqva `qarTveli da zRva~, romelSic avtori SeniSnavda, rom qarTvels erTgvarad mistikurad eSinia zRvisa; rom es istoriul-politikuri mizezebiT Sepirobebuli e.w. `antizRvuri inerciaa~, da a.S. (lorTqifaniZe, 1995:272-273). grigol lorTqifaniZe 1937 wels moaSTes. moaSTes am fiqrianad. magram mofiqrali adamianebi yovelTvis brundebian. umetesad _ furclis meSveobiT. xandaxan dro, Tavis usasrulo mdinarebaSi, TiTqmis ucvlelad imeorebs saganTa erTnair mdgomareobas. `maradi dabrune-

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro fakultetis profesori. SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis institutis mkvlevari.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:

XIII-XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba ,istoriuli esseebi, iosif brodski. mSvenieri epoqis dasasruli, adamianis saxaistoria. istoriuli anTropologiis Sesavali. interesTa sfero: eklesiisa da religiis istoria, istoriuli anTropologiis problemebi, literaturaTmcodneoba, amerikanistika.

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bis~ konceptiT datvifruli azri xelaxla iwyebs sunTqvas axali ganmcdelis gulsa da gonebaSi. magaliTad, merab mamardaSvili, jer kidev 1990 wlis noemberSi, afxazebTan daZabuli urTierTobis gaanalizebisas ambobda: `konfliqtis mizezi, moskovis intrigebTan erTad, isic aris, rom `Savi zRvis sanapiro warTmeulia. saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ar ekuTvniso~... da sworedac, politikur-ekonomikuri (am SemTxvevaSi (an iqneb, saerTodac!) politika ekonomikacaa da _ piriqiT!, g.j.) sistemis gamo! es gulisxmobda korporaciul struqturas, romelic saqarTvelos moqalaqes afxazeTis SavizRvispireTSi Casasvlelad moskovis gavlas sTxovda. yvela rusul uwyebas Tu saministros aq Tavisi dasasvenebeli saxlebi, Tavisi e.w. Sinagani baRebi hqonda, romlebSic TavianTsave TanamSromlebs asaqmebdnen. ase iqmneboda saqarTvelos SigniT _ saxelmwifo saxelmwifoSi, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo iqaur `afxaz aznaurobasTan~.
`ver warmoidgenT, ramxela mniSvneloba aqvs nebismieri didi Tu patara rusi `naCalnikis~ TvalSi zRvas _ sZinavs da zRva esizmreba~, _ ganagrZobs

filosofosi da ixsenebs misive yuriT gagonil klasikur gamoTqmas: `es ra kargi miwa Caigdes xelSi qarTvelebma!~ zemonaxsenebi `naCalniki~, raki zRvaze wavida, bunebrivia, am zRvas Tavisad miiCnevs, Cven ki, Turme, raRac eSmakobiT gvigdia xelT, romelzec ukve amdeni aTasi welia, vcxovrobT... cxadia, amas qarTulma saxelmwifom unda mouaros! _ daaskvnis ma-

mardaSvili (mamardaSvili, 1992:12-13). am bolo xans internetsivrcem ori Tvalsazrisi warmoaCina: pirveli.
qarTvelebs arasodes gvyolia floti. Savi zRva ar gviCenda masSi Securvis survils. amitomac davarqviT mas zRva _ zRvari. zRvis gadasacurad saWiro mizezi ar gvqonda da sxv.

(leqso maWavariani, vin gadacuravs zRvas?) meore.


zemoTqmuli politikurma motivma Seapiroba: qarTvelebs ar unda gasCenodaT survili zRvis gavliT moxvedriliyvnen evropaSi, es ruseTsa da samxedro gzaze gavliT unda momxdariyo da sxv.

(gigi TevzaZe, qarTveli da zRva). Tavs davizRvevT da, vityviT, rom `zRvis~ koncepti arasodes gamxdara qarTuli istoriuli mecnierebis msjelobis sagani (Tu ar CavTvliT T. beraZis naSroms zRvaosnobaze, romelsac qvemoT SevexebiT).


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es gasakviri ar aris. mxolod samwuxaroa. qarTuli mentalobis Zireul kategoriaTa gamaanalizebeli TiTo-orola naSromic xom sul ramdenime welia, krTis samecniero mimoqcevaSi! zRvis konceptis ugulebelyofa miT ufro aRar gagvakvirvebs, roca xmelTaSua zRvasa da mis samyaroze brwyinvale wignis avtors, fernan brodels movusmenT:
zRva, rogorsac vxedavT da rogoric gviyvars, TviTon gviambobs Tavis warsulze _ es erTaderTi daskvnaa, romelic sorbonas geografiis profesorTagan aviTvise. miT ufro, rom es gmiri (am SemTxvevaSi brodeli istoriul gmirad zRvas gulisxmobs, g.j.) rTuli, veeba da araordinarulia. is ver Tavsdeba Cveul CarCoebSi. istoriis weris Cveuli stili _ `mavani daibada ama da am wels~ _ ar gvargia... misi samyaro mouzRudavia, misi moxazuloba _ gadarecxili...

magram brodeli amasac ambobs:


vai im istorikoss, romelsac hgonia, rom es mtkivneuli sakiTxi mas ar exeba, rom zRvas, rogorc istoriul personaJs, gansazRvra ar esaWiroeba... (brodeli, 2002:16).

rom ara respeqtabeluri diskusiis molodini, vityodiT, rom swored brodelis Serisxvis Tavidan asacileblad gadavwyviteT, ase vTqvaT, `dagvezvera~ zRva Suasaukuneobriv qarTul istoriul narativSi _ kerZod, `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~. qronologiur mijnadac Sua saukuneebis dasazRvrisadmi yvelaze skeptikurad ganwyobil istorikosTa versia gamoviyeneT: IV-XV saukuneebi da im daskvnamde mivediT, rom internetzRvaSi `mcuravi~ orive Tvalsazrisi axlosaa simarTlesTan, Tumc maT sxvadasxva naratiuli safuZveli aqvT (an _ piriqiT, miSel fukosamebr, am narativebs garkveuli mentaloba esafuZvleba). vecdebiT am debulebis dadasturebas, oRond manamde, gadavxedoT, ras gviamboben IV saukunemdeli da XV saukunisSemdgomi wyaroebi. profesori Tamaz beraZe, berZen avtorTa cnobebze dayrdnobiT, mogviTxrobs:
berZnebs Savi zRvisTvis `avqsinus ponto~ _ arastumarTmoyvare zRva SeurqmeviaT imis gamo, rom cudad icnobdnen. isic davumatoT, rom `mRelvarebisa da irgvliv mcxovrebi veluri tomebis gamo~ masze naosnobac did siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli, magram jer kidev apolonios rodoseli axsenebda egrisis mravalricxovan flots (beraZe, 1981:3-5;64).

profesorebi manana sanaZe da Tamaz beraZe miiCneven, rom

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egrisisa da saberZneTis navsadgurebs Soris mudmivi mimosvla damyarda. kolxeTis sazRvao vaWroba msoflio sazRvao aReb-micemobis Semadgenel nawilad iqca da... Savi zRvis aseTma mniSvnelobam aq qalaqebic warmoSva (bera-

Ze, sanaZe, 2003:49;72). daaxloebiT amgvarsave suraTs vxedavT XV saukunis momdevno xanaSic. batoniSvili vaxuSti wers, rom Wanebi `arian xelovanni ... SenebiTa navTaTa, didTa da mcireTa~; egrni `rionze vlenan navebiTa zRvidam baJamde~; anakofiaSi `arian navsadgurni. modgebian navni da vaWroben~; afxazni arian `zRuaTa Sina mavalni oleWkandarebiTa, romelTa Sina STasxdebian, da uxdebian osmalTa navTa da laz-WanTa da ufrosad odiS-guriasa. Tu brZolasa Sina mdedrni, mal-momdrekni arian, zRuasa Sina magarni da Zlierni~ (bato-

niSvili vaxuSti, 1973:690; 747; 783; 785-786). frangi mogzauri da indoeTTan vaWrobis pioneri Jan baptist tavernie (1605-1689) SeniSnavs: Savi zRva, iseve, rogorc mTeli misi istoriis ganmavlobaSi, mniSvnelovani
ekonomikuri zonaa. aris produqtebi, romlebic TiTqmis adgilzeve iwarmoeba: xmeli Tevzi, axali dawuruli xizilala ruseTis mdinareebidan, xe-tye, aucilebeli TurqeTis flotisaTvis, rkina samegrelodan... samegrelo yovelTvis karg damokidebulebaSia TurqeTTan, radgan foladisa da rkinis didi nawili, romelsac TurqeTi didi odenobiT moixmars, samegrelodan Savi zRvis gavliT Semodis...

produqtTa CamonaTvali grZeldeba:


matyli, romelic varnaSi miaqvT da iq tvirTaven; aseve, tyavi, romliTac didi gemebi itvirTeba; xorbali, romelsac konstantinopolSi Seisyidian... aris satranzito saqoneli, romelic gankuTvnilia Sua aziisa da sparseTisaTvis;

pier beloni, igive belon diu mani, frangi naturalisti da mogzauri (1517-1564) aRniSnavs,
karaqi konstantinopolSi `axali, Zroxisa da xaris jerac gamouyvaneli tyaviT gadaaqvTo...~ (brodeli 2002;152-154).

im teqstSi, Cven rom sakvlevad avirCieT, suraTi ramdenadme gansxvavebulia. marTalia, aq TiTqmis yovel meore furcelze xmaurobs zRva da, brodskis gamoTqmis parafrazi rom movaxdinoT, pirdapir recxavs teqstis arqipelags, magram is ufro fonia, anturaJi, vidre _ personaJi. davakvirdeT: zRva sazRvaria da geografiuli orientiri da, aq qarTuli teqsti, cxadia, gamonaklisi ar aris. yvelgan, yovelTvis da yvelasTvis ase iyo. zRvis bunebrivi mdgomareoba da mdebareoba Tavadac uwyobda xels, sazRvrad yofiliyo gamoyenebuli. am debulebas


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pirdapir exmianeba prokopi kesarielis Txzulebis erTi pasaJi: `lazikaSi miwa yvelgan zRvidanaa wamoCrili. Semoqmeds aq zRvisTvis sazRvari daudgenia, radgan aq zRva Tavis napirebs exeTqeba, verc win miiwevs, verc ufro maRla aWras axerxebs. ukan ixevs da Tavis adgils ubrundeba. is icavs miCenil sazRvars, TiTqos raRac kanonis eSinodes, miT izRudavdes Tavs da cdilobdes, dadgenil pirobebs ar gadavuxvioo (georgika

1965:142-143). `qarTlis cxovrebiT~ ki es dgindeba:


jer kidev farnavazma qujis misca qveyana `zRviTgan mTamde~, oZrxis erisTavs ganusazRvra miwa-wyali `nostis TaviTgan zRuamdis~, klarjeTis erisTavs _ `arsianiTgan zRuamde~; varaz-baqaris mefobaSi berZnebma daipyres mTeli klarjeTi `zRviTgan arsianTamde~; roca miriani sparsTa mefes Sehyva saberZneTSi da daamarcxes berZnebi, `mieriTgan miiRes sazRvari ese berZenTa Cuen qarTvelTagan, aRmosavaliT zRvisa amis~; vaxtang gorgaslis zeobaSi `gamoikiTxa keisarman sazRvari saberZneTisa, queyana zRvis pirisa, romel ars afxazeTi da dauwesa sazRvari~; sparseTis Sahi eubneba vaxtangs: `Sen uwyi, rameTu zRvasa moRmarT Cueni ars sazRvari, ganyofili noesiTgan~ (Tu gansakuTrebul pedantobad ar CamogverTmeva, vityviT, rom es azri `gvagzavnis~ bibliasTan (dabadeba, 8-10) da kerZod, miemarTeba qamis Ze quSs, mis Zes _ nebroTs da misdami boZebul qveynebs, g.j.); mirdatma daipyro miwa-wyali `faravnidgan da tasiskariTgan vidre zRuamde sperisa da erisTavobda mun~; Tamarma xelT ipyra miwa-wyali `zRviT pontosiT zRuadmde gurganisad~; TviT formulac ki `nikofsiidan darubandamde~, cxadia, or _ Savsa da kaspiis _ zRvas gulisxmobs! (qar-

Tlis cxovreba 1955:24; 137; 160;205; qarTlis cxovreba 1959:34). qarTvelis mentalobisaTvis bunebrivia zRvasTan dakavSirebuli, ZiriTadad _ toposisa da xelobis aRmniSvneli terminebi:
`zRuis kide~ _ vaxtang gorgaslis pontoSi laSqrobisas dasaxelebulia didi qalaqi, romelic zRvis kideSi mdgara; berZen-sparsTa omisas qarTvelebi `ewyvnes ... zRvis kidesa mas, romel ars Walaki, riye xerTvisisa~; `zRuis piri~ _ afxazeTi zRvispira qveynad saxelideba; berZnebma herakle keisris (575-641) moTaveobiT `wariRes sazRvari qarTlisa speri da bolo klarjeTisa, zRvis piri...~; murvan yrum zRvis piri Cavlo; bizantiidan momaval bagrat IV-s laSqari xvdeba `afxazeTis zRvis pirsa, xufaTs~ (trapizonsa da rizes Soris, g.j.); `zRuis yure~ _ egross misces queyana zRvis yurisa; baTumsa da dRevandel axal aTons Soris moqceul Savi zRvis aRmosavleT nawils zRvis yures uwodebdnen (qarTlis cxovreba 1955:160;173; 177; 226; 239;304; 5; be-

raZe 1981:8)

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aseve cnobilia `zRvis kari~, `klde zRvisa~, `kbode~, srute, kunZuli anu xerTvisi, navi da misi saxe-cvlilebani (barka, oleWkandari), menave, menaveTmoZRvari, navsadguri... giorgi rusi `STasves navsa Sina~ an meoregan: `...Casmuli naviTa zRuad miiwia konstantinepoled~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1959:75). XI s. ucnobi sparsi avtori `Sav zRvas~ qarTvelTa zRvas uwodebs; sxvaTa Soris, `kolxike Talasas~ anu kolxTa zRvas uwodebda Sav zRvas straboni; XI s. erTi sparsi geografosi Sav zRvas `darie lazik~- is anu lazikis zRvis saxeliT moixseniebda (beraZe 1981:6-8). ivane javaxiSvili sagangebodac ki msjelobda zemomoxmobil terminebze (javaxiSvili 1983:21-22). rogorc mosalodneli iyo, zRva da masTan dakavSirebuli sityvebi teqstSi metaforuli mniSvnelobiTac gamoiyeneba da ZiriTadad, aRniSnavs:
_ stiqias, saRvTo risxvis instruments _ wm. ninos locvis Sedegad dalewil kerpTa Semyure xalxi ambobda, qaldevelTa RmerTi iTrujani (atroSani) da armazi mtrebi arian. armazma erTxel masze zRva moaqcia. aw iTrujanma Suri iZia, setyva moavlina da kerpebi daamsxvriao. _ xelmwifobas anu yovlismpyroblobas _ daviT aRmaSeneblis RvTiscxebulobis dasadastureblad gamoyenebulia bibliuri daviTis analogia, rac ilustrirdeba fragmentiT 88-e fsalmunidan: `davsdva zRuasa zeda xeli misi da mdinareTa zeda marjuene misi~, rac Tanamedrove qarTulze ase JRers: `zRvas gadavawvden mis xels da mdinareebs _ mis marjvenas~. _ wuTisofels, rogorc saaqaos, sacTurTa da amaoebaTa navsayudels _ daviT aRmaSenebeli yovladSemkulia: `esreT ra aRsavse iyo navi ufasoTgan tvirTTa saTnoebisaTa, da arRara SemZlebel warsvlad RadirTa~. am fragmentidan erTi ram cxadia: daviTi hgavs saTnoebis Seufasebeli tvirTiT datvirTul (gvepatios tavtologia! g.j.) navs. meore winadadebaSi naxmaria sityva `Radiri~, romelsac sulxan-saba ganmartavs, rogorc `qeds gorakaTa warziduls~. navi, ragind saTnoebiT ar iyos datvirTuli, gorakis qedisken verafriT wava da mematianec, albaT, ar ityoda, `arRara SemZlebel warsvlad RadirTao~. es isedac cxadia. iqneb `RadirSi~ igulisxmeba `Rado~, romelsac leqsikografi `zRvis Relvis nCqrevad~ xsnis. Tu es varaudi simarTlesTan axlosaa, gasagebi xdeba, rom daviTi saTnoebaTagan ise savse iyo, rom zRvis Relva _ sacTuri, boroteba... _ Tavisken verafriT miizidavda. CaviniSnoT, rom zRvis Relva aq uaryofiTi konotaciisaa da aRar gagvakvirvebs mematianis Sedareba: brZeni mefe gonier menavesa hgavs, romelic iswrafis datvirTuli navis navsadgurSi Sesayvanad, `raTa arara evnos soflisa amis mRelvarisa zRvisagan~; vaxuStis azriTac, adamians codna `moacurvebs zRuasa zeda da axilvebs mas Sina sruliadsa~.


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_ samefos _ daviTis qvelma saqmeebma aRavses zRua da xmeli; Tamari patronia xmelTa da zRvisaTa (`patronman xmelTa da zRvisaman...~)

teqstSi gvxvdeba bibliuri metaforikiT nasazrdoebi gamoTqma `qviSa zRvisa~. gavixsenoT, ras eubneba ufali abraams:
kurTxeviT gakurTxeb da gimravleb STamomavlobas cis varskvlavebiviT da zRvis qviSasaviT! (dabadeba, XXII, 17).

Cvens teqstSic `qviSa zRvisa~ simravles aRniSnavs: oRond, mravalni Turqebi arian! `Seimtkicnes simravliTa viTarca qviSa zRvisa, romliTa aRivso queyana...~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1955:91-92; 324; 361; batoniSvili vaxuSti 1973:2; qarTlis cxovreba 1959:41) Cveni yuradReba miipyro qmedebam, romelic zRvas, ufro zustad, `zRuaSi STagdebas~ an `STagdebas siRrmesa zRuisasa~ ukavSirdeba. amaze, rogorc sasjelze, arafers ambobs TviT ivane javaxiSvili Tavis qarTuli samarTlis istoriaSi (javaxiSvili 1982; javaxiSvili 1984). gveCveneba, rom `zRuaSi STagdeba~ sworedac sasjeli iyo da Tanac, ara mxolod saero, aramed _ saeklesio marTlmsajulebis TvalsazrisiT: `qarTlis cxovreba~ gviambobs, rom bagrat leonis Ze, afxazTa mefe, mokla Zmis, giorgis colma: `ecrua igi ivane mTavarsa Savliansa, da STaagdes bagrat zRvasa~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1955:258). gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Semdegi winadadebis _ `xolo RmerTman ganarina igi, da miiwia qalaqad konstantinepoled...~ _ komentirebisas profesori T. beraZe varaudobs, bagrats xomaldi wamoewia, imiT wavida, da saeWvoa, es ucxo qveynis sazRvao navi yofiliyoso (beraZe 1981:69). `zRuaSi STagdeba~ rom sasjeli iyo, amtkicebs JamTaaRmwereli, romelic gviambobs daviT laSa-giorgis ZisTvis cilisdawamebaze: mamidamisma, rusudan mefem siZes miswera, Seni coli da misi biZaSvili (daviTi) `Tanaeyofiano~. rumis sultanma daviTi ase dasaja:
`mouwoda menaveT-moZRuarsa... da amcno, raTa wariyvanon zRuad da STaagdon siRrmesa zRvisasa~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1959:200).

safiqrebelia, rom `zRuaTa STagdeba~ erT yvelaze sastik SurisgebaTagani gaxldaT _ Cvens SemTxvevaSi, es col-qmruli Ralatis sworferi sasjelia. ratom vfiqrobT, rom `zRuaSi STagdeba~ sasjelia da ara mxolod _ gulgasastikebuli `konkurentis~ SurisZieba? `dasjili~ _ ufliswuli daviTi _ loculobs. Tavis xvedrs `umsjavro sikvdils~ uwodebs. mas ver gansjis verc saero instancia,

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verc _ saeklesio. miwaSi ver daimarxeba, misi saflavi aravis ecodineba, Tevzni da `haeris mcvelni~ (eSmauri Zalebi) (ix. r. labaZe, ` codva da SiSi Sua saukuneebSi~ (qarTuli mentaluri modelis ori aspeqti), Tb., 2006) advilad daeuflebian (qarTlis cxovreba 1959:201). vaWarmac ki, romelmac sikvdilisgan ixsna, `iwyo kiTxvad... mizezi STagdebisa misisa zRuad~. bunebrivia, vaWars ainteresebdes am ukiduresi sisastikiT gamotanili ganaCenis mizezi. sainteresoa, rom TviT daviTs aRelvebs ara imdenad gardauvali aRsasruli, ramdenadac is, rom igi swored zRvaSi Seeyreba aryofnas. saero TvalsazrisiT, Tavis gamarTlebis saSualeba ar miecema, saeklesioTi ki _ moxseniebisa: aq Tevznica da haeris mcvelnic im negatiur ZalTa simboloebia, romelnic mas sulze zrunvis saSualebas wartaceben. qarTul Suasaukuneobriv narativSi (`qarTlis cxovreba~) Cans, rom qarTvelebisaTvis zRva, misi pragmatika, ucxoa. cxadia, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom politikur hegemonias (bizantia, TurqeTi, isev bizantia, isev TurqeTi..., g.j.) Tavisi moaqvs, magram ufro Rrma, ufro ucvleli da ufro idumali mentaluri struqturebia, romlebic xandaxan Tu avlenen Tavs. vfiqrobT, Cven `SeveswariT~ am iSviaT process. am `gaTqmad~, `SemTxveviT wamocdenad~ migvaCnia uneblie dasturi, rom zRva berZnebis asparezia. isini aq laRad da daculad grZnoben Tavs. berZnebisTvis niSandoblivia `simarjue zRuaTa Sina navebiTa~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1955:170). berZnebs hqviaT `spani igi zRvisani~, aqvT xuTasi dromoni (bizantiuri navi, popularuli VI-dan XII s-mde), `romelsa Sina isxdes xuTas-xuTasi kaci~ (iqve 171). vaxtang gorgasali berZnebTan mebrZol mokavSireebs _ sparsebs eubneba:
`aw meSinis, nu ukve spani navebiTa moviden, Seipyran gza Cueni da moguwyvidnen Cuen, viTarca baksa Sina, aramed aRvdgeT aqaT da davibanakoT zRuasa samxriT kerZo, raTa guaqundes Cuen gza Wirisa da lxinisa~ (qarTlis cxov-

reba 1955:170). am fragmentSi Cans, rom qarTvel mefes aSinebs berZenTa sabrZolo navebiTa da gawafuli zRvaosnebiT Sepirobebuli Zliereba sazRvao arenaze. zRvis samxreTiT dabanakeba qarTvel-sparselTa laSqars alternativas (`gza Wirisa da lxinisa~) utovebs: an brZolaSi mokvdes, an gamarjvebuli gaecalos brZolis vels. xolo zRvaze Sebmam SeiZleba ara mxolod mokavSireTa laSqris uunaroba gamoavlinos, aramed am alternativasac ki daemuqros: zRvaSi sikvdili suls upatronobas uqadis.


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Semdeg epizodSi vaxtangis mier otebuli berZnebi zRvis pirs miamwyvdies da amoxoces. mxolod isini gadarCnen, `romeli Seeswra zRuad da ivltoda naviTa~. (qarTlis cxovreba 1955:176). ara mgonia, Zneli SesamCnevi iyos is,

rasac teqsti pirdapir gveubneba: gardauvali sikvdilisagan berZnebi mxolod zRvaSi `Seswrebam~ da navebze `amxedrebam~ ixsnao. qarTvelebi TiTqos provansul andazas amarTleben: `ganadide zRva da icxovre xmeleTze!~. TiTqos zRvasac mas uTmoben, visac xmeleTi daumonebia. berZen, aseve, sxva avtorTa cnobebis Tanaxmad, Savi zRva arastumarTmoyvared saxelideboda, masze naosnoba did siZneleebs ukavSirdeboda, irgvliv veluri tomebi saxlobdnen, Turqebi `yaradengiss~ _ giJ zRvas eZaxdnen _ aq pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT naxmari `yara~ (`Savi~) safixaTos, ulmoblis, saSinelis konotaciebsac iTavsebda (beraZe 1981:3-10); navigaciis TvalsazrisiT, undo da saxifaTo wyals, aseve _ barbaros tomebs, zed erTvoda mZlavri mTebi, zRvas samxreTiT da aRmosavleTiT rom Semosjaroda; marbieli laSqrobebis safrTxe; Sav zRvaze xomaldebis ayiravebis ara erTi SemTxveva; xSiri Stormi da nisli... 1575 wlis oqtomberSi qariSxlis gamo CaZiruli xorbliT datvirTuli asobiT patara gemi; XVI s. bolos Savi zRvis Caketva dasavleTisaTvis, yovel SemTxvevaSi _ sawylosno gzis TvalsazrisiT mainc. rogorc Cans, saxmeleTo gzebi ufro usafrTxod miiCneoda (brodeli 2002:152-154; beraZe 1981:10). Sav zRvaze `zamTari~ ukve 1 oqtombers iwyeboda da 1 aprilamde grZeldeboda. XIII-XV ss-Si weliwadis am monakveTSi italielebi TavianT xomaldebs aq curvas ukrZalavdnen (beraZe 19811: 162)... yovelive aman, SesaZloa, Svas daskvna, rom qarTvelTa zRvisadmi gaucxoeba klimatur-politikuri mizezebiT iyo Sepirobebuli, magram mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu simbolur ganazrebebs, koleqtiur warmodgenebsa da Sexedulebebs gaviTvaliswinebT. xSirad swored es midgomebi ganapirobebs mentalitetis ragvarobas. zRva qvena instinqtebis saufloa _ aracnobieri negatiuri siRrmeebi, dacemuli yofa, Jamiereba, warmavloba, sinotivis qaluri principi... sulis sikvdili wyals Sobs; sinotive sulebs aqrobs; sulis sikvdili sinotivea... (mixailova, CaniSevi 1966), wyali sulis sikvdilia da a.S. (glagolevi 1909:220). bibliaSi zRva isaa, rac samyaros Seqmnis Semdeg pramateriisagan gadarCa. mas ara aqvs forma da saxe, usazRvroa, mSfoTari da mRelvare. TviT iahve ambobs: `vin Cauketa zRvas karibWeni, roca saSodan amoxeTqa, roca nisli miveci sa-

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moselad da wyvdiadi _ saxvevebad, roca davudgine Cemi wesi da davutane urduli da karibWeni _ da vTqvi, aqamde modi, iqiT aRar, aq Sewydes Seni talRebis azvirTeba-meTqi?~ (iobi, 38, 8-11).

zRva RvTis risxvis instrumenticaa: `aha, modiddeba wyali CrdiloeTidan da gadaiqceva wamlekav niaRvrad. walekavs qveyanas...(ieremia, 47, 2). bibliaSi wylis wiaRSi yofna wamebas niSnavs. wyalSi CaSveba iyo Tavdapirvel mdgomareobasTan dabruneba, sikvdili da ganadgureba. devid snouqic adasturebs, rom Zveli ebraelebi zRvas borotebis simbolod miiCnevdnen (snouqi 2006:203):
`boroteulni aRelvebul zRvas hgvanan, romelic ver wynardeba da misi talRebi isvrian lafsa da talaxs~ (esaia, 57, 20;).

zRva `vefxistyaosanSic~ sulis dasalieria. davari ase mimarTavs nestanis gamtacebel monebs: `wadiT, dahkargeT mun, sada zRvisa Wipia, wmidisa wylisa ver naxos myinvare, verca lipia~ _ maS, zRva ar aris wminda wyali, Sesaqmiseuli wyali _ suliwmidasTan dakavSirebuli, wyali, romelzec `iqceoda suli RvTisa~ (dabadeba 1,2). zRva amis sapirispiro wyalia (gamsaxurdia 1991:277-278). magram rogor avxsnaT is ramdenime recidivi, romlebic TiTqos Sua saukuneTa saqarTveloSi sazRvaosno kulturis arsebobas adasturebs? vgulisxmobT amgvar komentarebs:
varangebi Savi zRviTa da Semdeg md. rioniT gamovidnen baSamde _ mniSvnelovan punqtamde rionis sanaosno magistralze (metreveli 1986:52). gaZevebul giorgi russ aqauri, adgilobrivi naviT unda eSvela TavisTvis

(beraZe 1981:70).
XII s-dan qarTvelebi vaWroben bizantiaSi (beraZe 1981:170). XII s-Si saqarTvelos sazRvao urTierToba hqonda kievis ruseTTan: saqarTvelos mefis asuli kievis ruseTSi TiTqos xomaldiT gamgzavrebuliyos

(beraZe 1981:171-172).
saqarTvelodan nivTebi Savi zRviT, Semdeg ki _ samdinaro magistraliT baltiispireTSic unda moxvedriliyo (beraZe 1981:172-173). zRviT gaaZeves `makedonias saberZneTisasa~ xuTi Zma kaxaberiZe. XI s. II naxevridan wina aziaSi Turq-seljukebi gabatondnen da Cveni qveynidan bizantiaSi mimavali saxmeleTo gzebi gadaketes. amis Semdeg aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mcxovrebnic konstantinopolSi zRviT midiodnen. zRviT bizantiaSi gasaxleba Cveulebrivi ambavi iyo (beraZe 1981:167-168).

Cven mier moyvanil komentarTagan bevri iseTia, romlebic swored `qarTlis cxovrebis~ saTanado epizodebs miemarTeba: amitomac maT SevexebiT da pirdapir vityviT, rom saqme gvaqvs mxolod Tamam va-


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raudebTan. teqstis arc erT epizodSi, romelTac zemomoxmobili komentarebi erTvis, arsad weria, rom qarTvelebi zRviT _ naviT, katarRiT Tu sxva raime saSualebiT _ gadaadgildebodnen. varaudebi gamoTqmulia im albaTobiT, rom istoriuli personaJebi ubralod sxvagvarad ver moiqceodnen! istoria versiaTa damuSavebis mecnierebaa da cxadia, met-naklebad yvela argumentirebul versias aqvs arsebobis ufleba, magram mainc calke aRsaniSnad gveCveneba is garemoeba, rom pirdapir _ uTuod da uTumcaod _ zRvaosnobiT qarTvelTa gatacebis ambavs Cveni sakvlevi narativis arc erTi furceli ar mogviTxrobs. bunebrivia, daismis kiTxvebi: arsebobs Tu ara wyaro, romelic sapirispiros amtkicebs? gvaqvs Tu ara narativi, romlis Seswavlis Sedegad SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo im Sexedulebis damkvidreba Tu ara, gavrceleba mainc, rom qarTveloba da sazRvaosno kultura ganuyofelni iyvnen da mxolod mtrulad ganwyobil saxelmwifoTa politikurma hegemoniam Caketa qarTuli sazRvao gza? diax, arsebobs. ZiriTadad, es gaxlavT berZnulenovan avtorTa cnobebi saqarTveloze, romelnic gviamboben dasavleT da samxreTdasavleT saqarTvelos mkvidrTa sazRvao aqtivobaze. aseve Cvens xelTaa arqeologiur minakvlevTa safuZvelze gamoTqmuli varaudebi. kerZod:
arqeologiuri monacemebiT ivaraudeba, rom biWvinTaSi, soxumSi, webeldaSi, qobuleTSi, gonioSi aRmoCenili nivTebis nawili importulia da zRviT unda moxvedriliyo Cvens qalaqebSi. egrisis samefosa da romis aRmosavleTi provinciebis savaWro urTierTobebze metyvelebs romis sagzao ruka (TabulaPeutingeriana), Sedgenili IV s. II naxevarSi geografos kastoriosis mier, romelzec aRniSnulia das. saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamavali savaWro gzebi. erTi maTgani miemarTeboda zRvis samxreT da aRmosavleT sanapiroTa gaswvriv da soxumamde aRwevda. savaWro magistrali samxreTiT uxvevda, lazikis Sida olqebs gadalaxavda, somxeTamde midioda da qalaq artaSatiT (erevnis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT 20-30 km-Ti dacilebuli qalaqi, g.j.) sruldeboda. simon janaSias SeniSvnisamebr, imTaviTve cxadi iyo, rom gzas sebastopolisidan Crdilo kavkasiamde unda mieRwia. VII s. anonimi geografosi am gzas marTlac ar wyvetda sebastopolisSi da tamanis naxevarkunZulamde mihyavda. ase iyo Tu ise, kastoriusis rukaze bolo qarTuli punqti sebastopolisi gaxldaT, rac unda aixsnas Crdilo SavizRvispireTTan urTierTobis ganelebiT. bevri Tqmula das. saqarTveloSi bizantiis kulturul eqspansiazec (narkvevebi 1988:121-137).

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bizantiis imperator tiberiusis 575 wlis `novelis~ Tanaxmad, lazeTs sazRvao begara edo: bizantiisTvis navebis miwodeba evaleboda. safiqrebelia, rom lazebi TavianTi xomaldebiTa da katarRebiT ibrZolebdnen bizantielTa mxardamxar. zosimes (VIs.) Tanaxmad, biWvinTas hqonda kargad mowyobili navsadguri. skviTebma biWvinTis aRebisas iSoves didi odenobiT xomaldebi da gamoiyenes niCbosani tyveebi. aqedan zRviT wavidnen trapezuntSi (georgika 1961:268269). Vs. anonimis Tanaxmad, dasavleT saqarTveloSi arsebobs gza navebisaTvis. Savi zRvis wyali mtknaria. zRvis sanapiros mcxovreblebi naxirs iq Carekaven da arwyuleben. afsarosamde zRviT modian. bizantionidan dioskuriisaken mimaval sazRvao gzaze pirveli navsayudeli pitiuntSia. sebastopolisSi xomaldebis sayudelia. dasaxelebulia rizes navsadguric. anonimis TqmiT, sof. aTinaSi aris misadgomi xomaldebisaTvis, romelsac wlis Sesaferis dros (zafxulSi) ramdenime xomaldis miReba da qarisagan dafarva SeuZlia. iustiniane keisris (527-565) `novelebis~ Tanaxmad, petra (cixisZiri) mniSvnelovani sazRvao punqtia. es gaxlavT zRvis kari, romlis dauflebasac cdilobdnen sparsebi. prokopi kesarielis Tanaxmad (VI s.), lazebi mudam eweodnen sazRvao vaWrobas pontoSi mcxovreb romaelebTan. marili, xorbali, Rvino lazeTSi navebiT SemoaqvT romaelTa sanapiroebidan tyavisa da monebis sanacvlod. sparseTis Sahma lazeTSi gagzavna uamravi xe-tye xomaldTa asagebad. lazebi YTavianTi msubuqi xomaldebiT miacileben erTi mefis meore mefesTan mimaval gzirebs (georgika 1965:3-125). VI s. I naxevarSi, roca egrisis elCebma iranelebs bizantiis winaaRmdeg erToblivi gamosvla SesTavazes, pirvel rigSi, dasavleT saqarTvelodan konstantinopolamde sazRvao laSqrobis mowyobis SesaZleblobiT moiwones Tavi da sparsebs xomaldebis ageba SesTavazes (beraZe 1981:165). agaTia sqolastikosis azriT (VIs.), awindeli lazebi dacuraven, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia da vaWrobaSic naxuloben sargebels. ioane libiels kolxeTSi raRac manqanebiT SeuZenia satvirTo xomaldebi. menandre protiqtoris (VIs.) Tanaxmad, 568 w. iranelebi cdilobdnen sogdianas abreSumis konstantinopolSi gatanas. misulan Sav zRvamde, mere navebiT gadasulan foTamde da Semdeg _ trapezuntSi (georgika 1936: 51-207) Teofane JamTaaRmwerlis (VIII-IX ss.) cnobis Tanaxmad, 717 w. bizantiis momavali imperatori leon isavrieli adgilobrivi sazRvao naviT dasavleT saqarTvelos napirebidan wavida konstantinopolisaken. XI s-dan evropuli qveynebi _ venecia da genua _ cdilobdnen bizantiis xelisuflebisagan Sav zRvaSi gasvlis uflebis mopovebas, magram ucnobia, hqondaT Tu ara maT pirdapiri sazRvao urTierToba saqarTvelos navsadgurebTan (beraZe 1981:172-173). nikita xoniates (XIIs.) cnobiT, foTi savaWro qalaqi iyo (georgika

1966:132-133).


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giorgi franZesi (XVs.) asaxelebs iberiul navs, romliTac efrem bers iberiamde miuRwevia. masve unaxavs indoeTidan momavali saneleblebiT datvirTuli navebi, romelTagan zogierTi, albaT, iberiaSi midioda. (georgika 1970:53). 1474 w. ivlisSi sparseTSi veneciis elCi ambrosio kontarini ixsenebs qarTul nav barkas, romelmac is foTamde miiyvana. es unda yofiliyo mcire erTafriani katarRa, romelsac bargianad 35 mgzavri gadahyavda. aseTi navebis ekipaJi kapitnisa da 6 mezRvaurisagan Sedgeboda. xomaldebi konstantinopolsa da saqarTvelos navsadgurebs Soris pirdapir, sxva navsadgurebSi Seusvlelad curavdnen (beraZe 1981:68-166).

am fragmentebze dayrdnobiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom IV_XV ss. dasavleT da samxreT- dasavleT saqarTvelos mkvidrTaTvis ucxo arc sakuTari flotis yolaa, arc sazRvao-sanaosno gzebis qona da arc vaWrobaSi gawafva. Tumc, am idilias mainc amRvrevs ramdenime detali amave naratiuli korpusidan: VI saukunis istorikos priske panionelis cnobis Tanaxmad,
lazebi fiqrobdnen, rom zRviT SeuZlebeli iyo curva Zneladsavali adgilebis gaswvriv, radgan kolxida unavsadguro iyo (georgika 1961:254).

aRsaniSnavia, rom zemoT miTiTebuli zogi qarTveli mecnierica da, aseve, saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebis avtorTa koleqtivic, rogorc wesi, arasrulad citireben VI saukunis istorikos agaTia sqolastikosis gamonaTqvams. sruli varianti ase JRers:
`winandel mcxovreblebs lazikisas sruliad ar scodniaT zRvis dadebiTi Tvisebebi, xomaldis saxeli argos mosvlamde ar gaegonaT... awindelni ki dacuraven, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia da vaWrobaSi naxuloben did sargeblobas~ (georgika 1936: 51).

XII saukunis istorikosi niketa xoniate mogviTxrobs, rom aleqsi III angelosis (1195-1203) dros Sav zRvaze mekobreebi TareSobdnen da savaWro xomaldebs Zarcvavdnen (georgika 1966:132-133) XV saukunis istorikosi laonike xalkokondile ambobs, rom ioane aleqsis Ze trapizoneli kafaSi wasula, `eZebda iq vinmes, navis mqones~. ise Cans, navis mqoneni bevrni ar yofilan da bolos, viRac genuels aRmosCenia didi navi (georgika 1970:95). am mcire, Tanac gamonaklis fragmentTa safuZvelze, cxadia, Znelia argumentirebuli varaudebis gamoTqma, magram mainc gveCveneba, rom is, rac citirebisas gamotovebulia, TavisTavad sagulisxmebeli sulac ar aris. daskvnebi Cveni sakvlevi teqstisTvis (`qarTlis cxovreba~ IV-XV ss.) sa-

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kuTriv zRva, rogorc aseTi, ucxo ar aris, magram teqsti sruliad arafers ambobs zRvis an zRvispira samyaros raimenair pragmatikaze. amis mizezi, uwinaresad, mentaluri gaucxoebaa: narativi iwereba aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi aRmosavleli qarTvelis (qarTvelebis) mier, romlisTvisac Soria da amdenad, ucxocaa zRva da misi specifika. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mkvidris mentalobaSi zRva, ZiriTadad, ukavSirdeba `berZnebs~, `sazRvars~, romelsac berZnebi gviweseben da a.S.; unda vifiqroT, rom jerjerobiT mainc zRva qvena instinqtebis sauflod, eSmaur ZalTa samyoflad aRiqmeba, amitomac gansakuTrebul damTrgunvelobas iZens sasjeli _ `zRvaSi STagdeba~. marTalia, qarTvelebma ician zRvasa da zRvaosnobasTan dakavSirebuli terminebi, magram maT mxolod metaforulad Tu iyeneben. gavxazavT, aseTia aRmosavleli qarTvelis _ `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `avtoris~ _ mentaloba. cxadia, zemoTqmuls erTvis politikuri, geografiuli, klimaturi mizezebi, romelTa gamoc qarTvels xmeli urCevnia zRvas. sxva suraTs vxedavT dasavleT saqarTveloSi. SegveZlo am cnobebisTvis `dasavlurqarTuli istoriuli narativic gvewodebina~, magram maTi Semqmnelebi arian ara qarTvelebi, aramed _ berZnebi. maT cnobebSi ar Cans da arc unda Candes qarTvelTa mier aRqmuli samyaros suraTi. Sesabamisad, vfiqrobT, rom internetsivrceSi warmoCenili ori Tvalsazrisi ara urTierTsawinaaRmdego, aramed urTierTsrulmyofia. maT safuZvlad udevT ori gansxvavebuli narativi, magram erTi mentaliteti: aq berZnul wyaroTa korpusi, ase rom vTqvaT, qarTvelisTvis unayofo teqstad rCeba.

dabolos: Tu qarTvelis mentalobaSi zRva isev zRvrad darCa, misi gadalaxva SeuZlebeli iqneba realobaSic. literatura lorTqifaniZe 1995: g. lorTqifaniZe, fiqrebi saqarTveloze, Tbilisi, 1995 mamardaSvili 1992: m. mamardaSvili, saubrebi filosofiaze, Tbilisi, 1992 brodeli 2002: . II, . I, , , 2002 beraZe 1981: T. beraZe, zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1981


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beraZe, sanaZe 2003: T. beraZe, m. sanaZe, saqarTvelos istoria, w.1, antikuri xana da Sua saukuneebi, Tbilisi, 2003 batoniSvili vaxuSti 1973: batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, Tbilisi, 1973 georgika 1965: georgika, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t.II, teqstebi qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosces da ganmartebebi daurTes al. gamyreliZem da s. yauxCiSvilma, Tbilisi, 1965 qarTlis cxovreba 1955: qarTlis cxovreba, t. I, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, Tbilisi, 1955 qarTlis cxovreba 1959: qarTlis cxovreba, t. II, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, Tbilisi, 1959 javaxiSvili 1983: i. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani 12 tomad, t.II, Tbilisi, 1983 javaxiSvili 1982: i. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani 12 tomad, t.VI, Tbilisi, 1982 javaxiSvili 1984: i. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani 12 tomad, t. VII, Tbilisi, 1984 mixailova, CaniSevi 1966: . . , . . , , , 1966 glagolevi 1909: . . . , 1909, . I snouqi 2006:David Snoke, Biblical Case for an Old Earth, Bakerbooks, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2006 gamsaxurdia 1991: z. gamsaxurdia, vefxistyaosnis saxismetyveleba, Tbilisi, 1991 metreveli 1986: r. metreveli, daviT IV aRmaSenebeli, epoqis socialur-politikur-kulturuli istoriis mimoxilva, Tbilisi, 1986 narkvevebi 1988: , . II, IV-X , , 1988

enisa, literaturis da kulturis semiotika a


Tamar berekaSvili

qalaqis semiotika Tbilisi


Tbilisi yvela qarTvelisTvis qalaqobis sazomia. nebsiT Tu uneblieT, yvela nanax qalaqs swored Tbiliss vadarebT. xSirad am Sedarebis Sedegad guli gvwydeba. albaT, zedmet nacionalizmsa da patriotizmSi ar CagviTvlian, Tu vityviT, rom Tbilisi miekuTvneba msoflios iseT qalaqTa rocxvs, romelTac Tavisi unikaluri kultura Seqmnes. arsebobs Tbilisuri kultura. es gamoixateba qalaqis gansakuTrebul atmosferoSi, arqiteqturaSi, sakontaqto enasa Tu enebSi, drois gatarebis CvevebSi, sazogadod, yofis CvevebSi, urTierTobebSi, xelovnebaSi. Tbilisis erTaderToba da sakuTrivi kulturis mniSvnelobac am zemoCamoTvlil niSnebsa Tu sferoebSi gansaxierda. cxadia, rom es kultura ar Seqmnila erT weliwadSi an Tundac erT saukuneSi, amas sWirdeboda mravalsaukunovani istoria, mravali gansacdeli da sixaruli, ris Sedegadac Camoyalibda adamianis is gansakuTrebuli tipi, romelsac Tbiliseli hqvia. es ar niSnavs TbilisSi dabadebas da ar gulisxmobs ama Tu im fenis, wris wevrobas. ramdenad bundovnadac unda JRerdes, es aris sulieri, mentaluri Rirebu-

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, SedarebiTi literaturis institutis mkvlevari. ZiriTadi naSromebi: Tanamedrove Rirebulebebi da idealebi, postmodernizmi Tanamedroveobis konteqstSi (kulturis filosofia) da sxva. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ramdenime statia socialur da politikur filosofiaSi - demokratizacia (g. JorJoliansa da m. musxeliSvilTan erTad), Tanamedrove socialuri viTareba saqarTveloSi (rusul enaze xarkovis universitetis masalebSi) da sxva. interesTa sfero: semiotika, kulturis filosofia.


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lebrivi mikuTvnebuloba, azrovnebis, Sefasebis da dafasebis, gamocdilebis specifikuri manera, romelic, Sesabamisad, sakuTar enas flobs. es enac ar amoiwureba bgerebiT, sityvebiT, sazogadod lingvisturi raobiT, es aris, agreTve, cxovrebis da Tanacxovrebis sakuTari wesebi, qcevis dauwereli normebi, iumori da Rirebulebebi, amasTan, ufro esTetikuri, vidre _ politikuri, azrisa da Sexedulebis kodirebis gansakuTrebuli wesebi, romlebic cnobilia marto `TbiliselebisTvis~ da rac Zalian sagulisxmoa da mniSvnelovani, Tbilisis es unikaluri kultura Riaa, mas Serwymuli da gaTavisebuli aqvs evropuli Tu aRmosavluri civilizaciebis Taviseburebebi. is gaxsnilia yvela kulturisadmi, yvela enisadmi, yvela religiisadmi. Riaa dResac, miuxedavad yvela cvlilebisa da qartexilisa, romelic mas Tavs daatyda dRes, saqarTvelos damoukideblobasTan erTad, misi gaxsniloba lamis aRviraxsnilobad iqca. Tbilisis `Tbilisuroba~ ver gaanadgura verc ruseTTan mierTebam, verc sabWoTa reJimma, verc msoflio omebma. pirveli bzari sabWoTa kavSiris dacemis Semdeg gaCnda, rodesac erTmaneTs daupirispires Tbiliselebi da araTbiliselebi. meore dartyma Tbiliss e. w. globalizaciam miayena. misi wyalobiT Tbilisma iwvnia yovelive specifikuris moSla, erTnairobis damkvidreba, rac ara uflebaTa TanasworobaSi gamoixata, aramed _ pirovnulobis uaryofaSi, standartizebaSi, damdablebasa da erTgvar `samomxmareblo RirebulebaTa~ gaziarebaSi salaparako inglisuri ena, qeisi, kompiuteris zedapiruli codna, mobiluri telefoni . . . amas daemata migracia da emigracia, siRaribe, umuSevroba (postsabWoTa problemebi). yovelive zemoTqmulis Sedegad, moiSala Tbilisis sakuTari ena, romelic, rogorc iTqva, martoden lingvisturi mniSvnelobis ar aris. ucxo elementebis momravlebam, axali sinamdvilis Zalismierma SemoWram daazarala Tanaarsebobis is wesebi da Rirebulebebi, romlebic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravda Tbilisis mimzidvelobas. es axali sinamdvile ara marto dasavluri realiebis gaTavisebaa, aramed _ cruZveli da crureligiuri xatebis dabrunebac. saqarTvelosTvis axali veluri kapitalizmis `aqtorebi~ (Tu davesesxebiT Tanamedrove politologiur terminologias) demonstratiulad aCveneben Tavis RvTismosavobas da axal-axali eklesiebis mozRvavebiT samoTxeSic cdiloben, adgili daijavSnon. mosaxleobis koncentraciam TbilisSi da araTbiliselTa upi-

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ratesobam TbiliselebTan SedarebiT, rogorc ricxvobrivma, aseve funqcionalurma, gazarda arsebulisa da Rirebulis gadaqceva usargeblod da nagvad _ aSenda sruliad usaxo saxlebi, jixurebi... qalaqi Caflulia uazro xmaurian da arsebiTad ucxo bgerebSi iqneba es musika, Tu inglisuri an ufro amerikuli terminebiT gaJRenTili metyveleba, saxlebis fasadebi da savali gzebi dafarulia gaugebari warwerebiT da TbiliselisTvis Sinaarsis armqone mowodebebiT. Tbilisuri qarTuli gadaiqca qarTuli warmoSobis sityvebis grovad, romelic Sezavebulia ucxouri (rusuli, inglisuri) leqsikiT, romelTa dakavSireba SeiZleba yovelgvari ricxvis, brunvis, uRlebis wesebis gauTvaliswineblad. qarTuli enis codna gaxda araaqtualuri, zedmeti da xSirad saxifaToc ki. Tbilisi gadaiqca cxovrebis erT-erT yvelaze usiamovno adgilad. mZime dReSi arian moxucebi, saerTodac, ormocdaaTsgadacilebulebi. maT ara aqvT am samyaroSi adgili, funqcia; maT ar ician axali ena, acviaT 60-70-iani wlebis modis didi xnis gacveTili tansacmeli; maTi pretenzia arsebobaze Rimilsac ki ar iwvevs, imdenad araarsebiTia da umniSvnelo. usargeblod da ararsebulad iqca istoria, Tanaarsebobis wesebi, zrdilobis elementaruli Cvevebi. yvela aSenebs Tu agvarebs Tavis sasicocxlo kuTxes, iqneba es bina mravalsarTulian saxlSi, romelsac misi patroni mezoblebis daukiTxavad amatebs oTaxebs, aivnebs, sxvenebs da sardafebs (da bunebrivia, uwodebs evroremonts); quCa romelic nebismiers SeuZlia gadaketos Tavisi jixuriTa Tu manqanis sadgomiT, Tu sakmarisi fuli aqvs; restorani, romelsac moulodnelad aRmoaCen mezoblad SuaRamisas simRerebisa da ginebis wyalobiT; Jurnal-gazeTebi, gavsebuli piradi konfliqtebiT, WorebiT, pirovnuli braldebebiT da intimuri wvrilmanebiT; televizia serialebiT, mtrebisa da metoqeebis dapirispirebiT, amerikuli `boevikebi~. miuxedavad simWidrovisa da xalxmravlobisa, sruli simartovis, erTgvari udabnoSi cxovrebis gancda ipyrobs yvelas, vinc SeCveulia sxva yofas, visac axsovs Tbilisi da Tvlida, rom Rirebulebebi raRacad Rirs. unda aRiniSnos, rom TandaTanobiT qreba iseTi cnebis da, Sesabamisad, misi denotatis _ adamianis Rirebuleba, rogoricaa Tbiliseli. es erTgvarad mniSvnelobadakarguli da `aRararsebuli~ terminia. ZiriTadad, es faqti aixsneba ara imdenad imiT, rom TbilisSi Tavs iyris yvela da am yvelaSi TbiliselTa wili minimaluria, aramed imiT, rom axalgazrdebi izrdebian da yalibdebian ara Tbiliselebad, aramed orientirebulebi arian evropasa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebze, dasavleTze da amdenad, Tbilis-qalaqis tra-


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diciebi, cxovrebis saukunovani wesebi, aqauri esTetika maTTvis usargebloa da SesaZloa damabrkolebelic gaxdes momavalSi, rodesac sazRvars gadakveTen. sazRvris gadakveTa ki TiTqmis saukeTeso karieraa da sanatreli momavali. rogorc yvela qalaqs, miTumetes, datvirTuls mdidari warsuliT, Tbiliss aqvs Tavisi miTebi. metic, es miTebi xSirad saxes icvlian an kvdebian, Cndebian axali miTebi. miTebis mixedviT SeiZleba msjeloba im Rirebulebebze, romlebic aerTianebs TbilisSi mcxovrebTa umravlesobas. sazogadod, sazogadoebriv-istoriuli miTis buneba aracalsaxaa. erTi mxriv, miTi gvevlineba rogorc erTgvari meqanizmi, romelic axdens sociokulturuli winaamRdegobebis harmonizacias sazogadoebaSi drois mocemul momentSi da amdenad, misi wevrebis solidarobis normis aqtualizebas. meore mxriv, miTs aqvs diaqronuli roli, romelic gamoixateba imaSi, rom adamianebs eZlevaT saSualeba amaRldnen TavianT yoveldRiur interesebsa da miznebze, Tavi ganixilon ganuwyvetel jaWvSi warsulidan momavlisaken. qalaqis, da miTumetes, dedaqalaqis miTebi adamianTa cxovrebaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben. swored miTis meSveobiT SevigrZnobT dros, samyaros, qalaqis istorias. miTi ayalibebs erTgvar realobas, xats, romelic qmediTia da mniSvnelovani qalaqis mcxovreblebisTvis. arsebobs saxelmwifo miTebi, magaliTad, Tbilisis Seqmnis istoria; es esqatologiuri miTia, is mianiSnebs Tbilisis gansakuTrebul adgilmdebareobaze, gamorCeulobaze, RvTisrCeulobaze; literaturuli miTebi _ modudune mtkvris ganumeorebloba da gansakuTrebuli, jadosnuri gavlena poetebze; yofiTi miTebi _ magaliTad, romelime quCis bednierebasa Tu uiRblobaze. XIX saukunis saganmanaTleblo moRvaweobis Sedegad gansakuTrebuli koncentrireba moxda saqarTvelos, rogorc qveynis mniSvnelobaze da mogvianebiT, ukve XX saukuneSi axali JReradoba SeiZina qarTulma da erovnulma, ramac Tavisi simboloebi daamkvidra dedaqalaqSi qarTlis dedisa da qarTuli enis Zeglebis saxiT. sainteresoa dRevandeli, Tanamedrove miTologiis asaxva qalaqis ier-saxeze. dRes saqarTvelo aRiqmeba (rac ueWvelad miTia), rogorc msoflio derefani, rogorc dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisken, ise CrdiloeTidan samxreTisken. derefani unda iyos moxerxebuli, advilad gadasalaxavi, sasiamovno, amitom Sendeba Senobebi (ZiriTadad, sastumroebi da restornebi), romelTa konstruqcia orientirebulia ara qarTul Cvevebsa da tradiciebze, aramed msoflios moqalaqeebis moTxovnebze. bolo dros aSenebul Zeg-

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lebsac ufro internacionaluri xasiaTi aqvT xidze moseirne axalgazrdebi, an jambazebi rusTavelis gamzirze. erovnulma ki SeiZina ucxoelebis mosazidi kolorituli samSvenisis roli, romelsac Tavisi gansazRvruli adgili aqvs miCenili da misi mowodebac xdeba Teatraluri warmodgenis saxiT. urTierTobebisa da kavSirebis am mudmiv qselebSi ar rCeba is mTavari, ris gamoc urTierToba myardeba kulturaTa, pirovnebaTa Sexvedra. amieridan urTierToba gadaiqca yofiTi da `aqtualuri~, moaruli informaciis gatarebad. daikarga adresatic da informaciis momwodebelic, darCa marto arxi. yvela adamiani metnaklebad kargi arxia. ukeTesi arxebi atareben ara marto qarTulenovan kliSeebs, aramed inglisurenovansac, riTac did kmayofilebas imsaxureben Camosul dasavleTelebSi, romelTac aq xvdebiT `iqidan~ gamogzavnili `mesiji~. TbilisSi ikargeba misi is specifiuri sfero, romelsac SeiZleba socialuri da kulturuli atmosfero vuwodoT da rac socialurobis damaxasiaTebel gamovlinebad Camoyalibda saukuneebis manZilze. qreba ara marto es gansakuTrebuli forma socialurisa, aramed _ Tavad socialuri kavSirebi. adamianebi TandaTanobiT iqcnen masebad. rac ufro izrdeba xalxis raodenoba da simWidrove, miT ufro mcirdeba socialuri urTierTobebi. meore mxriv, Tbilisi, romelic uTuod erT-erT udides qalaqs warmoadgens kavkasiaSi, iTavsebs socialurobis yvela elements urTierTobis SesaZlebloba da mudmivi urTierTkavSirebi, informaciis misawvdomoba, gadaadgilebis siadvile da a. S. miuxedavad amisa, urTierTobis Rirebuleba Seicvala kliSeebis, urTierTgacvlis formiT, romlis fasi miT ufro maRalia, rac ufro prestiJulia urTierTgacvlis es formebi piradi mogebisTvis, miT ufro formaluria da normalizebuli. informaciisa da formaluri wesebis am siuxveSi adamiani kargavs araformaluri urTierTobebis aucileblobis gancdas, piradi Sefasebebis unars, rac ar SeiZleba ar iwvevdes protestis grZnobas. yovelive es, Tavis mxriv, sul ufro xSirad gadaizrdeba siZulvilSi, usagno, umizno, auxsnel siZulvilSi, romelic agresiis saxiT iCens Tavs. agresia vrceldeba yvelaze da yvelaferze. amis magaliTebi bevr Cvengans mravlad xvdeba yoveldRe transportsa Tu quCaSi, Jurnal-gazeTebis furclebze, televiziasa Tu radioSi, pirad urTierTobebSi. Seicvala salaparako intonaciac ki, man mravalferovneba dakarga; darCa mowodebis, brZanebis, iZulebisa da mouTmenlobis toni. siZulvili mimarTulia yvelasa da yvelafris mimarT, rac gansxvavebulia. amasTan, es siZulvili exeba erTnairsac, stan-


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dartulsac, swored erTnairobis, msgavsebis, identurobis gamo. imarjveben da `warmatebas~ aRweven isini, vinc gansakuTrebiT agresiulia, vinc yvelaze xmamaRla yviris da yvelaze uSveri sityvebiT igineba. imisTvis rom mogisminon, dagijeron, gamogyvnen, saWiroa yvelaze xmamaRla iRrialo da yvelaze xSirad, sasurvelia, ganuwyvetliv. adamianebi TandaTanobiT iqcevian nayar, gadagdebul obieqtebad. ase xdeba maSin, rodesac globalur masStabSi modelirdeba xelovnuri samyaro, mimdinareobs funqciaTa specializacia da centralizacia. rodesac aSeneben saCvenebel qalaqebs, qmnian saCvenebel funqciebs, saCvenebel xelovnur ansamblebs, danarCeni yvelaferi iqceva gadasayrel narCenad, nagvad, warsulis usargeblo da umizno memkvidreobad. rodesac iqmneba avtostradebi, supermarketebi, superqalaqi, avtomaturad yvelaferi danarCeni da is, rac mis irgvlivaa, iqceva udabnod. zustad igive xdeba sainformacio arteriebis midamoebSi yvelaferi, rac mis irgvlivaa, rac gareTaa, marginaluria, uaryofilia, mas mas-media ararad Tvlis. imisda mixedviT, Tu rogor izrdeba qalaqis mosaxleoba da simWidrove, adamianebi anulirdebian (bodriaris sityvebiT). iwyeba socialuris daSla. did qalaqSi warmodgenilia, rogorc wesi, socialuris yvela elementi. Yyvela procesis aCqareba da intensifikacia iwvevs individSi gulgrilobasa da dabneulobas. `yvela Tavis orbitazea, paralelurad arsebobs~. sayovelTao komunikaciis, informirebis atmosferoSi adamiani ususuri xdeba. samyaro kargavs diferenciacias. Tanamedrove samyaro xasiaTdeba masStabebis usaSvelo zrdiT an maqsimaluri SemcirebiT da adamianis sakuTari, adamianuri sazomi qreba, umniSvnelo xdeba. sinamdvileSi am centrSi arsebuli adamianebi, romlebic sxva araferia, Tu ara funqciebi, kargaven pirovnulobas, da miuxedavad imisa, rom yvela sxvas, gariyuls, `udabnoSi mcxovrebs~ ararsebulad miiCnevs, Tavad iqceva fiqciad, iarliyad. SemoqmedebiTi da kulturuli TvalsazrisiT is mkvdaria. namdvili iqmneba swored am udabnoSi, Tu ki am udabnos sicocxlis elementaruli pirobebi SeunarCundeba. magram am udabnos mcxovreblebsac TandaTanobiT ekargebaT tradiciuli wes-Cvevebis da qalaqis Taviseburi esTetikis grZnoba, Tumca maT aqvT unari, Seqmnan raRac axali. maTSi izrdeba agresiuloba, magram TviTgadarCenis instinqti ubiZgebs axali Ziebebisken, eTikisa da esTetikis axali formebis Camoyalibebisken, Tanacxovrebis axali, xSirad ki kargad daviwyebuli formebis ganviTarebisken. Tbilisi savsebiT SeiZleba CaiTvalos Tanamedrove qalaqad,

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Tundac is erTgvarad Selaxuli da naklebefeqturi Candes. yovel SemTxvevaSi, is riskis sazogadoeba, romelzedac laparakoben dasavleTis moazrovneebi (e. gidensi, u. beki), TbilisSic yalibdeba. sainteresoa, rom es procesi Tan sdevs kapitalizmis ganviTarebis process, rac erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba, vinaidan am ukanasknelis mizania simdidris dagroveba da gadanawileba. rac Seexeba riskis sazogadoebas, misi ZiriTadi problemaa riskis minimizacia, gadarCena am saSiS samyaroSi, sadac aRar arsebobs jansaRi hava, sakvebi, tye da wyali, sadac bunebis kanonebic pirobiTi gaxda (Cven varT im asakis, im sqesis, im garegnobis, romelic gvinda); rom aRar vilaparakoT omis saSiSroebaze, romelic TiTqos yvela mosaxvevidan gvemuqreba. TbilisSi Camosuli stumrebisa da didi xnis gadaxvewili da moulodnelad Camosuli adamianebis gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom ZiriTad Tvisebad, romelsac TiTqmis yvela maTgani axsenebs Tbilisis mosaxleobaze saubrisas, isini miiCneven sicocxles. _ `yvela cocxalia~, `yvelaferi ainteresebT~, `Raribebic ki xalisianebi da aradaTrgunulebi arian~, `sicocxle da mxiaruleba sufevs~ da a.S. yovelive es imedis momcemia. Tbilisma SeinarCuna erTgvari Sinauruli atmosfero, sadac mdidari Tu Raribi, xelisufali Tu ubralo moqalaqe ar aRiqmeba ucxod, yvela erTi ojaxis Svilia. jerjerobiT, yvelas Tavisi metsaxeli aqvs, yvelas Tavisebureba, simpaTia Tu naklovaneba yvelasTvis cnobilia, yvela aSenebs Tu anadgurebs sxvebis gafacicebuli mzeris qveS da yvela yvelasgan raRacas elis. Tumca mosulma Tavisuflebam TbilisSi mainc waleka ara marto diqtatura, cenzura, bolSevizmi, uro da namgali, aramed Cveni urTierTobebic, romlebic gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasi iyo adre, roca sxva araferi gvqonda Tavisufali. samudamod wavida Tbilisidan Zveli surneli, Rimili, ferebi, rac, rogorc zemoT vTqvi, arc erT reJims ar Seuqmnia, Seqmnes mxolod Tbiliselebma saukuneebis manZilze. rac unda bevri duqani da restorani gaixsnas, yvela saxlSi rom samlocvelo aigos, Tbiliss verc Zvel xibls davubrunebT da verc dasavlur qalaqad CavTvliT. SesaZlebelia TbilisSi Zveli atmosferos dabruneba an ki saWiroa misi dabruneba? iqneb arc araferia SemaSfoTebeli?! mTavaria, rom cocxlebi varT da is siZulvili, romelic dRes anadgurebs istorias, kulturas, urTierTobebs da a. S., gaanadgurebs Tavis Tavsac da yvelaferi Tavidan daiwyeba.


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literatura

veberi 1923: . , - 1923 haieki 1999: . . . . ., 1999 eliade 1994: . . ., 1994 brodeli 1986: . . ., 1986 bodriari1995: . . . 1995 eko 1998: ., . . , 1998 lotmani 1982: . . // , 1982, . 2 todorovi 1983: . . , . 1983

qeTevan bucxrikiZe

samyaros kosmograma da Tanamedrove qalaqi


`qalaqi adamianis arsebobis pirobis udidesi, yovelmxrivi da srulyofili gamoxatulebaa, am gamoxatulebis yvelaze ufro fiqsirebuli da mniSvnelovani safexuri ki arqiteqturaa. igi aramarto adamianis arsebobis pirobis adgilia, aramed Tavad am pirobis nawilicaa da gamoxatulia mis ZeglebSi, bunebaSi, sacxovrebelSi, da yvela urbanul artefaqtSi rac dasaxlebuli adgilidan gamomdinareobs~. klod levi-strosi

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis magstranti arqiteqturis mimarTulebiT (mecnieri xelmZRvaneli _ guram yifiani). interesTa sfero: arqiteqtura, arqeologia, qalaqi.

XXI saukune aris qalaqebis mSeneblobos saukune. qalaqmSeneblobis sakiTxebi yuradRebis centrSi imyofeba, radgan qalaqebis ganviTarebis procesi dRevandel dRes Zalze maRali tempebiT mimdinareobs. socialurma cvlilebebma da uaxlesma teqnologiurma saSualebebma win wamoswia iseTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxi, rogoricaa momavali kacobriobis sacxovrebeli adgilebis Seqmna. es, Tavis mxriv, moiTxovs qalaqmSeneblobis sul axal da axal proeqtebs, romlebic xSirad fantastikuri saxiT warmogvidgeba arqiteqtorebis xedviT. jer kidev Zvel droSi kacobriobas adardebda qalaqmSeneblobis problemebi. iqmneboda qalaqebis gegmebi da maTi kompoziciuri moxazulobebi. Zvel indoeTSi da CineTSi dgeboda qalaqebis geometriuli sqemebi da iwereboda qalaqmSeneblobiTi


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traqtatebi. aseve, Zveli berZnebi did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen qalaqebis dagegmarebas. cnobilia platonis idealuri qalaqis cneba, misi optimaluri zomebiTa da socialuri fenebis SemadgenlobiT. [4] pirveli qalaqebi Camoyalibda, rogorc religuri centrebi, adgilebi, sadac saRmrTo rituali xsnida samyaros bunebis Zalebis SemTxveviTobas da mis daqvemdebarebas adamianTa saWiroebebze, Zalauflebisa da materialuri resursebis gadanawilebas socialuri klasis interesebSi, riTac amyarebda samyaros mowyobis wesrigs, iyenebda ra religiur ceremonias da sagnobriv formas, rogorc Tavis ZiriTad instruments. qalaqis forma Zalauflebis fsiqologiuri iaraRia da misi gegmareba xorcieldeba magiuri Sesabamisobis logikiT, uZlieresi da Rrmad kodirebuli instrumentebiT. azrovnebis es sqema gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom forma yvela dasaxlebisa unda iyos magiuri samyaros modeli, RvTaebrivi wesrigi. es forma gamoiyeneboda, rogorc kavSiris damyarebis saSualeba adamianebsa da ciur Zalebs Soris, saSualeba harmoniuli wesrigis damyarebisa dedamiwaze, romelic axasiaTebs kosmoss. amiT adamianis sicocxles eZleoda myari da usafrTxo adgili samyaroSi. RmerTebis avtoriteti daculia, xolo borotebis Zalebi da qaosi gandevnilia qalaqis gareT, Zalauflebis struqtura (mefeebi, qurumebi, aristokratia) gamyarebulia. yvelaferi es dRes crurwmenad gveCveneba, magram magiuri Sesabamisobis ideam didi gavlena iqonia qalaqebis cxovrebis Camoyalibebasa da ganviTarebaze. ufro metic, Cven verc ki vamCnevT Cvens warmodgenebSi, Tu ra bevria qalaqmSeneblobis formaSi am proideisa: mdgradoba droSi ufro farToa, vidre crurwmena, romelmac is warmoSva. [1] qalaqis kosmiuri interpretacia yvelaze metad gamoxatulia Cinur da indur kulturaSi. indoeli Teoretikosebis qalaqmSeneblobiT praqtikaSi aSkarad iyo gamokveTili rogorc adamianebisa da RmerTebis kavSiris sistema, aseve ritualebis kavSiri qalaqis dagegmarebasTan. maT TeoriebSi naTlad iyo miTiTebuli, Tu rogor unda daeyoT teritoriebi da ganecalkevebinaT igi qaosis Zalebisagan. Sesaferisi da tipuri forma aRmoCnda `mandala~ _ koncentrirebuli wreebis sistema, Cawerili kvadratebis mkafiod gamoyofili geometriuli centriT. formis Caketiloba aRniSnavda siwmindes, romelic icavda mas boroti Zalebisagan. sqemaSi moZraobis veqtori mimarTuli iyo

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garedan SigniT, wminda adgilebis gverdis avliT, saaTis isris mimarTulebiT. mandala _ spxata, protoideaa, romelic udevs safuZvlad induri qalaqebis proeqtirebas. is xsnis im impulss, romelmac ubiZga kacobriobas qalaqebis Senebisken. adamianebs eZlevaT warmodgena qalaqis Sesaxeb, sadac xorcieldeba koleqtiuri neba progresisaken, ganviTarebisaken da diadi saqmianobisaken. mandalas uwodeben azrovnebis Zravis magvar iaraRs, romelic meqanizmiviTaa, muSaobs sxva da sxva doneze da exmareba adamians miaRwios WeSmarit sibrZnes. mandala aris qalaqis maTematikuri gamosaxuleba, Tanac iseTi qalaqis, romelic warmoadgens kacobriobis TviTrealizaciisaken swrafvis unikalur saSualebas. saqarTveloSi mandaluri nakvalevi nekresis `didi kvadratis saxiT mogvevlina. [2] mandalas safuZvelze, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Seiqmna qalaqmSeneblobiTi traqtati _ manasara. igi axdens dasaxlebuli adgilebis klasifikacias maTi wamyvani daniSnulebis, dasaxlebis Semadgenlobisa da dagegmarebis struqturis xasiaTis mixedviT. manasara ansxvavebs soflis 8 saxeobas da qalaqis 8 tips, romelTa safuZvelzec iqmneboda bevri induri qalaqi. qalaqi aris sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis arena, romelic ireklavs sazogadoebis socialur struqturas. qalaqi istoriulad Camoyalibebuli sazogadoebis cxovelmoqmedebis organizaciis teritoriulad lokalizebuli formaa, romelsac safuZvlad udevs qalaqis mowyobis meqanizmi, es warmoadgens qvesistemebis urTierTkavSiris saSualebas, xerxs da qmnis qalaqis socialur-sivrciT struqturas. yoveli qalaqi moicavs amouwurav informaciul potencials. es aris grandiozuli teqsti, sadac Cven amovikiTxavT aramarto movlenebis matianes, aramed aseve momavlis ganviTarebis mimarTulebebsac. informatiuli sixSiriTa da datvirTviT yvelaze did koncentrirebul wertils warmoadgens qalaqis istoriuli centri. swored amitomac igi aris ganaTlebisa da Tanamedrove adamianis aRzrdis formis modeli. aseve ganmsazRvrelia, Tu rogori saqalaqo sivrce aris istoriul centrSi. mas bevr aspeqtSi SeuZlia gaiTvaliswinos, iwinaswarmetyvelos, Tu rogori moqalaqe gaizrdeba ama Tu im qalaqSi momavalSi. centris unikaloba, misi gansakuTrebuloba qalaqis sxva elementebTan SedarebiT ganisazRvreba ara marto imiT, rom is agrovebs adamianis moRvaweobis yvela nimuSs, aramed aZlevs mas arsebobis


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saSualebas yofacxovrebis, Sromis, moRvaweobisa da urTierTobis yvela formaSi. simboluri centri sulieri faseulobaa. mas ar unda mivudgeT formalurad warsulis pativiscemiT. is iTxovs arqiteqturis maRal profesionalizms, taqts, zneobriv sisufTaves. Tavisufali Semoqmedebis TviTgamoxatvis damorCileba, rogorc romaelebi eZaxdnen, `adgilis genia` an `adgilis suli, aris yvelgan, yvela KkuTxekunWulSi, magram simbolur `centrSi es aris gansakuTrebuli `suli, vidre sxva danarCen adgilebSi. mcxeTis magaliTze, zemoT moxseniebul istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, SegviZlia vimsjeloT centrisa da konteqstis arsebobaze. md. mtkvrisa da aragvis SesarTavTan arsebuli samkuTxa koncxi mogvevlineba am teritoriis energetikul centrad, rac ganapiroba am qalaqis geografiulma mdebareobam. igi warmoadgens gzebis TavSeyris adgils, ra mizeziTac swored aq iyo msoflio savaWro mniSvnelobis punqti, samrewvelo, kerpTayvanismcemlobis centri, xolo mogvianebiT, qristianuli religiis fuZe da saeklesio-religiuri centric. amasTan erTad mcxeTa iyo saTavdacvo sistemis mqone qalaqi. yvela am funqciis Tavmoyra moxda swored erT gamoyofil fizikurgeometriul samkuTxa centrSi, romelmac mis garSemo Camoayaliba cxovrebiseuli qalaqi. [6] qalaqis qaoturi Camoyalibebis mizeziT, Tbilisis gengegmaSi ver vkiTxulobT gamokveTilad arsebuli centrisa da konteqstis struqturas. Tavidanve qalaqis Camoyalibeba ar momxdara erTiani ganviTarebis gengegmiT, ar arsebobs sxvadasxva konkretuli funqciebis mixedviT gamoyofili centrebi, saqmiani, kulturuli, religiuri, gasarTobi, savaWro Tu sxv. qalaqSi aseT centrad SeiZleba CaiTvalos rusTavelis grZivi RerZi, aseve aRmaSeneblis quCa. TbilisSi reliefi ar iZleva gamokveTili centris arsebobis saSualebas. [7] mandalis struqtura rom davSaloT nawilebad, gamoiyofa ori elementi: pirveli _ centri, meore _ konteqsti. aq centri, rogorc magniti, dominantia, romlis garSemocaa sxva danarCeni kompozicia ganlagebuli. am sqemis amokiTxva SesaZloa Tanamedrove qalaqgegmarebis kompoziciebSic, sadac aseve gamoyofilia qalaqis centri da konteqsti. riT aixsneba Zveli droidan moyolebuli Tanamedrove qalaqebSi centrisa da konteqstis arseboba? albaT, adamianis fsiqologia saWiroebs, mibmuli da marTuli iyos Tavisi saarsebo arealiT centris magnitze, romelic atarebs Tavis garSemo da praqtikulad ganagebs

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mas. erTi wuTiT rom warmovidginoT qalaqi centris gareSe, ra moxdeboda? albaT, sruli qaosi, romelic moculi iqneboda wvrilwvrili centrebis kavSirebiT. gamodis, rom kacobrioba imarTeba didi centraluri mamoZravebeli magnit-manqanebiT da albaT, es saWirocaa. aviRoT Zveli qalaqis centri, romlis mizidulobis energetika imdenad Zlieria, rom adamiani pirdapir midis im mTavar wertilSi, sadac Caisaxa pirveli cxovrebiseuli rutina. mas aqvs interesi, survilisa da yofnis gancda, aris es religiuri centri Tu administraciuli. amis magaliTebia: romis koloseumi, saberZneTis akropolisi, vatikanis wm. petres taZari da sxv. savaraudoa, rom dResdReobiT, gvinda Tu ar gvinda, Tanamedrove qalaqis fuZes swored is Zveli istoriuli centri-magnitebi warmoadgenen. maTi ugulebelyofa SeuZlebelia da arc aris mizanSewonili, radganac axali qalaqis centri mSrali futuro gamodis. igi ar gamocems energetikas, romelic ileqeboda saukuneebis manZilze. is mxolod eleqtronuli internetis `skad mogvevlineba, magram ar vuaryofT Tanamedrove teqnologiebis did miRwevebs, romelTa saSualebebiTac iqmneba didi sivrce, sadac adamianebs axali urTierTobebis areali eqmnebaT. es moitana drom da areali kidev ufro gaizrdeba momavalSi. ubralod, saWiroa manqanuri Zalauflebis veqtorebis mimarTva imgvarad, rom igi ar mowydes im sawyiss istoriul wertilebs, romlebic kvebaven Cven cxovrebas yoveldRiurad da ar gamoiwvios civilizaciis krizisi. [5] Tu gadavavlebT Tvals XXI saukunis arqiteqturas da misgan warmoSobil axal xedvas, raSic vgulisxmobT caTambjenebis auracxel raodenobas da maT usasrulo formebs, gveqmneba STabeWdielba, rom Cven sul male vicxovrebT ara gansazRvruli qalaqis regulirebul sistemaSi, aramed teqnologiuri fantaziebis mier Sobil an gamozrdil `biologiur sistemebSi, romelTa komunikaciebic midis usasrulobamde. iqmneba eko qalaqebi, wyalze mocurave qalaqebi, xis totebis magvari Senobebi, boWkovani sistemebi, cifruli qalaqebi [12], sadac adamiani TiTqos inkubatorSi izrdeba. amgvari didi masStabis sivrceebi sruliad kargavs anTropomorful masStabs. aq adaianis cxovreba wydeba im miCveul garemos, nostalgiebs da velur bunebas, ramac Soba. igi veRar aRiqvams im sawyis regulirebad sistemas, raSic cxovrobda. SesaZloa ar gamoiricxos is faqtic, rom momavalSi adamiani Seegueba amgvar cifrul, boWkovan qalaqebs, magram Cven vvaraudobT, rom amas didi dro dasWirdeba. adamianis fsiqologia aseT globalur cvlilebasTan adaptacias mcire droSi ver moaxdens.


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muSavdeba sul ufro da ufro avangardistuli proeqtebi, Senobebi saxuravebze satransporto trasebiT, fasadebze gamwvanebiT da sxv. msoflios qalaqmSenebeli arqiteqtorebi darwmunebulebi arian qalaqebis sistemur krizisSi. berZeni qalaqmSenebeli-arqiteqtori konstantin doqsiadisi Tvlida, rom principuli gardaqmnis gareSe qalaqebs sul male ewveva urbanuli katastrofa. teqnikam miaRwia progress, xolo saqalaqo mowyobis sistemam _ vera. Tanamedrove qalaqebSi rac metia transportis siswrafe, miT ufro meti dro gvWirdeba centrSi mosaxvedrad. mizezebi sacobebia, uamravi avtomaqana da miznamde male miRwevis survili. qalaqebis masStabebi gaizarda da amasTan _ droc daniSnulebis adgilamde misaRwevad. mizezi gaxlavT is, rom qalaqebis warmoqmnidan dRemde satransporto mSeneblobis principi ar Secvlila. doqsiadisi xsnas xedavda principulad axali qalaqebis sistemebis SeqmnaSi. magaliTad, satransporto sistemas aigivebda sisxlis mimoqcevasTan, sadac centrSi ufro farTe arteriebia da sisxlis mimoqcevac metia, xolo periferiebSi viwro ZarRvebSi ki mcire nakadebi. igi Tvlida, rom swored amgvari sistemebis aSenebiT gaumjobesdeboda qalaqebis mdgomareoba, magram sad ganTavsdeboda es sitemebi, miwis zeviT Tu qvemoT, amis gadawyveta uWirdaT inJinrebs [9]. Cveni azriT, dRevandeli arqiteqtorebi erTi SexedviT xsnas xedaven ekoqalaqebSi, raTa qalaqs resursebis gauaresebis mxriv odnav mainc Seumsubuqon mdgomareoba. isini cdiloben meti gamwvaneba Seitanon saavtomobilo transportiT gadatvirTul saqalaqo sivrceSi, riTac uzrunvelyofen sivrcis gajansaRebas. did qalaqebs aqvT aseve sxva problemebic. maTi zrdisas wydeba adamianTa Soris urTierTkavSirebi, romlebic warmoadgenen civilizaciis safuZvels. arc satransporto da arc satelefono komunikaciebs ar SeuZliaT Secvalon cocxali urTierTobebi, romlebiTac kacobrioba sunTqavs yoveldRiurad. umTavres problemas vxedavT teqnologiuri ganviTarebis kritikul zRvarSi, romlis gareTac yovelgvari saTanado kavSirebi darRveulia da adgili aqvs areulobas. Cndeba sul ufro meti rTuli teqnologia, didi qalaqebi gardaiqmnebian koncentraciis wertilebad, xolo mcire qalaqebsa da soflebSi mosaxleoba klebulobs da xdeba gaukacrieleba. yovelive amis mizezi cxovrebiseuli moTxovnilebebis daukmayofilebaa. Cndeba kiTxva- gauwonasworebeli ganviTarebis saxelmwifoebSi ra unda iyos arqiteqtoris prioriteti?

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aseT viTarebaSi teqnologiebi mTavari moTxovnilebebis Sesrulebis saSualebebi xdebian. es saSualebebi did qalaqebSi Warbadaa, xolo naklebad ganviTarebulSi cxovrebis axleburi xedva mxolod televiziisa da radios saSualebiT Semodis. didi qalaqebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli problemebidan aseve aRsaniSnavia mzardi raodenobis mosaxleobis damokidebuleba gansazRvrul, ganviTarebul teritoriaze, sadac mTavari komfortia. fsiqologiurad xalxis migraciis mizezi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom igi sistematurad inacvlebs ufro ukeTes da ukeTes adgilas. aseT process win veravin aRudgeba. amave dros, arqiteqtorma paralelurad ar unda daiviwyos soflis funqciac. man unda Seqmnas axali sistemebi, romlebic safuZvels Cauyris, rogorc mosaxleobis maRal industriul ganviTarebas, ise soflis meurneobis aRorZinebas. momavalze saubrisas xazs vusvamT teqnologiebiT Seqmnil axal samyaros, romelic ufro ioli gziT da swrafi tempiT aSenebs garemos, magram amave dros SesaZloa dakavSirebuli iyos warsulTanac, dafuZnebuli iyos ZiriTad faseulobebze da xalxis didi raodenobis keTlidReobaze. am konteqstSi Cven unda miviRoT teqnologiuri avansebi da gamovikvlioT zrdis axali mimarTulebebi. mTavaria mzardi mosaxleobisaTvis energiisa da resursebis swori formebiT gamoyeneba. SesaZloa, dRes jer kidev ar gvesmis, Tu sadaa teqnologiis, rogorc instrumentis, adgili, romlis gamoyenebac iqneb sworad arc SegviZlia! TavSeukavebel teqnologias SeuZlia migviyvanos Warbwarmoebamde, romlis Sedegic iqneba gamoyenebiTi flangva. arsebiTad sworia teqnologiis gamoyeneba adamianis keTildReobis mizniT. Cveni mTavari mizania sakiTxisadmi midgoma davafuZnoT cxovrebis swor Secnobaze, rac gulisxmobs garemos Seswavlas drosa da sivrceSi. amis Semdgom mosaxleobis raodenobis zrdis problema dakavSirebuli iqneba xarisxTan, romelic Sesabamisad gansazRvravs raodenobas. erTi mxriv, progresis uzrunvelsayofad SegviZlia SevarCioT ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTadi ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi, magram meore mxriv, Cvens SesaZleblobebs aRemateba sociologiuri cvlilebebis marTva, am axal Seqmnil sivrceSi, SegviZlia imgvarad davagegmaroT da vmarToT procesebi, rom moxdes xalxis jansaRi bunebrivi Segueba Tanamedrove garemosTan, sadac ocdaoTxi saaTis ganmavlobaSi adamiani daikmayofilebs yvela cxovrebiseul moTxovnilebas, sadac mas ubralod arCevanis Tavisufleba eqneba. aseTi organizaciuli formidan gamomdinareobs swori struqtura, kultura, ris garSemoc sazogadoebis Sekreba kvlav da kvlav


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gagrZeldeba. Cven unda gamovnaxoT sakuTari kulturuli katalizatorebi, romlebic iqcevian adamianebis saarsebo arealebad. dagegmarebis meTodi da arqiteqturuli gamoxatuleba ar aris is, rac unda iyos mTavari da erTaderTi. dReisaTvis msoflios mosaxleobis didi nawili cxovrobs e.w. qalaq gigantebSi, romlebic SeiZleba SevadaroT megamanqanebs, sadac adamianebi iqcnen WianWvelebad da CarTulebi arian am meqanizmis dinamikur moZraobaSi. [14] qalaqi gigantebi qmnian procesebis, sirTuleebisa da RonisZiebebis axal dinamikas, fizikur, socialur da ekonomikur garemoSi. aq wydeba demografiuli, socialuri, politikuri, ekonomikuri da ekologiuri problemebi. yovelive es moiTxovs rogorc bunebrivi, ise adamianuri resursebis gonivrul gamoyenebas cxovrebis xarisxis sul ufro mzardi moTxovnis kvaldakval. qalaqi gigantebi, romlebic aRmocendnen drois ekonomikuri bumis pirobebSi, qmnian mniSvnelovan SesaZleblobebs, magram amasTan erTad axorcieleben Zlier wnexs ekologiuri degradacis saxiT. aseTi masStabebi da dinamizmi qmnis adamianuri kapitalis did koncentracias da iqceva inkubatorad, qalaqad gigantebisaTvis. isini globalizaciis fokuss warmoadgenen, amasTan warmoadgenen globaluri riskis kerasac. dasaxlebis simWidrove qmnis iseT riskebs, romlebic ganpirobebulia bunebrivi da xelovnuri mizezebiT. qalaqis marTvis organoebi xdebian uZlurni swrafad gadaWran problemebi veberTela masStabebSi. aseTi qalaqebi warmoadgenen idealur adgils kvlevebis sawarmoeblad socialur, ekologiur, ekonomikur, samedicino, politikur da sxva sferoebSi. yovelive amis Sedegad maT aqvT didi potenciali, Seitanon wvlili mecnierebaSi, kulturaSi, xelovnebaSi, mSvidobasa da globalur marTlmsajulebaSi. cxovrebis done da xarisxi aseT qalaqebSi damokidebulia faseulobaTa sistemebze, individualur aRqmaze, urTierTobebze, rac sxvadasxva eTnosis, kulturis, religiisa da asakisaTvis sxvadasxvaa. adamianis prioritetebi, cxovrebiseuli urTierTobebi damokidebulia socialur-ekonomikur da kulturul garemoze. istoriuli adgilebi, kulturuli kerebi aris kargi adgili aseTi qalaqebisaTvis, maTi unikaluri identurobisaTvis, memkvidreobisaTvis. sabolood, aseTi sivrciTi kapitali qmnis socialur erTobas da mSobliuri saxlis SegrZnebas, rasac gadarCena da SenarCuneba esaWiroeba. amasTan mravali mcxovrebisaTvis cxovrebis done dabalia. niadagis dabinZureba, haeris, wylis, energiis ukmarisoba, sacobebi gzeb-

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ze, SezRuduli mwvane adgilebi, siRaribe da socialuri daucveloba uamrav problemebs uqmnis maT. kiTxvebi, romlebic daismis qalaq-gigantebis mcxovreblebis mimarT, aseTia: 1. rogor esmiT cxovrebis done, rogoria maTi specifiuri gageba, moTxovna da survili? 2. vis aqvs ufleba, upiratesoba, SearCios prioritetebi, dafinanseba da variantebi? 3. vis SeuZlia Seafasos cxovrebis done, sociokulturuli sistemebis farglebSi unikaluri faseulobebis gaTvaliswinebiT? 4. rogor SeiZleba gaxdnen qalaqi-gigantebi konkurentunariani, SemoqmedebiTi da mimzidveli? ganviTarebadi msoflios qalaqebis mSeneblobis dros gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas qalaqgegmareba sociokulturuli garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT. saWiroa uaxlesi, inovaciuri, ekonomikuri marTvis isntrumentebi, cxovrebis donis amaRleba kulturaTa Soris konteqstSi. saWiroa e.w. `cxeli wertilebis~ (uwyloba, ugazoba da a. S.) prevencia da strategiuli dagegmva. literatura 1. mandala 1986: . 1986. 28-37. 2. nekresis `didi kvadrati~ gv. 214-251 gamomcemloba kadmosi humanitaruli kvleviTi Jurnali 2009. 3. manasara 1964. .. 4. Kevin Lynch- ,-A theory of good city, from the MIT Press 1986 5. ,, 1975. 6. mcxeTa qarTuli enciklopedia mTavari samecniero redaqcia saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa aRwerilobis redaqcia 5 tomi Tbilisi 1990, 229 gv. 230-231-232 7. T. kvirkvelia: Zveli Tbilisis quCebsa da QquCaubnebSi, T. kvirkvelia. 8. T. kvirkvelia: ZvelTbilisuri dasaxlebani. 9. . . : . . 10. heidegeriseuli filosofia _ qalaqsa da arqiteqturaze _


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Poetry, Language, Thought. 11. rem kulhaasi 1994: rem kulhaasi, SeSlili niu iorki: manhetenis retroaqtiuri manifesti monaCeli pres, 1994 (pirveli gamocema 1978) 12. parametricistuli arqiteqtura Digital Cities by Neil Leach 13. luis mamfordi: luis mamfordis The City In History 14. qalaqi gigantebi Megacities our global urban future, Earth scienses for society,,,, Megacity Challenges, a stakeholder perspective. 15. Manfredo Tafuri, Marshall Berman and Jane Jacobs, City Planing and Moderns Architecture, Manfredo Tafuri, Marshall Berman and Jane Jacobs, The Global City Region. 20. aldo rosi 1966: aldo rosi, Architettura della Citta, 1966.

cisana burjanaZe

bibliuri saxeebis mxatvruli funqcia akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi


me-19 saukunis qarTuli literatura gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani etapia, zogadad, qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi: axali qarTuli literatura Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis niadagzea aRmocenebuli, misi Rirseuli memkvidrea, amitomac SeTvisebuli aqvs misi miRwevebi, religiuri azrovneba da msoflmxedveloba. Tumca, amave dros, uamravi literaturuli novaciis matarebelia. me-19 saukune saqarTveloSi socialur-politikuri cvlilebebisa da romantikul-realisturi tendenciebis damkvidrebis epoqaa. mwerlobis ganviTarebis procesSi icvleba mxatvrul-esTetikuri principebica da sinamdvilis mxatvruli asaxvis gzebic. Sesabamisad, icvleba Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra unda warmoadgendes xelovnebis sagansa da devizs: xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis Tu xelovneba xalxisaTvis. vis an ras unda emsaxurebodes xelovani. magram, mxatvrul-esTetikuri principebis cvlilebebis miuxedavad, ar icvleba msoflmxedveloba _ biblia qarTveli poetisaTvis kvlavac rCeba moraluri principebis ganmsazRvrelad da mxatvrul saxeTa wyarod. yoveli mwerali, an, ubralod, ama Tu im teqstis avtori, garkveuli epoqisa da kulturis pirmSoa da mis cnobierebaSi aRbeWdilia am epoqasa da kulturaSi arsebu-

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis doqtoranti SedarebiTi literaturis mimarTulebiT. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, SedarebiTi literatura, kritika.


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li mravalgvari teqsti an maTi fragmentebi. akaki wereTelic mecxramete saukunis saqarTvelos pirmSoa. amitom, arcaa gasakviri, rom mis SemoqmedebaSi asaxulia mis irgvliv arsebuli socialuri da kulturuli garemo Tavisi msoflmxedvelobrivi Tu politikuri SexedulebebiT, tradiciebiT, siaxleebiTa Tu problemebiT. * * * postmodernizmis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi principis Tanaxmad, yoveli teqsti aris sxva teqstebis urTierTgadakveTa, radganac masSi monawileoben winamorbedi Tu garemomcveli kulturis teqstebi. rolan bartis mixedviT, Zveli kulturuli kodebis, formulebis, ritmuli struqturebisa da a. S. fragmentebi ganzavebulia teqstSi, radgan mis Seqmnamde da mis irgvlivac arsebobs ena. aqedan gamomdinare, Zalze mniSvnelovania teqstis urTierTqmedeba mis semiotikur-kulturul da socialur garemosTan, rogorc am ukanasknelis interiorizacia teqstSi. im klasifikaciis mixedviT, romelic Camoayaliba frangma mkvlevarma, Jerar Jenetma, teqstTa urTierTqmedebis Semdegi tipebi arsebobs: interteqstualoba, rogorc erT teqstSi ori an meti teqstis Tanaarseboba-citata, aluzia, plagiati: parateqstualoba- teqstis mimarTeba Tavisi saTauris, epigrafis Tu epilogisadmi: megateqstualoba-preteqstis kritika Tu komentari, parodia da a.S.: arqiteqstualoba- teqstTa Janruli kavSiri. interteqstualoba erT teqstSi ori an meti teqstis urTierTgadakveTas gulisxmobs, rac teqstSi, SesaZlebelia, citaciis an aluziis saSualebiT iqnes warmodgenili. pirvel rigSi, mokled unda ganvmartoT gansxvaveba citatasa da aluzias Soris: citata gaxlavT preteqstis ori an sami komponentis gamoyeneba-warmoqmna, romlis drosac igi inarCunebs im predikats, romelic preteqstSi hqonda. am dros SesaZlebelia nimuSis zusti an transformirebuli warmodgena teqstSi. aluziis SemTxvevaSi ki axali teqsti preteqstisagan mxolod garkveuli elementebiTaa davalebuli da teqst-recipientSi misi amocnoba swored am elementebis saSualebiT xdeba, radganac ar aris SenarCunebuli predikacia. aluziis dros, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, elementTa urTierTdamokidebuleba SerCeviTia, xolo mTeli gamonaTqvami an preteqstis pwkaredi, TiTqosda, teqstis gareT arseboben. i. p. smirnovis TqmiT, citaciis SemTxvevaSi avtori mimarTavs re-

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konstruqciul interteqstualobas, roca adasturebs ,,Tavisi~ da ,,sxvisi~ naTqvamebis erTianobas, aluziis SemTxvevaSi ki pirvel adgilze dgas konstruqciuli interteqstualoba. misi mizania imgvarad ganalagos elementebi, maTi imgvari urTierTdamokidebuleba mogvces, rom isini axali teqstis semantikur-kompoziciuri struqturis SemakavSirebel rgolebad iqcnen. mravalricxovanma gamokvlevebma, romlebic mieZRvna interteqstualur mimarTebebs, cxadyo, Tu raoden mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens teqstSi CarTuli citata teqstis semantikaze _ mas teqstis axlebur gaazrebamde mivyavarT da teqstis semantikuri struqturis mniSvnelovani nawili xdeba. Cveni konkretuli kvlevis sagani akaki wereTlis Semoqmedebaa _

CvenTvis mniSvnelovania teqstualuri fragmentebis, citatebisa da aluziebis moZieba, raTa:


a) maTi analizis safuZvelze davadginoT maTi urTierTmimarTebis xasiaTi da mxatvrul-stilisturi funqciebi, romlebic mxatvrul nawarmoebSi ekisreba sxvadasxvagvar aluziebs, citatebs, perifrazebs da a.S. b) akakis SemoqmedebaSi interteqstualuri momentebis gamovlena mniSvnelovania wyaros dadasturebis TvalsazrisiTac, rac iTvaliswinebs avtoris meTodologiis kvlevas, xels Seuwyobs avtoris stilis Taviseburebebis dadgenasa da gansazRvras. radganac TiToeul mxatvrul elements Tavisi datvirTva aqvs SinaarsTan mimarTebiT (rogorc sistemis komponents), es analizi dagvexmareba imis gaazrebaSic, Tu ra xerxiT xdeba realobidan aRebuli masalis gardasaxva mxatvrul nawarmoebSi. g) moxdes aluziebisa da citatebis funqciuri daniSnulebis kvleva socialur konteqstSi: anu rogor iyenebs mocemul masalas _ rusuli Sovinizmis winaaRmdeg, qarTveli eris gamosafxizleblad Tu dasacavad da a.S. Sesabamisad, naSromis mizani gaxlavT akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi arsebuli aluziebisa da citatebis moZieba da axsna, moZiebuli masalis pragmasemantikuri da funqciuri daniSnulebis kvleva da ganxilva socialur da kulturul konteqstSi. d) dadgindes, raa tradiciuli mis SemoqmedebaSi da raa sakuTriv misi. * * * fridrix Slegeli Tavis ,,esTetikaSi~ wers: ,,Tu ganvixilavT

biblias im udidesi gavlenis mixedviT, romelic mas hqonda Suasaukuneebisa da uaxlesi drois poeziaze, enaze, xelovnebasa da msjelobaze, SevniSnavT or gasaocar Tvisebas: gamoxatvis sisadaves, romelic


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291

garidebulia yovelgvari xelovnurobisagan da... garegan formasa da Txrobas, romelmac udidesi gavlena moaxdina Cvens enasa da poeziaze _ saxeobrioba da igavi. bibliaSi batonobs igavuri metyveleba da simboluri suli. aman mniSvnelovnad gansazRvra qristiani xalxebis azrovnebis wesi.~1 fridrix Slegelis es daskvna naTels xdis im faqtorebs, romlebmac mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvres qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis xazi. akaki wereTelma wera-kiTxva ,,daviTniTa da ,,samociquloTi iswavla da mTeli sicocxlis manZilze biblia mis ucvlel Tanamdevad darCa. akakis Semoqmedebas saocari kvali daaCnia Zvelsa da axal aRTqmaSi gacxadebulma sibrZnem. ai, ras wers Tavad igi bibliis Sesaxeb: ,,gadasul erebSi yvelaze ufro uriebi momwons. sityva ,,uria hniSnavs dids da marTlac, rom, DZvelad, odesme, rogorc sulieri mkvlevari da kerpobis drosve erTRmerTobis mimdevari, didi yofila urioba. arc erT erTagans bibliiseburi CvenTvis ara dautovebia ra. iq ara Tu ,,SeqmnaTa sakiTxavi, ,,mefeTa wigni, ,,sawinaswarmetyveloebi da sxvani SesaniSnavia, ubralo igav-arakebsac ki geniosobis beWedi atyviaT.2 akaki wereTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia bibliuri saxeebiT azrovneba, Zveli da axali aRTqmidan moxmobili citatebiT saubari, mTeli rigi epizodebis perifrazireba.... iseve, rogorc mTeli misi Semoqmedeba, bibliuri masalac misTvis mxolod erT mizans emsaxureba: samSoblos dacvasa da xsnas. biblia misi da qarTuli sazogadoebis cxovrebis nawilia... swored amitomac, bibliuri citatebi da aluziebi xSirad Segnebuladaa moxmobili, raTa mkiTxvelma ufro naTlad dainaxos gamefebuli situacia, ufro kargad gaigos saTqmeli... akakisaTvis biblia yovelTvis iyo kacobriobis ganviTarebis istoriisa Tu adamianis sulieri samyaros amsaxveli saukeTeso wigni. amitomac, ar arsebobda movlena mis Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi, rom SeuZlebeli yofiliyo misi dakavSireba bibliasTan: akakis saqarTveloSic, miuxedavad aTaswleulebisa, moiZebnebian urwmuno Tomebi da savleebi, iudebi da pilateebi, magdalelebi da ivdiTebi: ,,savle, ,,Toma, ,,sami leqcia ,,vefxistyaosanzed, ,,imereli TfilisSi, ,,saqarTvelos dRevandeli saxe, ,,vera xedavT? da a.S....
. , , -, 1834, .9. akaki wereTeli, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t.14. , Tbilisi, 1961, gv. 558
2 1

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cisana burjanaZe

aSkaraa akaki wereTlis kavSiri qarTul poetur tradiciebTan, folklorsa da bibliasTan. magram, aseve, aSkara da udavoa misi poeturi originaluroba da SemoqmedebiTi Zalmosileba. Sesabamisad, zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, sainteresoa, ,,ra cvlilebebi (da rogor)

Seitana adre ukve cnobil frazebsa da sityvier gamosaxulebebSi, romel ganmtkicebul xatebs mouxmo da ra viTarebasTan dakavSirebiTaa gamoyenebuli adrindeli frazebi Tu xatebi?3 anu rogoria bibliuri da kulturuli citaciisa da aluziebis mxatvruli funqciebi.
am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT saintereso masalas iZleva bibliuri aluziebisa da citatebis kvleva akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi: Zveli Tu axali aRTqmis personaJTa saxe-simboloebi: samsoni (,,uidealo~, ,,xarabuza generals~, ,,raWis erisTavi rostom~, ,,Cemi aRsareba~), iobi (,,legenduri,~ ,,Cemi aRsareba~, ,,aRsareba~, ,,naTela~), mose, daviTi, ieremia... axali aRTqmis epizodebi: golgoTa, saidumlo seroba, aRdgoma da a.S. sainteresoa, rom, akaki, rogorc poeturi azrovnebis kontrastuli wyobis mqone poeti, rig SemTxvevebSi gvaZlevs mocemulobis orgvar gansaxovnebas binaruli opoziciis CvenebiT. mag: kaeni (mkvleli) - abeli (msxverpli)... iobi (moTmineba) - svimon mimrqmeli (molodini); ieremia (meditacia) -mose (moqmedeba); iuda (qmedeba)-pilate (umoqmedoba); akaki iRebs am yvelasaTvis cnobil saxeebs, TiTqmis yovelTvis iqve moixseniebs maT saqmeebsa da Rvawls, magram maT xSirad sxva datvirTvas aZlevs da, amgvarad, axal mxatvrul saxeebs qmnis. sainteresoa, aseve, ra gavlenas axdens xalxuri Tu literaturuli poeturi tradicia (rusTaveli, al.WavWavaZe, gr. orbeliani, n. baraTaSvili...) akaki wereTlis Semoqmedebaze - romeli poeturi frazebi iqceva misTvis STagonebis wyarod da ,,ra viTarebis (situaciis) mimarT aris gamoyenebuli adrindeli (sxva poetis) fraza4 bibliidan moxmobili saxeebi, citatebi da aluziebi akakisTan ricxobrivad sWarbobs yvela danarCens. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, interteqstualoba erT teqstSi ori an meti teqstis urTierTgadakveTas gulisxmobs. am SemTxvevaSi Cveni interesis sagani gaxlavT is, Tu rogor axdens akaki wereTeli bib
gr. kiknaZe, mudmiv xatTa sistema akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi, literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi,Tbilisi, 1987. gv. 311 4 iqve, gv. 311.
3


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liuri masalis Semotanas teqstSi. kvlevis sawyis etapze ukve dadginda mxatvrul teqstSi bibliuri wyaros Semosvlis ramdenime modeli: 1. citireba (,,grigol wereTlis iremi, ,,vano maCabeli, ,,sizmari, ,,ori sizmari, ,,imerlebi, ,,bodva, ,,Cemi aRsareba, ,,calyba pasuxi, .....) 2. perifrazi (,,savle, ,,Toma mociquli, ,,naTlisReba, ,,qriste aRdga...) 3. variantuli wakiTxva (bibliur pasaJTa xalxuri variantebis gamoyeneba-,,mamali ras yivis, ,,legenduri, ,,yviTeli sanTeli, ,,sxvadasxva eri, ,,xalxuri...) 4. Tavisufali da adaptirebuli variantebis SemoTavazeba (,,daviTis gvirgvini, ,,sami Zma, ,,wmida nino, ,,mamlis yivilze, ,,imedi ebraelTa, ,,cxovreba...)5 kvlevis sawyis etapze, aseve, gamokveTil saxe-simbolod gvevlineba ori stiqia: wyali da cecxli. amaTgan, cecxls orgvari datvirTva aqvs: cecxli-wva da cecxli-naTeli. Sesabamisad, am mxriv warmoebuli kvleva avtoris stilis Taviseburebebis dadgenasa da gansazRvrebas Seuwyobs xels. amasTan, bibliuri Tu saRvTismetyvelo aluziebis informaciuli SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswineba ufro naTels gaxdis avtoriseul Canafiqrs, rogorc mTlianad mxatvrul nawarmoebTan, aseve, calkeul personaJTan dakavSirebiT. da, radganac nebismieri mwerlis mxatvruli memkvidreobis, saxismetyvelebiTi aspeqtebisa da esTetikuri fenomenis kvlevis gasaRebi avtoris msoflmxedveloba da sarwmunoebrivi mrwamsia, amitomac akaki wereTlis Semoqmedebis saxismetyvelebiTi Sreebisa da mxatvruli. Canafiqris kvleva ukeT warmogviCens akaki wereTlis literaturul-esTetikur principebsa da msoflmxedvelobriv Rirebulebebsa Tu problemebs citaciis problema akaki wereTelTan yovel epoqaSi Zveli teqstebi am epoqis epistemisTvis damaxasiaTebeli azrovnebisa da msoflSegrZnebis prizmaSi aRiqmeba (yovel epoqaSi arsebobs kulturis ganviTarebis garkveuli safexuris spe
5

akaki wereTeli, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet tomad, t.13, Tbi-

lisi, 1961, gv.325

294

cisana burjanaZe

cifikiT ganpirobebuli erTgvari aRqmis zRurbli, romlis miRma arsebuli informacia waikiTxeba an waikiTxeboda sxva epoqebSi an sxva kulturebSi, magram mocemul istoriul etapze an mocemul kulturaSi miuwvdomelia aRqmisaTvis). amgvarad, kulturul mexsierebaSi, istoriis garkveul etapze, Zveli teqstebi ucvleli saxiT ki ar CaerTveba, aramed modificirdeba am etapisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri msoflaRqmisa da azrovnebis wesis Sesabamisad. Sesabamisad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es Zveli teqsti ukve imitom SeiZleba ganvixiloT erTgvari ,,palimfsestis~ saxiT, rom masze ,,ganifineba~ axali msoflaRqma. swored amgvari palimfsestebis (romlebzec `ganfenilia~ akaki wereTlis mxatvruli teqstebi) wakiTxvasa da analizs isaxavs miznad Cveni sadisertacio naSromis erTi nawili. rogorc gotlob frege aRniSnavs, ,,mesame piris naTqvamis gameo-

rebas uSualo kavSiri aqvs azrisa da mniSvnelobis problemasTan, radganac, roca Cven Cveulebrivad viyenebT sityvas, misi denotati isaa, rasac vgulisxmobT. magram, zogjer Cven pirdapiri naTqvamis saSualebiT sxvis sityvebs gadmovcemT, anu vaxdenT sxvisi sityvebis citirebas. maSin sityvebi, romelTac warmovTqvamT, pirvel rigSi, sxvis sityvebs aRniSnaven da mxolod am ukanasknelT gaaCniaT Cveulebrivi denotati. pirdapiri naTqvamis sityvebi niSanTa niSnebi gaxlavT.~6
poeziaSi citacia aris urTierToba teqstebs Soris. amitomac gasarkvevia, SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom citatis denotati iyos enobrivi gamonaTqvami da ara misi pirveladi mniSvneloba (is mniSvneloba, romelic aqvs gamonaTqvams citirebul teqstSi). swored es sakiTxi unda ganvixiloT ,,Cveulebrivi~ da ,,poeturi~ citaciis semantikis sakiTxTan erTad. magaliTad, moTxrobaSi ,,grigol wereTlis iremi~ vkiTxulobT: ,,Cemi filosofia ,,Jamni~ da ,,daviTnia~, sadac sweria: ,,ukeTumca ufalma ara aRaSena saxli, cudad Svrebian maSenebelni misni~ - miugo winamZRvarma. didxans miwiodnen yurebSi moxucis sityvebi da dResac, usamarTlod gaZlierebuls rom vismes vnaxav, gulSi vimeoreb: ,,ara Tumca
6

Gottlob Frege, ber Sinn und Bedeutung, in Zeitschrift fr Philosophie und philosophische Kritik, 100, 1892, 25-50. . Translated as On Sense and Reference by M. Black in Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, P. Geach and M. Black (eds. and trans.), Oxford: Blackwell, third edition, 1980.


bibliuri saxeebis mxatvruli funqcia akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi

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ufalman aRaSena saxli, cudad Svrebian maSenebelni misni~.7 am SemTxvevaSi, rodesac akaki winamZRvris naTqvams imeorebs, sakuTar Tavsa da winamZRvars erTisa da imaves mTqmelebad warmoaCens. magram isini, visac gulisxmobs akaki, SeuZlebelia iyvnen isini, visac gulisxmobs winamZRvari, an, Tundac, daviT mefsalmune. Sesabamisad,

akakis citata aris axali mtkicebuleba, romlis namdvilobasa da WeSmaritebaze pasuxs agebs is, vinc citirebas axdens: moyvanili magaliTis pirvel nawilSi _ winamZRvari, meore nawilSi _ Tavad akaki.
sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom is, vinc citirebas axdens, da is, vis citirebasac axdenen, erTsa da imave gamonaTqvamSi sruliad sxvadasxva rames an vinmes gulisxmobdnen. magram, Tuki sxvadasxva mosaubris mier sxvadasxva garemo-konteqstSi warmoTqmul gamonaTqvams erTi da igive sazrisi aqvs, maSasadame, Sesabamisi winadadeba konkretuli garemosa da konteqstisagan damoukidebel WeSmaritebas, propozicias gamoxatavs, romelsac adgili aqvs gansxvavebul garemoebebSi. akaki uTanabrdeba winamZRvars da daviT winaswarmetyvels, xolo winamZRvari - daviT winaswarmetyvels, rogorc mTqmelic da rogorc erTi da imaves mamtkicebelic. frTiani gamonaTqvamebis, andazebis, Tu sxvaTa naTqvamebis moxmobisas sruliad SesaZlebeli xdeba damyardes konteqstTaSorisi urTierToba misgan gamomdinare ormagi konteqstualizaciiT ... aseve, damyardes originalur da citirebul gamonaTqvamTa interpretaciis erTgvarovneba. akakiseuli citaciis mTavari semantikuri efeqti gaxlavT is, rom igi aiZulebs marTal svimeons, winamZRvars, daviT mefsalmunes Tu ieremias, ilaparakon akakiseul samyaroze. amgvarad, citirebisas xdeba gamonaTqvamis amogleja im samyarodan, sadac igi warmoiTqva, da moTavseba im samyaroSi, romelSic mas xelaxla warmoTqvamen. Sesabamisad, gamonaTqvamis semantizacia orgvarad xdeba: im droiT da samyaroTi, romelic mis axal konteqsts qmnis da warmoadgens, da am samyarosa da drois xiluli an uxilavi fiqsaciiT. Sesabamisad, gamonaTqvams aqvs Tavisi WeSmariti mniSvneloba yvela drosa da konteqstSi. zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, kvlevis Cveneuli mimarTuleba gulisxmobs bibliuri citaciisa da aluziebis semantikuri funqciis Seswavlas akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi. am masalis analizi naTlad warmoaCens mxatvrul teqstSi avtoriseuli Canafiqris gadmo
7

ak. wereTeli, Txzulebani, sruli krebuli 7 tomad, tomi 3, Tbilisi, 1940, gv.257

296

cisana burjanaZe

cemis process, rac, erTi mxriv, avtoris subieqturi aRqma-gadmocemis, modusis gamoxatulebaa, meore mxriv ki _ mkiTxvelisaTvis mxatvrul nawarmoebSi samyaros avtoriseuli xatis amokiTxvis enobrivi saSualeba. locvis akakiseuli interpretaciis ori nimuSi ,,satira laTinuri sityvaa da sityvasityviT ,,narevs niSnavs. magram, rogorc literaturuli xerxi, igi ,,sinamdvilis mxatvruli asaxvis iseT formas warmoadgens, rodesac gamanadgurebeli siciliT amxileben asaxulis uaryofiT, mankier bunebas. ...satira... ,,bolomde aSiSvlebs Tavis obieqts da aaSkaravebs SeuTavseblobas garegan da Sinagan mxareebs Soris, formasa da Sinaarss Soris.8 es Seusabamoba formasa da Sinaarss, sityvasa da saqmes Soris did sazogadoebriv ubedurebas warmoadgens. swored amitomac satira sazogadoebriv-politikuri brZolis mniSvnelovan iaraRi iyo yovelTvis. me-19 saukunis saqarTvelos socialur-politikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, satiram gansakuTrebuli simZafre TergdaleulTa xelSi SeiZina. igi Tematurad sakmaod mravalferovania, Tumca gr. kiknaZe gamohyofs ramdenime ZiriTad jgufs: sayofacxovrebo, biurokratiuli aparatis amsaxveli, wodebrivi, mimdinare sazogadoebriv movlenebTan dakavSirebuli, saliteraturi da pirovnuli satira.9 am mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, samocian wlebSi crupatriotizmi da farisevloba Cveni satiris ZiriTad Temad gadaiqca (romlis naTeli magaliTic gaxlavT akaki wereTlis ,,xarabuza generals). akaki daundoblad esxmis Tavs maTac, visac saTakilod miuCnevia qarTul enaze saubari, visac rcxvenia qarTvelobisa, sakuTari istoriisa da warmomavlobisa... amave dros, daundoblad amaTraxebs rus Sovinistebs da maT erTgul finiebs-qarTvelebs da araqarTvelebs.... mis kalams verc iseTni gaeqcnen, bageebiT rom adideben RmerTs, magram guli aTasgvari uwmindurobiT aqvT savse: ,,akaki uSualod exmaureboda mimdinare cxovrebis amis naTeli magaliTia akaki wereTlis ,,zogierTebis mamao Cveno~, romelic bibliuri masalis akakiseuli interpretaciis SesaniS
a. Wilaia, r. Wilaia, literaturaTmcodneobis cnebebi, Tb., 1984, gv.281 gr. kiknaZe, qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, Tbilisi, 1972, gv. 248-249. 10. iqve, gv. 345
9 8


bibliuri saxeebis mxatvruli funqcia akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi

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nav nimuSad gvevlineba:

,,loculobs: ,,mamao Cveno, romeli xar caTa Sina, gulSi fiqrobs: wuxelis SuriT mTeli Rame ar dameZina... ,,wmida iyavn saxeli Seni, movedin sufeva Seni! vai, raT aris Cemi moZme Cemze ufro bevris SemZeni?!.... 10
11

da a. S. akaki, romelic mimarTavs esoden cnobil locvas, saTaurisa da sakuTari CanarTebis saSualebiT cvlis interpretaciis sferos da yoveli gamoTqmis orgvar interpretacias gvaZlevs. satiruli efeqtic swored amgvari xerxis saSualebiT miiRweva. sainteresoa, rogor axdenen am locvis citirebas imave saukunisa da epoqis warmomadgenlebi: ilia WavWavaZe da nikoloz baraTaSvili. Sesabamisad, akakis ,,zogierTebis mamao Cveno ganxiluli iqneba ilia WavWavaZis ,, mamao Cvenosa da nikoloz baraTaSvilis ,,Cems locvasTan mimarTebaSi. satirulia, aseve, meore leqsic- ,,zogierTebis locva~:

,,sulo boroto! Senda moviltvi, bednierebas ar gTxov, nu momcem! Sengan wyalobad imas miviTvli, Tu Cems moZmeebs rogorme dascem! da a. S.11 12
Tuki pirvel magaliTSi akaki wereTeli konkretuli locvis interpretaciis sferos cvlis, meore leqsSi mocemulia Tavad locvis qristianuli interpretacia _qristianuli gagebiT, Tavad qristes sityvebiT, borot ZalTa gansxma mxolod locviTa da marxviTaa SesaZlebeli-anu locva uzenaes sikeTesTan -RmerTTan kavSirisa da borotebis damarcxebis saukeTeso saSualebaa. ,,zogierTebis locvis lirikuli gmiri ki locvasa da marxvas borotebis samsaxurSi ayenebs. da satiruli efeqtic swored amgvari xerxiT iqmneba. Cveni winamdebare statia warmoadgens erTgvar winaswar monaxazs im kvlevisa, romelic mravali amocanis gadawyvetas isaxavs miznad. kerZod, Cven winaSe wamoiWra iseTi problemebi, rogorebicaa, magaliTad: citatis zegavlena teqstis semantikasa da stilze;

garkveva imisa, ra rols asrulebs Tu ara esa Tu is citata Tu alu


akaki wereTeli, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t.1, Tbilisi, 1950, gv. 184 11 akaki wereTeli, Txzulebani, sruli krebuli 7 tomad, t.1, Tbilisi, 1940, gv. 88.
10

298

cisana burjanaZe

zia teqstis semantikis CamoyalibebaSi; rodis SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT citaturi gamonaTqvami, rogorc niSnis niSani (sadac aRsaniSni aris amosavali teqstis garkveuli fragmenti, rogorc garkveuli gamonaTqvami, aRmniSvneli ki _ axali mniSvnelobiT aRWurvili igive gamonaTqvami axal teqstSi); ra rols asrulebs citata teqstis, rogorc mTlianobis, misi erTiani sazrisis Camoyalibebaze; citata, rogorc mimarTeba garkveul teqstebs Soris, maT semantikaTa Soris; aniWebs Tu ara TviT citirebis faqti WeSmariti gamonaTqvamis statuss citatas da rodis, ra pirobebSi ar xdeba es; motivis iteracia (ganmeoreba) da gamonaTqvamis iteracia (anu citacia) _ gansxvavebebi da analogiebi; citatis semantikuri mimarTeba uaxloes leqsikur garemosTan da mTel teqstTan; anu citirebis konkretul nimuSTa funqciuri analizi _ avtoris msoflaRqmis ra niSnebze migviTiTebs citata _ mas xom SerCeviTi xasiaTi aqvs; citata (citireba) da ama Tu im avtoris nawarmoebTa specifikuri Tematika da mravali sxva.
aqedan gamomdinare, Cveni samomavlo kvleva citirebis problemis mravalmxriv analizs isaxavs miznad. meTodologiebi, romelTa gamoyenebac, Cveni azriT, xels Seuwyobs zemoxsenebuli amocanebis gadaWras, aris lingvisturi poetikis principebi da meTodebi (maT Soris, roman iakobsonis, ian mukarJovskis, iuri tinianovis naSromebSi damuSavebuli sakiTxebi da debulebebi), mixeil baxtinis koncefcia teqstSi `sxvisi metyvelebis~ gamoyenebis Taviseburebebisa da funqciebis Sesaxeb, iulia kristevas, rolan bartis, miSel fukos, Jak deridas da sxva Tanamedrove mecnierTa koncefciebi kulturuli tradiciis `diad interteqstSi~ adamianis suverenuli subieqturobis ganzavebis Sesaxeb da a.S.

Janeta varZelaSvili

konkretulidan abstraqtulisaken: enobrivi niSnis semiozisis egsistencialuroba


aravis unda eSinodes, rom niSnebze dakvirveba sagnebs gvacilebs: piriqiT, sagnis arsamde mivyavarT...

h. laibnici

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ekonomikur urTierTobaTa saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli da evropuli enebis programuli mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli, sruli profesori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: 70 samecniero naSromis, maT Soris oro monografiisa (1994; 2001) da sami saxelmZRvanelos avtori (1998; 1999; 2010). piradi veb-saitis misamarTi:
vjanetta.narod.ru/avtor.htm

(kognituri lingvistika). interesTa sfero: kognituri lingvistika, enis logikuri analizi, interpretacionalizmi, lingvokulturologia.

adamianis mentaluri samyaro usaxelod, usityvod aSenebs suraTs. es usaxelo samyaro SesaZloa materializdes mravalnairi semiotikuri sistemebiT da ara mxolod eniT. Mmagram mentaluri samyaros ZiriTadi arsis materializacia xorcieldeba sityva-niSniT, romelic arsis Suamavalia Sinagan da garegan samyaros Soris. rogorc ormxrivi erToba, sityva aris naskvi, romelSic ikvreba idealuri da materialuri: azridan sityvisken da sityvidan azrisken. niSniT `daWerili~ azri trialebs komunikaciur nakadebSi da materializdeba sityvaSi. es aris `gadadineba~ ideisa materiaSi da materiisa isev ideaSi cnebaSi, konceptSi, freimSi, helStatSi. sityva-niSans, iseve, rogorc nebismieri niSanTa sistemis erTeuls, aqvs semiotikuri ganzomileba, romelic ganisazRvreba triadaSi `obieqti niSani interpretanta~. semiotikaSi am triadas semiozisis procesis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad ganixilaven; ufro metic, TviT semiozisi xSirad gaigeba rogorc niSnis interpreta-

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ciis procesi. anu, niSani mxolod maSin aris niSani, Tu is adamianis mier interpretirdeba. cnobilia: interpretaciuli strategiebi qmnis adamianis rogorc saxeobis universalur bazas. Carlz morisis Tanaxmad, interpretanta adamianis unaria (mzaoba) garkveuli saxiT moaxdinos reagireba am Tu im niSnis gavleniT (1). sityva-niSani konstruirdeba Semecnebis procesiT. enobrivi erTeulebis aqtualuri interpretaciebi ganpirobebulia molaparekeTa intenciebiT (gaigon/ar gaigon, miiRon/ar miiRon, gaiTvaliswinon/ar gaiTvaliswinon da a. S.). komunikantebi enis matareblebi Tavis TavSi atareben kavSirs niSnis intensionalTan, magram asaxaven ara mxolod gagebul, aTvisebul samyaros, aramed misi aTvisebis rogorc koleqtiur, aseve pirovnul specifikas. amitom mosaubreTa urTierTgagebisaTvis niSnis dekodirebis strategiebis Tanxvedra aucilebeli, magram arasakmarisi pirobaa. urTierTgagebisaTvis saWiroa monacemTa bazis, maT Soris, e. w. `fonuri codnis~, Tanxvedrac. enobrivi niSani realizdeba zepir an weriT teqstSi, da rogorc t. van deikma aRniSna, nebismieri teqstis gageba varaudobs ara mxolod enis, aramed samyaros codnasac. ramdenad welvadia sityva rogorc semiotikuri niSani? TviT yvelaze mkacri sityvaTgamoyenebisas enobrivi pirovnebisaTvis dasaSvebia mniSvnelobisa da individualuri ganWvretis Tavisufleba. verbalizaciisas komunikantebis cnobierebaSi sityva-niSani SeiZleba sityva-simbolos, sityva-xatis donemde amaRldes. es axali done gamoirCeva imiT, rom enobriv niSans aqvs unari gaaerTianos ara marto cnobadis, aramed `usityvo~ elementebi. kognituri lingvistikis erT-erTi postulatis Tanaxmad, ara mxolod cnobieri, aramed Seucnobelic struqturirebulia rogorc ena. is cnobierTan erTad realizdeba sityva-niSnis konotaciebSi, asociaciebSi, qveteqstualur `Tana~-mniSvnelobebSi, anu mocemuli enobrivi sistemis CarCoSi sityvaTa interpretaciis TavisuflebaSi.magram mniSvnelobis interpretaciis Tavisufleba ar niSnavs usazRvro Tavisuflebas1: misi interpretacia yovelTvis izRudeba filosofiuri kategoriiT `saRi azrovnebis logika~. es SemzRudveli ama Tu im kulturaSi samyaros gagebis xerxebs, azrovnebis formebsa da realiebis aRqmis tradiciebs efuZneba. maSasadame, niSnis `sxeulSi~ akumulirebulia adamianTa gaazre
Tavisufleba, farTo gagebiT, anu adamianis vitaluri, socialuri da sulieri cxovrebis moTxovnileba, yovelTvis erTgvar SezRudvebTan aris dakavSirebuli.
1


konkretulidan abstraqtulisaken...

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buli gamocdileba, romelic komunikaciis procesSi, erTi mxriv, interpretaciisaTvis gaxsnili, xolo meore mxriv, sistemurad SezRudulia. amitomac, albaT, `nebismieri subieqturi gamoTqma obieqturiT SeiZleba iqnas Secvlili, rac~, rogorc e. huserli `logikur kvlevebSi~ werda, `obieqturi gonebis usasrulobas niSnavs~ (2). da Tu qviSis saaTis metaforas mivmarTavT, maSin ramdenad sworia sapirispiro: nebismieri obieqturi gamoTqma subieqturiT SeiZleba iqnas Secvlili? m. haidegeris mixedviT, `ena es sawyisi ganzomilebaa, romelSic adamianuri arseba saerTod pirvelad emsaxureba yofierebas da mis gamoZaxils. am gulisxmierebiT igi yofierebis kuTvnileba xdeba. da es sawyisi gulisxmiereba, romelic WeSmaritadaa miRweuli, aris azri~ (3, 140). sityvaSi (sityviT?) ganxorcielebuli azri individis cnobierebaSi gaivlis ganzogadebis mentalur proceduras, xolo yovelgvari `ganzogadeba, yovelgvari Camoyalibebuli cneba azris yvelaze specifikuri, yvelaze namdvili, yvelaze ueWveli aqtia /.../ azri ar gamoixateba sityvaSi, aramed sruldeba sityvaSi~ (4, 281 289).adamians esmis ara is, ris saSualebasac mas ena aZlevs, igi imis verbalizacias axdens, rac mocemul sametyvelo situaciaSi misTvis subieqturad aqtualuria. sityvaSi Cadebuli mTeli potenciuri energia, misi daniSnuleba da SesaZleblobebi metyvelebis aqtebSi realizdeba. am procesSi sityva-niSani avlens misTvis damaxasiaTebel ormxriv fsiqikur arss. igi erTdroulad aris ori ganzomilebis niSani: enisa da metyvelebis. sityva-niSani gaigeba, maT Soris, rogorc individualuri `gza enisken~, rogorc individis sxvebTan, sxva sakuTar `me~-sTan da sakuTar SeucnobelTan `Sexvedris movlena~ (m. baxtini, a. lurias koncefcia). am ganzomilebaTa ganStoebebi xan uaxlovdeba, xan scildeba erTmaneTs da amgvarad mkafios xdis im opozicias, romelic enisa da metyvelebis Tavdapirvel sxvadasxva arsSia Cadebuli. sametyvelo movlenis arsi gamoTqmaa. swored metyvelebaSi xdeba is, rac m. mamardaSvilma daaxasiaTa rogorc `Sinaganis gadmobruneba da gareganis SigniT Cabruneba~; es aris veli, sadac xorcieldeba samyaros uSualo pirovnuli xedva (5, 47). ganvixiloT sityva-niSnebiT agebuli gamoTqma predikaciul jaWvSi. adamianis cnobiereba xatebs `awyobs~ da `daSlis~ Sedegad ayalibebs situaciis vizualur xats, romelic aqtualuria Semdgomi komunikaciisTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom enobrivi pirovnebis cnobierebaSi gadaazrebas eqvemdebareba mocemul niSanze gamyarebuli cnebac. am meqanizmebis moqmedebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba pirobiTi jaWvi, romelic aris jami:

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(cneba + konteqstualurad aqtualuri, pirovnulad gaazrebuli cneba) + (xati + obieqturis individualuri xati). warmovidginoT es rigi formulis saxiT: [(a + a1) => A] + [(b = b1 + b2 +b3) => B], sadac a zogadi cnebaa; a1 pirovnulad gaazrebuli cnebaa; A axali, an pirobiTad axali cneba rogorc zogadisa da individualuris naskvi; b xati; b1, b2, b3 mocemul konteqstSi warmoSobili subieqturi xatebi/xatebi; B axali xati. bunebrivia, rom es rigi mecnieruli abstraqciaa, erTgvari daSveba, magram am daSvebas SeuZlia pirobiTad warmoaCinos komunikaciaSi ganxorcielebuli kogniciis aqtis meqanizmis qmedeba. igive meqanizmi xorcieldeba sityva-niSnis gamoyenebis ufro maRal doneebze, rodesac kognitur konteqstSi (diskursSi) amoqmedebulia gansakuTrebuli azrobrivi da xatovani potencialiT damuxtuli sityvebi. aseT konteqstebSi sityva-niSanTa SekavSireba ar aris Cveulebrivi bunebriv kategorialur sivrceSi. da zustad ase konstruirdeba da dekodirdeba mxatvruli diskursis semantikuri `maxeebi~. mxatvruli diskursi miiswrafis xatovanisa da simbolurisaken. is realizdeba sityva-niSnebSi da iyenebs sityvier codnas gansazRvrebis, gansjis, brZnuli gamoTqmebis saxiT. amavdroulad `amaxvilebs~ maT unars gamoxatos simboluri da xatovania rogorc inteleqtualuri Ziebis Sedegi, rogorc erTi cnebis konceptualur SinaarsSi ufro meti mocemulobis koncentracia, vidre zedapirul ideaze mdgari azri, xandaxan pirvelad ideasTana paradoqsulad mikuTnebulic ki. amgvar diskursSi adresati xdeba TamaSi-gamocanis aqtiuri monawile, xolo cnebis pirovnuli gaazreba, adresatis da adresantis subieqturi xatebi xdeba erTdroulad mniSnelovani imisTvis, rom sityva-aRmoCena Sedges. amasTan, elementebSi a1 pirovnulad gaazrebuli cnebaa; A axali, an pirobiTad axali cneba rogorc zogadisa da individualuris naskvi; b1, b2, b3 mocemul konteqstSi warmoSobili subieqturi xatebi/xatebi; B axali xati


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xdeba Semadgeneli nawilebis gaormageba. enigmis2 avtori miiswrafis gadaazrebuli sityviT miaRwios maRal emociur daZabulobas. aseTi sityvebi referenebSi enigmatur zonas anaTebs da aZlevs biZgs emociur aRmafrenas. maTi dekodirebis SesaZlebloba gansazRvrulia im imperaciebis sinTeziT, ris mixedviTac isini ewyoba. anu, maTSi amoqmedebulia aramxolod warmosaxva, aramed logikis kanonebic. sityvis rogorc fenomenis unikaluroba mdgomareobs mis unarSi iyos erTdroulad mocemul lingvistur sazogadoebaSi saerTo erTeuli da unikaluri konkretuli enobrivi pirovnebisTvis. Ppirveli faqtis mixedviT sityva urTierTobis erTeulia, xolo meoris mixedviT individs samyaros interpretirebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. erToblivad ki, rogorc isini mocemulia sityvaSi, es faqtebi gansazRvraven sityvis egzistencialurobas. egzistencia ki aris droSi, mocemul situaciaSi, namdvil samyaroSi arsebobis procesi. sityva arsebobs yovel calkeul `me~-Si, viTardeba masTan erTad, izrdeba hiperazrebiT, ivseba konotaciebiT. calkeuli pirovnebis mentalur leqsikonSi sityva-niSani SeiZleba warmodges rogorc abstraqciuli sistema: sityvis leqsika-semantiuri varianti + kulturulad aTvisebuli mniSvnelobebi, asociaciebi, xatebi, simboloebi, romlebic gamomdinareobs enobrivi pirovnebis inteleqtualuri mexsierebidan. E es sistema difuzuria da ganpirobebulia propoziciiT, intenciiT, konteqstiT, romlis fonze mocemul momentSi da mocemuli individisaTvis xorcieldeba arCeuli niSnis semiozisi. zustad am momentSi sityva-niSani afiqsirebs individis arsebobis faqts: cogito ergo sum. lingvistur da kognitur problemaTan egzistencionaluri midgoma amodis dekartis `universaluri konkretulobidan~. es aris `erTgvari wertili uSualod zemodan da gaswvriv linearulad gaWimuli samyarosi dasrulebuli individiT, misi piradi kavSiri RmerTTan; raRaca gancdili da gamocdili, is, rac erTdroulad aris adamianSic, mis romeliRac `Sinagan sityvaSi~, `Sinagan xatSi~, `Sinagan aqtSi~ (4, 29). sityva-niSanSi enis erTeulis egzistencialuroba Tanazomadia misi kogniturobisa da regulatiurobisa. sityvieri niSnis egzistencialuri bunebis realizaciis veli, pirvel rigSi, mxatvruli diskursia diskursis yvela mravalsaxeobas Soris egzistenciis
2

metaforebi, simboloebi, paradoqsebi

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Tvis yvelaze ufro gaxsnili, Tu egzistencias gavigebT ara rogorc zogad, saerTod arsebobas, aramed _ arsebobas azrSi. literatura

1. Morris, Charles 1938: Morris, Charles. Foundations of the Theory 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

of Signs // International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 2, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938. . 2000: . . ., 2000. . 1993: . / . ., 1993. . . 1993: . . . ., 1993. . . 1997: . . : . ., 1997. - . ., 1985. . . 2001: . . . ., 2001. . . 2006: . . . , 2006.

Tamar lomiZe

prolegomenebi gamokvlevisTvis: codnis dafuZnebis principebi XX saukunis literaturaTmcodneobiT TeoriebSi


I. problema, romlis damuSavebasac visaxavT miznad, aris XX saukunis humanitaruli azrovnebis evoluciis ZiriTadi tendenciebis gamovlena. ra kriteriumiT unda ganvixiloT es tendenciebi? qronologiuri Tvalsazrisi aq gamousadegaria, radgan bevri Teoria sinqronulad warmoiSva da Tanaarsebobda. saerTod, qronologiuri Tvalsazrisi gulisxmobs azrovnebis progresul ganviTarebas, ufro sworad, imas, rom es Teoriebi erTgvarovani iyo da viTardeboda sworxazovnad, erTi garkveuli mimarTulebiT. Sesabamisad, qronologiuri principis gamoyeneba gamoiwvevs am Teoriebis ganmasxvavebeli, specifikuri niSnebis ugulebelyofas. amitom qronologiuri Tvalsazrisi, ra Tqma unda, miuRebelia. aseve miuRebelia am TeoriaTa meTodologiebis Sedareba, radgan isini Sedarebadi araa _ TiToeuli maTgani garkveuli avtonomiurobiT da specifikurobiT gamoirCeva _ sxvagvarad maTi SemuSavebis saWiroeba arc gaCndeboda. ukidures SemTxvevaSi, es gza migviyvans maTi aRweriTi Sedarebis aucileblobasTan, rac, TavisTavad, uintereso araa, magram Cveni miznisTvis gamousadegaria. II. meTods, romelic Cven SevarCieT, Se-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, SedarebiTi literaturis institutis mkvlevari. ZiriTadi naSromebi: qarTuli riTmis istoriidan, feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi, Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, me-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi. interesTa sfero: semiotika, leqsmcodneoba, literaturis istoria da Teoria, mxatvruli Semoqmedebi fsiqologia

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iZleba reduqcionisturi uwodon, magram mas, albaT, arsebobis ufleba aqvs da, SesaZlebelia, pozitiur Sedegebamdec migviyvanos. kerZod, XX saukunis humanitaruli azrovnebis evoluciis analizis meTodad miviCnieT TiToeuli literaturaTmcodneobiTi Teoriis amosavali aqsiomebis gamoyofa da maTi logikuri urTierTmimarTebebis dadgena Tavdapirvelad xazi unda gavusvaT imas, rom meoce saukunis dasawyisSi humanitarul mecnierebebSi Caisaxa tendencia, romlis gauTvaliswineblad SeuZlebeli iqneboda Cveni analizis ganxorcieleba. kerZod, meoce saukunis 10-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi Camoyalibebulma rusulma formalurma skolam scada ganemtkicebina Tavisi Teoria iseT amosaval debulebebze dayrdnobiT, romlebic ganekuTvneboda codnis sxva sferos (an sferoebs) ZiriTadad, lingvistikas, da, amdenad, ar saWiroebda ganmartebas sakuTriv literaturaTmcodneobis CarCoebSi (e.i. isini miCneuli iyo formaluri skolis zogadi koncefciis aqsiomatur amosaval postulatebad). SeiZleba vivaraudoT (davuSvaT amosavali hipoTezis saxiT), rom es tendencia SenarCunebul iqna SemdgomSic (an ar iqna SenarCunebuli, rac analizisTvis ufro saintereso SemTxveva iqneba). aqsiomatur TeoriaSi yvela WeSmariti (am Teoriis farglebSi) debuleba gamoiyvaneba amosavali aqsiomebidan. III.sainteresoa, rom mxolod 1930 wels, e.i. rusul formalur skolis ideebis Seqmnidan karga xnis Semdeg avstrielma mecnierma, kurt gedelma, romelic muSaobda maTematikuri logikis sferoSi, Camoayaliba aqsiomaturi Teoriis sisrulis pirobebi, romlebic ori Teoremis saxiT iqna gansazRvruli. pirveli maTganis mixedviT, nebismieri aqsiomaturi sistema (anu Teoria) Seicavs Tundac erT gadauWrel (am Teoriis farglebSi) debulebas. meoris mixedviT, nebismieri aqsiomaturi sistemis logikuri sisrulisTvis aucilebelia am sistemis farglebidan gasvla da integrireba ufro zogad TeoriaSi. rogorc wesi, aqsioma nasesxebia sxva Teoriidan, sadac is Teoremis saxiT gvevlineba, e.i. sabaziso TeoriaSi xdeba am cnebis arsis kvleva sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. magaliTad, formalizmsa da struqturalizmSi _ logikurad yvelaze mwyobr TeoriebSi, romelTa miswrafeba sizustisken yvelaze mZlavrad gamoikveTa _ sawyisi aqsiomebi lingvisturi xasiaTisaa. lingvistikaSi isini kvlevisa da dasabuTebis sagans warmoadgens, literaturaTmcodneobaSi ki aqsiomatur, ganumartav cnebebad gvevlineba. amgvarad, is aqsiomebi, romlebzec agebulia Tanamedrove, mecnierulobis pretenziis mqone (an Tundac WeSmariti daskvnebis SemuSavebis pretenziis mqone) Teoriebi, ar unda iyos literaturaTmcodneo-


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biTi xasiaTisa. xolo Tu aqsiomad aRebulia mocemuli Teoriis Sida elementi, anu sakuTriv am Teoriis erT-erTi cneba, maSin saWiro iqneba misi aRiareba aqsiomad yovelgvari analizis gareSe, rac safuZvels uryevs mocemuli Teoriis WeSmaritebas da logikurobas; saWiro iqneba misi ganmarteba sxva cnebebis safuZvelze, Semdeg TviT am cnebebis ganmarteba da a.S. es ki, sabolood, `cud usasrulobas~ mogvcems. IV. meoce saukunis zogierTi humanitaruli Teoriis aqsiomaturi safuZvelia cnebebi, romlebic araa aRebuli sxva Teoriebidan. magaliTad, hermenevtikis safuZvels warmoadgens gagebis cneba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ukavSirdeba mkiTxvelis cnobierebis cnebas. gageba hermenevtikaSi ganumartavi cnebaa, radgan gagebis ganmarteba xorcieldeba esTetikuri obieqtis aRqmis yoveli konkretuli SemTxvevis mimarT. amdenad, sworia georg gadamerisa da pol rikioris Sexeduleba hermenevtikaSi gagebis operaciaTa formalizebis SeuZleblobis Sesaxeb. amdenad, hermenevtikisa da misi msgavsi sxva Teoriebis sakiTxi sagangebo ganxilvas saWiroebs, radgan maTSi Teoriuli dafuZneba xorcieldeba SidaTeoriuli aqsiomebis meSveobiT. struqturalistur TeoriaTa upiratesoba hermenevtikasTan SedarebiT is aris, rom maTi cnebiTi aparati formalizebulia, da formalizebulia imis wyalobiT, rom es Teoriebi emyareba ena/metyvelebis opozicias, sosiuris Teoriidan nasesxeb niSnis cnebas da zogierT sxva aqsiomatur cnebasa da debulebas, romelTa meSveobiTac xorcieldeba teqstebis analizi. amdenad, struqturalizmis pretenzia zusti codnis mopovebaze usafuZvlo araa. struqturalizmi, Tavisi arsiT, mecnierulad dafuZnebul Teorias warmoadgens. sxva TeoriebTan an mecnierebebTan gaerTianebis tendenciam ganapiroba struqturalizmisa da poststruqturalizmis mravali ganStoebis warmoSoba, imis mixedviT, Tu romel TeoriaSi moxda kerZo literaturaTmcodneobiTi koncefciebis integrireba. poststruqturalizms axasiaTebs filosofiuri relativizmi da skepticizmi, `epistemologiuri daeWveba~, romelic reaqciaa struqturalizmis pozitivisturi MmizanmimarTulobis winaaRmdeg. poststruqturalizmi ugulebelyofs struqturalizmis lingvistur amosaval debulebebs, romlebic emyareboda sosiuris Teorias enobrivi niSnis arsis Sesaxeb (sosiurTan enobrivi niSani arsebobs, rogorc sinamdvilis fragmentebis aRniSvna, e.i. niSnis referencialuri funqcia aq erT-erTi yvelaze arsebiTi funqciaa). amgvarad, poststruqturalizmis amosavali aqsiomebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc struqturalizmis aqsiomebi minus-niSniT, jer kidev 50-ian wlebSi Jak lakanma ganacxada, rom aRmniSvneli da aRsa-

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niSni imTaviTve gamijnulia barieriT, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba aRniSvnas; amiT man gaaTavisufla aRmniSvneli aRsaniSnTan kavSirisgan. Jak derida ki akritikebda sosiuris Teorias, romelic emyareboda mJReri metyvelebis primats werilobiT metyvelebasTan SedarebiT. deridas mixedviT. rodesac adamiani laparakobs, mas eqmneba mcdari warmodgena aRmniSvnelis (sityvis akustikuri xatis) da aRsaniSnis (sagnis an misi cnebis) kavSiris Sesaxeb. mecnieris azriT, es dauSvebelia, radgan am SemTxvevaSi gaTvaliswinebuli araa arc intencionaluri mimarTuloba cnobierebisa, romelic aRiqvams samyaros Tavisi Sinagani kanonebis mixedviT, da arc kulturis konteqstis ganmaSualebeli roli. tradiciuli lingvistikis Tanaxmad, niSani yovelTvis raRacis niSania, poststruqturalistebi ki Zirs uTxrian warmodgenas referenciis Sesaxeb. aRsaniSni ar arsebobs, is mxolod iluziaa. Jan bodriaris TqmiT, Tanamedroveoba xasiaTdeba realobasTan kulturis teqstebis kavSiris gauqmebiT, rCeba mxolod simulakrebi, romelTac araviTari referentebi ar gaaCniaT. niSani aRniSnavs sagnis ararsebobas. aSkaraa, rom niSnis cneba, romelsac warTmeuli aqvs misi yvelaze arsebiTi funqcia, aRniSvnis funqcia, aq swored ganumartavi cnebis saxiT gvevlineba, radganac niSani am SemTxvevaSi aris is, rac arafers aRniSnavs. es saSualebas gvaZlevs, amgvarad gagebuli niSani poststruqturalizmis aqsiomatur safuZvlad (bevr sxva cnebasTan erTad) miviCnioT. maSasadame, poststruqturalizmis mizani araa da arc SeiZleba iyos niSnis cnebis tradiciuli gagebis ganviTareba. piriqiT, is yovelgvar funqcias ukargavs am cnebas sagangebo mizniT da ganaviTarebs am _ tradiciuli lingvistikisgan gansxvavebul gagebas _ mTel Tavis koncefciaSi. V. da, bolos, daismis yvelaze fundamenturi (Cveni azriT) sakiTxi: ratom xdeba humanitaruli azrovnebis garkveul etapebze ama

Tu im Teoriis romelime konceptis ganviTarebis wyveta, misi diskreditacia da SerCeva axali Teoriis aqsiomaturi safuZvlis saxiT, maSin, rodesac sxva konceptebi uwyveti, ganviTarebadi konceptebis saxiT aRiqmeba? pasuxi am kiTxvaze moiTxovs mravali faqtoris gaTvaliswinebas da, sabolood, saSualebas mogvcems, gamovavlinoT XX saukunis humanitaruli azrovnebis evoluciis Sinagani logika.

rusudan fifia

`sityuai Zlieri~ ioane minCxis poeziaSi


ione minCxi qarTuli sasuliero poeziis klasikosia. misi mxatvruli naazrevi gansakuTrebuli movlenaa Sua saukuneebis himnografiul memkvidreobaSi. poeti Tavis sagaloblebSi sakmaod cnobil da araerTgzis damuSavebul qristianul motivebs wamoswevs, emociurad gaiazrebs da saTqmels TavisTavad Rirebulebas aniWebs. rogorc cnobilia, Sua saukuneebis mxatvruli azrovnebis amosacnobad unda `gavixsenoT zogadi religiuri koncefcia: RmerTi yvelgan da yvelaferSi aris, magram misi xilva aravis ZaluZs. Tumca mas aqvs unari, roca moisurvebs, adamians eCvenos, e.i. uxilavi xiluli gaxdes~ (baqraZe 1981: 57). himnografis mTavari amocana RmerTis gandidebaa, radganac eklesiaSi sagalobeli himnebis umravlesoba mimarTvaa RvTisadmi. mavedrebelma unda warmoaCinos RvTaebis Zalmosileba. amitomac SeiniSneba sasuliero poeziaSi epiTetTa simravle RvTis qebisas. adamiani, Semoqmedi ama Tu im sadidebeli himnisa, valdebulia gaiTvaliswinos tradiciuli `saRvTo saxelebi~ da Tu xelewifeba, TviTonac kanonikis farglebSi Sehmatos saqebeli sityvebi uflis epiTetebs. sagangebod unda SevexoT `sityvis~ funqcias patristikasa da sasuliero mwerlobaSi. samecniero literaturaSi sakmaod didi masalaa `sityvasTan~ mimarTe-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis ganaTlebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. monografia: ganaTlebis paradigmebi(2008). interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, Zveli qarTuli literatura.

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biT dagrovili. Cveni daintereseba iman ganapiroba, rom `saRvTo saxelTa~ Soris ioane minCxi `sityvas~ TiTqmis yovel nabijze imeorebs. mis poeziaSi qriste, rogorc RvTis sityva, TiTqmis oTx aTeuljeraa moxmobili, ris gamoc vifiqreT, rom masze sagangebo dakvirveba saintereso iqneboda. rogor gaioz imedaSvili SeniSnavs, `poeturi metyvelebis Taviseburebani sayuradReboa sityvaTaTvis, epiTetur-metaforuli Sinaarsis gamomuSavebasTan erTad, savsebiT axali funqciis da mniSvnelobis miniWebis TvalsazrisiTac. es poetur metyvelebaSi vlindeba umTavresad sityvaTa semasiologiuri metamorfozis saxiT da Cveulebriv poetur simboloTa wyaroa leqsikaSi~, aseTi kuTxiT Tu mivudgebiT sakuTriv `sityvis~ mniSvnelobas, imave mecnieris TqmiT: `qriste gagebulia rogorc `RvTis sityva~. amitom mas ukavSirdeba poeturi metyvelebis mdidari leqsikur-metaforuli sfero~ (imedaSvili 1959:176-177). viqtor nozaZis kvleviT ki: sityvas `logos~ bibliis septuagintas TargmanSi ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs. logos aris `sityva~, xSirad ganmeorebuli `sityva RmrTisa~. 1. sityviT Seqmna RmerTma msoflio, sityviT ganagebs RmerTi msoflios; 2. sityva aris gamocxadeba da winaswarmetyveleba. amas garda `sityva~ aris sibrZne RmerTisa. sibrZneSia Seqmnili RmerTis yvela naRvawi, sibrZniT moawyo man mTeli msoflio; RmerTma mianiWa kacsac sibrZne; sityva ganpirovnebulia da bolos, sityva RmerTisa gaigivebulia SjulTan, gamocxadebasTan~ (nozaZe 1963: 156). ioane minCxi mravaljer mimarTavs RvTis gankacebis, anu RvTis sityvad qristes dasaxvis gzas. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa yvelieris kviriakis ciskris sakiTxavi sagalobeli, sadac saxarebiseuli muxliT iwyeba tropari: `pirveliTgan iyo sityua mamisa da RmrTisa Tana, ganuSorebeli sulisagan Tanaarsisa~(minCxi 1986: 151) meore tropari zustad imave sityvebiT iwyeba, xolo mesameSi himnografi ukve mimarTavs qristes: `macxovaro Cueno, sityuao da Zalo mamisao~...(minCxi 1986: 152). mTliani sagalobeli ki imis gardaTqmaa, rasac qristes anu RvTis sityvis dabadebidan jvarcmamde da aRdgomamde gavlili gza hqvia. gameorebis gziT himnografi udides efeqts axdens morwmune adamianze da agrZnobinebs mas, rom qriste RvTis sityvaa, gacxadebuli logosi da amitomac ra gzac man gaiara, marto adamianTa nebiT ar momxdara. ioanes saxarebis pirvel muxls sxvaganac iyenebs poeti (minCxi 1987: 165, 172), riTac xazs usvams saRvTo sityvis udides mniSvnelobas. manana gigineiSvili, romelmac Seiswavla `RvTis sityvis~ arsi ioanes saxarebaSi da misi Semdgomi ganviTarebis gzebi, sagangebod aRniSnavs, rom `qarTvel himnografebTan naTlisRebis himnebSi naTqva-


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mia: `romeli pirveliTgan iyo sityuai RmrTisa, RmrTisa mamisa Tana mflobeli suliT wmidiTurT, ganuyofeli arsebai qalwulisagan Seimosa kacobai ucodveli da dRes simdabled movals iordanes naTlisRebad~ (miqael modrekili). `naTeli naTlisagan Sobili, sityuai mamisagan gamosuli, sruli RmrTeebiTa, Tanaarsi da Tanamosaydre, swori mamisai bunebiT, gamoCnda xorciTa wyalTagan naTeli iRo aw~ (miqael modrekili). `igive sityuai, mamisa Tana RmerTi, xorciTa daemorCila sikudilsa~ (ioane mtbevari). `bunebiT RmerTman bunebai kacobrivi Semosad jer iCine, RmrTisa sityuao, da miTve bunebiTa mieci vnebad, raiTa ganhkurne vnebani misni da maradis Sen gadidebdes ~ (ioane minCxi). `sityuao da sibrZnev gamouTqumelo, gamoxued mamisagan da moxued soflad~(ioane minCxi). `sibrZniT gamgebelo iesu, sityuao daubadebelo, dabadebulni gadideben~ (ioane minCxi). `damdablda moSurnisa cudi simaRlei, odes sityua maRali amaRlda juarsa~ (ioane minCxi). (ingoroyva 1913: sv,rz, rme, iv, ie, ka, id). moxmobili masalebidan sruliad aSkaraa, rom RvTis sityva, romelsac RvTiuri buneba hqonda da romelmac adamianuri buneba miiRo da gansxeulda _ aris qriste. motanili magaliTebi aSkara paralelia fsevdo-dionise areopagelis azrisa sityvis gankacebis Sesaxeb~(gigineiSvili 1968: 24). daviT guramiSvilis poeziis kvlevisas revaz siraZes saTanadod ganuxilavs aRorZinebis xanis udidesi klasikosis mimarTeba qristesTan, rogorc `RvTis sityvasTan~ da CvenTvis sayuradRebo sakiTxs Semdegnairad svams: unda `gaviTvaliswinoT `RvTis sityva~ viTarca saxe. e.i. CvenTvis arsebiTia ara saRvTo saxelebi, anu RvTisadmi `Serqmeuli~ saxelebi, aramed RvTaeba viTarca saxe. `RvTis sityva~ aris saxe mama-RmerTisa. igi TavisTavadicaa da amasTanave, mamis ganmasaxovnebelicaa _ masSia mama RmerTi. aq `saxeobrioba~ erTarsebas gulisxmobs. aseTia samebis principi. (siraZe 1992: 167). mainc rogor gamoixata `sityviT~ RvTaebis saxe ioane minCxis poeziaSi? ras gveubneba poeti, roca ase xSirad Segvaxsenebs, rom RmerTi anu qriste, anu erTarseba aris `sityua dausabamoi~, `sityuai RmrTisa gankacebuli~, sibrZne RmrTisai movida zeciT sityuai Zlieri da xelmwife~, `mSobelo RmrTisa sityuao~, `ufalo RmerTo sityuao yovlisa dambadebelo~ (minCxi 1986: 149, 182, 195, 334, 336) da a. S. Cveni azriT, uflis `sityvis~ aseTi xSiri xsenebiT poeti Seaxsenebs Tavis mrevls im qristianul _ religiur koncefcias, romlis mixedviTac

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qriste anu `RvTis sityva~ arsebobda xorcSesxmamdec, jer kidev Sobamde da Sobisa da jvarcmis merec. amitom `sityva~, rogorc saxe mama RmerTisa da Ze RmerTisa, erTnairad miemarTeba orives da rogorc cnobilia, erTarsebis vedrebisas morwmune qristiani uflis saxiT ufro xSirad gankacebul qristes mimarTavs. ioane minCxs, garda patristikuli mwerlobisa, TviT sasuliero poeziaSi bevri winamorbedi hyavda. ufals, rogorc RvTis sityvas, xSirad mimarTaven bizantiur himnebSi: `qriste, pirvel saukuneTa sityuao mamisao~, `Sen mamisgan ar ganeSore, sityuai uqceveli xorciel iqmen~, `sityuai dausabamoi~, `sityuai RmrTisai~ (ingoroyva 1913: 61,75, 81, 97, 113). ioane minCxis Tanamedrove ioane mtbevaric aranakleb sixSiriT ixseniebs qristes, rogorc uflis gacxadebul logoss: `pirvel saukuneTa sityuai~, `sityuai dausabamoi~, `sityuai RmrTisai~, `sityuai mxoloo~ `mxolod Sobilo, mxoloisa mamisa Tana mflobelo~..., `mamisa Tana ganmgebeli sityuai~ da a. S. (uZvelesi iadgari 1980: 387, 504, 379, 386, 398). unda gavixsenoT, rom ` Sua saukuneebis qristianuli mwerlobis Zeglebis mxatvruli TavisTavadoba da cxovelmyofeloba imiT gaxlavT ganpirobebuli, rom Semoqmedi yovel religiur faqtTan amyarebs damoukidebel mimarTebas. esa Tu is Tema, esa Tu is motivi xdeba piradi refleqsiisa da gancdis sagani. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos igi pirveli aRmoaCens da aRwers am faqts. nawarmoebs warmarTavs emociurad damuxtuli azri _ Zeglis mxatvruli saxe; ioane minCxis aRdgomis dasdebelSi naTqvamia: RmrTisa sityuao, bunebiT uvnebelo, buneba Cemi miiRe da miT ivne da mavnebeli Cemi mohkal juariTa da laxuriTa, romliTa gangmire da viTarca kaci Zalsa Sensa didebai~ am sityvebSi uzenaesisadmi avtoris Rrma intimi gamosWvivis, ris gamoc striqonebs SeZenili aqvT udidesi Zala~ (grigolaSvili 1983: 92-93). ioane minCxic, himnografiaSi damtkicebuli tradiciis Tanaxmad, mravaljer mimarTavs qristes, rogorc `RvTis sityvas~. rogorc vTqviT, TiTqmis oTx aTeuljer ewodeba mis poeziaSi ufals `sityva~ da mainc raSi gamoixateba am trafaretad qceuli saxis uxvad gamoyenebisas poetis TavisTavadoba? poeti roca bibliidan momdinare am saxes mimarTavs, igi viTarca `xuroTmoZRuari~ sityvisa, yovel konteqstSi iseT Rrma azrsa da emocias aqsovs, rom msmeneli eziareba udides aRmafrenas. ioane minCxis yvela striqonSi Cans didi xelovanisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sisadave da daxvewiloba.


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literatura baqraZe 1981: a. baqraZe, sasuliero poeziis saxeebi, kreb. `poezia~, Tb., 1981. imedaSvili 1959: g. imedaSvili, qarTuli klsikuri sagaloblis metyvelebis zogi sakiTxi, k. kekeliZis saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 1959. nozaZe 1963: v. nozaZe, vefxistyaosnis RmrTismetyveleba, parizi, 1963. minCxi 1986: ioane minCxis poezia, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva daurTo l. xaCiZem, Tb., 1986. ingoroyva 1913: p. ingoroyva, Zveli qarTuli sasuliero poezia, tf., 1913. uZvelesi iadgari 1980: uZvelesi iadgari, gamosacemad moamzades, gamokvleva da saZieblebi daurTes e. metrevelma, c. Wankievma da l. xevsurianma, Tb., 1980. grigolaSvili 1983: l. grigolaSvili, qarTuli himnografia, Jurn. `qarTuli ena da liiteratura skolaSi~, #1. 1983. gigineiSvili 1968: m.gigineiSvili`,mziani Rame~ vefxistyaosanSi da qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis zogi sakiTxi, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis sakiTxebi,111, Tb., 1968. siraZe 1992: r. siraZe, qristianuli kultura da qarTuli mwerloba, Tb., 1992.

ramaz qurdaZe

niSanTa sistemis pragmatikuli aspeqti zogi Jargonuli sityvis sesxebisas qarTulSi


cnobilia, rom semiotika niSanTa sistemis Seswavlis sam aspeqts ganarCevs. es aspeqtebi ganisazRvreba niSnis bunebiT: sintaqtika _ urTierTmimarTeba sistemis niSnebs Soris; semantika _ mimarTeba aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris da pragmatika _ niSnis momxmareblis damokidebuleba niSanTan. pragmatikuli aspeqti faqtobrivad sintaqtikur da semantikur aspeqtebs moicavs da misi gaTvaliswineba uaRresad mniSvnelovania enis leqsikis Seswavlis dros (gamyreliZe, kiknaZe, Saduri, Sengelaia, 2003: 29-30). pragmatikuli aspeqti gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens Jargonuli leqsikis ganxilvisas. swored niSnis momxmareblis damokidebulebiT niSanTan aixsneba bevri Jargonuli sityvis rogorc gaCena, ise ama Tu im enidan misi sesxeba. cnobilia, rom qarTuli Jargonuli leqsikis mniSvnelovan nawils nasesxebi sityvebi warmoadgens. nasesxeb sityvaTa umravlesoba rusuli enidanaa, ufro zustad _ rusuli Jargonidan.Azogi maTgani Zalian gamWvirvalea da iolia maTi rusulTan dakavSireba, xolo zogis warmomavlobis dasadgenad specialuri kvlevaa saWiro. rusuli leqsikuri nasesxobani qarTul JargonSi adreve iyo SeniSnuli. kerZod, qarTuli Jargonis leqsikonSi rusu-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis qarTuli enis institutis sruli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi: xmovanmonacvle zmnebi Tanamedrove qarTulSi, Tb., 2005; svanuri ena, Tb., 2007 (Tanaavtorebi: z. WumburiZe, l. niJaraZe). interesTa sfero: qarTuli zmna, qarTuli dialeqtologia, qarTulis, rogorc meore enis swavlebis Teoriuli da praqtikuli sakiTxebi, qarTuli Jargoni.

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lidan momdinare sityvaTa mniSvnelovan nawils miTiTebuli aqvs Sesabamisi rusuli variantebi (ix.Ll. bregaZe, qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni, Tb., 2005). amave sakiTxs exeba Cveni ramdenime werilic, romlebSic gamovlenilia iseTi Jargonuli sityvebis rusuli warmomavloba rogoricaa: grevi _ saCuqari; ambali _ axmaxi; mandraJi _ mRelvareba; ramsebi _ gamoTqmaSi: `ramsebi ar agerios~ _ araferi SegeSalos; stosi _ gamoTqmaSi `stosi mihyavs~ _ liderobs, avangardSia; Cmori _ uxeiro, jabani, bedovlaTi, xaniga _ galoTebuli, fskerze daSvebuli; muzoni _ musika; fanati _ ucnauri adamiani, adamiani, romelmac raime sakiTxi ZirisZirobamde icis, fani da sxv. (qurdaZe, 2009) rogorc irkveva, rusulenovani sociumidan Jargonul leqsikur erTeulTa kidev ufro didi nawili momdinareobs. bunebrivia, maTi gamovlena momavalSic gagrZeldeba. amjerad warmovadgenT qarTul JargonSi dadasturebul leqsikur erTeulTa nawils, romelic aseve rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs. aseTebia, magaliTad, tasaoba da tusaoba: es ori gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis sityva dadasturebulia qarTuli Jargonis leqsikonSi, magram araferia naTqvami maT warmomavlobaze. am SemTxvevaSi sayuradReboa is faqti, rom orive es sityva rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs da rusuli Jargoni maT Soris arsebul kavSirsac cxadyofs. amis sailustraciod jer qarTulis magaliTebs moviyvanT, Semdeg rusulisas. kerZod: `tasaoba _ seirnoba, xetiali. (ix. `itasava~). `magas fexiT `tasaoba~ uyvars~ (gvanca abdalaZe); itasava _ iseirna, ixetiala. `dRes wavideT, qalaqSi `vitasavoT~ (Tina JorJoliani)~ (bregaZe, 2005). gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba tusaoba: tusaoben _ usaqmurad dganan da lazRandaroben: `da vtusaobT me da Cemi ori Zmakaci sadarbazosTan~ (basa janikaSvili)~ (bregaZe, 2005). rogorc aRvniSneT, orive es sityva rusulidan momdinareobs da leqsikonis Semdgenelis azriT, maT Soris garkveuli kavSiric dasturdeba: `, -, -; a, -, -; ., (. , -, -), , . -. , ; ( , ..); , ; , . . . . , , ; ., ., . ; . .

316

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, , , , , , ; . . .~ (elistratovi, 2008). rusuli warmomavlobisaa leqsikuri erTeuli daicikla, romelsac l. bregaZe ase ganmartavs: `raRaca aikviata; erTsa da imaves imeorebs, erTsa da imave wreze (ciklze) brunavs. `is kide gafuWebu-

li patefoniviT imeorebda erTsa da imaves: `bnelo, bnelo... vinaa eg bnelo? saidan maxsovs?~ daicikla etyoba, sxva veraferze sityva ver daacdenines~ (gia WumburiZe. Targ.)~ (bregaZe, 2005).
es Jargonuli leqsikuri erTeuli sakmaod gavrcelebulia da sxva zmnuri formiT, kerZod, pirveli TurmeobiTis formiTac gvxvdeba: `ara, es Cemi stili araa.Aase arasodes davciklulvar!~ (fxakaZe, 2007, 16). rusulSic amave mniSvnelobiT ixmareba: , -, -; . (. , -, ), - . -., -. (elistratovi, 2008) aseTive warmomavlobisaa qarTul JargonSi arsebuli viSibala _ `iq rolandaa erTi, viSibala, imas Cagabare da moviyvane taqsi~ (morCilaZe, 2006, 31); `ra iyo, ra ambavia. . . _ dazeTilad ambobs erTi da nela, ludis moyudebiT modis Cemken, raRac ise, magari Tavdajerebuli da viSibala sifaTiT. . .~ (fxakaZe, 2007, 111). es sityvac rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs da niSnavs restornis an sastumros muSaks, romelic mTvral da ayal-mayalis amtex klientebs gareT erekeba: ` , , , . . . . , (., )~ (kolesnikovi, kornilovi, 1996). rusuli Jargonis leqsikonis avtorebi Jargonuli viSibalas msgavsi mniSvnelobis zog sxva sityvasac asaxeleben, maTgan nawili saliteraturo rusulSic dasturdeba, esenia: , , , , . aseve rusuli Jargonidanaa sityva mosaCkavec, rac usaqmurs, zarmacs, niSnavs; anda adamians, romelic samuSaos acdens, Tavs aridebs saqmes: mosaCkave _ `. . . mere vukavSirdebi taqss, raRaciT veZeb mosaCkaves da veubnebi, ro midi, Se siro, aq da aq da ase Semdeg.~ (janikaSvili 2004: 104).Aam sityvas rusul JrgonSi ki ori mniSvneloba aqvs, romelTagan pirveli qarTulSic davadastureT, xolo meore jerjerobiT mxolod rusulSi gvxvdeba: `, -, . 1. , , ; ~ . , ~ -, ! 2. , , , ; ,

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, , (. 1- ). ~ . . . , , , . . (the hammock). , , , . . . . , ~ (elistratovi, 2010). saintereso Jargonuli leqsikuri erTeulia rusulidan momdinare zmnizeda specom, rac niSnavs specialurad: `gzebi gaiyvanes specom avtobusebisTvis. . .~; `. . . Cveno, specom gagiCaliCeTo, ro Tqveni mogzauroba kairos uRatakesi ubnidan daviwyeTo, . . .~, (janikaSvili 2004: 122, 124). es sityvac rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs: `, . , . . ( 1995 .). ? . , , 197. , ? ( 1998 .).~ (nikitina, 2003; ix. agreTve elistratovi, 2010). rusuli Jargonidanve momdinareobs qarTulSi dadasturebuli sityva spontam. qarTuli Jargonis leqsikonSi gvxvdeba Jargonizmi ponti, rac Semdegnairad ganimarteba: `rusul qurdul enaze niSnavs adamianTa jgufs, Tavyrilobas. zogjer ixmareba tyuilis, blefis, TvalebSi nacris Seyris mniSvnelobiTac (sergei snegovis azriT, es mniSvneloba `fraerulia~, araqurduli). am meore mniSvnelobiT (tyuili, blefi) damkvidrda es sityva qarTul JargonSi: `rom

giTxraT, suli mimdioda, mere ra moxdeba-meTqi, ponti iqneba~; `magram, rom amboben, edi flemingis TiTis gamo gaiqcao, eg ki naRdad ponti iqneba~ (dali fanjikiZe. Targm.)
am bolo dros `pontma~ qarTul JargonSi axali mniSvnelobac SeiZina (kidev ufro `fraeruli~!) da ixmareba `ambavi/ambavSi~-s (ix.) gagebiT: `marTlac warmoudgenelia rusTavelis memuarebi _ `miTxra-

vuTxrasa~ da `movida-wavidas~ pontSi~; `wers arqaul pontSi `iyos~ nacvlad `xiyos~! (tariel Wanturia)~ (bregaZe, 2005).
amrigad, rogorc Cans sityva ponti qarTul JargonSi farTo gavrcelebisaa, da rogorc es miTiTebulia qarTul Jargonis leqsikonSi, is rusuli Jargonuli leqsikidan momdinareobs. magram pontTan dakavSirebiT sayuradReboa sxva Jargonuli gamoTqmebic, rom-

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lebic aseve rusulidan momdinareoben, esenia spontam da bezponta. qvemoT cal-calke ganvixilavT TiToeuls: spontam rusulSi moqmedebiTi brunvis formaa da windebuliT ixmareba _ ` ~, mas Semdegi mniSvnelobebi aqvs: ( .). 1. , ( ). 2. . , , ~ (elistratovi, 2010). aRsaniSnavia, rom rusulSi am sityvas ori mniSvneloba aqvs. Cven mier qarTul JargonSi dadasturebuli spontam pirvel mniSvnelobas uaxlovdeba, ufro swored TiTqos, viTom nawilakebis mniSvnelobiT ixmareba: `meTqi, ras autanT, civi wveni, an duri. . . meTqi, rame rac gauswordeba aman kide ise migviRo, gegoneboda, Cveni mosaxdeli sicxec magan aiRo Tavis Tavzeo, spontam! hoda maSinac movwieT da ra movwieT?! vkaifobdiT. . .~ (janikaSvili, 2004, 16). ar aris gamoricxuli sityva spontam qarTul JargonSi zemoaRniSnuli meore mniSvnelobiTac dadasturdes. sayuradReboa sityva bezponta-c, rasac rusulSi Semdegi mniSvnelobebi aqvs: ` , 1. -. , . 2. , , , -~ (elistratovi, 2010). qarTul JargonSi bezponta niSnavs ubralod usaqmod, umiznod raimes keTebas: `egre bezponta jdomas da garekvas _ mivumateb rames msoflio xelovnebas~; `Caval exla, am sasaflaosgan naCuqari jipiT davivli qalaqs. ise, bezponta. jigrulad davkrugav~ (elistratovi, 2010). sayuradReboa, rom bezpontas yalibis msgavsi rusuli sityvebi sxvac gvxvdeba qarul JargonSi, kerZod, bezprablem, bezfaqta: `. . . bezprablem matareben. . .~; `aegre, bezfaqta daaxvies roJebma~ (fxakaZe, 94, 99). saintereso viTarebaa mafokusebs sityvasTan dakavSirebiTac: mafokusebs _ `Temura miyurebs, mafokusebs~ (T. fxakaZe, 2007, 34). SesaZlebelia, pirdapir ara, magram garkveuli aspeqtiT, es gamoTqma ukavSirdebodes rusul JargonSi dadasturebul fokusis gasworebas, rac yuradRebiT Sexedvas, yuradRebiT danaxvas niSnavs: `** . . ? , ( -)~ (nikitina, 2003). rusuli Jargonuli leqsikidanaa Semosuli qarTul JargonSi putankac _ msubuqi yofaqcevis qali. `putankam migiyvana saxlSi to. . .~; `aqamde ar mindoda gamemxila, magram aq Semxvda erTi Tbiliseli putanka, romelsac Zalian didi xnis win vicnobdi~ (morCilaZe, 2006, 59). rusul JaegonSi am sityvas ase ganmartaven: `, -, , -, . ( )

niSanTa sistemis pragmatikuli aspeqti...

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. . . . . putana .~ (elistratovi, 2010). rusuli Jargonidanve momdinareobs zogi rusuli sityva romelTa warmomavlobis dadgena faqtobrivad araviTar sirTules ar warmoadgens da romlebic qarTuli Jargonis kuTvnilebacaa. aseTebia brat da bliad: brat _ mimarTvis forma Zmao, Zma: `_ migesvleba, brat, da midi~; `_es Sen, brat! magari veSCia, _ meubneba Temura, raRac medalions maCeCebs.~ zogjer am sityvasTan erTad qarTul Zmasac xmaroben: `aba rogor ginda, brat?! arc getkinos?! arc getkinos, Zmao?!~ (fxakaZe, 2007, 27, 33, 199). brat Jargonia rusulSic: ` . ; ; . , - ( -), , -, , -, , -, , -, . 1. . 2. . . . . _ ~ (elistratovi, 2010). bliad _ momdinareobs rusulidan da Cveulebriv msubuqi yofaqcevis qals, bozs niSnavs, ixmareba erTgvar Sorisdebulad, rac ukidures gajavrebas gamoxatavs. es leqsikuri erTeuli imdenad gavrcelebulia, rom ruseTSi gamocemul Jargonuli leqsikonebis garda amerikaSi gamocemul rusul Jargonis leqsikonSic gvxvdeba: , -, f., rude. 1. A loose woman. . That slut sleeps with everybody. 2. Exclamation of extreme annoyance. , , ! Shut up, damn it, Im sick of you! (Sliaxovi da adleri, 1999; kolesnikovi da kornilovi, 1996). es sityva qarTul JargonSi erTgvarad sityvis masalad ixmareba da usiamovno emociebs gamoxatavs: `aaau, mere isev brazma amitana, ro Temura kuboSi wevs iq da me aq viRac naSis logins vezomebi da vkaifob, bliad! (fxakaZe, 2007, 156). zogi rusuli sityva ver davadastureT rusulSi Jargonuli mniSvnelobiT, magram qarTulSi maT Jargonuli mniSvneloba aqvT, aseTia rusuli sityva _ giragi, rac zmnidan momdinareobs, romlis mniSvnelobacaa: `. . . Wyleta (iWyliteba). kvra (ikvrevineba): nu ikvrevinebiT (rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, 1959). qarTul JargonSi sityva tisks daZabulobis, mZafri gancdebis mniSvnelobiT xmaroben: `veubnebi kikalas, jibeSi faqti udevs, motexe eg Cemisa-meTqi. gadaagde ra sadme kibesTan daagde vin waiRebs, rad ginda quCaSi tiskebiT dgoma da siaruli~ (janikaSvili, 2006). am SemTxvevaSi tiski girags an Wyletas unda ukavSirdebodes. Tumca qarTul JargonSi amave sityviT nawarmoebi sityva rusuli

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zmnis meore mniSvnelobas unda ukavSirdebodes, am magaliTs zepiri metyvelebidan moviyvanT: gatiska scema: `magra gatiskes~. aseTivea, magaliTad, gauprava da daupadiezda: gauprava _ gaamarTla, daakanona: `risTvis aris maTTan saubari saWiro? imisTvis, rom `gaupravoT~ warsulSi Cadenili danaSauli~ (`alia~, 2008, 5); gasapravebeli _ dasakanonebeli: `burjanaZes, noRaidels da kiwmariSvils milionebi aqvT gasaTeTrebeli da `gasapravebeli~. swored amitom cdiloben politikaSi dabrunebas da qarTveli xalxisagan indulgenciebis yidvas~ (`asaval-dasavali~, 2008, gv., 2). daupadiezda _ sadarbazoSi daxvda da saqme gaurCia da sxv. amrigad, qarTul JargonSi sakmaod vxvdebiT uSualod rusul Tu rusulis gziT Semosuli zogi evropuli enis leqsikas. am sityvebs gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravT qarTul Jargonul leqsikaSi, rac swored enobrivi niSnis pragmatikuli daniSnulebiT anu mTqmelis saTqmelTan damokidebulebiT aixsneba. litaratura gamyreliZe, kiknaZe, Saduri, Sengelaia, 2003: T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i. Saduri, n. Sengelaia, Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tb., 2003. qurdaZe 2009: r. qurdaZe, zogi sityvis warmomavlobisaTvis qarTul JargonSi, `waxnagi~, filologiur kvlevaTa krebuli, Tb., 2009. bregaZe 2005: l. bregaZe, qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni, Tb., 2005. elistratovi 2008: . . , , , 2010. kolesnikovi, kornilovi 1996: . . , . . , , --, 1966. nikitina 2003: . . , , 2003. Sliaxovi da adleri 1999: Shlyakhov V., Adler E. Dictionary of Russian Slang & Colloquial Expressions, 1999. rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, 1959 _ rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. III, Tb., 1959. masalebi 1. T. fxakaZe, `Cven samni da angelozi~, Tb., 2007. 2. a. morCilaZe, `qaRaldis tyvia~, Tb., 2006. 3. b. janikaSvili, `ocnebebiT kairoSi~, 2004. 4. `alia~, 2008 _ gaz., `alia~, #121, 2008. 5. `asaval-dasavali~, 2008 _ gaz., `asaval-dasavali~, #40, 2008.

irakli cxvediani

jeimz joisis ,,ulise: miTosi da struqtura


jeimz joisis roman `ulises~ kompleqsuri, ierarqiuli miTosuri struqturis analizisas mkvlevris umTavresi amocana misi Semadgeneli Sreebis/doneebis stratifikacia da maTi funqciebis dadgenaa. es ierarqia organizebulia abstraqtulobis gaZlierebis niSnis mixedviT, sadac struqturis yvelaze abstraqtul doneze miTosi funqcionirebs. `ulise erTi SexedviT sruliad mouwesrigebeli, qaoturi nawarmoebis STabeWdilebas tovebs, vinaidan masSi darRveulia romanis agebis konvenciuri normebi; magram swored aseT SemTxvevaSi sWirdeba mwerals struqturis organizebis kidev ufro zusti da myari principi Tu sagangebod winaswar SemuSavebuli sqema-koncefcia, rasac jorj qlei moswrebulad uwodebs `zedmiwevniT struqturirebul struqturis naklebobas (qlei 2002: 211). `uliseSi amgvari `struqturis naklebobis kompensireba xdeba cikluri miTosuri struqturis formiT. `ulises~ struqturis organizebisaTvis joisi mimarTavs `miToss~-erTgvar potenciur siuJets, sakvanZo miTosur situacias, uzogades sqemas, romelic joisis mier gadamuSavebuli saxiT uamrav asociaciur plans, waxnags Tu aspeqts iZens da faqtobrivad misi poemis mTel mxatvrul

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, dasavleT evropuli da amerikuli literaturis departamentis koordinatori ZiriTadi Sromebi:
Mythin J. Joyce's Ulysses and W.Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (Comparative Study) (2002);

ulises miTopoetika (2006); jeimz joisi da jon dos pasosi: transatlantikuri literturuli modernizmis poetika (2006); wminda romani da epikuri romani: modernistuli romanis ori SesaZlebloba (2006); Dante, Eliot and Joyce: Creating Order out of Chaos (2008); Spatial Form in James Joyce's Ulysses: Nausicaa Episode (2009)

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sistemas gansazRvravs. Aamgvar miTosur sqemad `uliseSi~, mamisa da Zis urTierTmimarTebis motivi iqceva. es swored romanis is RerZia, romlis irgvlivac lagdeba da garkveul simwyobres iZens personaJTa asociaciebisa qaosica da uamravi aluzia-reminiscenciac. romanis am magistraluri xazis xorcSesasxmelad joisi paralels avlebs sxvadasxva wyarosTan, romlebSic `miTosuri potenciuri siuJetis~ esa Tu is aspeqtia interpretirebuli (Tanac mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania es motivi joisis mier gamoyenebul wyaroebSi, mTavari isaa rom joisi swored mas gamohkveTs da Tavisi romanis fokusad aqcevs). ase rom, ar aris gamrTlebuli roca, joisologiaSi damkvidrebuli tradiciis mixedviT, `ulises~ maorganizebel sawyisad `homerosul miTs miiCneven, vinaidan homerosis `odisea~ miTi ki ara, mxatvruli, literaturuli nawamoebia, romelSic `miTosis~ (erTgvari potenciuri siuJetis, qargis) alegoriul-mxatvruli interpretaciaa mocemuli. sulieri Zisa da sulieri mamis urTierTmimarTebis miTosuri motivi saSualebas aZlevs mwerals romanis mxatvrul qsovilSi `Seitanos~ araerTgvarovani siuJeturi wyaroebidan nasesxebi miTologiuri Tu litraturuli aluzia-reminiscenciebi, faruli Tu aSkara citatebi, romlebic romanis siRrmiseul-simbolur planSi uaRresad mWidrod arian erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli da maTi dacalkeveba mxolod pirobiTad, kvlevis miznebidan gamomdinarea dasaSvebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, esa Tu is siuJeturi miniSneba an asociacia wmindad miTologiuria, Tu ara. T. kobaxiZe sruliad marTebulad aRniSnavs T. s. eliotis `unayofo miwis~ miTosur sqematur safuZvelze msjelobisas: `unayofo miwaSi~ xSiria wminda literaturul siuJetTa miniSnebac, antikur miTologiasTan maTi uSualo dakavSirebis gareSe. aseT SemTxvevaSi, asociaciuri siuJeti garegnuli `miTologizmisagan~ Tavisufalia, samagierod, romelime sqematuri niSnis wyalobiT is poemis saerTo-miTosuri struqturis ganuyofel nawilad iqceva. aseT WrilSi naTlad Cans `miTosisa~ da `miTologiis~ principuli gansxvaveba, radgan wminda literaturuli, aramiTologiuri siuJetis parodirebac isev da isev miTosursqematuri analogiis xarjze xorcieldeba~ (kobaxiZe 1991: 69). T. kobaxiZis es sityvebi SeiZleba `ulisesTan~ mimarTebaSic gamoviyenoT. ufro metic, joisis mier misi romanis miTosuri safuZvlis xorcSesasxmelad arCeuli, struqturul-Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelovanesi wyaroebi _ homerosis `odisea~ da Seqspiris Semoqmedeba _ aramiTolgiuria. Tu pirveli mainc antikur

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miTologiasTanaa dakavSirebuli, ukanskneli garegnuli `miTologizmisagan~ Tavisufalia da romanis `saerTo miTosuri struqturis nawilad~ swored miTosur-sqematuri analogiis safuZvelze iqceva. rogorc romanis saTauri migvaniSnebs, `ulises~ personaJTa urTierTdamokidebulebis simetriis gansazRvrisa da maTi urTierTobis magistraluri xazis asagebad gavlebul paralelebs Soris yvelaze mniSvnleovani funqcia homerosi `odeiseas~ akisria. Ggarda amisa, sxva paralelebisagan gansxvavebiT, homerosuli paraleli Tanmimdevrulia da bolomde gasdevs romans. Tu teqstur (siuJetur) doneze mwerali siuJetis calkeuli, faruli miniSnebebiT Semoifargleba, romanis struqturas igi swored homerosis eposis zogadi sqemis mixedviT agebs, Tumca, cxadia, garkveuli modifikaciiT rogorc romanis epizodTa raodenobis, aseve maTi Tanmimdevrobis TvalsazrisiT. amitomac, amjerad mxolod homerosuli paralelis funqciebis analizze gavamaxvileb yuradRebas. rogorc cnobilia, `odeisea~ sam nawilad iyofa: telemaqiada, odisevsis Tavgadasavali da Sin dabruneba (nostos). am sqemis Sesabamisad `ulises~ I nawilSi aRwerilia Tanamedrove telemaqes stiven dedalosis mier dublinSi gatarebuli dila. romanis II, centraluri nawili iwyeba Tanamedrove odisevsis, blumis SemoyvaniT IV epizodSi da Seesatyviseba iTakis mefis xetials. Bbolo sami epizodi, sadac blumi dedalosTan erTad Sin brundeba, Seesabameba odisevsis Sin dabrunebas. Jozef preskoti aRniSnavs, rom blumi, savsebiT moulodnelad, yovelgvari gafrTxilebis gareSe Semodis `uliseSi~ (IV epizodi), `odeiseaSi~ ki telemaqiada da odisevsis Tavgadasavlebi organuladaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, vinaidan odisevsi araerTgzis moixseneba mis uSualo gamoCenamde xan telemaqes, xanac menelaosis mier, rasac mkvlevari imiT xsnis, rom am SemTxvevaSi homerosi met ostatobas iCens, vidre joisi (preskoti 1964: 31-32). ara mgonia, nawarmoebis struqturis agebis iseT ostats, rogoric joisi iyo, gasWirveboda msgavsi xerxis gamoZebna `ulises~ I da II nawilebs Soris kavSiris dasamyareblad. saqme is aris, rom telemaqem icis misi mgazavrobis konkretuli mizani, stiveni ki sulier mamas daeZebs (rac arc aqvs bolomde gacnobierebuli) da arc ki uwyis, rom misi saZiebeli da sawadeli, blumSia gansxeulebuli. esec erTgvari struqturuli xerxia joisisa: amgvarad miniSnebulia Tanabarzomieri, simetriuli daSoreba blumisa da stivenis gzebisa, xolo Semdgom, TandaTanobiT xdeba am gzebis daaxloeba da droebiTi gadakveTa. joisis samuSao variantSi `ulises~ 18 epizods homerosuli sa-

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Taurebi hqonda, romelnic saboloo variants ar SemorCena, magram, kritikul literaturaSi gamoiyeneba. hari levini amgvarad xsnis joisis mier homerosuli saTaurebis CamoSorebis mizezs: odisevsis miTi, rogorc struqturis organizebis xerxi, igive iyo mwerlisaTvis, rac xaraCo _ mSeneblisaTvis, magram imisaTvis, rom mnaxvelma aRiqvas dasrulebuli Senobis WeSmariti Rirebuleba, saWiroa xaraCoebis CamoSoreba. swored amitomac, joisma, h. levinis mixedviT, garkveuli yoymanis Semdeg epizodebs moacila homerosuli saTaurebi, Tumca kvlavac iyenebda maT kerZo saubrebSi. joisi imedgacruebuli darCenila: mkiTxvelma ver SeZlo analogiis danaxva. 8 wlis unayofo lodinis Semdeg, joiss moTminebis fiala aevso da wigni gamoacemina stiuart jilberts, romelmac miuTiTa romanis TiToeuli epizodis Sesatyvisi homerosuli saTauri, Axelovneba, feri, simbolo, teqnika da organo (levini 1960: 89-91). `ulises~ mkvlevarTa did nawils `odisea~ swored amgvar `xaraCod~ miaCnia, romelic abstraqtul (struqturul) doneze moqmedebs, da Tavs iCens romanis struqturasa da pesonaJTa urTierTdamokidebulebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, maTTvis mag., k. sanduleskusaTvis, miuRebelia paralelebis gadaWarbebuli detalizacia `ulisesa~ da misi homerosuli modelis SedarebiTi Seswavlis dros, vinaidan epizodebis homerosul saTaurebs araviTari kavSiri ara aqvT wignis SinaarsTan _ dublinis cxovrebis erTi dRis aRwerasTan (sandulesku 1979: 80-81). Mmsgavss Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams arnold qeTlic. misi azriT mkiTxvels mxolod is unda axsovdes, rom `ulises~ struqtura, umTavresad `odiseas~ emyareba, rom blumi odisevsia, stiveni-telemaqe, moli ki - penelope. mkvlevari winaaRmdegia homerosuli paralelebis Semdgomi detalizaciisa (qeTli 1953: 138). Ddeklan kiberdi marTalia erTis mxriv aRiarebs, rom homerosuli paralelis detalizacia xSirad SesaZlebelia, da zogjer sasargebloc, magram, meore mxriv igi miiCnevs, rom arsebobs erTi safrTxe: homerosulma struqturam ar STanTqas `wignis kiTxvisagan mogvrili uSualo STabeWdileba~ (kiberdi 1992: XXIV). ukiduresobas warmoadgens e. genievas pozicia. Mmisi azriT homerosuli paralelis gaTvaliwineba saerTod ar aris saWiro mkiTxvelis mier teqstis swori aRqmisaTvis. Aamgvari daskvnamde midis mkvlevari `ulises~ me-7 epizodis `eolosis~ analizis safuZvelze (genieva 1989: 161). marTlac, mkiTxvels SeuZlia `ulise~ waikiTxos rogorc ambavi ori personaJisa, romlebsac romanSi aRwerili SemTxvveiTi erTmaneTTan daukavSirebeli movlenebi sabolood erTad Sehyris, da isic ki ar gaiTvaliswinos, rom blumi odisevsia, stiveni ki telemaqe: Tuki romani mkiTxvels ver daainteresebs da gaitacebs am ori mTava-

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ri personaJis moqmedebis doneze, cxadia, igi mis yuradRebas ver miipyrobs, rogorc analogia Tu simbolo, magram saqme is aris, rom erTi mkvlevris Tqmisa ar iyos, `ulise~ uRrani tyea, romelSic mkiTxvelma gza unda gaikafos (bolti 1992: 103). uSualo Txrobis ramdenime detali aferxebs `ambis~ ganviTarebas da gaugebars xdis mas. aseT viTarebaSi bunebrivia, saWiroa gzis gamkvlevi da aseT gzis gamkvlevs saTauri gvTavazobs. Tavad mweralic misi romanis erT-erTi mkiTxvelisaTvis miweril werilSi mas urCevs, rom Tu mas surs gaigos `ulise~, jer waikiTxos `odiseas~ Carlz lemiseuli Semoklebuli da martivi inglisuriT gadmocemuli adaptirebuli varianti (You say there is a lot of it you dont understand. I told you to read Odyssey first. As you have not done so I asked my publisher to send you an article which will throw a little light on it. Then by at once the Adventure of Ulysses (which is Homers story told in simple English much abbreviated) by Charles Lamb. You can read it in a night and can buy it at Gills or Browne and Nolans for a couple of shillings. Then have a try Ulysses again) (elmani 1975). romanis moqmedebis ZiriTadi gezi Seesatyviseba `odiseas~ moqmedebas, Tu detalurad ara, ZiriTad momentebSi da situaciebSi mainc. marTalia, mkiTxvels SeuZlia `ulise~ waikiTxos homerosuli paralelebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSec, magram am paralelebis mxedvelobaSi miReba mas SeaZlebinebs, Caswvdes romanis dafarul Sreebs, mis simbolur plans. bunebrivia, uazrobaa, garegnuli, pirdapiri paralelebis Zieba siuJetis doneze da am TvalasazrisiT, homerosul saTaurebs marTlac araferi aqvT saerTo `ulises~ epizodebis SinaarsTan, anda ra saerTo SeiZleba hqondes dublineli sareklamo agentis blumis xetials qalaqis quCebSi da antikuri gmiris faTerakebiT aRsavse Tavgadasavlebs? naTelia, rom `ulises~ da `odiseas~ moqmedebasa da personaJebs Soris gavlebuli paralelebi uaRresad pirobiTia, ufro metic, isini ironiul kontrasts warmoadgenen, magram SeuZlebelia ori Tvisobrivad araerTgvarovani obieqtis Sepirispireba aseTi Sepirispireba am obieqtebis raRac saerTo niSans, maT garkveul msgavsebas unda emyarebodes. saqme is aris, rom joisi homerosis `odiseas~ moqmedebas, Carlz lemis interptretaciaze dayrdnobiT, alegoriulad gaiazrebs. misive aRiarebiT, poemaSi gadmocemuli legenda `misticizmiT~ izidavda mas. `odiseas~ personaJebi da konfliqtebi, Carlz lemis mixedviT, unda ganvixiloT, rogorc garegani Zalebi Tu Sinagani cdunebani, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen adamianis cxovrebaze. ase rom, `odiseas~ calkeuli Tavebis `ulises~ epizodebTan asocireba am ukanasknelTa simbolur-alegoriuli interpretaciis safuZvels iZleva.

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es naTlad Cans `ulisesa~ da `odiseas~ calkeuli epizodebis SepirispirebiTi analizisas. Aase magaliTad, `odiseas~ I TavSi telemaqe mtrebiTaa garSemortymuli, mas dedamisis sasiZoebi aviwroeben da mamamisis qonebas aniaveben. mentoris saxiT gamocxadebuli aTena mas urCevs moipovos cnobebi gauCinarebuli mamis Sesaxeb. isic miemgzavreba raTa gaarkvios odisevsis asaval-dasavali. telemaqesagan gansxvavebiT stivenma Zalian kargad icis, Tu sad aris mamamisi, dedamisi ki gardacvlilia aqedan naTlad Cans, rom pirdapiri paralelis gavleba SeuZlebelia da am situaciebs Soris analogiis danaxvis saSualebas mxolod maTi alegoriuli interpretacia iZleva: telemaqes memkvidreobis dakargvis safrTxe emuqreba. stivenic grZnobs, rom igi ver SeZlebs sakuTari potenciis ganxorcielebas manam, sanam cinikosi bak maliganisa da ucxoeli heinzis `meurveobis~ qveS darCeba. koSkis datovebisas man, raRa Tqma unda, ar icis, rom blumis saZieblad miemarTeba, magram mamisa da Zis urTierTmimarTebis Temis miseuli Teoriebi cxadyofs, rom misi rogorc xelovanis Ziebani WeSmariti sulieri mamis, sakuTari Tavis Rrmad Sesacnobad aucilebeli simwifis Ziebas gulisxmobs. epizodis simboloebia hamleti da irlandia. isini, iseve rogorc, telemaqe, Seviwroebulni arian da mter-moyvris erTmaneTisagan garCevis winaSe dganan. aviRoT kidev erTi magaliTi. `ulises~ me-4 epizodiT iwyba romanis centraluri, ZiriTadi nawili, romelic `odiseaSi~ iTakis mefis Tavgadasvlebs Seesatyviseba. odisevsi imyofeba kunZul ogigiaze, nimfa kalifsos tyveobaSi, blumi ki, piriqiT, Sinaa da sauzmes amzadebs misi colisaTvis. ase rom, pirdapiri paraleli arc aq SeimCneva, magram SesaZlebelia moraluri analogiis danaxva: blumi mxolod fizikuradaa Sin, moralurad igi _ rogorc mama da rogorc qmari, saxlidan Sorsaa. isve, rogorc odisevsi, mraval weli ar yofila Sin, arc blums hqonia normaluri sqesobrivi urTierToba sakuTar colTan, maTi vaJis, rudis gardacvalebis Semdeg. rac Seexeba kalifsos, igi am epizodSi warmodgenilia suraTiT, romelic sawolis Tavze hkidia da simbolurad ganasaxierebs realuri sqesobrivi urTierTobis nacvlad seqsualuri fantaziebis dakmayofilebas. rogorc vxedavT, pirdapiri paralelebisa da analogiebis Zieba safuZvels moklebulia. Mmeore mxriv, blumis Sin dabruneba SeiZleba metaforulad gaviazroT, rogorc moraluri gansacdeliT aRsavse `mogzauroba~. amrigad, `ulises~ homerosis `odiseasadmi~ mimarTebis problema parodiuli planiT ar amoiwureba. `ulise~ parodiaze ar daiyvaneba, ufro metic, ironia aq gardauvali safasuria eposis gamoyenebisaTvis. joisi miznad isaxavda Seeqmna Tanamedrove cxovrebis eposi,

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magram misTvis mTavari iyo ara imdenad `Tanamedrove~ cxovrebis asaxva (es mxolod cxovrebis gardauvali konkretuli formaa), ramdenadac zogadkacobriuli sawyisebis gamovlena. swored am mizniT avlebs igi paralels Tavis personaJebsa da homerosis gmirebis, Tanamedroveobasa da antikur xanas Soris, amgvari `daaxloebis~ safuZveli ki joisis msoflmxedvelobaSia saZiebeli: blumis `ebraeloba~ Seesatyviseba joisis mier gaziarebul v. berariseul Teorias homerosis `odiseas~ semituri (finikuri) warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. saerTod, joisis TvalsazrisiT, evropuli kulturis genezisSi udidesi roli iTamaSa berZnul- semiturma sinTezma. ufro metic, mwerali aRmosavleTs kacobriobis kulturis akvnad miiCnevs. magram Tanamedrove personaJebis homerosis gmirebTan daaxloebis mTavari mizezi sxvaganaa saZiebeli: joisis koncefciis Tanaxmad, miTologiur saxeebs mniSvnelovanwilad Cveni warosaxva warmoSobs, rogorc Sinagani samyaros refleqsiebs da amdenad, isini metaforulad fsiqologiurni arian. am koncefciis mkafio gamovlinebaa `valpurgiuli Ramis~ xilvebi romanSi. sulieri impulsebis aseT materializacias joisisaTvis principuli mniSvneloba aqvs: Tu dublinis quCebSi blumis xetialSi SeiZleba davinaxoT ufro Rrma azri sakuTari adgilis Zieba misadmi mtrulad ganwyobil samyaroSi da sulieri Tu ojaxuri konfliqtebis mogvarebis mcdeloba maSin joisis logikiT, odisevsis Tavgadasavlebic SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc adamianis cxovrebisa da brZolis, misi sulieri srulyofis simboluri gamoxatuleba. aseT SemTxvevaSi blumis gamosvla saxlidan SeiZleba aRweril iqnas `homerosuli terminebiT~, rogorc xetialis dasawyisi, stivenis mier koSkis mitoveba rogorc telemaqes gaqceva iTakidan, sadac sasiZoebi gabatonebulan. mTvrali jariskacebis mier Sepyrobili blumis mier gaweuli daxmareba Seesatyviseba odisevsis mxardaWeras telemaqesadmi, blumis molisTan dabruneba ki - odisevsis Sin dabrunebas. amasTan, naTlad Cans, rom `metaforuli paralelebi~ uaRresad pirobiTi da `miaxloebiTia~. sayuradReboa, rom e. genisis varaudiT, romanis Seqmnis Canafiqri joiss SesaZloa ukarnaxa platonis `respublikis~ erTma pasaJma, sadac aRwerilia, TuU rogor irCevda sxvadasxva suli ama Tu im cxovrebas. arCevis ufleba yvelaze bolos odisevsis suls xvda wilad. mas axsovda mis mier gadatanili tanjva-wameba da ganiZarcva yovelgvari pativmoyvareobisagan, didxans ixetiala, raTa epova Cveulebrivi, did saqmeTagan Sors mdgari adamianis cxovreba ipova kidec: sadRac migdebuli, yvela rom zizRiT uvlida gverds. odisevsis sulma danaxvisTanave sixaruliT airCia igi (genisi 1999: 232). es mosazreba sakmaod damajereblad JRers, Tu im garemoebas gaviTvaliswinebT, rom joisi-

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saTvis istoria sworxazovnad ki ar `miedineba~ droSi, aramed ciklurad ganmeorebadi (eternal recurrence, cyclical repetition) da Seqcevadia. amas adasturebs stivenis sityvebi `istoriis koSmaris~ Sesaxeb, romlisgan gamoRviZebac surda: History, Stephan said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake (joisi 1986: 28). miTologiuri paralelebi da saxeebi joisTan udavod xazs usvams erTi da imave gadauWreli kolizebis dausrulebel ganmeorebas, pirovnuli da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis, Tavad msoflio istoriuli procesis metafizikur wrebrunvas. naTlad Cans literaturaSi miTosis problemis mWidro kavSiri drois problemasTan. Ddro rogorc garegnuli sagnobrivi samyaros istoria, romelic gaucxoebuli individisaTvis adamianur arss moklebulia aRiqmeba, rogorc mtruli fenomeni. Tavisebur pasiur bunts mis winaaRmdeg warmoadgens awmyos momentis impresionistulad gamZafrebuli aRqma da misTvis adamianuri Sinaarsis miniWeba mexsierebaSi Semonaxuli asociaciebis TamaSis saSualebiT. joisisdroindel inglisur filosofiaSi gavrcelebuli `maradiuli axlas~ (The eternal now) koncefcia yvelaze ukeT gamoxatavs jois-xelovanis mizanswrafvas: mwerlisaTvis yofierebis wvdoma mxolod uSualo awmyoSia SesaZlebeli, magram ara droiT Semofarglul, aramed usazRvro awmyoSi, romelic, rogorc Tanadroul momentTa erTobliobas, rogorc warsuls, aseve momavalsac moicavs. Amas ukavSirdeba joisis Teoriac, rac sagnisa Tu movlenis Sinagani arsis uecar `xilvas~, `gasxivosnebas~ gulisxmobs. `epifaniis~ momentSi TiTqosda kavSiri myardeba subieqtsa da obieqts Soris, romelic cnobierebas mTeli Tavis sicxadiT warmoudgeba da faqtobrivad, saganTa arsis intuituri wvdomis Sedegia. joisis gza momentis Wvretidan maradisobis Wvretisaken `gzas uxsnis~ `miTosis~ gamoyenebas `uliseSi~. es naxtomi realuri drois momentidan maradisobisaken ganpirobebs literaturaSi droiTi formidan sivrciT formaze gadasvlas (frenki 1988: 67-68). subieqturi drois fardobiToba arRvevs mis uwyvet, yvelasaTvis saerTo Tanmimdevrobas. warmosaxva wyvets kavSirs istoriulobasTan, vinaidan igi Slis zRvars warsulsa da awmyos Soris da mxolod `miTosur maradisobas~ tovebs. sivrciTi perspeqtiva cnobierebis mier am maradisobis aRqmis erTaderT SesaZleblobad iqceva. joisis romani warmoadgenda mcdelobas Tanamedrove cxovrebis dinamika (da Sesabamisad, istoriulobac) moeqcia statikaSi (Sesabamisad, maradisobaSi). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, `miTosis~ gamoyeneba iwvevs socalur-istoriul CarCoebs gareT gasvlas.

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amrigad, joisi axdens `miTis zedrouli samyaros~ Serwymas Tavisi romanis konkretul samyarosTan, Tumca mwerlis mier lokalizebuli moqmedebis adgili _ dublini _Tvisobrivad mTel samyaros itevs da yovlegvari fizikuri Tu sulieri, Sinagani Tu garegnuli mdgomareobis sinTezs gamoxatavs. Ddro da sivrce masSi ukiduresad SekumSulia da amitom, `garesamyarosaTvis~ yvela ZiriTadi procesi mis farglebSi ganuzomlad ufro intensiurad, Seudareblad ufro daZabulad mimdinareobs. raRa Tqma unda, amgvari xelovnurad Seviwroebuli sivrcis Seqmna mxatvruli analizis gamZafrebas warmosaxvis ganzogadebas da universalizacias emsaxureba, tradiciuli romanis eqstensiuri droc aq intensiur drod ikumSeba da sabolood, sruliad qreba. rogorc marTebulad aRniSnavs r. yaralaSvili, `drois umciresi, obieqtur da astronomiul droSi fiqsirebuli monakveTebi usazRvrod farTovdeba cnobierebis nakadis, personaJTa fiqrebisa da azrebis warmodgenebisa da xilvebis wyalobiT. Ggmiris cnobierebas mkiTxveli gadahyavs uSoress warsulsa da momavalSi, istoriisa da miTosis sxvadasxva qveyanasa da mxareSi. aseTi teqnikis meSevobiT sul mcire droc serTod tevadi xdeba, awmyos yoveli wami mTel samyaroebsac moicavs, rac sabolood drois sruli gaqrobis `axlas~ dausrulebeli denadobis SegrZnebas warmoSobs~ (yaralaSvili 1984: 75). personaJTa asociaciebis Tavisufali TamaSidan, gmirebis cnobierebidan e. i. nawarmoebis `Signidan~ warmoiSoba sulieri mamisa da sulieri Zis urTierTmimarTebis, Sin dabrunebis Tema, romelic cnobierebisagan damoukideblad arsebobs, magram TiTqosda imTaviTve igulisxmeba masSi. `ulises~ es magistraluri Tema mTel rig asociaciebs iwvevs: ikarosi da dedalosi, telemaqe da odisevsi, Ze-RmerTi da mama-RmerTi, hamleti da mamisi da a. S. asociaciaTa mTeli am rigis amosavali wertilia stiven dedalosisa da leopold blumis urTierTdamokidebuleba. es Tema viTardeba iseTi motivebis varirebiT, rogoricaa erTi mxriv, blumis yuradReba dedalosebisa da piurfois ojaxebisadmi, mis mier sakuTari gardacvlili vaJis rudisa da mamamisis xilva, xolo meore mxriv, stivenis msjelobiT mamisa da Zis erTarsobis Temaze. stiveni da blumi, marTalia, Tavidan erTmaneTs ar icnoben, magram romanis maZilze joisi araerTgzis migvaniSnebs maT sulier naTesaobaze, erTmaneTisaken gaucnobierebel swrafvaze. ase mag., `skilasa da qaribdas epizodSi~, Seqspiris Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb gamarTuli msjelobis miwuruls, biblioTekaSi Sedis Lleopold blumi. wasasvlelad gamzadebuli maligani da stiveni karTan dganan da blumi maT Soris gaivlis. `odiseaSi~ odisevss uxdeba gavla morevsa da skilas kldeze gadmomdgar urCxuls Soris da igi am uk-

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nasknelisaken iRebs gezs. skila kisers waigrZelebs da Tavisi 6 piriT TiTo kacs itacebs. amasobaSi odisevsi gasxltomas axerxebs. Hhomerosis skilas sazarel xmas ZaRlis yefas adarebs. es pasaJi parodirebulia `uliseSi~. joisis ulise gaivlis maligansa da urCxul stivens Soris, romlis ganuwyveteli ybedoba ZaRlis yefasTan asocirdeba da blumic stivenss uaxlovdeba. epizodis bolos stiveni fiqrobs: `Cemi neba: misi neba, me rom merkineba. Cven Soris zRvebi...~ Semdeg maligansa da stivens Soris gaivlis blumi: `kacma Caiara maT Soris, Tavis dakvriT miesalma~. maliganma stivens wasCurCula: `maradi uria... dainaxe misi Tvali? igi gxedavda Sen da guli uTqmoda SenTvis. SiSi maqvs Seni, bebero mezRvauro. o, kinC, gansacdelSi xar~ (joisi 1983: 294). amrigad, stiveni da maligani skilad da qaribdad warmoisaxebian, romelTa Sorisac gaivlis blumi-ulise. igi, rogorc amas maliganis sityvebi adasturebs, stivenisaken miiltvis. stiveni, joisis CanafiqriT, siWabukes, inteleqtualur sawyiss ganasaxierebs. blumi ki _ simwifes, emociur sawyiss, cxovrebis materialur sferoSi Caflulobas (roogrc ekonomikuri, aseve fizikuri TvalsazrisiTac), maTi SexvedriT ki am ori sawyisis sinTezia simbolizebuli. marTalia, joisis `miTosuri meTodis~ Taviseburebebs, garkveulwilad, froidis fsiqoanalizisa da iungis `siRrmiseuli fsiqologiisadmi~ misi interesi ganapirobebs, magram, rogorc marTebulad miuTiTebs a. doroSeviCi, aq Cven saqme imdenad ideis sesxebasTan ara gvaqvs, ramdenadac mis paralelur SemuSavebasTan, rasac ganapirobebs saerTo epoqa, sulier ZiebaTa erTiani atmosfero (doroSeviCi 1970: 131).A joisis meTodis safuZveli umTavresad mainc jambatista vikos debulebebSi, kerZod ki, cxovrebisa da istoriis maradiuli wrebrunvis TeoriaSia saZiebeli. ramdenadac miTologiur da istoriul gmirebs viko ganixilavs rogorc droisa da xalxis sulis srulyofil gansxeulebas, ganmeorebadi istoriuli ciklebis monacvleobasTan erTad am gmirebis tipebic meordeba da sxvadasxvagvar konkretul saxes iZens. istoriis erTi da igive Sinaarsi gamoxatulebas hpovebs araerTgvarovan formebSi. `metemfsiqozis~ motivi uaRresad mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs `ulises~ laitmotivTa sistemaSi. es Tema Tavad `ulises~ teqstSivea interpretirebuli, roca blumi Tavis cols ganumartavs sityva `metemfsiqozis~ mniSvnelobas: `metamfsiqozi, Tqva man da kopebi Seikra. berZnulia: berZnulidan aris. su-

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lierebis transmigracias niSnavs. zogs swams, rom Cveni sikvdilis Semdeg sxva sxeulebSi ganvagrZobT sicocxles, rom TiTqos Cven yvelas adrec gvecxovros, 1000 wlis winaT, dedamiwaze an sxva planetaze. Aamboben, dagvaviwyda. zogi amtkicebs, rom Tavisi wina arsebobac axsovs~ (Metampsychosis, he said, frowning. Its Greek: from Greek. That means the transmigration of souls Some people believe, he said, that we go on living in another body after death, that we lived before. They call it reincarnation. That we all lived before on the earth thousands years ago or some other planet. They say we have forgotten it. Some say they remember therir past lives.. Metampsychosis, he said, is what the ancient Greeks called it. They used to believe you could be changed into an animal or a tree, for instance what they called nymphs, for example.) (joisi 1986: 52-53). es ganmarteba TiTqosda winasawar migvaniSnebs, rom blumma unda gaimeoros odisevsis xetiali. warsulis didi pirovnebani aristoteledan parnelamde, ieso qristedan Seqspiramde reinkarnirebulia blumSi. teqstSi gvxvdeba uamravi paraleli blumsa da elias, blumsa da parnels Soris. Aase rom, blumi zedmiwevniT Seesatyviseba `miTiuri tipis~ klasikur definicias, romlis mixedviTac, `miTiuri tipi~ garegnulad zustad ver ..moergeba~ vercerT calkeul individs da, d. kiberdis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, erT adamianSi axdens xasiaTebis mTeli ojaxis koncentrirebas. (Concentrates under one human from a whole family of characters and minds.) (kiberdi 1992: XXVII). Aamdenad, gasagebia, rom moli blumi Tavis qmars aRiqvams as well him as another (joisi 1986: 643-644). amrigad, personaJebis joisiseul `daxasiaTebas~ safuZvlad udevs misi koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac `miTosuri arqetipebi~ eqsternalurad ki ar arian `Tavsmoxveulni~ (`morgebuli, misadagebuli~) personaJebze kulturis mier, aramed internalurad warmoiSobian TiToeuli individis Sinagani samyarodan. ase rom, `ulises~ personaJebi, telemaqesa da odisevsis rolebis SesrulebiT, mkiTxvels moagoneben, Tu ra aqvT saerTo saukuneebiT erTmaneTisagan daSorebul adamianebs. `miTosi~ da mis xorcSesasxmelad gamoyenebuli homerosuli paralelebi, romanis magistraluri gezis agebasa da personaJTa urTierTdamokidebulebis simetriis gansazRvrasTan erTad, erTi mxriv, faseulobaTa universalizaciis, meore mxriv ki, mxatvruli droisa da sivrcis modelirebis konkretul-istoriuli drois gauqmebasa da misi sivrced qcevis mxatvrul daniSnulebas emsaxurebian.

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literatura bolti 1992: Bolt, Sydney. A Preface to James Joyce. NY: Logman, Second Ed., 1992. genieva 1989: , . . , 1989, 1-12. genisi 1999: , . . . , 9, 1999 doroSeviCi 1970: , . . XX . , 2, 1970. elmani 1975: Ellman, Richard (ed.).Selected letters of James Joyce. London: Faber and Faber, 1975 kiberdi 1992: Kiberd, Declan. Introduction. In: James Joyce, Ulysses. London: Penguin Books, 1992. kobaxiZe 1991: kobaxiZe, Temur. t. s. elioti: poezia da miTosi. Tbilisi: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1991. levini 1960: Levin, Hary. James Joyce: A critical Introduction. London, 1960. preskoti 1964: Prescott, Joseph. Exploring James Joyce. Carbondale: Southern University Press, 1964. sandulesku 1979: Sandulescu C. G. The Joycean Monologue. Colchester: Universtity of Essex, 1979 frenki 1988: Frank, Joseph. Spatial Form of Modern Literature. In: Essentials of the Theory of Fiction. Ed. by Michael Hoffman and Patrick Murphy. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1988. qeTli 1953: Kettle, A. An introduction to the English Novel, v. II, London, 1953. qlei 2002: Clay, George R. Tolstoy in the Twentieth Century. In: Donna Tussing Orwin (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Tolstoy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 206-221 yaralaSvili 1984: yaralaSvili, rezo. drois gauqmeba. j. joisisa da h. heses TxrobaSi. j. joisi 100 (saiubileo krebuli), n. yaisaSvilis redaqciiT. Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1984. joisi 1986: Joyce, James. Ulysses. Ed by W. W. Gabler. London: Penguin Books, 1986 joisi 1983: joisi, jeimz. `ulise~. Targmani n. yiasaSvilisa. Tbilisi: `merani~, 1983

ABSTRACTS

Nino Abakelia On Some meanings of Aquatic Symbolism in Georgian mythic ritual system The article is organized on multiplicity of water modes and forms which belong to spatial reality and as such, occupy a definite place in the archaic world pattern of Georgians. For Georgians, as for small peoples, the sea never had colonial, trading or exchanging functions (as it was in the case of the ancient Greeks), but it always retained in their historical and mythological memories and was thought to be located at the periphery of the mythic-ritual system and cultural topography of Georgians. For Georgians the cultivated space of the world of the humans, called shina (i. e .inner space) was placed in the center of the world which was encircled by tricolor (white, red, black), three aquatic belts, seas (which implied the vertical and horizontal topography of the world). The supernatural beings were settled and grouped according to the appropriate colours of water belts (as less dangerous, more dangerous and the most dangerous creatures). In the analyzed folk verse (which does not seem very old, but in which the archetypes seem to work) the universe is washed by the three, tricolor seas which reveal the cosmic symbolism highly charged with a religious quality, reflecting the mainstay of symbolic thought of Georgians. On the basis of the analysis, the spirit of the sea with its thiasos, called mesepebi (i.e. attendants, courtiers) are revealed who might be compared with the Great Mother Goddess, called Nana with her attendant spirits, called Batonebi; in the paper the zoomorphic and anthropomorphic creatures of lakes and rivers with the corresponding male and female principles together with their functions are revealed. The megalithic monuments erected nearby the springs, rivers or lakes are considered by the author to be one of the variants of the sacred centers, which according to the engraved signs could be the battle places of the Weather God (which at the Christian level of religious development corresponds to St George) and its chthonic antagonist.

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Tsira Barbakadze The Sea Semiotics according to Georgian Materials In the lexics of the Georgian Language studying of the sea semiotics confirms that the sea is the post of the Georgian character and the sea is the revivaled lexem to archetype level. The semiotics of the sea is connected with navigation and sailing lexics, hierarchy of a boatman and the variety of a boat itself in the ancient Georgian language will be an evidence that the indicated broad semiotics by one mentioned concept is so called matrix of our Georgian characters. It is worth emphasizing that Georgians selected the lexem connected with the sea as a metaphor of shelter, calmness and safety. The sea as a concept simulteniously combines positive and negative meanings that creates the unified and steady character.

Naira Bepieva Water Inhabitants in Ossetic Mythology Water inhabitants are familiar to folklore almost all the Caucasian people. But it basically images of the malicious perfume for women, trying to entice and entangle men the magical charms. Such is an image of sorcerer Ali living near to waters. This demonic being fascinates men, enticing them in water on death. Absolutely differently are presented a water kingdom and its inhabitants in Ossetic mythology. Donbettyr on Ossetic mythology is the master of waters and an underwater kingdom the semiperson and semifish. It is considered a deity of fishermen. According to Ossetic legends of Donbettyr the man as men happen fishermen usually. Donbettyr have daughters princesses of a water kingdom whom women as on Ossetic customs water in the house women (for men bring it admire was considered as shameful employment). In general Donbettyr named all who lived in water and under water. In the Norts epos water and the water world are integral a whole world part. Deities (pagan and Christian), people and elements (the wind Galagon; water, the sea Donbettyr), each of these three in the Ossetic epos at sledge and Tsartsiats take a special place. Thus, water and water inhabitants in the epos of sledge and Tsartsiats in harmonious interrelation coexist with heavenly deities and people. They are kind spirits and unlike water inhabitants of some other eposes are called for kind acts.

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Shota Bostanashvili Seafaring Pilgrims (B)art(h)istic Performance Seafaring Pilgrims presents a semiotic reflection on a conceptual architectural project (image) named The Pilgrims, also referred to as The Wandering Island, or Sixth Continent. The project won an international architectural competition organized by UNESCO (Venice, 1988). The theme of the competition was A Space for XXI Century Civilization. The Pilgrims is on its own a sign-creative image, graphical and linguistic semiurgic text. It grew from the names/images of specific, local (Georgian) culture and transformed into global, general image/name/house*. Private and general, having different signifiers and signifieds are linked here through a sign. And since there is nothing to be guessed in The Pilgrims (one extracts what one places), the paper proposes to examine the project through Roland Barthes famous text Rhetoric of the Image. Barthes Rhetoric of the Image offers a semiotic analysis of Panzani advertisement. We intrude Barthes text, expel pasta, tomatoes and other entities and introduce in the analytical framework following signs: sea, sky and temples on chairs. To put it the other way: we present a semiotic play The Pilgrims on Barthes stage - (B)art(h)istic performance. *In Georgian: sakhe (image); sakheli (name); sakhli (house).

David Bostanashvili Shell Palace The paper discusses semiotics of the sea and architecture on the example of Sydney Opera House (1973). The first problem is offered by the title of the paper itself (Shell House): resemblance in architecture. Resemblance between the white volumes in the Sydney bay and sails, shells and so on seems to be natural; No sooner is a form seen than it must resemble something: humanity seems doomed to analogy (R. Barthes). The shell-like structure of the building brings to mind image of shell and we can observe a linguistic coincidence: the signifieds of the signifier shell are both seashell and shell surface. The resemblance is supported also by the fact the building (shell palace) emerges from water (the sea). White color of the volumes, their vicinity to the sea and linguistic coincidence are the components through which the sign based on analogy starts to produce connotations, and hence a myth (myth and connotations of White, Shell, Sail). Sydney bay with its Opera House is a recognizable and successful message-place. The paper discusses the role of similarity when viewers are enchanted by architecture. For the purpose of further analysis we choose one view of the Opera House, where it seems to float on the empty surface of the sea. Since understanding involves reduction of one type of reality into another (Claude

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Levi-Strauss), we reduce the photographic text into a graphical structure. By doing this we see that the geometrical code of the sea landscape is a horizontal line. On one hand the sea (its emptiness, its featureless) will make any form significant, and on the other this very form, once introduced in the sea, turns the asemantic situation of the sea into a place. Horizontal line + Opera Houses reduced representation is a graphical syntagm on which we perform commutation test, paradigmatic and syntagmatic transformations. Since the semiotics cannot point out what signifieds change when the signifiers are substituted from paradigmatic field, the concept of inscribing architecture into landscape becomes questionable. In Le Corbusiers words It is not the hill of acropolis that dictates architecture, but the Parthenon. By placing the form in different situations we see the form getting rid of the burden of resemblance and the possibility of architectural readability increases. Exploring the possibility of adding new signs to the syntagm of the sea we see that semiotic analysis turns into semiotic action - from syntagmatic rearrangement to production of new signs (semiurgy). Konstantine Bregadze The Symbolism of the Sea in the Paintings of the German Romantic Artist Caspar David Friedrich The urge of a Romantic protagonist towards the nature rests on the cognitive scheme of the dialectical relationship between self and non-self (Nicht-Ich): i.e. through intellectual, i.e. synthetic intuition (die intellektuelle Anschauung), self as the cognitive individual a priori moves towards the nonself existing beyond his scope of cognition (in this case, the nature), incorporates it into his scope of cognition and afterwards, with the help of the non-self acquires better understanding of himself. Hence, this cognitive scheme implicates the principle of transcendence: a priori going out of ones own limited empirical self, overcoming it and eventually retuning to it, which results in a new, higher and more expanded understanding of oneself. This self-cognitive process implies cognition of oneself as an integral part of the transcendental reality, as the supra empirical self this is the Fichtean transcendence from the empirical self towards the supra empirical self, the prerequisite of such transcendence being the empirical relationship and longing (Sehnsucht) of self for non-self (e.g. the nature). Hence, in the works of Romanticists the non-self, the nature, proves to be an indispensable prerequisite of transcendence. The nature paintings by the renowned German Romantic writer Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), his well-known marine, mountain and forest landscapes feature exactly the symbolism of the transcendentable nature. They are the products of creative estheticization that turns the mimetic nature scenes into symbolic artistic images charged with a particular philosophical and cognitive semantics. The estheticized nature depicted in the paintings has the symbolic function of perpetual transcendence; that is, the artistic function of the

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nature scenes of the paintings is to a priori involve the consciousness of the viewer and the protagonist of the painting into the process of transcendence , i.e. provoke in them the a priori urge for overcoming (bergang) and ardent longing (Sehnsucht) for the transcendental (cf. the painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, which has nowadays become the logo of Romanticism) (1818). Therefore, it is no coincidence that exactly the Romantic scheme of the dialectical relationship between self (the protagonist) and non-self (the nature) underlies Friedrichs paintings, which reveal the main principles of the philosophy of Romanticism longing (Sehnsucht) and overcoming (bergang). According to this scheme, as mentioned above, with the help of the conscious will (Wollen) the cognitive individual (self) is supposed to a priori long for overcoming and transcending from the constrains of his own empirical self as well as from the reality, the empeiria, through which self is supposed to acquire a higher cognition of himself. The necessary precondition enabling the process is non-self, which in the Romantic literary texts or paintings can be rendered through the poetic image of the beloved or through the symbolism of the nature. Hence, in conceptual terms, it is fully logical that along with the nature scenes, Friedrichs paintings always feature an individual or a group of individuals, either in close-up or at a distance; i.e. they always feature a cognitive individual or a group of cognitive individual longing for transcendence, whose existential and ontological objective is a priori transcendence, that is overcoming the empeiria. Here the nature scenes do not have a secondary, background function as in the paintings of French Baroque or Rococo, e.g. in Antoine Watteaus works; on the contrary, in Casper Friedrichs paintings the nature and the protagonist, which is a priori a cognitive individual, are engaged in active interrelationship as the prerequisite enabling transcendence on the one hand and the individual longing for transcendence on the other. Individual and nature, the sea, as depicted in Friedrichs well-known sea landscapes, engage in this very disposition, whose paradigm is The Monk by the Sea (1809/10). Here the monk and the sea are part of the dialectical scheme of self and non-self. The sea has the artistic function of creating the effect of the existential boundary between the empirical and the non-empirical and at the same time symbolizes the object of longing of the Romantic protagonist, perpetual transcendence, as well as the prerequisite of the protagonists longing towards the transcendental, i.e. the prerequisite of transcendence. The sea bears this very symbolic function in Friedrichs other paintings as well: Two Men by the Sea at Moonrise (1816/17), Woman at the Sea (1818), Chalk Cliffs on Rugen (1818), Moon Rising over the Sea (1821), Boats in the Harbour at Evening (1827), Sea Shore in Moonlight (1830), etc.

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Nino Gogiashvili The Symbol of the Sea in Guram Rcheulishvilis Works The sea gets the symbolic colouring in Guram Rcheulishvilis works. The article deals with the analysis of his stories: Dumb Ahmed and the Life, A Slow Tango and I and Irine, as well as some of his poems. The sea appeared a mystic and sacramental phenomenon in his life as he had saved a man from sinking in the sea. The sea is described as an easy symbol and image in the article dating back from the ancient period appearing later with its full image in the Gospel. Thus it influences on the literature and is inculcated as the symbol of life, birth and death there. The parallel is done between Dumb Ahmed and the Life by Guram Rcheulishvili and The Old man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway showing two identical plots sharing the symbol of the sea only with different modifications. The canonic symbol acquires the important definition in Guram Rcheulishvilis works. Rismag Gordeziani Greek Words of Unknown Etymology Denoting the Sea From ancient Greek basic terms referring to the sea three completely fit into the context of the Kartvelian-Pre-Greek hypothesis: pevlago~ open high sea kartv. *bel- opennes, opening, qavlassa (salt) sea kartv. *dal-a salt, liquid, Wkeanov~ - kartv. ukuan-/ukan back. Lali Datashvili A Symbol of the Christian Sea and the Georgian Literature According to the Old and New Testament a symbol of the transient world and a Satan is the sea, which traps a man, a sailing boat and prevents him from reaching the shore, because it continually consumes a human. Besides, there is kindness in the sea, it is water, a symbol of life a Saviour-fish: Ikhtios Jesus Christ the Saviour who lives in the world water, purifies it with Holy Spirits charity and makes the sea obey him. The mankind is divided into two parts: the people drowned in the sea of life (of their own will or after being defeated in the vain struggle of the life) and those who got a place in paradise after living worthily in this transient world. For a transformation as an unconquerable hero, its necessary to set free from the Whales Stomach like Iona. During formation of the new sky and the new Earth, the sea is becoming crystal, which gives out light for those who want to live in the light (apok 21,1). A humans major thought should be to join it and live in paradise.

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By considering all this work gives a review: St. Shushaniks Martyrdom, works of hymnographical writings, `My Prayer, By Nikloz Baratashvili. The earthly life is rough translation by St. Grigol Khandzteli, A reproach about the transient world by David Guramishvili, a story about the taking out of St. Virgine of the Sea by St. Gabriel monk, `Aluda Qetelauri by Vazha-Pshavela, Shota Rustaveli A knight in the panthers skin, a folk poem The fellow from Tavparavani, Mikheil Javakhishvili Jaqos Migrants, Leo Kiacheli Princess Maia, and Hake Adobe, a folk tale Marian, Ilia Chavchavadze Bazaleti Lake, Jemal Karchkhadze He. Lali Zakaradze Manifesto of Global Thinking Carl Schmitts Geopolitical Concept The present article deals with the geopolitical conception of famous German theorist of law and politics Carl Schmitt. The analysis of this concept is based on his work Land and Sea. World-Historical Thought. Land and Sea discusses the basic changes in the history of mankind and their causing factors. According to Schmitt, humans should determine the essential guidelines of existential being and thinking with reference to geographical constants. Land and sea relations make an impact on human thinking and the world order as well as social-political environment. The article discusses the importance of juxtaposition of sea and land for the world history, the concept of spatial revolution and its forms, the role of Europe in creation of a new order of the universe, the worldwide confrontation of Protestantism and Catholicism against the background of land and sea juxtaposition, formation of international law, the analysis of the concept of space and the space as the third dimension. The history of the world is the history of confrontation between marine and land states. Schmitts aim is to clarify that certain nations connect all their historical existence to the sea as a different element. He highlighted water/sea for the adequate characterization of the modern society, industry and economy, science and culture; His juxtaposition of land and sea acquires the form of a planetary law. According to Schmitt, the scope of human freedom is limitless though he should take on himself all the responsibilities and form quite different attitude with the given geographical constants. This, in its turn, will cause the restoration and transformation of human consciousness. The human consciousness restored in such a way will be able to create a new world order (Nomos). Khatuna Tavdgiridze The Sea Myth: Semiotics and Poetics (Article-Vocabulary) The work is the collection of explanations of mythical expressions of articles, mythological symbols, which are put in alphabetical order. They have the subjects in common cosmogony myth of the sea

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The following questions are represented in the work: Basili/Grigol of the Sea, the myth of the fight of Dragon and Bull, The Earth on Bulls horn, The sea woman and the sea man, the door of the sea, The digging and sowing of the sea, The sea tree The remains of the sea, The place of meeting of the sea and rock, Sea frightening, Fear of the sea, cosmic egg, The sea of the next world.

David Tinikashvili Water Semiotics in Religions The report investigates the signs and symbols regarding water in various religions. Due to shortness of the report it is not a exhaustive research on the question. The work contains several valuable observations for promoution of scientific exactness: (1) Misreading the words of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem by the prominent historian of religions Mircea Eliade (2) Onesidedness of an article Flood Stories from The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Revised Edition, 2007 (Edited by R. Ellwood); (3) Wrongly ascribed view to Ephrem of Syria by prof. A. Lapukhin.

Zurab Kiknadze The Dream of Klytemnestra and the Ash in the Hearth There are three dreams of Klytemnestra known in the Greek dramas. They are all given in the sources like the preserved fragments of Oresteia by Stesychorus, Agamemnon by Aeschylus, and Electra by Sophocles. Different authors emphasize the fact that there are some internal ties connecting the three dreams. It is also obvious that the tragedians were aware of the dreams by each other, exactly, Aeschylus not only knows the dream by Stesychorus, but he is even influenced by it. As for Sophocles, the author knows the two dreams as well as a dream of Astyage's (Herod. 1.108) and besides, he takes the dreams into consideration. Practically speaking, we have to deal with a set of international symbols used in mythology and plots of the dreams as well. The present article is to give a comparative analysis of the two identical plots belonging to different cultures and different times. One of the plots is used as the basis of the Klytemnestras dream (In Electra by Sophocles), whilst the other makes up a model for the myths about the foundation of various sanctuaries in the mountain region of Eastern Georgia. Keywords: hearth, scepter, tree, snake, patron.

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Tsira Kilanava Semantic of the Sea in Davitiani In the represented article the sea, according to Davitiani, is studied as a sign. There is revealed the seas conceptual meaning and its qualitative conection with biblical traditions, which is based on the semiotical analyses of the text and contemproral historico-political condition. It is the first time, when this question in Davitiani becomes as the object of research. It is clear now, that the sea, in Davitiani has not the geographical meaning , but it has got allegoric- symbolical meaning . Khatuna Maisashvili The Sea In and the Sea Out, or the images and myths of the Sea in Georgian Media The article based on 12 interviews-in-depth explores the denotative and connotative meanings of the concept of sea through one of the most influental way of analysis of media content, structuralism and semiology, such as the associations and images invoked and expressed by certain usages and combinations of the sea sign in Georgian media. The findings of research meet the following implications: how much the sign of the sea is relevant to the primary news values in Georgian media, is the sea close to home and whether it is the part of the familiar, home space, what does a reader reads in the sea sign and beyond of it. Atinat Mamatsashvili-Kobakhidze The Phenomena of the Reflexion as the Innate Characteristic of the Yellow Colour in View of the Immutable Blue of the Sea. According to Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clzios Novel Le Chercheur dor Lle apparat sur la ligne de lhorizon. Elle surgit de la mer, dans le ciel jaune du soir, avec ses hautes montagnes bleues sur leau sombre. Peut-tre que ce sont les oiseaux de mer qui mont alert dabord, en criant au-dessus de nous1. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clzio The structure of the novel Le Chercheurdor by Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clzio is built though the relation of two colours, where yellow incorporates the light of the sun and the blue includes the sea. It is interesting that the main idea of the novel is the quest which is reached by means of travelling. This voyage is realized not by earth/land, but notably by the sea. The dichrosme follows the novel all along and becomes the essential factor in the solving of the quest: the blue sea, which transforms into the metallic surface under the influence of the yellow/golden light, will contribute to the emergence of the truth.

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Murad Mtvarelidze The Sea of the Blue Horns The aim of the following work is to define the place of the sea in the writings of Georgian symbolist poets. In Georgian symbolic poetry thinking about the sea gives birth to the imaginations of the historical past of humankind and conditions to mystify the mythical personages as well as the question of freedom of Georgia. These contexts are revealed by the symbols and metaphors denoting the sea. Georgian poetry fits into the context of the European literature, though there are several different motives which may consider as the result of Georgian thinking. Tatia Mtvarelidze Maia Shukhoshvili Ancient Greek Model of the Meaning of the Sea The following work is concerned with the issue of the meaning of the sea in ancient Greek literature and philosophy. The main goal of our work is to introduce the specifics of the meaning of the sea in ancient Greek literary tradition and to define the model, which is common for ancient Greek mythological, poetic and philosophical interpretation of the sea. This model is based on the dualistic principles, which are reflected by the metaphors and epithets of ancient Greek fiction. The above mentioned model still exists in modern Greek way of thinking and is placed in common Greek Inga Milorava Spatial Pattern of the Sea in Modernist Texts Spatial pattern of the sea as a form chronotope in the literary work is very significant for numerous cultures. The cultures whether the east or the west have frequently utilized the sea in different epochs one might say since the origin of visible for us time line. As to the Georgian artistic thinking, it is traditionally considered that the sea does not occupy an important space in the development of either actual or imagined planes or layers. At first glance it is really so: the earliest samples of the thousand-year writing do not give any vivid example of artistic thinking of the sea except Vepkhistqaosani. The trace for seeking aesthetic and symbolic functions is not found in comparatively later periods too. It is interesting to note that there has not been any seascape painter in Georgia. It is difficult to explain this phenomenon but the reason for this must definitely exist and it should be sought somewhere in the depths of the nations consciousness. How is the sea perceived by the representatives of those cultures who have used it in every possible way - both practically and aesthetically? For

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them the sea is something one is to fight with, surpass and overcome. The sea (ocean) is not a final boundary, the end but it is the beginning beyond which something new starts and the possibility for broadening of personality and nation is hidden. In the Georgian literature there can be found several works of modernist writing which in one way or another can be regarded as an example of artistic realization of the sea pattern. L.Kiachelis works Princess Maya, Almazir Kibulan, Khaki Adzba show the sea as an end, the final boundary, death. It becomes the means of obtaining the peace, release from pain and torture. The sea provides transition from mans dynamics to mystics. It absorbs time, events, life. Similarly, the Inguri River takes away Tarash Emkhvaris body into the sea. It is noteworthy that later O.Chiladze pays special attention to the sea pattern. We can suppose that the given texts reflect that distant echo of the feeling which in contrast to the dynamics, expansion and development notable for other cultures and spread overall, sees in a sea static beginning, perceives it not as the beginning of the way but as the end, peace and is not going to overcome the last refuge of the soul. Ada Nemsadze Sea as a Main Identifier in the Otar Chiladzes Novel A Man Coming on the Road The Sea is the indicator of space deformation in the Otar Chiladzes novel A Man Coming on the Road. The initial lingual structure, where the sea is an integral part of the identified space, is covered by the secondary one, where the mark acquires quite a big significance. With the sea outflow, the deformation of not only the capacity but also the essence of the space takes place. Water being a universal symbol of holiness, purity, ingenuousness is gradually coming off the harmonious space of Vani and the green and slimy swamp appears instead of it, which indicates to maintaining the negativity and space substitution . This was how Vaniards lost their sea the main component of positively identified space. The key step in space disintegration is Frikses supplying water to the city. The water has the living as well as deadly power. It can unite as well as separate. In this very capacity the Greek stream is symbolically presented here. After the fall of the old Vani the identity of the space is no more confirmed. The firmness of the space in the old Vani was caused by its internal orders, time internal space balance. The new Vani is the result of space selfidentification. The space alterations come as a metaphor of loss of national identity and historical cataclysms. Therefore, the water, which first pointed to the Vaniards about the beginning of a new stage, is the main indicator of the collapse of the space identity. This problem is solved only in the final scene of the novel, when the swamp is backing in Pharnaoz s transformation and the sea takes over again, that indicates to the restoration of a decent space within the structure of semiotics meta-language.

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Izabella Petriashvili Manana Rusieshvili The Image of the Sea in Georgian and English Folklores The article deals with the role of the image of the Sea and its connotation in Georgian and English Folklores verses, poems, fairy tales, legends and sayings. It is obvious that the Sea takes an important place in the culture and folklore in both languages Georgian and English, which is natural as both of these countries are located at the Sea shore. The study revealed the semiotic model of the Sea and its connotational similarities and differences based on Georgian and English cultures and ways of life. Several aspects of using the Sea have been observed; namely, actualization of the Sea as a physical substance; a metaphoric image of the Sea and its culture specific roots both in Georgian and English folklores. As is known, revival of many popular images is possible through phraseology and idioms preserved in the language. The research results proved to be of interest from the language, as well as from the cultural standpoints. Mamia Paghava Malkhaz Chokharadze Chorokhi River Basin a Unified Cultural Sphere Chorokhi River basin is a unified cultural sphere. It is the oldest cultural and metallurgical centre. The word Chorokhi is the proof of connection between Old Kolkheti and Chorokhi Gorge itself, the etymology of which is directly connected to Machakhela and Adjara. It is also worth mentioning that this region, together with the other regions of Georgia, is the place of action of Amirani. There is cited chabalkheti in the legend of Amirani. We can associate chabalkheti with the balkhi in Tao, village located in Eliaskhevi Gorge. Particular regions of Chorokhi (Adjara, Shavsheti, Klarjeti, Tao, Speri) had very close relations to each other for centuries. It is obvious to state this relationship because of the old land road system, development of navigation on the Chorokhi River, type of farming and agriculture etc. It seems that with the help of caravan roadways Adjara Shavsheti Klarjeti Tao Speri Oltisi Tortumi these regions had connections to each other. In Shavsheti, Tao and Klarjeti (the places where one can feel Georgian phenomenon, though the ruins of Georgian cultural environment can be met as remains in all the regions of Chorokhi), one can see legends, samples of poetry, mythological stories, the similar ones of which are conserved in Adjara and other regions. There is also much in common in being, speech, narration in spite of the fact that Chorokhi River basin is a unified cultural sphere, historically here are developed several countries with their speech, ethnographic existence, folklore . It is a huge problem and it needs to be studied separately (this kind of study will be available after detailed studies of particular regions).

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Maia Jaliashvili Sea Symbols in the Poetry of Blue Horns Poets Blue horns poets, as the faithful Knights of the aesthetics of Symbolism, understand the world, nature as borderless, infinite space. The Sea is the one most diverse symbol of their poetry. This symbol includes the symbol of the sky and mirrors. In the creativity of Tician Tabidze, Paolo Iashvili, Valerian Gaprindashvili, Kolay Nadiradze, Sandro Cirekidze. The sea, on the one hand, has traditional understanding, on the other hand, acquires with new content. The sea is the symbol of the life that is ruthless, severe, and full of surprises, quickly flowing, destroys everything. It is representing illusion of human life. At the same time, it is gentle friends abandoned by everyone and, therefore lonely, hopeless, dubious. The sea gives poets hope, that they can endure pain and on the bottom of the sea they will find pearls, happiness. The sea is the way of cognition of human or own life.

Ramaz Khalvashi Apostle Andrews Missionary Journeys in Georgia and the Black Sea Littoral St. Andrews preaching in Georgia and the Black Sea littoral are retold in the Greek and Roman texts of early period. In 7th-9th cc the canonical versions of St. Andrews life were formed. The local Georgian editions of his life were created in Georgia from 11th century that were influenced by different historicalpolitical factors. It was in such cases that the following places were included into the apostles missionary route at various times: Apsarus (Gonio), Sebastopol (Sokhumi) 2nd-4th cc; Trapezunt, Sosania, Iberia, Abkhazia, Nicopsia, etc. 7th9th cc; Klarjeti 11th c; Nigali 12th c; provinces of Samtske 13th-15th cc, later Batumi (16th c), Bichvinta (19thc), etc. As for the apostles sea route, apart from the Black Sea it comprised the Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Marmara and the Crimea seas. Therefore it is not surprising that he is considered as the patron saint of sailors in the Christian tradition. Gia Jokhadze The Sea Concept in the Medieval Georgian Narrative The concept of Sea has rather varied perception in the mentality of Georgian. According to one statement Georgians have never had a fleet. Thus we call it ,, (sea) which connects with ,, (border). We had no sufficient reason to sail across the sea and etc.

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The second group of scientist state that the reason of these circumstances was a politic: It was planned by political hegemons that Georgians themselves should never have crossed the sea but got to Europe via Russia and Military Road only and etc. As we argued by example of Medieval Georgian Narrative (,,Kartlis Tskhovreba (IV-XV) the Sea proper is not unfamiliar to Georgians but the source say entirely nothing about the somewhat pragmatic of the Sea or the Sea World. As a reason of it we consider the mental estrangement: The narrative is created in East Georgia by East Georgian (Georgians) to which the sea and its specific is far and thus strange as well. In the mentality of East Georgian the sea basically connects with Greeks, Border which has been settled by Greeks as well and etc. It can be supposed that so far at least the Sea is interpreted as a kingdom of fallen instincts and devilish forces. Therefore the punishment such as Ejection to the Sea is extremely depressive damage. Though the Georgians know even all terms connected with the sea and navigation but they use them metaphoric. It should be emphasized that we mean the Eastern Georgians the author of ,,Kartlis Tskhovreba mentality. In addition to the above we must appreciate the political, geographical, climate conditions indeed by which the Georgian prefers the dry land than the sea. There is another picture in West Georgia. We could call this findings as the ,,Western Georgian Narrative but the creators of them were not Georgians but Greeks. There is no mention and should have not be mentioned the picture of world seen by Georgians in them. Thereafter our consideration is that two points of view we marked above are not incompatible but complementary. They refer to two different narratives but one mentality. At this point corps of Greek sources is left as a waste text for Georgians.

Semiotics of Language, Literature and Culture


Tamara Berekashvili Semiotics of the City Tbilisi This paper is devoted to contemporary appearance of the city. Semiotic analysis of the main tendencies in its development is given as well as of the old and new myths. Some instances of state and everyday myths are included. At the present tense two tendencies in the City of Tbilisi's face are exhibited: one of them is connected with the necessity to revive historical values, the other one to take into account modern world challenges, that is, to convert the capital into western city, comparable with cities of Western Europe and USA.

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Ketevan Butskhrikidze The World Cosmogram and the Modern City The presented work is the analysis of problems of a contemporary town and towns of future and it is preceded by the historic problems of town-planning, basically the analysis of the cosmo-gram and initial symbols. The work consists of five parts. In Part 1 is considered the initial essence of cosmogram of the universe and the psychological basis. The Indian Mandal systems and examples of creation of towns on its basis are described. Also the Mandal system existing in Georgia is mentioned. In Part 2 is described in general view the town and the energy load of its center, its significance in the mankind history, human control and development by them where the form of town gradually changes and they appeared before the mega-machine transformation. Here also is noted the attempt of enquiry of structural basis of the cosmo-gram in our towns. In Part 3 is considered the growth of towns caused by the fast industrialization at the beginning of the XX century that caused the creation of new projects which would be equipped with corresponding infrastructures and communications for contemporary towns. Also are mentioned the architectural projects of towns caused by technological utopia where contemporary architects tried to express their view of the future towns that we see in their drawings and unfeasible works. On the basis of this innovative wave in the work the new life of old towns is described where is noted the necessity of reconstruction of these towns and their adaptation to the new machine epoch where the speed is the main thing. Also is considered the town-planning compositions and architectural formation of towns by them. In Part 4 there is a comment of concrete modern towns and their negative or positive peculiarities and also mistakes made by the architects and their analysis. Right here is switched a part of several works of Martin Heideger, Manfredo Tafur and Rem Kul Haas about the contemporary towns. In Part 5 is considered Parametricism, the most active course of the late time and the digital towns generated by them where there is almost no human hand in creation of the world. It simply becomes a part of digital space where the crisis begins. In connection with this topic a certain part of Lucy Mamfords work is given. On the background of not seen fantasy of mega-polices and towns of utopia future the certain question arises that can not be answered by people. In a form of supposition is given the possible directions of future and architectural solutions, questions of priority and the major factors necessary for human existence.

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Tsisana Burdjanadze Artistic Functions of Biblical Images in Akaki Tsereteli Works The citation considerably influences on the text semantics and becomes important part of its semantic structure. The aim of our article is revelation of stranger textual citations and allusions and establishment of theirs functions (with linguistic poetics methods) in the artistic works of Akaki Tsereteli. Tamar Lomidze Prolegomena to a Study: The Principles of Foundation of Knowledge in the XX Century Literary Theories The main problem under scrutiny is to study and reveal the tendencies of evolution of humanitarian thought of 20th century. We think appropriate to use the method of selection of basic axioms of the literary theories and to identify their logical interrelations. The basic question of the study is: why some concepts of certain theories interrupt their development at definite stages of humanitarian thought and are discrete and selected in the form of a new axiomatic basis for new theories, while the others are perceived as indescrete developing concepts. The answer will enable us to reveal the inner logic of 20th century humanitarian thought. Rusudan Pipia Strong Word in Ioane Minchkhis Poetry Ioane minchkhi is a Georgian Orthodox classical poet. His artistic thought is a special phenomenon in the medieval himnography heritage. In his chants the poet raised quite well-known and processed many times Christian motives and realize them emotionally. Himnography poetry has a great importance in the medieval cultural heritage. The universal theme of these chants is a poetric attempt of ecstatic access with the highest light, e. i. deity. Artists with a special light and glory are in elesiastic writing whose influence on the Georgian literature are noticable up to date. Ioane Minchkhi in accordance with tradition approved in himnography, appeals many times to Christ as Gods word. As we said , in his poetry word was called to the Lord almost forty times and it is interesting how the poets originality of this face is expressed while using it many times. When the poet according to the Bible apply this face, he like an architect of the word, put such deep sense and emotion in every context that the listener is obsessed with a great inspiration. Perfectance characterized for a great artist is shown in every line of Ioane Minchkhi.

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Ramaz Kurdadze Pragmatic Aspect of Sign System while Borrowing Some Slang in the Georgian Language Pragmatic aspect of semiotics in fact covers syntactic and semantic aspects and it is extremely important to consider them while studying lexical part of a language. This aspect gains particular importance while discussing slang vocabulary. The attitude of a sign user towards the sign itself explains the emergence of slang as well as its borrowing from various languages. It is a well-known fact that an important part of the Georgian slang vocabulary is a borrowed vocabulary. Most of the borrowing words come from the Russian language, namely Russian slang. Some of them are really transparent and are easily connectable to Russian. However, the identification of some Russian slang requires special research. Russian vocabulary borrowings in the Georgian slang was remarkable earlier too. As it turns out even bigger part of slang vocabulary originates from the Russian language background. It is natural that their identification will continue in the future too. The article deals with the origin of the following units: Brat (Brother, form of addressing), Gauprava (Turned it legal), Daupadiezda (Waited at the main entrance), Mosachkave (Lazy), Putanka (Prostitute), Specom (Especially), Tasaoba (Walking), Tusaoba (To be with out any business and have a joke) etc.

Irakli Tskhvediani James Joyces Ulysses: Mythos and Structure The purpose of this essay is to explore James Joyces mythical method as manifested in his mock-heroic epic Ulysses which seems by no means an easy task. Mythos united with in-depth micro- psychology and symbolic leitmotifs, which can be traced back to Wagner's musical drama, became an instrument of material organization in modernist novel in general and in Ulysses in particular, on its way of classical forms transformation and detachment from the traditional 19th century realism. The social-historical approach determined the structure of the 19th century novel to a large degree. Attempts to go beyond its rigid framework or above its level could not but shatter this structure. Unavoidably the empirical life material, social material as it is, became more spontaneous and unorganized, which was compensated by the action becoming internal (inside monologues, stream of consciousness, subconscious complexes) and symbolic, even mythologically so. Myth being totally symbolic, turned out to be a convenient language for description of eternal models (archetypes) of personal and social behavior, certain existential laws of social and natural cosmos indistinctly apparent against the background of empiric context and historical changes; the whole empirical material in Ulysses is organized according to the Homeric model of Odysseus myth; mythos developed into an

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instrument of the structural analysis of the narrative, rid of social-historic and space-time aspects, focusing upon revealing in-depth the metaphorically eternal generalized contents. Considered in this light, Ulysses is a mythical novel. Joyces highly selective and conscious use of myth is determined by the tendency of combining non-homogenous associations, since the need for myth emerges when the writer decides to create a parody synthesis of several different plots and mythological motifs, several diverse imagery layers within the frames of a single artistic whole. One of the most important poetic functions of the myth is making this synthesis possible. Thus, mythos in Ulysses should be viewed as basis for the whole construction, as a fundamental device bringing together all the elements and transforming them into an ordered system. Using the mythical motif of FatherSon relationship in Ulysses as a bone structure of the novel enables Joyce to introduce into the texture of his work non-homogenous mythical and literary allusions and parallels. This mythical motif, permeating the whole artistic structure of the novel, transforms them into an ordered aesthetic whole. Even the plot associations devoid of external mythical traits (Shakespearean allusions and parallels, for instance) can be viewed as an indispensable element of the mythical structure of the novel. Thus, all allusions and parallels are, directly or indirectly, in an immediate or more remote way, subordinated to the basic mythical pattern, which is meant in the last analysis to act as a guiding principle towards which everything converges establishing order in the characters random associations and universalizing values.

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