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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

V
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2009

2
UDC 8122

saredaqcio sabWo

Editorial Board

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

guCa kvaracxelia
zurab kiknaZe
mixeil qurdiani
merab RaRaniZe
emzar jgerenaia
nodar ladaria
manana kvaWantiraZe
zaza SaTiriSvili
daviT andriaZe
zaal kikviZe
mamuka biWaSvili

Gucha Kvaratskhelia
Zurab Kiknadze
Mikheil Kurdiani
Merab Ghaghanidze
Emzar Jgerenaia
Nodar Ladaria
Manana Kvachantiradze
Zaza Shatirishvili
Davit Andriadze
Zaal Kikvidze
Mamuka Bichashvili

redaqtorebi

Editors

Tamar berekaSvili
Tamar lomiZe
izabela qobalava
qeTevan genebaSvili

Tamar Berekashvili
Tamar Lomidze
Izabela Kobalava
Ketevan Genebashvili

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2009


ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: semiotics_journal@yahoo.com

Sinaarsi
enisa da literaturis semiotika
rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe
mapirispirebeli kavSirebis funqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

cira barbaqaZe
enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

20

qeTevan bezaraSvili
mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da
rusTavelTan

33

mamuka biWaSvili
daviT guramiSvili da daviTiani

47

konstantine bregaZe
romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi

56

nino daraselia
Sorisdebuli freimuli semantikis TvalsazrisiT

66

manana kvaWantiraZe
,,ori Zmis koncepti. interteqstulobis fsiqo-socialuri
aspeqtebi

74

ada nemsaZe
limonis simbolika oTar WilaZis romanebSi

83

nana trapaiZe
sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

92

kulturis semiotika
Tamar berekaSvili
esse marginalobasa da mowyenilobaze

109

SoTa bostanaSvili, daviT bostanaSvili


naS/enis prezentacia

117

izabela petriaSvili
globaluri da lokaluri kodebi reklamaSi

124

gia joxaZe
sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia (meore werili)

131

semiotikis da Teoria da istoria


mirian ebanoiZe
klasikis kvleva araklasikuris batonobis xanaSi

145

Tamar lomiZe
metafora da metonimia

152

salome omiaZe
konceptis cneba lingvokulturologiaSi

158

giorgi SavguliZe
semiotikidan filosofiisaken

164

semiotika da sxva
diana anfimiadi
danaSaulis semiotika

175

naTela arvelaZe
niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

180

mamuka biWaSvili
istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

194

mirian ebanoiZe
,,Tanamedrove literatura

207

xaTuna TavdgiriZe
miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

211

zaza SaTiriSvili
rogor unda daiweros Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria?

243

CONTENTS
Semiotics of Language and Literature
Rusudan Asatiani, Tinatin Janelidze
Functional Analysis of Conjunctions Showing an Informational
Contrast in Georgian

251

Tsira Barbakadze
Fascinating Function of Language and Fog Semiotics

251

Ketevan Bezarashvili
The Concept of Beauty in Byzantine, Old Georgian Aesthetics and
Rustavelis Poem

252

Mamuka Bichashvili
Author and His Work. Problem of Identity

253

Konstantine Bregadze
Philosophy of History in Romanticism in Novalis Hymns to the Night
for the Hermeneutics of Hymn 5
253
Nino Daraselia
The Interjection from the Standpoint of Frame Semantics

255

Manana Kvachantaridze
The Concept of Two Brothers. Psycho-social Aspects of
Intertextuality

255

Ada Nemsadze
Symbol of Lemon in Otar Chiladzes Novels

255

Nana Trapaidze
Poetics of Laughter in Modert Fictional Concept

256

Semiotics of Culture
Shota Bostanashvili, Davit Bostanashvili
Presentation of nash/eni

256

Izabella Petriashvili
Global and Local Codes in Advertising

257

Gia Jokhadze
The History of the Body: Georgian Version

258

History and Theory of Semiotics


Tamar Berekashvili
Essay on Marginality and Ennui

258

Mirian Ebanoidze
Exploring Classics in the Age of the Dominance of the Non-Classical 259
Tamar Lomidze
Metaphor and Metonymy

259

Salome Omiadze
The Notion of Concept in Linguoculturology

260

Mirian Ebanoidze
,,Modern Literature

261

Mamuka Bichashvili
History on the Light of Archeology of Science
David Bagrationi. His Language, History and Science

261

Khatuna Tavdgiridze
Mythical Simulations
Beautiful Dragon

262

e n i s a

d a
l i t e r a t u r i s
s e m i o t i k a
rusudan asaTiani
TinaTin janeliZe

mapirispirebeli
kavSirebis funqcionaluri
analizi qarTulSi
I. Sesavali: sakiTxis dasma
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, saq. mecnierebaTa
akademiis g. wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis
wamyvani mecnieri TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
qarTvelur enaTa ti pologiis sakiTxebi; Conceptual Representations of
the Verb Forms Creation
(on the Georgian Data);
Semantics and Typology of
Yes/No particles (on the
Georgian data); ZiriTadi
semantikuri rolebis
konceptualuri warmodgena da situaciis lingvisturi struqturireba.
interesTa sfero:
sintaqsur konstruqciaTa tipologia, kognitiuri lingvistika, sainformacio struqturebi, qarTvelur enaTa gramatikuli sistema da misi tipologiuri Taviseburebebi.

sazogadod, obeqturi realobis lingvisturi struqturireba


xorcieldeba
msgavsi da gansxvavebuli Sinaarsebis
SepirispirebebiT, ris safuZvelzec aigeba
garkveuli formaluri opoziciebi. es
opoziciebi warmogvidgenen, sul cota, or
erTeuls, romelTagan erT-erTi markirebulia,
meore ki ara. aseTi formaluri kontrasti,
rogorc wesi, asaxavs informaciis struqturirebis ganmsazRvrel ZiriTad strategias
_ informaciis kontrastuli erTeulebis
gamovlenasa da maT kontrastul markirebas
topikalizaciisa da/an fokusuri Semadgenlis
gamokveTis saSualebiT [1], [2], [5], [9, [10].
informaciulad gamokveTili kontrastuli erTeulebis SejerebisaTvis, rogorc wesi,
gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva saxis (ZiriTadad, mapirispirebeli) kavSirebi. kavSirebis semantikuri da funqciuri gansxvavebulobebis
dadgenisaTvis aucilebelia gaviTvaliswinoT
winadadebis sainformacio struqturis
SefuTvisa da informaciis struqturirebis
gansxvavebuli strategiebi.

rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

II. kavSiri rogorc metyvelebis nawili da


misi specifika
kavSiri miuTiTebs im semantikur da logikur mimarTebebze,
romelTa saSualebiTac xorcieldeba teqstis Semadgeneli nawilebis
erTmaneTTan dakavSireba (resp. gadabma) [3], [8]. kavSiri arasodes
icvlis formas. is akavSirebs erTmaneTTan or an met winadadebas
an winadadebis Semadgenel wevrebs. kavSirebi uxvad arian warmodgenilni yvela saxis teqstSi, magram TviTon ar arian damoukidebeli
semantikuri Sinaarsis mqone denotaturi erTeulebi. isini arafers
aRniSnaven obieqtur realobaSi da mxolod im siRrmiseul semantikur
gadabmaze migvaniSneben, ris safuZvelzec gaerTiandnen am teqstis
nawilebi kontrastis, dapirispirebis an sxva specifikuri
Sinaarsebis gamosakveTad.
III. mapirispirebeli kavSirebi
dapirispirebuli Sinaarsis gamomxatveli informaciis
Semadgeneli erTeulebis gaerTianebisaTvis Rirebulia mapirispirebeli kavSirebi, romlebic ara marto akavSireben winadadebebs
an struqturulad erTgvarovan wevrebs erTmaneTTan, aramed axal
semantikasac aniWeben mTlian gamonaTqvams. maT SemoaqvT axali
mniSvneloba kontrasti. qarTulSi am funqciiT gamoiyeneba Semdegi
mapirispirebeli kavSirebi: magram, Tumca, aramed, oRond, xolo,
ki; da, aseve, majgufebeli kavSirebi: Tu, da.
winadadebaSi kontrastuli informaciis warmodgenisaTvis SesaZlebelia saerTod ar iyos gamoyenebuli mapirispirebeli kavSiri
da Sinaarsobrivi dapirispireba formalurad mxolod Sesabamisi
intonaciiT gadmoices. mapirispirebeli kavSirebi formalurad aZliereben kontrastul mimarTebebs winadadebaSi da axdenen winadadebis
aqtualizebuli wevris xazgasmas, gamoyofas. kavSirebiT gaerTianebisas
Sinaarsobrivi dapirispireba formaluradac aris specialuri
sityviT (resp. kavSiriT) gamoxatuli; magaliTad:
(1) erTi xmaurobda, meore wynarad ijda.
(2) erTi xmaurobda, meore ki wynarad ijda.
pirvel winadadebaSi, ukavSiro SeerTebisas, Sinaarsobrivi dapirispireba xmaurobda : wynarad ijda, mxolod kontrastuli intonaciis saSualebiT miiRweva, meoreSi ki am kontrasts formalurad
aZlierebs kavSiri ki, romelic intonaciasTan erTad migvaniSnebs
semantikurad Sepirispirebul movlenebze.

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

garda Sinaarsobrivad dapirispirebuli gamonaTqvamebisa,


SesaZlebelia, aseve, iseTi gamonaTqvamebis kontrastuli gaerTianeba,
romlebic Sinaarsobrivad ar gulisxmoben ucilobel kontrasts;
magaliTad:
(3) kaci werda, qali kiTxulobda.
(4) kaci werda, qali ki kiTxulobda.
am SemTxvevebSi, (3) da (4) winadadebebis Sinaarsobrivad aradapirispirebuli Semadgenlebi _ werda : kiTxulobda _ kontrastul
opozicias qmnian mxolod da mxolod Sesabamisi intonaciis (3) an
intonaciasTan erTad formalurad warmodgenili mapirispirebeli
kavSiris (ki) saSualebiT.
radganac yvela mapirispirebel kavSirs erTi saerTo, zogadi
funqcia aqvs _ winadadebaSi gamoxatos kontrasti/dapirispireba,
xSir SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia maTi erTmaneTiT Canacvleba:
(5) megobarTan mivedi, magram saxlSi ar damxvda.
(6) megobarTan mivedi, oRond saxlSi ar damxvda.
(7) megobarTan mivedi, Tumca saxlSi ar damxvda.
(8) megobarTan mivedi, xolo is saxlSi ar damxvda.
(9) megobarTan mivedi, saxlSi ki ar damxvda.
(10) megobarTan mivedi da is saxlSi ar damxvda.
zemoT warmodgenil magaliTebSi dapirispireba gamoxatulia
sxvadasxva kavSiriT. rogorc vxedavT maT ZiriTadi Sinaarsi erTnairi
aqvT, gansxvavebulia mxolod kontrastis saxe. winadadebebi
dalagebulia kontrastis/dapirispirebis xasiaTisa da xarisxis
cvlis mixedviT _ (10)-dan (5)-mde kontrasti sul ufro da
ufro Zlieria, ufro metad aris xazgasmuli winadadebebs Soris
kontrastuli dapirispireba; SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es kavSirebi
kontrasts sxvadasxva xarisxiT gamoxataven.
IV. mapirispirebeli kavSirebis funqciur-semantikuri
sxvaobis amsaxveli sqema
marTalia, zogierT konteqstSi mapirispirebeli kavSirebis
erTmaneTiT Canacvleba SesaZlebelia, magram es kavSirebi sinonimurni
ar arian _ maT TavianTi funqcia da datvirTva aqvT, gamoirCevian
mxolod maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiTa da TaviseburebebiT. am gansxvavebulobebis gamosavlenad gavaanalizeT sxvadasxvagvari teqstebi da zepirmetyvelebis nimuSebi, gaviTvaliswineT
qarTul gramatikul tradiciaSi dafiqsirebuli Tvalsazrisebi [3],

rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

10

[4], [6], [8] da Cveni dakvirvebis Sedegebi SevajameT garkveuli sqemis


saxiT, romelic asaxavs mapirispirebeli kavSirebis funqciur da
semantikur gansxvavebulobebs:
kontrasti

+dapirispireba

+sawinaaRmdego

+koreqcia _koreqcia

_dapirispireba

_sawinaaRmdego

+Zlieri

+erTi mainc
WeSmariti

_erTi mainc
(=yvela)
WeSmariti

_Zlieri

+molodini _molodini

+survili _survili

aramed/ oRond / Tumca/magram/ki//kidev / xolo /

Tu

da

V. mapirispirebeli kavSirebis funqciaTa ganmasxvavebeli


diferencialuri niSnebi
rogorc sqemidan Cans, mapirispirebeli kavSirebis dasaxasiaTeblad gamoiyo 7 binaruli diferencialuri niSani, romlebic
Rirebulia am kavSirebs Soris gansxvavebulobebis aRsawerad.
ganvixiloT es niSnebi:
1. +/_[dapirispireba]
yvela mapirispirebeli kavSiris saerTo funqcia aris is, rom
isini gamoxataven kontrasts, magram kontrastis gamoxatva aucileblobiT ar gulisxmobs garkveul erTeulebs Soris dapirispirebis gaxazvas. enobrivad kontrastuli SeiZleba iyos nebismieri
ori (an meti) erTgvarovani Semadgeneli, romelTa Soris Sinaarsobrivi
dapirispirebis arseboba aucilebeli arc aris (SesaZlebelia
gamoricxulic ki iyos, magaliTad, sinonimebis SemTxvevaSi). kavSirebi
da da Tu SesaZlebelia aerTianebdnen kontrastuli xasiaTis

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

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Semadgenlebs, Tumca isini am Semadgenlebis dapirispirebas ar


gamoxataven; magaliTad:
(11) is xan ucnaurad tokavda da xan saocrad SeifarTxalebda
xolme (ak. wer.).
(12) saqme iqamde mivida, rom dRes Tu xval skolidan unda
gamoericxaT (i. gogeb.).
(13) dainaxes Tu ara es mercxlebma, swrafad daanebes Tavi da
afrindnen maRla (i. gogeb.).
maSasadame, da da Tu majgufebeli kavSirebi SeiZleba davaxasiaToT
+/[dapirispireba] binaruli diferencialuri niSnis uaryofiTi
SinaarsiT (_[dapirispireba]), xolo mapirispirebeli kavSirebi: magram,
Tumca, aramed, oRond, xolo, ki _ amave diferencialuri niSnis
dadebiTi SinaarsiT (+[dapirispireba])
2. +/_[erTi mainc]
miuxedavad imisa, rom da da Tu kavSirebi, orive, aradapirispirebuli kontrastuli gaerTianebis gamosaxatavad SeiZleba
iyos gamoyenebuli, maT Soris funqciuri sxvaoba mainc didia:
da majgufebeli kavSiria da misi umTavresi funqcia dakavSirebaa
_ mas SeuZlia nebismieri saxis erTgvari wevrebisa Tu winadadebebis
gaerTianeba. Sedegad miRebuli gamonaTqvami WeSmariti iqneba mxolod
da mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gaerTianebul SemadgenelTagan
yoveli iqneba WeSmariti. Tu kavSiric aerTianebs erTgvar wevrebsa
Tu winadadebebs, magram iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gaerTianebul
SemadgenelTagan erT-erTi mainc aris WeSmariti. ase rom, SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom da kavSiri Seesabameba formaluri logikis koniunqcias,
xolo Tu _ diziunqcias.
Tu xSiria SekiTxvebSi, sadac fokusTa SesaZlebeli variantebis
raodenoba SemosazRvrulia; magaliTad:
(14) A: nika kiTxulobs Tu wers? P
SesaZlebel amomwurav pasuxTagan yoveli varianti iqneba
SemosazRvruli, dakonkretebuli:
(14) BB-1: nika kiTxulobs!
BB-2: nika wers! A
BB-3: nika kidevac kiTxulobs da kidevac wers! M
magram Tu davsvamT kiTxvas:
(15) AA: ras akeTebs nika?

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rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

SesaZlebel pasuxTa variantebi faqtiurad SemousazRvreli iqneba:


(15) BB: nika kiTxulobs (wers, xatavs, TamaSobs...).
am funqciiT Tu kavSiri seleqciur, kontrastul fokuszea
orientirebuli maSin, rodesac da kavSiriT gaerTianebul Semadgenlebian kiTxvaze pasuxi moiTxovs mTlianad azris dadasturebas
an uaryofas:
(16) AA: nika wers da kiTxulobs? P
BB-1: ki.
pasuxi ki gulisxmobs, rom nika orive moqmedebas asrulebs:
kidec wers da kidec kiTxulobs; xolo pasuxi ara gvatyobinebs,
rom nika an arc erT moqmedebas ar asrulebs (e.i arc wers da arc
kiTxulobs), an erT-erTs mainc asrulebs, amitom amomwuravi pasuxi
am kiTxvaze unda iyos dazustebeli:
(16) B-2: ara, mxolod kiTxulobs.
B-3: ara, mxolod wers.
B-4: ara, arc kiTxulobs da arc wers.
rodesac Tu kavSiriT gaerTianebulia ori (an meti) winadadeba,
maSin saqme gvaqvs daqvemdebarebul konstruqciasTan, sadac azris
dasrulebisaTvis aucileblad unda iyos warmodgenili kidev erTi
(mTavari) winadadeba, romlis daqvemdebarebulic iqneba Tu kavSiriT
gaerTianebuli, TavisTavad rTuli, winadadeba:
(17) nino cekvavda Tu nika mReroda, maris es ukve aRar
ainteresebda.
aseTi rTuli qvewyobili konstruqcia ar aris aucilebeli da
kavSiriT gaerTianebuli winadadebebis SemTxvevaSi _ azri
dasrulebulia mesame winadadebis gareSec:
(18) nino cekvavda da nika mReroda.A
aqve SevecdebiT Tu kavSiris funqciur gamijvna-gansxvavebis
warmoCenas an - an macalkevebeli kavSirisagan: Cveulebriv, Tu-s
dros gaerTianebul SemadgenelTagan orive an erT-erTi mainc
WeSmaritia; magaliTad:
(19) didi Tu patara TavgamodebiT muSaobda (vaJa.). A
aq igulisxmeba, rom yoveli _ didic da patarac, anu orive
erTad, muSaobda TavgamodebiT. (gansxvavebiT da kavSiriT gaerTianebisas
igulisxmeba, rom yvela _ didi da patara muSaobda). gansxvavebuli
viTarebaa (an) _ an kavSiriT gaerTianebul SemadgenlebTan:
(20) an dRes mogvardeba yvelaferi, an xval.
aq igulisxmeba, rom mxolod erT SemTxvevaSi (an dRes, an xval)
mogvardeba yvelaferi. (Sdr: dRes Tu xval yvelaferi mogvardeba _

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

13

niSnavs, rom nebismier dRes (an dRes, an xval) SeiZleba mogvardes


yvelaferi.)
amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maSin, rodesac Tu kavSiri Seesabameba
logikur diziunqcias (resp. +[erTi mainc]), kavSiri an _ an fardia
logikis e. w. gamomricxavi diziunqciisa (resp. +[mxolod erTi]);
xolo orive upirispirdeba da kavSirs, romelic logikis koniuqciis
Sesabamisia (resp. _[erTi mainc]; anu +[yvela]).
3. +/_[sawinaaRmdego]
kontrastul dapirispirebas SesaZlebelia qmnidnen rogorc
sawinaaRmdego Sinaarsis (magaliTad, antonimebi; leqsemebi, romlebic
uSveben semantikurad sapirispiro Sinaarss; formalurad uaryofiTi
da dadebiTi konstruqciebis SepirispirebiT miRebuli gamonaTqvamebi;
da sxv.), aseve, arasawinaaRmdego Sinaarsis gamomxatveli gansxvavebuli
Semadgenlebi. Tu dapirispireba sawinaaRmdego Semadgenlebs aerTianebs,
maSin mizanSewonilia oRond, Tumca, aramed, magram kavSirebis gamoyeneba;
xolo Tu Sepirispirebulia gansxvavebuli, magram arasawinaaRmdego
Sinaarsis mqone Semadgenlebi, ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba ki//kidev, xolo
kavSirebi. e.i. oRond, Tumca, aramed, magram kavSirebi SeiZleba
daxasiaTdes, rogorc kavSirebi, romlebic aerTianeben +[sawinaaRmdego]
Sinaarsebs, xolo ki//kidev, xolo kavSirebi, rogorc kavSirebi,
romlebic aerTianeben [sawinaaRmdego] Sinaarsebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom,
ramdenadac am kavSirebis funqciaa ise gaaerTianos gamonaTqvamebi,
rom gaxazos (an ar gaxazos) maT Soris sawinaaRmdego (an arasawinaarmdego) Sinaarsebi, isini SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnen am funqciiT
im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac dapirispirebul erTeulTa semantika
aucileblobiT ar aris SesabamisobaSi gaerTianebul SemadgenelTa
sawinaaRmdego an arasawinaaRmdego SinaarsebTan; anu +[sawinaaRmdego]
kavSirebiT SeiZleba gaerTiandes, aseve, semantikurad arasawinaaRmdego
Sinaarsis Semadgenlebi da, piriqiT, [sawinaaRmdego] kavSirebiT _
arasawinaaRmdego Sinaarsebi, Tuki konkretuli situacia gulisxmobs
aseT dapirispirebas. magaliTebi:
(21) mas brZola undoda, Tumca am yvelafriT Zalian daRlili
iyo (i. gogeb.).
(22) jer ar menaxa misi lekuri, Tumca gagonebiT ki bevri
gamegona (ak. wer.).
(23) Cven, irmebi, eniT ar vlaparakobT, aramed TvalebiT (vaJa.).

14

rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

(24) Zmani xerxeuliZeni aramc Tu ar Sedrknen, aramed lomebad


gadaiqcnen (i. gog.).
(25) niniam daaxala daTvs Tofi, magram aacdina (vaJa.).
(26) wvimam gadaiRo, magram caze mze mainc ar Canda (vaJa.).
(27) ivarjiSe, oRond Zalian nu gadaiRlebi.
(28) imRereT, oRond nu abRavldebiT (m. jav).
es (21) _ (28) magaliTebi upirispirdeba (29) _ (32) magaliTebs,
romlebic arasawinaaRmdego SinaarsTa kontrastul dapirispirebas
gamoxataven:
(29) Zalian moiwyina, tirils ki ar apirebda (ak. wer.).
(30) zamTari iyo, bavSvs ki qudi ar exura (ak. wer.).
(31) erTi sacekvaod wavida, xolo meorem dasveneba gadawyvita.
A
(ak. wer.)
(32) nadiris xorciT ZaRlebs asuqebdnen, xolo tyavs
amarilebdnen da axmobdnen (m. jav).
amdenad, diferencialuri niSani +/_[sawinaaRmdego] asaxavs
kavSirebis funqciur sxvaobas _ gaaerTianon da daupirispiron
Semadgenlebi imgvarad, rom warmoaCinon am dapirispirebis
sawinaaRmdego an arasawinaaRmdego xasiaTi.
4. +/_[dapirispirebul SemadgenelTa Zlieri gamokveTa]
arasawinaaRmdego, magram dapirispirebuli Semadgenlebis
gamaerTianebeli kavSirebi ki/kidev, xolo funqciurad msgavsi kavSirebia. isini xSirad enacvlebian erTmaneTs da gamoxataven SedarebiT
rbil dapirispirebas, Tumca es monacvleobac Tavisufali ar aris,
ramdenadac maTi poziciebi SemosazRvrulia: xolo iwyebs dapirispirebis amsaxvel meore Semadgenlur konstuqcias, ki ki mosdevs
meore winadadebaSi warmodgenil dapirispirebul Semadgenels. xolo
kavSirisgan gansxvavebiT, ki SeiZleba upirispirebdes rogorc martiv
Semadgenlebs, ise winadadebebs. aqedan gamomdinare, ki-s ufro metad
SeuZlia gamokveTos dapirispirebis konkretuli obieqti _ topiki
an fokusi.
(33) zamTari iyo. yvelas qudi exura, sabralo bavSvs(T) ki ara.
(34) AA: vin wers?
B: qali(F) wers, kaci(F) ki ara.
AA: ras wers?
BB: werils(F) wers, wigns(F) ki ara.

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

15

amdenad, xolo/ki//kidev kavSirebis funqciebis gansasxvaveblad


Rirebulad SeiZleba miviCnioT Semdegi diferencialuri niSani: +/
_[dapirispirebul SemadgenelTa Zlieri gamokveTa]. es niSani asaxavs
im faqts, rom ki//kidev kavSiri ufro Zlierad gamoxatavs SemadgenelTa
topikur/fokusur bunebas, xolo kavSiri ki mTlianad winadadebebis
dapirispirebas gulisxmobs.
rac Seexeba sawinaaRmdego dapirispirebis gamomxatvel kavSirebs:
magram, Tumca, oRond, aramed _ maTi urTierTCanacvlebadobis xarisxic
maRalia, Tumca urTierTgamomricxavi gamoyenebis SemTxvevebis analizi
saSualebas gvaZlevs maTi funqciebis ganmasxvavebeli ZiriTadi
diferencialuri niSnebic iqnes mikvleuli.
5. +/_[koreqcia]
komunikaciis dros xSirad xdeba garkveul gamonaTqvamTa koreqcia,
Sesworeba: adre gamoTqmuli mosazrebis uaryofa da axlis mtkiceba.
aseTi ori Semadgenlis dakavSirebisas, bunebrivia, saxezea sawinaaRmdego
mtkicebis dapirispirebul SemadgenelTa gaerTianeba. amgvar SemTxvevaSi
yvelaze mizanSewonilia aramed kavSiris gamoyeneba: aramed amyarebs
kavSirs movlenebs Soris imgvarad, rom uaryofs mocemul dadebiT
mtkicebas da mas sawinaaRmdego mtkicebas upirispirebs; magaliTad:
(35) AA: rogorc Cans, magrad wvims.
BB: ki ar wvims, aramed mxolod quxs.
aramed kavSiris am funqciidan gamomdinare, formalurad mkacrad
gansazRvrulia amgvari koreqtivis amsaxveli gamonaTqvamis
formaluri struqturac: rogorc wesi, aramed kavSiriT gaerTianebul
Semadgenlebidan pirvelia uaryofiTi formiT warmodgenili, radganac
is asaxavs adre mocemuli msjelobis sapirispiro mtkicebas, meore
ki ukve koreqtirebul mtkicebas gamoxatavs. amis gamo, pirvel
Semadgenel winadadebasTan, rogorc wesi, vxvdebiT uaryofiT nawilakebs:
ar, ki ar, nu, nu ki, ara Tu da, aseve, kiTxviT nawilaks gana, romelic
gamoxatavs gakvirvebas, eWvis Setanas da, amdenad, semantikurad uaryofis
Sinaarsi aqvs (es nawilaki, rogorc wesi, ixmareba kiTxviT winadadebebSi,
rodesac kiTxvis avtori uaryofiT pasuxs moelis). magaliTebi:
(36) ki ar gavaleb, aramed gTxov.
(38) ki nu gabrazdebi, aramed dafiqrdi.
(39) mefe erekle am dros iyo ara uwindeli Zal-RoniT savse
arwivi, aramed oTxmoci wlis moxuci (i. gogeb.).

16

rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

(40) gana marto codna niSnavs bevr rames, aramed saqmec unda
SegveZlos (ak. wer.).
maSasadame, kavSiri aramed sawinaaRmdego dapirispirebis
gamomxatvel danarCen kavSirebs: oRond, Tumca, magram _ upirispirdeba
+/_[koreqcia] diferencialuri niSnis dadebiTi maCvenebliT.
6. +/_[molodini]
sazogadod, movlenaTa Sepirispirebis dros SesaZlebelia
dafiqsirdes mosaubris molodinis sawinaaRmdego movlenebi. am
SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba kavSirebi: oRond, Tumca. iseTi gaerTianeba,
sadac gaxazulia sawinaaRmdegoTa dapirispireba, Tumca mosaubris
molodinze yuradReba gamaxvilebuli ar aris, rogorc wesi, magram
kavSiriT xorcieldeba. magram kavSiri yvelaze Zlierad gamoxatavs
sawinaaRmdego movlenebis dapirispirebul gaerTianebas, Tumca aq
movlenebs Soris urTierTkavSiris da, Sesabamisad, erTis gamo meoris
moulodnelobis gamokveTa ar xdeba:
(41) wvims, magram ar quxs.
sapirispirod, oRond da Tumca kavSirebi aseTi molodinis
SesaZleblobas gaxazaven:
(42) wvims, Tumca ar quxs.
(43) wvims, oRond ar quxs.
am SemTxvevaSi, ramdenadac wvimis dros xSiria quxilic, mosaubre
imgvarad aRwers situacias, rom afiqsirebs am zogadi molodinis
sawinaaRmdego viTarebas. SesaZlebelia mosaubrem airCios
gansxvavebuli strategia da yuradReba ar gaamaxvilos aRniSnul
molodinze. maSin gveqneboda gansxvavebuli winadadeba:
(44) wvims, magram ar quxs.
vnaxoT am saxis sxva magaliTebic:
(45) meama, magram cud gunebaze avdeqi mainc (ak. wer.).
(46) xoxbebi yurs ugdebdnen, magram ar elaparekebodnen (vaJa.).
Tu ar CavTvliT am individualur maxasiaTeblebs, kavSirebi
magram, Tumca, oRond SesaZlebelia Tavisuflad Caenacvlon erTmaneTs.
siZlieris mixedviT magram kavSiri xolo/ki kavSirebTan SedarebiT
yvelaze metad gamoxatavs dapirispirebas da zogjer mas kidev
ufro aZlierebs nawilaki mainc:
(47) wvimam gadaiRo, magram caze mze mainc ar Canda (vaJa.).

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

17

7. +/_[survili]
miuxedavad imisa, rom Tumca da oRond funqciurad Zalian
hgvanan erTmaneTs, mainc moxda am kavSirebSi funqciuri sxvaobis
gamovlena. isini TiTqmis yovelTvis enacvlebian erTmaneTs, magram
aris konstruqciebi, sadac oRond kavSiri molodinTan erTad
gamoxatavs mosaubris Zlier survilsa an SiSs, rom misi molodini
SeiZleba ar gamarTldes.
M
(48) modi, oRond ar daigviano!
M
(49) modi, Tumca ar daigviano!
oRond kavSiris Tumca-Ti Canacvlebam (49) winadadebaSi mogvca
gansxvavebuli Sinaarsi: mosaubre afrTxilebs msmenels, ar daigvianos,
maSin rodesac (48) winadadebaSi gamoxatulia mosaubris Zlier
survili da/an SiSi imisa, rom saubris adresati SeiZleba dagvianebiT
movides. vnaxoT am saxis sxva magaliTebic:
(50) Sen oRond imecadine, am saqmes me mivxedav.
(51) ivarjiSe, oRond Zalian nu gadaiRlebi.
(52) SegiZlia gaemgzavro, Tumca ara mgonia, gaqceviT saqmes
uSvelo.
(53) sirbili Zalian damRlelia, Tumca janmrTelobisTvis
sasargebloa.
oRond kavSirs dapirispirebasTan erTad aqvs, aseve, daTmobis
funqcia da SedarebiT rbil molodinsa Tu gafrTxilebas gamoxatavs:
(54) iTamaSeT, oRond Zalian nu ixmaurebT!
(55) wadi saTevzaod, oRond Rrma wyalSi ar Sexvide!
sazogadod, brZanebiTi konstruqciebi survilis semantikiT ufro
oRondkavSiriani formebisTvis aris bunebrivi (oRond imRere!),
Tumca kavSiriani formebisTvis ki damaxasiaTebeli ar aris (*Tumca,
imRere!). Tumca kavSiriani brZanebiTebi ufro gafrTxilebas
gamoxataven, vidre survils: Tumca, imRere ra, me ra menarvleba, Sen
Sercxvebi!
aseTi specifikuri konstruqciebi, sadac mosaubris sasurveli
molodinia asaxuli, gvaZlevs biZgs am kavSirebis gansasxvaveblad
gamovyoT diferencialuri niSani +/_[survili], romlis mixedviTac
oRond daxasiaTdeba, rogorc +[survili]-s gamomxatveli, Tumca ki
_ gafrTxilebis, -[survilis] gamomxatveli.

rusudan asaTiani, TinaTin janeliZe

18

VI. daskvna
amgvarad, warmodgenili 7 binaruli diferencialuri niSani
sakmarisi aRmoCnda mapirispirebel kavSirTa semantikuri da/an
funqciuri gansxvavebulobebis aRsawerad. diferencialuri niSnebis
mixedviT kavSirTa funqciebis ganmasxvavebeli xe-struqtura (ix.
gv. 5); SeiZleba Semdegi cxrilis saxiTac warmovadginoT:
aramed

oRond

Tumca

magram

ki

xolo

Tu

da

dapirispireba

erTi mainc

sawinaaRmdego

Zlieri gamokveTa

koreqcia

molodini

survili

(*cxrilSi 0 miuTiTebs, rom aRniSnuli niSani mocemuli kavSirisaTvis Warbia.)

aRsaniSnavia isic, rom mapirispirebeli kavSirebis funqciuri


sxvaobebis amsaxveli xe-struqtura imgvarad aris warmodgenili,
rom asaxavs am kavSirebis mier dapirispirebulobis gadmocemis
mixedviT mzard (marjvnidan marcxniv) ierarqiul mimarTebebs:
aramed > oRond > Tumca > magram > ki//kidev > xolo > Tu > da

sazogadod, warmodgenil semantikur-funqciur diferencialur


niSnebs ufro sarekomendacio xasiaTi aqvT, vidre mkacrad gramatikuli
mimarTebebis aRweris pretenzia. aucilebelia SevniSnoT, rom zemoT
mocemul sqemaSi minus niSnis qveS warmodgenilma kavSirma, rogorc
aramarkirebulma, SeiZleba zogierT SemTxvevaSi sapirispiro, plius
niSniT nagulisxmebi Sinaarsic gamoxatos. magaliTad, da kavSiriT
SeiZleba gavaerTianoT sapirispiro movlenebi, magram kavSirma SeiZleba
molodinic da zogjer survilic gamoxatos; magram piriqiT, plius
niSnis qveS moTavsebulma kavSirma rom gamoxatos minusianis semantika,
Zneli dasaSvebia. am dros kavSiris arasworad gamoyenebasTan gveqneba
saqme. sqemis sarekomendacio xasiaTi Semdegnairad SeiZleba
CamovayaliboT: Tu movlenaTa gaerTianebisas gvsurs pliusiT
gamoxatuli semantikis dafiqsireba, umjobesia, Sesabamisi, mis qvemoT
moTavsebuli, kavSiri gamoviyenoT; xolo, Tu gvsurs mxolod

mapirispirebeli kavSirebis Ffunqcionaluri analizi qarTulSi

19

dapirispireba/kontrasti davafiqsiroT, maSin mis qvemoT moTavsebuli


yvela kavSiris gamoyeneba Tavisuflad dasaSvebia. sazogadod,
informaciis struqturireba da movlenaTa amsaxveli gamonaTqvamebis
gaerTianebis strategiis SerCeva, situaciis garda, mniSvnelovanwilad
mosaubris mizansa da survilzea damokidebuli. kavSirebis
polifunqciuroba amis saSualebas iZleva. kavSirebis funqciebis
garkveva da maTi sworad gamoyeneba saTqmelis ufro mokled da
naTlad gamoxatvis SesaZleblobas iZleva.
literatura
asaTiani 2007: asaTiani r. intonaciis roli winadadebis
sainformacio struqturis formirebaSi, enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi,
Tbilisi: Tsu gamocemloba. 22-33.
asaTiani 2007: asaTiani r. informaciis struqturirebis
sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi. semiotika-II, WavWavaZis sax.
universiteti. Tbilisi: universali. 7-29.
gamyreliZe 2003: gamyreliZe T., kiknaZe z., Saduri i., Sengelaia n.
Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tbilisi; Tsu gamomcemloba.
kvaWaZe 1966: kvaWaZe l. qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tbilisi: ganaTleba.
krifka m., 2008: sainformacio struqturis ZiriTadi cnebebi; ena,
logika, kompiuterizacia, II t. Tbilisi: degaprinti. 7-40
SaniZe 1980: SaniZe ak. qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, III t.
Tbilisi: Tsu gamomcemloba.
Sengelaia 2000: Sengelaia n. arasruli sityvebi da teqstis
semantikuri mTlianoba, Tbilisi: diogene.
ZiZiguri 1973: ZiZiguri S. kavSirebi qarTul enaSi, Tbilisi: Tsu
gamomcemloba.
Ceifi 1975: . . .
. : . 241-267.

asaTiani 2007: Asatiani R. The Main Devices of Foregrounding in the


Information Structure of Georgian, The 6th International Symposium on
LLC, Tbilisi-2005. Balden D.ten Cate&Henk W. Zeevat (Eds). Springer.
21-31. 2007.

20

cira barbaqaZe

enis fascinaciuri
(magiuri) funqcia da
nislis semiotika
ai, Cvens winaSea teqsti. igi obieqti ki araa,
aramed ruqa _ geografiuli azriT,
an qartia _ konstituciurad.
Ees ruqaa, romelsac sakuTari gzebi da
uxilavi ganStoebebi, miwisqveSa bilikebi aqvs.
JakDderida
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis
kvlevebis fakultetis
asocirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika,
folkloruli ritorika,
Tanamedrove politikuri
diskursis ritorikuli
Taviseburebani, qarTuli
sakanonmdeblo stili...
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, ritorika, stilistika, kritika.

enaTmecnierebaSi kargad aris cnobili


enis komunikaciuri modelebi, romelTac safuZvlad udevs iakobsonis funqciuri sistema. aRniSnuli sistema enisa da metyvelebis
funqciaTa Soris fideistur (magiur)
funqciasac ganixilavs.
komunikaciis TeoriaSi nebismieri
urTierTobis situacia xasiaTdeba Semdegi
komponentebiT:
adresanti _ e. i. molaparake an mwerali;
adresati _ msmeneli an mkiTxveli;
urTierTobis mizani: adresatze zemoqmedeba, an TviTgamoxatva, an `sufTa~
informireba, an _ sxva;
urTierTobis situacia _ farTo gagebiT,
komunikaciis konteqsti;
urTierTobis Sinaarsi _ gadasacemi
informacia;
urTierTobis arxi da kodi _ zepiri,
werilobiTi, satelefono, kompiuteruli;
simRera, Jesti, mimika; urTierTobis ena da
stili da sxva (iakobsoni 1975:193).
iakobsonma komunikaciis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT gansazRvra enisa da metyvelebis funqciebis sistema. man gamoyo sami universaluri

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

21

funqcia nebismieri enisTvis nebismier istoriul epoqaSi. esenia:


Setyobinebis (urTierTobis) funqcia, eqspresiul_emociuri funqcia
da maregulirebeli funqcia. iakobsoni maregulirebeli funqciis
kerZo SemTxvevad ganixilavs enis(metyvelebis) fideistur(magiur)
funqcias, ramdenadac sityvieri magiis adresati_Tanamosaubre,
gramatikuli II piri ki ar aris, aramed uxilavi III piri, SesaZloa,
es aris umaRlesi Zala.
enis fideistur(magiur) funqcias avlens Selocvebis ena, romelic
gansakuTrebuli semiotikuri sistemaa. enobrivi niSani aq amJRavnebs
arakonvenciur xasiaTs, rac imas niSnavs, rom sityva sagnis pirobiTi
aRmniSvneli ki ar aris, aramed misi uSualo nawilia. elene blavatskaia
amis Sesaxeb Tavis `saidumlo doqtrinaSi~ miuTiTebs: niSani
gamoxatavs sagans, sagani (faruli an okulturi) aris niSnis Tviseba.
sityvis warmoTqma niSnavs, gamoixmo azri da gaxado igi arsebuli.
okultur samyaroSi adamianis metyvelebis potenciuri magnetizmi
aris yovelgvari gamovlinebis sawyisi. sagani CvenTvis aris is,
radac sityva qmnis mas, rodesac asaxelebs. sityva (zmna) an TiToeuli
adamianis metyveleba, maTTvis sruliad gaucnobiereblad, warmoadgens
gandidebas an SeCvenebas. Ddiax, sityvebi an keTilSemoqmedni arian, an
_ boroteulni, an _ momwamlavi, an _ janmrTelobis momtanni
(blavatskaia 1998:129).
rogorc aRvniSneT, Selocvebis ena avlens magiur funqcias. aq
niSani upiroboa. `niSnis arakonvenciuroba cnobierebis Tavdapirvel
fideizmSi ki ar devs, aramed adamianis fsiqikaSi samyaros asaxvis
pirvelad sinkretizmSi. es aris logikur-azrovnebamdeli azrovnebis
fundamenturi maxasiaTebeli. aseTi iyo pirvelyofili adamianis
azrovneba~ (meCkovskaia 1998:42).
sityvis arakonvenciuri gageba damaxasiaTebelia bavSvTa fsiqologiisaTvis _ `sityva igivdeba saganTan~ (Cukovski). magaliTad,
pirvelklaselma SeiZleba CaTvalos, rom winadadebaSi: `aq dgas ori
skami da erTi magida~ _ sul sami sityvaa, an rom sityva `kanfeti~
_ tkbilia. maSasadame, niSnis arakonvenciuroba niSnisa da aRsaniSnis,
sityvisa da sagnis, sagnis saxelisa da sagnis arsis igiveobrioba
yofila.
rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, jadosnuri da wminda sityvebis
rwmena
dakavSirebulia Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferos
muSaobasTan, gansxvavebiT marcxena naxevarsferos meqanizmebisagan,
romelic ganapirobebs inteleqtualur_logikuri da abstraqtuli
informaciebis miRebas da gadacemas. marjvena naxevarsfero pasuxs

22

cira barbaqaZe

agebs adamianis fsiqikuri cxovrebis grZnobiT_emociur mxareze.


Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferoSia agreTve `moTavsebuli~
aracnobieri da gaucnobierebeli procesebi. aseT viTarebaSi niSnis
arakonvenciurobis fenomeni gvevlineba ZiriTad fsiqologiursemiotikur meqanizmad, romelic qmnis enasTan fideisturi
damokidebulebis SesaZleblobas. es is marcvalia, romlidanac
amoizrdeba rwmena jadosnuri da wminda sityvebisadmi. Eenobrivi
niSnis upiroboba ama Tu im formiT gansazRvravs enis damokidebulebas miTologiur_religiur cnobierebasTan.
iakobsoni enis magiur funqcias `anaTesavebs~ enis esTetikur
(poetur) funqciasTan. Ggarkveuli azriT, es marTlac asea. enis
poeturi funqcia ar aris orientirebuli teqstis Sinaarsze. Ppoezia
msmenels(mkiTxvels) ganacdevinebs amaRlebul grZnobas. zegavlena
miiRweva ritmis, riTmis, sityvaTa gansakuTrebuli rigis,
metaforulobis da a. S. meSveobiT. magaliTad, galaktionis `qari
qris, qari qris, qari qris, foTlebi miqrian qardaqar... xeTa rigs,
xeTa jars rkalad xris... sada xar, sada xar, sada xar?~ _ msmenelze
zemoqmedebs ara mxolod Sinaarsis meSveobiT, mniSvnelovania agreTve
musikaloba, bgerwera, ritmi, striqonebis Sinagani vibracia...
magiur sityvasa (Selocvebi) da poetur metyvelebas saerTo
aqvs kidev erTi niSani: adresatze fascinaciuri zemoqmedeba, rac
gulisxmobs darwmunebis maRal xarisxs, STagonebas, `mojadovebas~,
magram poezia, Cemi azriT, amas akeTebs Zaldautaneblad, bunebrivad,
SemoqmedebiTad, adresatis winaswari momzadebis gareSe, maSin, roca
Selocvebis ena ZiriTadad avtomatizebuli teqstia da ara SemoqmedebiTi, savsea kliSeebiT, gabundovanebuli sityvebiTa da gamoTqmebiT
_ abrakadabrebiT; Selocvebis enis mxatvruloba banaluria,
gansxvavebulia komunikaciuri situaciis konteqstic. Selocvebis
dros adresati (e. w. SemkveTi) mzad aris `STagonebisaTvis~ da
SesaZloa, Semlocvelze metad sjera Selocvis sityvebis azrisa
(amis modelia Tanamedrove fsiqoTerapiis praqtika), amitom
gamolocvis teqstis bundovaneba da abrakadabrebis ti pis
gamonaTqvami misTvis mxolod saSualebaa sasurveli mdgomareobis
miRebisa; rac Seexeba poetur metyvelebas, mas praqtikuli mizani
ara aqvs. maSasadame, poeziasa da magias Soris gansxvaveba aRemateba
maT Soris naTesaobas.
Tumca poezias Tavisi mistika aqvs, gansxvavebuli `praqtikuli
magiisagan, radgan poezia ar aris cnobierebis Cveulebrivi mdgomareoba
da, Sesabamisad, misi aRqmac moiTxovs gadayvanas Semoqmedis, poetis

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

23

mdgomareobaSi, raTa moxdes avtorisa da mkiTxvelis Sexvedra. ra


xerxebiTa da saSualebebiT aRwevs amas mxatvruli sityva, SeuZlia
Tu ara mkvlevars im idumali kanonebis moxelTeba, romlebic namdvilad
arsebobs teqstSi, magram ar devs zedapirze da SeumCnevelia, rogor
unda gaizomos leqsis zemoqmedebis xarisxi, misi energia _ es
kvlevis sagania!
rodesac poeturi teqsti metaforulia, mxatvruli saxeebiT
datvirTuli, maSin vambobT, rom zegavlenas axdens swored amgvari
mxatvruloba, magram rodesac teqsti daclilia metaforulobisagan
da mxolod ubralo sityvaTa sinTezia, maSin? aseT SemTxvevaSi
iakobsoni saubrobs gramatikis poeziaze, rodesac aqtualizdeba
gramatikuli kategoriebi da qmnis garkveul tropulobas..., Tumca
amgvari mtkicebulebac SeiZleba sadavo gaxdes.
poezia `mignebuli sityvis~ xelovnebaa, magram ras niSnavs `mignebuli sityva da rogor vzomavT am mignebulobas? Cven mxolod
droSi da droiT Sefasebuli mxatvruli teqstebi viciT, Tumca
aseT SemTxvevaSic zegavlenis meqanizmi Bbundovani rCeba.
enis esTetikuri (poeturi) funqcia orientirebulia aRqmis
mTlianobaze, anu zemoqmedebas axdens enis ara erTi romelime, aramed
mTeli misi komunikaciuri SesaZleblobebi. aseT niSans umberto
eko, morisis msgavsad, uwodebs `ikonur niSans~ (eko 2004:89). misi
azriT, poeziaSi lingvisturi niSani iqceva erTgavr `stimulTa
velad~, esTetikuri veli ki imgvaradaa struqturirebuli, rom mis
asaxsnelad sakmarisi ar aris ubralo moqmedebebi, romlebic,
magaliTad, referenciuli Setyobinebis aRqmisTvis iqneboda sakmarisi.
Sesabamisad, poeturi enis aRqmis amgvari rTuli meqanizmi teqstis
wakiTxvis mraval SesaZleblobas aCens, radganac aRqma subieqturi
procesia da ganpirobebulia mravali faqtoriT, maT Soris, aRmqmelis
Sinagani mdgomareobiT da sxva.
erTi da igive niSani poetur teqstSi da Cveulebriv, pragmatul
metyvelebaSi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebulia. enis esTetikuri funqcia
enis SemoqmedebiTi potencialis gamovlenaa da im SemTxvevaSic ki,
rodesac poetur teqstSi ar aris metafora, sityva, rogorc ikonuri
niSani, araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar igivdeba lingvistur niSanTan, romelic
sxva diskursebSi gamoiyeneba (magaliTad, bunebis movlenebi: wvima,
Tovli, qari, nisli.... poeziaSi da meteorologiur prognozebSi
saerTod gansxvavebul konteqstebSia).
rogorc aRvniSneT, enis esteTikuri funqcia gulisxmobs
`mistikur~ da `magiur~ doneebsac da rac ufro maRalmxatvrulia

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24

nawarmoebi, miT ufro izrdeba amgvari zemoqmedebis xarisxi. amitom


aris, rom kargi leqsis mosmenisas msmenels eufleba dumili da
sityvebiT emocias ver gamoxatavs garkveuli periodi. Aambobs, rom
am striqonebma `gaabrua~, `gaTiSa~, `Tavbru daaxvia~, `daamunja~, `ena
waarTva~ da sxva.
am mdgomareobas mistikis enaze `waSla~ hqvia, anu Cveulebrivi
cnobierebis erTgvari `dabindva~, `dacarieleba~.... anu, Cveulebriv
enaze: esTetikuri siamovnebis miReba.
poezia _ es aris sityvebis gziT da sityvebis meSveobiT `dumilis~ mopoveba. WeSmariti poezia is aris, romelic dumils badebs.
`poeti _ aris mistikosi wamierad, xolo mistikosi _ poeti
maradiulad~ (oSo rajniSi).
n i s l i s

p o e t i k a
SemomxedeT, me mze var da
gadavwie nislis farda,
axal gazafxulad movel,
rom vaxaro uflis yana.
jalal ed_din rumi

poetur leqsikaSi SeiZleba gamovyoT imgvari saxe_simboloebi,


romlebic ufro metad atareben `mistikurobis~ da `magiurobis~
semantikas. erTi aseTi sityva_konceptia nisli, romelsac sulxansaba ase ganmartavs: `mzis simxurvale wyalTa qveyanaTa notioTagan
orTqlsa ahkrefs da Seiqmnebis nisli, ukeTu mravali aRiRo misgan,
iqmnebis wvimani da Tuca mciredi aRiRo, mananad Seiqmnebis, xolo
nislica esreT ganiyofebian: mciresa da Txelsa nislsa ewodebis
foSfoSi, xmelsa da mtvris msgavssa nislsa _ boriayi, xolo
notiosa nislsa bori da nislsa monaTovsa bueri da nislsa zrqelsa
da Zlierad mqrolelsa, romeli Sekrbebis mTaTa zeda armuri~.
nisli _ simboloa nacrisferi zonisa relursa da ararealurs
Soris. Zveli kelturi miTis mixedviT, is faravs dedamiwis
Crdilo_dasavleTs amqveyniuri samyarosa da imqveyniuris sazRvarze,
is aris agreTve simbolo adamianisTvis miuwvdomeli sferoebisa...
aRmosavlur_aziur lirikaSi nisli aris umTavresad Semodgomis
da aforiaqebuli gancdebis simbolo, agreTve _ avi sulebisa...
evropul zRaprebSi nisli simboloa xSirad adamianisaTvis momavlis
da imqveyniuris Caketilobisa, rac mxolod sinaTliT SeiZleba
gaixsnas.

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

25

mxatvrul literaturaSi nisli aqtualizebuli saxe_simboloa,


romelic gansxvavebul konteqstebSi gansxvavebul semantikur da
emociur konotaciebs aCens. nisli bindSi xvevs sagnebs da movlenebs,
aferxebs moZraobas, badebs gaurkvevlobis SegrZnebas... Sesabamisad,
gzaze mimavali mgzavri Cerdeba, ferxdeba.... an agrZelebs gzas da
ikargeba... nisli qaosis mdgomareobaa, romlidanac Semoqmedi(mwerali)
qmnis `axal wesrigs~... nisli feriscvalebis wina etapia, masSi
ibadebian monstrebi, demonebi, urCxulebi da nislidan ibadeba angelozi,
RvTismSobeli.... mistikuri religiebi nislis simbolizms mimarTaven
iniciaciis dros. sulma unda gaiaros sibnelisa da nislis
mdgomareoba da gasxivosndes, gavides sicxadeSi. sainteresoa qarTul
enaSi arsebuli iseTi frazeologizmebi, rogorebicaa: Tvalebze nisli
gadamekra, goneba damebinda, nislSi wavedi, nisli gadamefara... da
sxva, romlebic cnobierebis Cveulebrivi mdgomareobis dakargvas
aRniSnaven, rodesac adamiani Sordeba realobas da droebiT `ikargeba.
ori ukiduresobis karg nimuSs gvaZlevs amerikeli mwerali
fantastikisa da mistikis JanrSi: stiven kingi(igive riCard baxmani)
prozaul nawarmoebSi: nisli (The Mist) da brazilieli mwerali
paulo koelio romanSi: rio piedras napirze Camovjeqi da avtirdi
(By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept).
erT SemTxvevaSi patara, provinciul qalaqSi TiTqos arsaidan
mosuli nisli i pyrobs quCebs da saxlebs, nislidan ibadeba
mravalsaxovani sikvdili, romelic nTqavs da anadgurebs adamianebs...
xolo paulo koelios nawarmoebSi nislidan ibadeba, gamodis
qalRmerTi... `Cven garSemo nisli TiTqos gamococxlda, SeiZina Tavisi
sakuTari yofiereba, gardaiqmna erTgvar wminda substanciad... (rio
piedras napirze Camovjeqi da avtirdi).
Nnislis saintereso, ambivalenturi semantikaa frangi mwerlis
boris vianis moTxrobaSi `siyvaruli brmaa~ (lamour est aveugle).
sqel nislSi TandaTan CaZirul qalaqSi adamianebi veRar xedaven
erTmaneTs, amitom Tavs uflebas aZleven, rom miZinebul vnebebs gasaqani
miscen, ris Sedegadac yvela bednierad grZnobs Tavs. `SesaZleblis
sazRvrebi farTovdeba, roca ar geSinia, rom sinaTle ainTeba~. da ai,
radio acxadebs, rom nisli ifanteba da qalaqis mosaxleobamac
gamosavali monaxa: yvelam daiTxara Tvalebi, raTa gaegrZelebinaT
bednierad cxovreba.
qarTuli prozidanac araerTi nimuSis damowmeba SeiZleba.
magaliTad, konstantine gamsaxurdias `dionisos Rimilidan~: `...nisli
Tavs dasxmia qalaqs, mTeli quCebi nisliT dagubula. ixrCoba qalaqi

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26

nislis warRvnaSi. Nisli dgas karebTan, nisli kedlebTan atuzula


da kankalebs...
... Talxi landebi dalaslaseben nislSi CaZirul qalaqis quCebSi...
...zafxuli momkvdara da es uSvelebeli, adamianebis landebis
procesia TavCaqindruli mihyveba ukan am saarako yeenobas...
...nisli amdgara yinulovan okeanedan, nisli amdgara zRvebis
fskerebidan da amboxebula...
...CrdiloeTidan mosula qurdulad, fexakrefiT, zamTris sunTqva
da Cemi guli ikumSebeba varamisagan...
...me marad minda viyialo am qveyanaze, Tu Cems suls gaToSavs
CrdiloeTis nisli, saqarTveloSi ki bevria mze da cis naWeri... ~
amgvari magaliTebi msoflio literaturaSi mravladaa da
niSandoblivia, rom nisli erTsa da imave dros aris sikvdilisa
da sicocxlis, keTilisa da borotis, dadebiTisa da uaryofiTis
aRmniSvneli. is aris koncepti, romelic mravalinterpretaciis
saSualebas iZleva.
nisli dabrkolebaa, gaurkvevlobaa:
mTao, gadmiSvi, maRalo,
ras nisli mogixvevia,
mTas iqiT Cemi lamazi
sxvas vismes Cauxvevia.
(xalxuri)
da vifiqre: `Cemi satrfo sad ari?
nisli hburavs, Tu dRe udgas sadari?~
(akaki wereTeli, aRmarT_aRmarT)
dRem moitana alazanamde,
nislis Savi zRva rom gadaTela;
dReo, netavi aRar daRamde,
Tu daRamdebi, ar gagaTena.
(tician tabiZe, alaverdoba)
TiTqos nislia, arafers vxedav
da TiTqos mqonda Savi niRabi.
(terenti graneli, sizmari)

nisli adamianiviT sulieria, amitom poeti mimarTavs mas,


rogorc Tavisi sulis Tanaziars, an, ufro sworad, identifikacias

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27

axdens masTan, rogorc vaJa_fSavela, rodesac ambobs: `nisli fiqria


mTebisa~ an usvams sakuTari TavisTvis dasasmel kiTxvebs:
ras fiqrob, nislo tialo,
Semjdaro goris fxazeda?
gana Senc rame gawuxebs
am oxer qveyanazeda?
(arCil kitoSvili, nisli)

gabriel jabuSanuri ki pirdapir ambobs:


me var: gorze rom loculobs nisli,
Ramis siCume Cemi fiqria,
wyaroa Cemi cremli da sisxli,
Tma aris, kldes rom quCi mihkvria.

zogjer ki nisli satrfoa


satrfoa:
vaJao, dilis mzis sxivo,
xan mTebze nislTa dinebav...

an:
nislauro, nisli xaro,
gamiqrebi: mzisi xaro...
me aragvze davrCebodi,
magram, ra vqna, sxvisi xaro...
(ana kalandaZe)

sxvagan ki ana wers, rom unda ise ganuyofeli iyos satrfosgan,


rogorc nisli da mTebi:
movediT smadlos xevTan...
nislebSi danTqmula isic...
me minda, sul viyo SenTan,
rogorc es mTebi da nisli!

tariel Wanturias lirikuli gmirebi leqsSi: `golgoTa, zRvis


donidan 7500 metris simaRleze~, Seyvarebulebi, TokiT gadabmulebi,
miiweven nislSi mwvervalisken, rac metaforulad gamoxatavs iesos
gzas:
Sekrulebs erTi TokiT da rwmeniT_
orives bneli ufskruli gvimzers...
aq ar arsebobs sando da Zveli
gza.... nislebs nisli usxltebaT qimze.
..................................................................................

cira barbaqaZe

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bedia: zogi aRwevs RrublebTan...


da ufskrulebis weraa zogi!
me ar gemduri... gqonda ufleba,
rom gadageWra sikvdilis Toki....

poet guCa kvaracxelias lirikuli gmirisTvis siyvaruli


satrfosgan Seqmnili nisli da burusia:
me SeniT Seqmnil burusSi vcxovrobdi.
Cven amas siyvaruls veZaxdiT. Tumca
arasodes giTqvams, ras grZnobdi,
roca Cemi nestoebis sunTqva gesmoda.
Cems wertils veZebdi Sens koordinatTa sistemaSi.......
(guCa kvaracxelia, nu daynosav yayaCoras)

nislis saintereso saxes gvTavazobs agreTve poeti rati


amaRlobeli, roca mas satrfos TvalebTan da feriscvalebasTan
akavSirebs:
Tvalebi Seni, Cemi Tvalebis nisli,
Seni Tvalebis nisli,
feriscvaleba mTvaris,
feriscvaleba sizmris.....

sxva SemTxvevaSi poeti TeTri nisliT saganTa WeSmarit bunebas


swvdeba:
TeTri feriT, mkveTri feriT
daifara yvelaferi.
TrTviliT, TovliT, TeTri nisliT
gamovlinda feri misi.
(rati amaRlobeli, TeTreuli)

nislidan ibadebian galaktionis usasrulobisaken da


Seucnoblisaken mswrafi `lurja cxenebi~, romelzec ana kalandaZe
dawers:
TeTri nisli nislebs irevs _
es xom `lurja cxenebia~,
Svidi zeca gadirbines,
arsad SeusvenebiaT...

manmde ki Tavad galaktioni aRiarebs, rom `lurja cxenebi~


mxolod `nislis TareSSi~ dahqrian:

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

29

mxolod nislis TareSSi, samudamo mxareSi,


zeviT Tu samareSi, wyevliT SenaCvenebi,
rogorc zRvis xetiali, rogorc bedis triali,
Cqari grgvinva_grialiT qrian lurja cxenebi!

da radgan nisli Seucnoblis metaforacaa, is yvela `mogzauris~


Tanamdevia da qrolva usasrulobisken, dausabamobisken, Seucnoblisken
da, sabolood, uflisken _ nislSi mogzaurobaa. Nniko samadaSvilis
leqsSi: `dausabamobis xilva~ _ personaJi nislSia gaxveuli...
me mivqrolavdi, rogorc udabno,
cxedarze ufro dauzarebliv...
da msofliodan isev meZaxdnen
cadakarguli xSiri zarebi.
sityvebs vugdebdi Sexvedril Saras:
terfebs foTlebiT ver damiameb,
monastris zemoT vxedavdi Savad
sivrceSi gakrul adamianebs.

nislis svetebi idgnen garSemo,


nislebs SuadRec ver aTenebda.
guli iwvoda da lurji kvamli
msxvilad mdioda bnel Tvalebidan...
..............................................................................

`nislis gza~ rCeulTa gzaa, amitom poetebi `avad arian~ nisliT,


rogorc `msoflio sevdiT~.Ees azri kargad aqvs gamoxatuli nikolai
gumiliovs leqsSi `nisli~:






terenti granelis leqsSi `eqskursia cisken~ `nisliani usazRvro


sivrce~ agreTve Seucnobelis simboloa:

cira barbaqaZe

30

isev siSoris cecxli mizidavs,


ar minda guli samares mivce,
me xom mindoda gasvla miwidan,
me xom mindoda gafrena cisken.
iq uxilavi mxare micdida
da nisliani usazRvro sivrce...

nislisa da mgzavris semantikaa dakavSirebuli niko samadaSvilis


am striqonebSi:
saRamo modis, nisli zedaSes
svamen da daiss mTebi kenkaven.
Cemo liaxvo, albaT me da Sen
saqarTvelodan gamogvrekaven.
ra vuyoT mere, viRaca mgzavri
gahyveba stveniT gznebis molaRurs,
da Seadarebs gakmendil zarebs
mwyemsis ubeSi moklul salamurs.

aleqsandre abaSeli ki sikvdilis win daweril leqsSi erTgvarad


ajamebs ganvlil `nislian gzas~ da afasebs, rogorc mogzauri,
romelic amaod daSvra:
xandaxan fiqri damburavs,
vwevar da ar meZineba.
vityvi cxovrebis samduravs
da cremli damedineba.
gzas rom gavxedav nislians,
Cavqrebi, CaviSritebi:
gzaze rom yria, visia,
frTamotexili Citebi?
........................................................
verafers gavxdi mzisaken
mudam xelebis aSveriT,
rac guls undoda, isa vqmen,
magram amaod davSveri!

rogorc vxedavT, qarTul poeziaSic nisls Tavisi gza aqvs,


Tavisi poetika da Tavisi uRrmesi semiotika. is qmnis sakuTar
zRapars da sakuTar siuJets. Nnisli damogzaurobs poetidan poetSi,
striqonidan striqonSi, teqstidan teqstSi... is gaivlis Semoqmed
gulebs da sulebs... anda, samudamod rCeba maTSi. nisli TviTon
wyvets, saiT wavides da es Tviseba mas daaqvs poeziaSic. is ar aris
yvela poetis stumari, yvelas ar wyalobs, mxolod rCeulebs da
rCeulTagan mxolod erTeulebi aRweven Tavs da ai, swored maSin
dgeba sulis mistikuri gasxivosneba _ iniciacia...

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia da nislis semiotika

31

nislis arsi da idea kargad aqvs gaxsnili erT Tanamedrove


avtors, nika jorjanels, leqsSi `mgzavroba nislSi~, romlis srul
variantsac aqve gTavazobT:
`naRvliani sivrce Ria./ bardnis. Ddazrnen ekal_bardni./ Zveli drois
TeTri dRea./ Zveli drois cidan bardnis./ Tvali nislSi lamis gadnes,/
veRarafris mWvreti. TviTon/ nisli velze zantad gadis./ eSiniaT Rrublebs
cidan/ ucnauri Camovardnis./ winaT TeTrze rboda Savi./ axla ukve
TeTris ronins/ vxedav Savze, gaiSala/ usagnobis mTqmeli foni./ waiSalnen
midamoni./ gaqrnen kvamlni, sakvamurni./ gaTanabrda yvela done./ alalbedad
gakvalulma/ gzam, romelic marTmevs Rones,/ veRarasgziT moarida/ Tavi
nisls da gaqra isev./ yvelaferi momxdaridan/ erTi raRac rCeba _
nisli./ magram mainc, magram visi/ anda risi bolo aris/ is? ra cxadis
dasawyisi?/ vin wers am, vTqvaT, memuarebs?/ neba risi asaxvisa/ aRarafrad
agdebs fiqrs da/ aigivebs sivrces amgvar/ landTan, jvars ki, RmerTo, _
iqsTan?/ uceb `me Tu meZeb, aq var~/ mesmis xvalis. Mmesmis, magram/ is ar
unda yofiliyo/ aq. vWvret masSi Wmunvis sagans:/ gacrecili profiliRa/
damrCenia saxisagan./ nisls SignT var. Cem SigniT ki/ nislis msgavsi
aris raRac./ sinamdvilev, Semirigdi,/ minaxule zogjer aqac./ Sens kedelze
fermkrTal laqas/ warmovadgen xvalis Suqze./ nu ifiqreb, rom dro
gamyavs./ nu ifiqreb, radgan ukve/ xval arafers namdvils ar hgavs/ dRe,
romelSic vsunTqav jerac./ imdenad xar sinamdvile,/ ramdenadac Cemi
gjera./ naxav: nislSi vinadireb/ kurdRlis msgavsad mxtom da mcire/
gasasvlelze gareT _ SenSi./ magram vici, avacileb/ yvela tyvias da Sen
SegSlis/ Cemi srola sasacilo,/ Cemi xvalis sveli cecxli./ ...xvaleSi
var. is ki TiTqos/ ver gebulobs, rad viqeci,/ moxvedrili masSi. midgas,/
fiqrobs suli da aRmiTqvams/ Tavissave bolos keTils./ meaTased misvams
kiTxvas, Tu ra garsi gavikeTe./ miRimis da pasuxs iTxovs.../ gzebi, gzebi,
gamirbian./ erTaderTis gayolebiT/ oriv mxares xramebia./ nela_nela,
daRonebiT,/ SeferxebiT, dayovnebiT,/ uxalisxod, ara nebiT/ msresen nislis
vagonebi.../ vmadlob xvales, Tu iqneba/ da cocxali vegonebi.~

am striqonebSi mTavri personaJi nislia, avtori ki nislsSerTuli


xmaa, romlis nebeloba gadafaruli da dakargulia... yvelaferi
waSlilia, gaTanabrebuli... areulia droc... avtori `xvale~-dan
moTqvams, iq aris... Tumca is xvalec arafers namdvils ar hgavs...
daxatulia qaosi, daaxloebiT `Canasaxis~ mdgomareoba, romlidanac
wuTi wuTze unda moxdes dabadeba... dabadeba axal garsSi, axal
cnobierebaSi... ra daibadeba am qaosidan? axali nisli da
gaurkvevloba, Tu sicxade da sinamdvile.... es jer ar Cans, Tumca
garkveuli miniSnebebi ismis `Canasaxis~ xmaSi: `fiqrobs suli da
aRmiTqvams Tavissave bolos keTils~.
warmodgenili kvlevidan SegviZlia qarTul poetur diskusiaSi
nislis erT-erTi semiotikuri modeli gamoviyvanoT siuJetis saxiT:

cira barbaqaZe

32

moqmedebis adgili: nisli


moqmedebis dro: gaurkvevelia
moqmedebis mizani: swrafva srulyofilebisken, uflisken
moqmedi piri: mogzauri
mTavari gza: siyvarulisa da harmoniis
nislis gza: ugzooba
sxva personaJebi: SiSi, martooba, nislis urCxulebi, nislis
`lurja cxenebi~... sulebi...
metafora mniSvnelovani movlenaa samyaros Semecnebis procesSi.
Aaxali codnis paradigmis konteqstSi metafora ganixileba, rogorc
adamianis umniSvnelovanesi saazrovno meqanizmi, romelic gansazRvravs
adamianis mimarTebas sinamdvilesTan. swored am mxriv aris saintereso
CvenTvis bunebis movlenaTa konceptebis metaforuli gaazrebis
reprezentaciuli variantebi enobrivi cnobierebis struqturebSi
da am SemTxvevaSi qarTuli poeturi diskursis masalebis mixedviT.
bunebis movlenebis konceptebidan nisli erT_erTi yvelaze ufro
aqtualizebuli semantemaa, romelic poetur diskursSi gamoirCeva
metaforizaciis maRali xarisxiT. qarTul poeziaSi nisli qmnis
saintereso poetikas, rac gamoixateba ara mxolod metaforul da
simbolur semantikaSi, aramed emociuri mniSvenlobebis mravalferovnebaSic. Nnisli erTsa da imave dros aris rogorc dadebiTi,
aseve uaryofiTi emociebis aRmniSvneli, Tumca sakvlev masalaSi
procentulad dadebiTi emociebis siWarbe aRiniSna. Nnisli poetebis
`msoflio sevdis~ simbolocaa, romliTac poetebi `avad arian~ da
romlidanac maT ar undaT gamosvla... nisliT gamowveuli gaurkvevloba
asocirebulia idumalebasTan, idumaleba ki RvTaebrivis niSania.
Lliteratura
barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika,
Tbilisi.
eko 2004: , , _.
iakobsoni 11975:
975: . , , .
blavatskaia 11998:
998: . , , . 1, .
meCkovskaia 11998:
998: . . , , .
gr
eimasi...2007: . . , . , ,
greimasi...2007:
.
losevi 2008: . . , , , -.
postmodernizmi 2002: : ,
.

33

qeTevan bezaraSvili

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universitetis
humanitarul mecnierebaTa
da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori. xelnawerTa
erovnuli centris ufrosi
mecnieri TanamSromeli.
grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTaASemswavleli saerTaSoriso proeqtis wevri
( www. nazianzos.fltr.ucl.ac.
be).
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
grigol RvTismetyvelis
poeziis qarTuli versia,
1990. miqael fselosis
ritorikuli traqtatebis
Targmanebi, 1996. ritorikisa
da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTaYqarTuli
Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi, mecniereba, 2004. (TanaavtorebTan) S. Gregorii
Nazianzeni opera. Versio Iberica, I-V, in Corpus Christianorum, Turnhout, Leuven, Brepols publishers, 1998-2007.
interesTa sfero:
kodikologia, wyaroTmcodneoba, bizantiuri da qarTuli literatura, qarTuli
samonastro da kulturis
kerebis mwignobruli urTierTobebi qristianul aRmosavleTSi (aToni, antioqia,
gelaTi), himnografiis problemebi, antikuri da Sua saukuneebis ritorikis Teoria,
Targmanis Teoria.

mSvenierebis cneba
bizantiur, Zvel qarTul
esTetikaSi da
rusTavelTan
mSvenierebis cnebis ori aspeqti
bizantiur esTetikaSi
mSvenierebis cnebis gageba iseTive orgvari
aspeqtis matarebelia ritorikis bizantiur
TeoriebSi (grigol RvTismetyvelis homiliebSi, maTze darTul basili minimusis ritorikul komentarebSi, miqael fselosis
traqtatebSi grigol RvTismetyvelisa da
wm. mamaTa stilze), rogorc stilTa Tu
baZvis cnebebi. es aris mSvenierebis, mokazmulobis, sitkboebis (kavllo~, cavri~,
kovsmo~, gluku~, hJdu~ etc.) cnebis klasikuri
da qristianuli gageba, anu formobrivi da
Sinaarsobrivi, igive esTetikuri da transcendenturi. tradiciuli gageba gulisxmobda
saamurobis, esTetikuri tkbobis da kargi
literaturuli formis cnebebs, rac gavrcelebuli iyo ritorikis klasikur TeoriebSi.
mSvenierebis cnebis antikuri gageba (aristotele, demetriosi, dionise halikarnaseli,
hermogene da sxv.),1 romelic bizantiurma
esTetikamac imemkvidra, gulisxmobda garegnuli gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis, ritorikuli samkaulebis, ritmulobis Semqmneli elementebisa da sxvaTa silamazes (Gr.
Naz. Or. 26, c. 10. PG 35, 1241B. Or. 8, c. 3. PG
1

J. Martin, Antike Rhetorik. Technik und Methode


(Handbuch der Altertums wissenschaft II, 3), Mnich,
1974, S. 338-9, 342-5; 169-70, 259.

34

qeTevan bezaraSvili

35, 792 D5. Psellos, Characteres, c. 2. PG 122, 904D-905A; Mayer (ed.),


Psellos, Ad Pothum, cc. 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 20).2
mSvenierebis cnebis Sinaarsobrivi gageba ki gulisxmobs saRvTo
azris mSvenierebas da amaRlebulobas. imave klasikur TeoriebSi
arsebuli Sinaarsobrivi, amaRlebuli azris mSveniereba qristianul
esTetikaSi Secvala saxeldobr saRvTo azris mSvenierebis kultma,
ase rom, mSvenierebis cnebam ontologiur, gnoseologiur, eTikur
sferoSi gadainacvla, rasac win uZRoda metafizikuri silamazis
platonuri da neoplatonuri gaazreba (Plat. Sympos. 210E-211D.
Plotin. Ennead. I,6,1-2. Sdr. Dion.Areop. De divinis nominibus, IV,7. De
coelesti hierarchia, 3 etc.). mSvenierebis metafizikuri koncefcia
Teologiuri da Tavad RmerTis atributi gaxda qristianul
tradiciaSi, rasac RvTis mier Seqmnili samyaros mSvenierebac daemata.3
bizantieli avtorebis mixedviT, garegnuli, esTetikuri mSveniereba
faseulia mxolod saRvTosTan, transcendenturTan damokidebulebaSi.
mSvenier Sinaarss mSvenieri forma unda Seesabamebodes. wm. grigolis
mixedviT, iseve rogorc sxva wm. mamebis mixedviT, mSvenierebis cneba
qristianTaTvis sityvebSi ki ar aris, aramed WvretaSia, saRvTo
ideaSia (to; kavllo~ hJmin ejn qewriva/ - Gr. Naz. Carmen II, 1, n. 39, v. 51.
PG 37, col. 1333). mSvenierebis cneba romelic elinisturi ritorikis
Teoriebisagan aris namemkvidrevi, aq warmodgenilia Tavisi axali,
qristianuli gagebiT. klasikur TeoriebSi mas hqonda garegnuli
ritorikuli formis mSvenierebis mniSvneloba. aq ki mas aqvs
transcendenturi mSvenierebis mniSvneloba.4
2

Mayer (ed.), Psellos, Ad Pothum = A. Mayer, Psellos Rede ber den rhetorischen Character
des Gregorios von Nazianz, in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 20, 1911, S. 48-60. Migne (ed.),
Psellos, Characteres = Michael Psellos, Characteres Gregorii Theologi, Basilii Magni, S.
Joannis Chrisostomi et Gregorii Nysseni. PG 122, col. 901-908.
3
ix. V.V. Bjqkov, *stetika pozdney antiqnosti, M., 1981, s. 231-232. evropul
esTetikaSi ki (renesansis periodis Semdgom) gavrcelda silamazis oden esTetikuri
_ piTagorelebTan SemuSavebuli, nawilTa proporciis princi pze damyarebuli,
mSvenierebis viwro cneba, romelsac agreTve didi ewoda (W. Tatarkiewicz, The
Great Theory of Beauty and its Decline, in: The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,
Winter, 1972, p. 165-180).
4
grigol RvTismetyveli iyo erT erTi pirveli wminda mama, romelmac poeturad
gaiazra es Teoriuli cnebebi Tavis leqsSi, e.w. Ars Poetica-Si, xolo Teoriulad
mogvianebiT ganixila ZiriTadad miqael fselosma. ix. K. Bezarashvili, The
Interrelation between the Classical Literary Form and Christian Contents Interpreted by
Gregory the Theologian in his Poem On his Own Verses, in: Motivi e forme della poesia
Christiana Antica tra Scrittura e tradizione Classica, XXXVI Incontro di studiosi dell
anticit cristiana, Roma, 3-5 maggio, 2007 (Studi Ephemeridis Augustinianum, 108),
Institutum Patristicum Augustinianum (Roma, 2008), 281-292.

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

35

miqael fselosma Teoriulad gaaforma stilis klasikuri da


qristianuli kanonis axali kavSiri: mimesisiT/baZviT miRweuli
TviTmyofadi ritorikuli xelovanebis (tevcnh) silamazisa da saRvTo
sityvis mSvenierebis RvTiuri sawyisis Serwyma wm. grigolis
TxzulebebSi. grigol RvTismetyvelma SeuTavsebeli SeaTavsa, roca
sada, moukazmveli mSveniereba daukavSira maRalfardovan stils
(Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 20). grigolis am meTodis gaazrebis Sedegad
miqael fselosma SemoiRo saRvTismetyvelo mSvenierebis axali cneba
(to; qeologiko;n kai; hJmevteron kavllo~ - saRvTismetyvelo da Cveni
mSveniereba, anu saeklesio mSveniereba. Mayer ed., c. 12, 214; Sdr. to;
tou oujranou kavllo~ - zeciuri mSveniereba. cavrisin ajporjrJhvtoi~ dafaruli mSvenierebiT. c. 2, 6, 19, 19; Sdr. to; mustiko;n kavllo~ mistikuri mSveniereba. Gr. Naz. Or. 2, c. 48. PG 35, 457 A2-3. qeiva
cavri~, a[nwqen cavri~ - saRvTo, zeciuri mSveniereba. Photius, PG 101,
945C, 697D; PG 102, 861D, 657D), rogorc zeciuri mSvenierebis
gamoxatuleba, gansxvavebuli mSvenierebis cnebis grZnobadi
(esTetikuri) gagebisagan. 5

mSvenierebis cnebis ori aspeqti efrem mciresTan:


qristianuli da klasikuri
efrem mcirem da qarTvelma elinofilebmac kargad icodnen
TavianTi kolofonebis mixedviT ritorikuli samkaulebisa da
mSvenierebis cnebebi. efremi grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa
miseuli krebulis kolofonSi (cod. Tbilis. Iber. A 292, a. 1800, f. 279v)6
16 liturgikuli sityvis efTvime aToneliseul Targmans uwodebs
Sueniers da ganasxvavebs imave homiliebis sakuTari Targmanis
berZnulTan Sedarebulobisagan, anu elinofilurobisagan (romelniese ara qarTulisa SuenebiTa, aramed berZulisa SedarebiTa gvaqmnevies,
rameTu qarTulad Suenieri TT ars). Cans, efremi termin Sueniers
aq xmarobs Targmanis xelovnebis Sesafaseblad.
fsalmunTa ganmartebebis miseul winasityvaSi efremi saubrobs,
erTi mxriv, fsalmunTa wignis (kerZod, misi giorgi aToneliseuli
Targmanis) nayofTa Suenierebaze,7 anu saRvTo Sinaarsis mSvenierebaze. amave sulieri SinaarsiT saubrobs igi fsalmunis ganmartebebis
q. bezaraSvili, mSvenierebis cnebis gagebisaTvis bizantiur esTetikaSi da efrem
mciresTan. sjani, yovelwliuri literaturul-Teoriuli samecniero krebuli,
III, Tb., 2002, gv. 74-90; IV, 2003, gv. 58-78.
6
T. bregaZe, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa Semcvel qarTul xelnawerTa
aRweriloba, Tb., 1988, gv. 174.
7
efremiseuli Suenieris cneba kavllo~ - cavri~ cnebaTa fardi unda iyos.
5

36

qeTevan bezaraSvili

mier gonebis Taflebr damatkbobelobaze. igi iqve saubrobs isev


ganmartebebze, rogorc fsalmunTa RmrTiv-aRZruli sityvebis
damamSvenebel samkaulze (eseviTari samkauli Suenoda guamsa RmrTivaRZrulTa amaT sityuaTa misTasa, raTa Seimosos Zoweuli bisonsa
Tana da porfiri mewamulsa Tana).8
meore mxriv, efremi saubrobs fsalmunTa ritmuli formis
sitkboebaze (da amas yovelsa Tana saxarulevan da tkbil eqmnebis
yovelTa muledad iambikod SemoklebiTa sitysaTa. rameTu
umravlesTa fsalmunTa ricxuedoba da marculedoba cxad ars
safsalmuneTa Sina ebraelTasa, daRacaTu sxuaTa enaTa Sina ver
daucavs TargmanTa ricx marculisa9). cxadia, rom efremi icnobs
mSvenierebis cnebis formobriv aspeqtsac ritorikis klasikuri
Teoriebis mixedviT, iseve rogorc kargad icnobs ebraul, berZnul
da qarTul leqsTwyobas.
ioane damaskelis dialeqtikis miseuli Targmanis SesavalSi
efremi saubrobs ioane damaskelis saRvTo sityvis, anu mis mier
gadmocemuli dogmaturi swavlebis nayofTa Suenierebaze da
sitkboebaze (cod. Tbilis. Iber. A 24, s. XII, f. 1v. Sdr. kavvllo~, cavri~,
glukuvth~), e.i. Sinaarsis mSvenierebaze. aqve saubrobs igi sityvis,
anu formis mSvenierebaze. stilTa doneebze msjelobisas efremi
erTmaneTs upirispirebs mdabiur stils, romelsac sofluriTa da
uSueriTa sityTa aRwerils uwodebs da maRalfardovan stils,
gardakazmuls (igive ritorikul stils, metafrasuls), romelsac
sityT ganSuenebuls uwodebs (cod. A 24, f. 3v);10
imave sakiTxze saubrobs efremi svimeon loRoTetisadmi miZRvnil
mosaxsenebelSi (cod. Tbilis. Iber. A 90, s. XIII; cod. Kutais. Iber. K 4, s.
XVI).11 aq metafrastikis erT-erT niSnad, garda arasrulyofili da
zogjer mwvalebelTagan Seryvnili Sinaarsis gamarTvisa (gadasxvaferebisa, klebisa Tu matebisa), dasaxulia Zveli litoni da martivi
teqstis ganSueneba ritorikuli maRalfardovnebiT, e.i. formis
srulyofa. mSvenieris cneba aq formas exeba _ enasa da stils.
svimeoni aq moxseniebulia, rogorc ganmkazmveli wignTa.
m. SaniZe, Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa. Zveli qarTuli enis
kaTedris Sromebi, 11, 1968, gv. 7821-22... 808-9. 8118-21.. sitkboeba unda iyos fardi
glukuv~, hJduv~ cnebebisa.
9
m. SaniZe, Sesavali, gv. 9733-36.
10
ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, qarTuli Targmanebis teqstis m. rafavaseuli
gamocema, Tb., 1976, gv. 67, 68.
11
efrem mcire, mosasenebeli mcire smeonisTs loRoTetisa da Txroba mizezTa
amaT sakiTxavTa TargmanisaTa (K. Kekelidze, Simeon Metafrast po gruzinskim
istoqnikam, etiudebi, V, Tb., 1957, gv. 223-226).
8

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

37

svimeonma kimenuri, anu arqetipuli teqstebi Suenierad Secvalna


uSuerebisagan. uSveris gamSveniereba da kazmva aqac, iseve rogorc
ioane damaskelis winasityvaSi, kavllo~ da kovsmo~, kosmevw cnebebs
unda Seesabamebodes (Sdr. fselosis enkomiaSi kallilogiva - sityvamSveniereba. PG 114, 192 D15). igivea ukve gardakazmulis TxrobaTa
mSveniereba (dihghvsewn cavri~ - PG 114, 196C14)12 da a.S.

terminebis Suenieri-turfa materialur-sulieri


mniSvneloba Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi
vefxistyaosanSi terminebi `Suenieri (rogorc Zveli qarTuli)
da turfa (rogorc SedarebiT axali, SuaqarTuli), iseve paralelurad ixmareba, rogorc xedvis orive forma (Zveli qarTuli
xedva da SedarebiT axali Wvreta) da orives aqvs or-ori
mniSvneloba _ rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri xedvisa da mSvenierebisa. mag., gmirTa fizikuri mSvenierebis Wvreta, Serwymuli
maTi sulieri Rirsebebis WvretasTan, gamoxatulia naTlis simbolikiT,
rac alegoriulad RvTis Wvretasac gulisxmobs:13 man misTa mWvretTa
wauRis guli, goneba da suli (33); qali mzebr uWvrets yovelTa
cnobiTa ze-mxedveliTa (45) da a.S.
istoriansa da azmanSi, romelsac, iseve rogorc vefxistyaosans,
emCneva ioane petriwis terminologiis kvali,14 aseve or-ori
yvela es cneba vrclad aris ganxiluli SromaSi: q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa
da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 530-587.
13
RvTis atributebis gadmotana xotbis obieqtebze _ adamianebze, romlebic
Semkulni arian imave epiTetebiT, riTac himnografebi qristes aqeben, ganxilulia
samecniero literaturaSi qarTuli saero literaturis (mexotbeebisa da
rusTavelis) Sesaxeb, rasac amjerad dawvrilebiT veRar SevexebiT. aRvniSnavT
mxolod, rom amis mizezi isev RvTismetyvelebaSia saZiebeli. mag., grigol
RvTismetyvelis mixedviT, RmerTsa da angelozebs erTnairi saxelebi aqvT, radgan
angelozebi RvTis msgavsi bunebis matarebelni arian (Gr. Naz. Or. 28, c. 31. PG 36, 72
A 12-13). grigol noselis kacisa SesaqmisaTvis mixedviT ki, saRvTosa da
adamianurs aqvT erTi da igive atributebi, magram gansxvavebulia is Tvisebebi,
romelSiac es atributebia warmodgenili: erTi Seuqmnelia, xolo meore _
Seqmnili (PG 44, 184D). es sakiTxi calke moiTxovs kvlevas.
14
xolo Tavad ioane petriws XII-XIII ss. moRvawed da maTze gavlenis mqoned
miiCneven (e. WeliZe, ioane petriwis cxovreba da moRvaweoba, werili II, religia,
1-3, 1995, gv. 79). ioane petriwi iyenebs orsave am termins, mag., xolo mesame
xedva esreT iWuritebis (81, 6) da sxv. es aris xedvis mSveniereba, rogorc
uwodebda mas ioane petriwi: ixilen xedvaTa Suenierebani (ganmarteba proklesTs
diadoxosisa da platonurisa filosofiisaTs, t. II, teqsti gamosces da
gamokvleva daurTes S. nucubiZem da s. yauxCiSvilma, tf., 1937, s.v. Sueniereba
saleqsikono masalebSi _ 154,28; ix. agreTve 62,28; 76,30).
12

38

qeTevan bezaraSvili

mniSvnelobiT ixmareba Wvreta da xedva.15 Tamaris fizikuri da


sulieri mSveniereba, erTmaneTs Serwymuli, aseve erTmaneTs Serwymuli
orgvari xedviT aris sacnauri: da TT Tamar saWuretlad pirTa
miT brwyinvaliTa da naTelTa mfenTa... (ist.-azm. 849); sulier
xedvas, ze-mxedvelobas gulisxmobs Semdegi fraza: yovliTurT Seeyo
maRalsa mas, yovelTa zeda mxedvelsa da SemsWuala Tuali umrumed
mxedveli, raTa mecnier-yos da mxolosa xedvides (ist.-azm. 357)
da a.S.
rac Seexeba sityva turfas mSvenieris mniSvnelobiT, igi jer
kidev Zvel qarTul TargmanebSi gvxvdeba.16 Tumca am TargmanebisaTvis
ufro damaxasiaTebelia terminis to; kavllo~ sityva SuenierebiT
gadmocema.17 mSveniers satrfo saWvretelTan da xedvasTan
erTad sulieri gancdis mniSvnelobiT axsenebs istoriaTa da azmaTa
avtoric: kualad dajda cxebuli RmrTisa Tamar mefe saydarTa
maT camdi aRmarTebulTa SuenebiTa maT afroditianiTa da siuxTa
miT mzeebriTa apolinianiTa, satrfo saWureti dabnedamdis da
gaWramdis yovelTa gamcdel-mxedTa da Sepyrobamdis wyal-javariTa
miT umsgavsoTa saxiTa miT RmrTivqmnuliTa (ist.-azm. gv. 326).
vefxistyaosanSic sityvebi turfa da Svenieri erTmaneTis
gverdiT aris naxmari orive mniSvnelobiT _ fizikuri da sulieri
mniSvnelobiT, mag., Seswira RmerTsa madloba turfaman danabadaman
(1244); mze moegeba piriTa turfiTa mocinariTa (1423); tariel
uTxra: Seni mze saWvretlad saturfalia (1554); aw vinme moyme
movida SvenieriTa piriTa (1283); uebrosa zned da Tvalad, Sveniersa
pirsa, tansa (1186); rome vefxi Suenieri saxed misad damisaxavs
(657); mSvenieri da turfa SeiZleba iyos metyveleba, warmoqmuli
sityva, oratoruli xelovneba: tariel madlsa gardixdis turfa
sityviTa, eniTa (1441); Seaqcevs da eubnebis saubarTa SvenierTa
(893); sityva ucxoc saucxoos, mSvenieris mniSvnelobiT ixmareba
turfasTan, SvenierTan: merme agvavsen mravliTa ucxoTa turfa
ZRveniTa (1441); asea Cven mier qvemoT gansaxilvel strofSic:
istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani. _ qarTlis cxovreba, i. anTelavas, n.
SoSiaSvilis gamocema, Tb., 1996, gv. 329.
16
i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1973, s.v. turfa.
17
ix. grigol RvTismetyvelis 16 liturgikuli sityvis qarTuli Targmanebis
saleqsikono masalebi (Or. 14, 23, 104; Or. 42, 24, 88; Or. 45, 2, 7 ; Or. 12, 8, 38; Or. 43, 43,
186; Or. 43, 61, 250 da sxv.); Sdr. ioane petriwis Sromebze darTuli saleqsikono
masalebi: ioane petriwis Sromebi, t. I: prokle diadoxosisa platonurisa
filosofiisa kavSirni. qarTuli teqsti gamosca da gamokvleva da leqsikoni
daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1940 (42, 1; 20, 16).
15

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

39

TvalTa turfa saWvreteli ucxod radme eSvenebis (793). aq


mTeli krebulia esTetikuri terminebisa turfa, Sveneba, ucxo
da isini dakavSirebulia saWvretelTan, sulier xilvasTan, mzerasTan.
aseTi sityvaTSeTanxmeba vefxistyaosanSi kidev gvxvdeba. asmaTi
da monebi eubnebian tariels: Tqven giWvretdeT saWvretelsa Sveniersa,
saturfalsa (652); avTandil mWvretTa aSvenebs turfiTa aerferiTa (1009) da a.S.
yovelive zemoTqmulis Semdeg, vfiqrob, cxadi unda iyos, rom
rusTavelis poemis frazebSi mSvenierebis cneba, garda fizikurisa,
dakavSirebulia saRvTo siyvarulisa da saRvTo xedvis cnebebTan.
rusTavels igi patristikuli RvTismetyvelebisa da bizantiuri
esTetikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli pirvelmSvenierebis, saRvTo mSvenierebis mniSvnelobiT unda hqondes warmodgenili. ganvixiloT
qvemoT ramdenime maTgani.

mSvenierebis cneba (Wvretisa da siyvarulis cnebebTan


erTad) rusTavelis poemis prologsa da avTandilis anderZSi
mSvenierebis patristikaSi arsebuli ontologiuri gageba, RmerTi,
rogorc mSveniereba, SemCneuli iyo samecniero literaturaSi
rusTavelTanac (ukeTesi keTiloba-saxierebis gamo da uzado,
unaklulo, TviTsruli, martivi, rogorc marad arsi _ am saqmesa
dafarulsa brZeni divnos gaacxadebs: / RmerTi kargsa moavlinebs
da borotsa ar dabadebs, / ... Tavsa missa ukeTessa uzado hyofs,
ar azadebs - 1492). SeniSnuli iyo agreTve rusTavelis sazeo
siyvarulis ontologiuri xasiaTi (tomi gvarTa zenaTa, Sen dahbade
mijnuroba da misT.) da misi kavSiri patristikul erosTan da
agapesTan, gansakuTrebiT dionise areopagelis erosTan.18
miTiTebuli iyo agreTve mociqulTa wignebi, rogorc wyaroebi
siyvarulTan dakavSirebuli aforizmebisaTvis rusTavelTan.19 magram
CvenTvis amjerad sainteresoa ara cal-calke aRebuli es cnebebi,
aramed saRvTo siyvarulis da sulieri Wvretis, rogorc mSvenierebis,
erTmaneTTan mimarTebis arseboba vefxistyaosanSi. am TvalsazrisiT
sayuradReboa avTandilis anderZis erTi adgili da misi kavSiri am
v. nozaZe, vefxistyaosnis RmrTismetyveleba, parizi, 1963, gv. 150, 182. citatebi
miTiTebulia vefxistyaosnis 1957 w. gamocemis mixedviT (a. baramiZe, k. kekeliZe,
a. SaniZe).
19
k. ekaSvili, vefxistyaosnis avtoris msoflmxedvelobisaTvis. SoTa rusTavelisadmi
miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 1966, gv. 227-275.
18

40

qeTevan bezaraSvili

sakiTxis patristikul gagebasTan. magram vidre uSualod amis


ganxilvaze gadavidodeT, mokled mimovixilavT mSvenierebis cnebas
da mis kavSirs siyvarulis, xedvis, igive Teoriis da sxv. cnebebis
xasiaTTan rusTavelis prologis mixedviT.
yvela es sakiTxi rusTavels prologSive aqvs ganxiluli.
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom saRvTo siyvaruli rusTavelTan iwodeba
pirvel mijnurobad. gamokvleulia, rom igi Tavisi arsiT
qristianulia da emyareba saRvTo werilsa da qristianul
RvTismetyvelebas. pirveli niSnavs umTavress, umaRless, uzenaess
(vTqva mijnuroba pirveli da tomi gvarTa zenaTa, saqme sazeo),
rac ganasxvavebs mas amqveyniuri mijnurobisagan20 (amave dros igi
upirvelesia saTnoebaTa Soris. I kor. 13, 13) da maTi mizezia. Sdr.
hJ ajgavph ... tw`n ajgaqw`n to; prw`ton - Max. Conf. Ad Joannem cubicularium.
PG 91, 401 C 7. Sdr. Thal. 40. Amb. 21. PG 91, 1249 B). aqve moixseniebs
rusTaveli mis sapirispiro amqveyniur mijnurobas (xelobani qvenani,
romelni xorcTa hxvdebian, qve uc buneba). mijnuroba pirveli
iseTive cnebaa, rogorc sibrZne pirveli _ sofiva prw`th (igive
saRvTo sibrZne _Sdr. I kor. 2, 6) patristikaSi, romelic gansxvavdeba
amsofliuri, saero sibrZnisagan (sibrZne pirveli ars sibrZnisa
[kacobrivisa] Seuracxyofa, romeli-igi sityuaTagan cudTa
Seiwmasnebis _ Greg. Naz. Or. 16,1 .PG 35, 936 C 4. efTvime aTonelis
Targmani. Cod. Tbilis. Iber. A 1, f. 299r). aseTivea prw`to~ lovgo~ (Greg.
Naz. Or. 36, c. 12. PG 36, 279 A 1-4) - pirveli, anu umaRlesi moZRvreba
da a.S. amave princi piT aqvs rusTavels saxeldebuli poezia pirvelad, anu saRvTos erT dargad (Sairoba pirveladve sibrZnisaa
erTi dargi, saRvTo saRvTod gasagoni, ... kvla aqaca eamebis). marTalia
aq termini pirveladve, zogierTi mkvlevris azriT, warmoSobis
uZveles dros niSnavs da ara poeziis umaRlesobis pirvelobas,
magram sibrZnesTan dakavSirebis gamo, romelic aqaurobas upirispirdeba da amasTanave saRvTod, umaRles RvTismetyvelebad aris
saxeldebuli, xolo mis erT dargad poezia iwodeba, Sesabamisad
unda vifiqroT, rom poeziis saRvTo daniSnulebis maCvenebelia.
amis gamo amgvar poeziasac SeiZleba Sairoba pirveli ewodos,
romelsac Semdgom meore da mesame, anu sul sxva mniSvnelobis
poezia upirispirdeba (rac calke vrceli kvlevis sakiTxia).
ramdenadac rusTavels mijnuroba pirveli da Sairoba pirveli patristikaSi gavrcelebuli meTodiT aqvs saxeldebuli, amdenad
z. gamsaxurdia, vefxistyaosani inglisur enaze, Tb., 1984, gv. 117, 94. r. TvaraZe,
areopageli da rusTaveli. TxuTmetsaukunovani mTlianoba. Tb., 1985, gv. 279-281.
20

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

41

misTvis ucxo ar unda iyos pirveli, gamorCeuli, erTaderTi, zenaari,


arqeti puli mSvenierebis cnebac, radgan patristikaSi arsebobs es
cneba. mag., kavllo~ a[riston prw`ton _ pirveli gamorCeuli mSveniereba
(Clem. Alex. Paed. 3, 11); prw`ton kai; movnon kavllo~ - pirveli da
erTaderTi21 mSveniereba (Hom. Clem. 17,70); to; uJperouvsion kavlon zenaari mSveniereba (Dion. Ar. A. n. 4, 70); to; ajrcevtupon kavllo~ pirmSo Sueniereba (efTv. aTon.). saxisdasabami (efr. mc.) (Greg.
Naz. Or. 38, 13, 59); blevpei de; pro;~ to; ajrcevtupon kavllon - umzers
arqeti pul mSvenierebas (Greg. Nyss. hom. 5 in Cant.).22 pirveli
mSvenierebis Sesabamisi fraza, sadac sityva pirveli aRniSnuli
iqneboda, rusTavelTan ar Cans, magram igulisxmeba.23 amas mowmobs
Tundac is, rom rusTaveli mSveniers (turfas) uwodebs saRvTo
mijnurobas (mijnuroba aris turfa, sacodnelad Zneli gvari.
Sdr. klimenti aleqsandrielis gamoTqmasTan siyvaruli mSvenieriao
(ej s ti kav l lo~ aj n qrwv p wn aj g av p h. Clem. Alex. Paed. 3,1).24 aqve
prologSive rusTaveli, iseve rogorc mijnurobisa da Sairobis
SemTxvevaSi, miuTiTebs saRvTo siturfis sapirispiro miwier
siturfeze -mijnursa Tvalad siturfe.
Sairoba pirveli da mijnuroba pirveli rom saRvTo xedviT
gasagoni da Sesamecnebelia (kvla mijnursa mijnuroba uyvardes
da gamoscnobdes, sacodnelad Zneli gvari), aRniSnuli iyo
samecniero literaturaSi25 (aseve ganmartavda mas vaxtang VI-c26).
rusTaveli rom icnobs sulier xedvas, amas cxadyofs Semdegi taepebi:
qali mzebr uWvrets yovelTa cnobiTa ze-mxedveliTa (45); anu
aris brZeni vinme maRali da maRlad mxedi (1184) da misT.
brZenis saqme xdeba saRvTo siyvarulis, saRvTo mSvenierebis
Wvreta da Semecneba. brZeni rusTavelTan ewodeba saRvTo sibrZnis
21
Sdr. mas erTsa mijnurobasa... Sdr. movno~ = ei|~ = prwto~ (erTaderTi = erTi
= pirveli). s.v. movno~ = ei\~. I.X. Dvoreckiy, Drevnegreqesko-russkiy slovar>,
t. I-II> Moskva, 1958.
22
G.W. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexikon, Oxford, 1968, s.v. to; kavllo~.
23
gansazRvreba pirveli am mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba vixmaroT yvela saRvTo
cnebis mimarT, raTa ganvasxvavoT igi saerosagan.
24
G.W. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexikon, s.v. ajgavph.
25
z. gamsaxurdia, vefxistyaosani inglisur enaze, gv. 94, 98. termini gamgoneoba
Semmecneblobas, goniseul mWvretelobas (noevw) niSnavs ioane petriwTan, romlis
terminologiis gavlena rusTavelze, rogorc vTqviT, dasmulia samecniero
literaturaSi (e. WeliZe, ioane petriwis cxovreba da moRvaweoba, I , religia,
3-4-5, 1994, gv. 115-116; werili II, religia, 1-2-3, 1995, gv. 79).
26
saRmrTo sibrZnisa da soflis saqmis Tu usjuloTa sjulis dapirispirebis
Sesaxeb ix. SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani, vaxtangiseuli gamocema, 1712 w., Tb.,
1975, gv. sJz.

42

qeTevan bezaraSvili

matarebels (iseve rogorc sibrZne ewodeba masTan saRvTo sibrZnes


_sibrZnisaa erTi dargi da sxv.). igi ewodeba mociqulebs (brZenTa
uTqvams siyvaruli, bolod misi ar-waxdoma _ 1544. Sdr. I kor. 13,
8), wminda mamebs (am saqmesa dafarulsa brZeni divnos gaacxadebs
- 1492) da misT. brZnoba da saRvTos baZva magaliTadaa dasaxuli
poemaSi. avTandili tariels gamudmebiT axsenebs brZenTa Segonebebs.
prologSive saRvTo siyvarulis baZva (marT masve hbaZven),
igulisxmeba, rom pavle mociqulis analogiiT aris dasaxelebuli
(SeudegiT siyuarulsa da hbaZevdiT suliersa mas _Sdr. I kor.
14, 11; 4, 16; 11, 1; galat. 4, 18). mijnuris erT-erT niSnadac sibrZnea
dasaxuli siturfesTan erTad (mijnursa Tvalad siturfe hmarTebs
marT viTa mzeoba, sibrZne, siuxve, simdable ...). saRvTos baZva alegoriis
safuZveli xdeba Sua saukuneebis poemaSi.
amgvarad, Wvreta, xedva, Teoria qristianuli RvTismetyvelebisa
da esTetikis mixedviT dakavSirebulia saRvTo sibrZnesTan, saRvTo
siyvarulTan, saRvTo sikeTesa da mSvenierebasTan da mis baZvasTan,
misiT tkbobasTan. axla vnaxoT, Tu rogoraa mSveniereba gaazrebuli
avTandilis anderZSi. gavixsenoT misi erTi strofi, romelic
tarielis daxmarebis miznis gamo aris rostevanisadmi naTqvami:
`raca RmerTsa ara swaddes, ara saqme ar iqmnebis.
mzisa SuqTa ver mWvreteli ia xmebis, vardi Wnebis;
TvalTa turfa saWvreteli ucxod radme eSvenebis;
me viT gavZlo umisoba, an sicocxle viT meTnebis.
ar daviwyeba moyvrisa da misT. rom saRvTo siyvaruls
ukavSirdeba da anderZSic mociqulTa sityvebTan erTad aris
moxmobili, gasagebia qristianuli msoflmxedvelobiT, magram ra
aris mzisa SuqTa Wvreta an TvalisaTvis iSviaT mSvenierebad
dasaxuli turfa saWvreteli? oden metaforis doneze igi niSnavs
Semdegs: rogorc mzea macocxlebeli mSvenieri ia-vardisaTvis,
sicocxlis sixarulisa da sisrulisaTvis, aseve sulieri naTelia
macxovnebeli adamianisaTvis, romelic mas sikeTis qmniT da siyvaruliT
moefineba. avTandilic cdilobs siyvaruliT gamoacocxlos tarielis
umzeod damWknari suli. anda kidev, vaxtang VI-is ganmartebis mixedviT,
mzis Suqad tariels xdis, iad Tavis Tavs ambobs, umisod gaZlebis
SeuZleblobas ambobs.27 dafaruli saRvTo Sinaarsis mixedviT ki
igi imas unda niSnavdes, rom mxolod saRvTo siyvaruli da naTeli
akeTilSobilebs amqveyniur Tundac srulyofil da unaklo sagnebs
da movlenebs da aniWebs maT WeSmarit sicocxles da ukvdavebas
(mzisa SuqTa ver mWvreteli ia Wknebis, vardi xmebis). siwmindis,
cocxali gancdis gareSe, aramiwieri zeciuri idealis gareSe ver
27

vefxistyaosnis vaxtangiseuli gamocema, gv. tl.

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

43

iqneba mSvenieri adamianis cxovreba. umisod irgvliv mxolod


sicariele, sicive, usicocxloba da mowyenilobaa. bibliuri egzegetika
rom movixmoT da wm. mamebs mivmarToT, es aris suli wmidis madli.
swored es siyvaruli da suliwmidis madli aklda xuT qalwuls,
romelTac sasufevlis kari daexSoT, Tumca maT qalwuleba unaklod
hqondaT damarxuli, anu yovelgvari amqveyniuri saTnoeba aRsrulebuli
hqondaT (mT. 25, 1).
mxolod saRvTosTan wilnayari amqveyniuri siyvarulia ukvdavi,
cxoveli, srulyofili da mSvenieri. amitom aris igi SemecnebisaTvis
iSviaT da uxrwnel mSvenierebad dasaxuli turfa saWvreteli.
aRar gavagrZelebT imaze saubars, rom avTandilis anderZSi pavle
mociqulismieri siyvarulisa da sxva saRvTo cnebebis gamoyeneba
aSkaraa da Seswavlili.
rogorc zemoT vTqviT, Wvretis, xedva-Teoriis cnebam
filosofiidan qristianul msoflmxedvelobaSi, saRvTo SemecnebaSi
gadainacvla. sulieri xedviT Sesamecnebeli gaxda saRvTo sibrZne,
naTeli, siyvaruli da mSveniereba. zemoT vnaxeT, rom mSvenierebad
iwoda siyvarulic da saRvTo Semecnebac cal-calke (klimenti
aleqsandrielisa da grigol RvTismetyvelis mixedviT). magram sayuradReboa, Tu ra patristikuli safuZveli aqvs avTandilis anderZSi
mociqulTa siyvarulis koncefciis kavSirs turfa saWvretelTan?
mivmarToT, mag., maqsime aRmsarebels. netari goneba, _ ambobs igi,
_ ukan moitovebs ra yovelive [nivTiers], dausruleblad tkbeba
saRvTo mSvenierebis [xilviT] (Max. Conf. charit. I, 19. PG 90, 964 D
7). siyvaruli (hJ ajgavph. i. 10, 9) is karia, romliTac Semavali
wmida-wmidaTaSi Sedis da Rirsi xdeba iyos samefo da wmida
samebis miuRweveli mSvenierebis (kai; tou` ajprosivtou kavllou~ th`~
aJgiva~ kail basilikh`~ Triavdo~) mWvreteli (PG 91, 404 A 1-10).
grigol noselis mixedviT, es mgznebare mistikuri siyvaruli,
romelic uvnebo vnebaa, anu ganwmendili, ganRmrTobili siyvarulia,
miiCneva swored RvTaebriv mSvenierebad (In cant. cant. hom. I. PG 44,
772 ABC). rac ufro metad mieaxleba suli RmerTs, miT ufro metia
masSi RvTaebrivi mSvenierebis (ta; qei`a carivsmata) pirispir Wvretis
survili. meTodios patarelis mixedviT, sasZlos (eklesiis) survilia
siZis (uflis) zeciuri mSvenierebis dausrulebeli Wvreta (PG
18, Symp. 11, 2). svimeon axali RvTismetyveli himns uZRvnis
ganmaRmrTobel siyvaruls, romelic ar aZlevs saSualebas mis
motrfiales Seiyvaros adamianuri mSvenierebani, romlis nacvlad
igi Wvrets mxolod am RvTaebrivi siyvarulis mSvenierebas.28
28

P. Minin, Glavnje napravleni% drevne-cerkovnoy mistiki, v knige:


Misiqeskoe Bogoslovie, Kiev, 1996, s. 366-367, n. 1, 368, n. 1, 379.

44

qeTevan bezaraSvili

radgan anderZis dasaxelebul strofebSi avTandili uSualod


saRvTo siyvarulTan mimyvanebel moyvasis siyvarulze saubrobs, amdenad
turfa saWvreteli swored es siyvaruli yofila da ara oden
siyvarulis obieqtis tarielis garegnoba.29 fraza me viT gavZlo
umisoba ki, aqedan gamomdinare, Tavad siyvarulis da misi mSvenierebis
ontologiur, gnoseologiur da eTikur xasiaTs miemarTeba da mxolod
amis Semdeg meore planiT igi SeiZleba miemarTebodes tarielsac,
viTarca sayvarel megobars _ moyvaresa moyvarulsa. warmmarTveli
am ori strofis urTierTmimarTebaSi da mociqulTa siyvarulisa
da turfa saWvretelis urTierTmimarTebaSi aris is amaRlebuli
gancda da religiuri Zala, romelTan naziareb adamians, sulierad
ganbrZnobils (kacs brZens) aRar ZaluZs sxvagvarad cxovreba _
moyvasis siyvaruli da amdenad, igive RmerTis siyvaruli (saxarebaTa
mixedviT erTmaneTze damokidebuli), am amaRlebuli siyvarulis
mSvenierebis Wvreta-Semecneba misi sasicocxlo moTxovnileba xdeba.
am simaRlesa da mSvenierebas naziarebi igi aqeTken mouwodebs
rostevansac, raTa man gulgriloba ar gamoiCinos siyvarulis nacvlad,
ar dauSalos avTandils megobris dasaxmareblad Canafiqris
ganxorcieleba da ar aiZulos usicocxlo pirvandel yofaSi dabruneba,
romelic ukve mkvdari da gausaZlisi xdeba.
amgvarad, amaRlebulis da mSvenieris dakavSireba gansacvifrebelTan
mravalTagan rusTavelis kidev erT pasaJSic gamosWvivis: turfa
saWvreteli avTandilis anderZSi moxseniebulia mociqulTa mier
naqebi saRvTo siyvarulisa (wagikiTxavs siyvarulsa mociqulni
ragvar weren... siyvaruli aRgvamaRlebs... Sdr. I kor. 13 da sxv.)
da avTandilis mier moyvasisadmi gamovlenili siyvarulis (ar
daviwyeba moyvrisa da sxv.) konteqstSi: TvalTa turfa saWvreteli
ucxod radme eSvenebis. qristianuli siyvarulis koncefciis (ajgavph
- RvTisa da adamianis siyvarulis erTianobis - mT. 22, 37-39 da
sxv.), saRvTo Semecnebis ori gzis (saqmisa da xedvis - pra`xi~,
qewriva) da mSvenierebis cnebis (kavllo~) ontologiuri, gnoseologiuri da eTikuri gagebis ganxilvis Sedegad (patristikuli
magaliTebis mixedviT) cxadi xdeba, rom rusTavelis gamoTqma turfa
saWvreteli efuZneba wm. mamaTa mosazrebebs. esenia Sexedulebebi
saRvTo xedvis mSvenierebis Sesaxeb, RvTis ontologiuri mSvenierebis
Wvretisa da Semecnebis Sesaxeb, siyvarulis, rogorc zeciuri
29

sxvaTa Soris, es Teologiuri niuansi SesaniSnavad aris gagebuli da gadatanili


S. nucubiZis TargmanSi, vidre sxva TargmanebSi (sadac turfa saWvreteli
gauazreblad mxolod tarielis garegnobas miemarTeba); nucubiZis TargmanSi ki
es terminebi saRvTo mSvenierebis xedvas gamoxatavs: TvalTa turfa saWvreteli
ucxod radme eSvenebis (793) _ krasota netlennjm vidom vozvjwaet
blagorodno (784). Wota Rustaveli, Vit%z> v tigrovoy wkure, per. s
gruzinskogo W. Nucubidze, Tbilisi, 1988, s. 121.

mSvenierebis cneba bizantiur, Zvel qarTul esTetikaSi da rusTavelTan

45

mSvenierebis gamoxatulebis Sesaxeb da RvTis Semecnebisa da ganRmrTobisaken mimyvanebeli Zalis Sesaxeb. amitom aris ganmaRmrTobeli
siyvaruli SemecnebisaTvis iSviaT da uxrwnel mSvenierebad dasaxuli
turfa saWvreteli. rusTavelis turfa saWvretelis, anu mSvenieri
saxedvelis (xedvis mSvenieri obieqtis) kavSiri mociqulTa siyvarulis koncefciasTan, rogorc vnaxeT, SesaZlebelia axleburad aixsnas.
vfiqrobT, cxadia, rusTavelis gamoTqma turfa saWvreteli patristikuli RvTismetyvelebisa da bizantiuri esTetikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli pirvelmSvenierebis, saRvTo mSvenierebis mniSvnelobiTa
da terminologiiT iyos agebuli. turfa saWvreteli saRvTo
siyvarulis is gancdaa, romelic avTandilma Seimecna tarielis
siyvaruliTa da moyvasisadmi TavdadebiT.30
sayuradReboa isic, rom turfa saWvreteli ucxoa da
gansacvifrebeli. sityva ucxoc saucxoos, mSvenieris mniSvnelobiT
ixmareba turfasTan, SvenierTan: merme agvavsen mravliTa ucxoTa
turfa ZRveniTa (1441); asea gansaxilvel strofSic: TvalTa turfa
saWvreteli ucxod radme eSvenebis (793). aq mTeli krebulia esTetikuri
terminebisa turfa, Sveneba, ucxo da isini dakavSirebulia
gnoseologiur termin saWvretelTan, sulier xilvasTan. avTandilis
mier moyvasis siyvaruliT gamowveuli saRvTo siyvarulis mSvenierebis
Wvreta da Semecneba ucxod da gansacvifreblad aris dasaxuli.31
dabolos, vfiqrobT, rom mTlianad gansacvifrebelia da saRvTod
mSvenieri rusTavelis koncefcia RvTismetyvelebis esTetikuri
kategoriebiT, saliteraturo formiT miwodebisa ara mxolod sulierad
CvilTaTvis, aramed inteleqtualTaTvis da brZenTaTvisac; radgan
esTetikur formaSi warmodgenili maRali dafaruli RvTismetyvelebis
amokiTxva udidesi religiuri, inteleqtualuri da esTetikuri
siamovnebis momniWebelia. swored es aris amaRlebulis, gansacvifreblis,
mSvenierisa da sxva cnebebis antikurisagan gansxvavebuli, axali,
qristianuli gageba da maTi axleburi urTierTkavSiri.

daskvna:
bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriam mravali cneba imemkvidra
klasikuri ritorikis Teoriebisagan. misi sityvieri mimarTeba
klasikurTan kargad iyo Seswavlili mecnierebaSi, magram yovelTvis
Wirda bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriis axali maxasiaTeblebis
gamovlena swored im martivi mizeziT, rom man mravali ram SeiTvisa
elinisturi Teoriebisagan da gamoxata yovelive es ritorikis
wyaroebisaTvis ufro vrclad ix. q. bezaraSvili, vefxistyaosnis saRvTo
siyvaruli da turfa saWvreteli. werili I: SoTa rusTavelis saiubileo
krebuli, I, Tb., 2000, gv. 107-131. werili II: rusTvelologia, II, Tb., 2003, gv. 73-89.
31
q. bezaraSvili, amaRlebulisa da gansacvifreblis cneba Zvel literaturulTeoriul azrovnebaSi da rusTavelTan, rusTvelologia, IV, Tb., 2006, gv. 74-90.
30

46

qeTevan bezaraSvili

antikuri Teoriebis tradiciuli terminebiT (iseve rogorc


patristikulma Teologiam axali mniSvneloba mianiWa filosofiis
antikuri Teoriebisagan SeiTvisebul terminologias).
kvleva cxadyofs, rom bizantiuri ritorikis Teoria ara mxolod
klasikuris ubralo mimbaZvelia, aramed SemoqmedebiTad amTvisebeli.
igi Zvelis paralelurad ayalibebs cnobili cnebebis axal aspeqtebs.
aseTia mag., baZvis cnebis ori aspeqti (klasikuris paralelurad
qristianuli), stilTa aspeqtebi (saeklesio stilis axali cnebiT),
mSvenierebis cnebis aspeqtebi da sxv.
miqael fselosma aseve Teoriulad gaaforma saRvTo mSvenierebis
axali cneba. es azric dasturdeba patristikaSi da gulisxmobs
transcendentur mSvenierebas. mSvenierebis cnebis es axali aspeqti
gansxvavdeba am cnebis garegnuli, esTetikuri, grZnobadi mniSvnelobisagan, rac antikur TeoriebSi ZiriTadad mocemuli iyo
literaturisa da xelovnebis formis mSvenierebis saxiT.
rogorc miqael fselosis traqtatebSi, ise efrem mciris
kolofonebSi baZvis, stilis da mSvenierebis cnebebis ori aspeqti
mkveTrad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan da amave dros, SesaniSnavad
Tanaarsebobs. am Tanaarsebobas miqael fselosi SeuTavseblis
SeTavsebas uwodebs, rac swored bizantiuri esTetikis ZiriTad
Taviseburebas warmoadgens da ganasxvavebs mas antikurisagan.
am fonze sainteresoa mSvenierebis cnebis aseTive ori aspeqti
rusTavelTan. terminebiT mSvenieri da turfa masTan orive
ti pis mSvenierebis _ bunebrivis/fizikuris da sulieris/zeciuris
gamoxatuleba saxezea. Kmijnuris Tvalad siturfe xorcielia,
xolo mijnuroba aris turfa, sacodnelad Zneli gvari _ prologSi saRvTo da sulieria. kvlevis Sedegad dgindeba rusTavelis
zogierTi gamonaTqvamis, mag., turfa saWvretelis (avTandilis
anderZidan) aseTive saRvTo da Teologiuri mniSvneloba. amgvarad,
cxadi xdeba, rom rusTavelis esTetikuri azrovnebac, msgavsad
bizantiurisa da Zveli qarTulisa, orgvaria. konkretulad mSvenierebis
cneba (sxva cnebebTan erTad, rasac amjerad dawvrilebiT ver vexebiT
da Sesadareblad mxolod mokled vaxsenebT), masTanac axal saRvTo,
qristianul aspeqts Rebulobs patristikul literaturaze dafuZnebiT tradiciulis da fizikuris paralelurad. amis safuZvelzedac rusTavelis Semoqmedeba bizantiuri Taviseburebebis
saukeTeso gamoxatulebaa. rusTavelis poemis mimarTeba aRmosavluri
islamuri esTetikis maxasiaTeblebTan, rac ase aqtualuri iyo warsul
mecnierebaSi, xelmeored isev sakvlevia bizantiurTan Sedarebis
TvalsazrisiT. es ukanaskneli amjerad calke gvaqvs warmodgenili;
orives dapirispireba da erTad Seswavla ki ZiriTadi daskvnebisaTvis
aucilebelia momavalSi.

47

mamuka biWaSvili

daviT guramiSvili da
daviTiani

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiis
fakultetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
sametyvelo moqmedebis
analitikuri Teoria
(1994); instrumentariebi firosmanis naratiuli diskursisaTvis
(1999); laibnicis
metafizika da enis
filosofia (2005); politikuri Teoria (2006).
interesTa sfero:
enis filosofia, politikuri filosofia.

winamdebare statiaSi minda warmovadgino


Tema, romelic nagulisxmevia daviT
guramiSvilze gamoqveynebul erT Cems adreul
naSromSi (biWaSvili 1991). maSin vcade
guramiSvilis poezia warmomedgina haidegeris
eqsistencialuri hermenevtikis konteqstSi,
rogorc yofierebis xma. amgvari analizi
gverds ver auvlida poetis da poeturi
nawarmoebis erTianobis sakiTxs, rac gakvriT
moxseniebuli iyo aRniSnul naSromSi. axla
swored am Temas Sevexebi ufro farTod,
Tumca problemis dasayeneblad, amjerad
semiotikisaken gadavinacvleb da rolan
barts mivmarTav. mxedvelobaSi maqvs bartis
patara, magram friad gaxmaurebuli statia,
avtoris sikvdili(barti 1989). gulisSemZvreli saTauris miuxedavad, sinamdvileSi
saqme arc avtoris gardacvalebas exeba da
arc mis mkvlelobas. sakiTxi, romlis
ganxilvasac barti cdilobs imave Temis irgvliv trialebs, rac Cven gvainteresebs.
movxazoT Zalze mokled bartis Tvalsazrisi.
balzakis erTi moTxrobis patara
fragmentis gaxsenebis Semdeg, romelSiac
Zalze ostaturadaa gadmocemuli gmiris
fsiqologiuri profili, barti svams kiTxvas
aRweris avtoris Sesaxeb: vin erkveva ase
kargad qalis fsiqologiaSi, vin wers
yvelafer amas? Tavad nawarmoebis gmiri?

48

mamuka biWaSvili

balzaki rogorc individi, romelic aRweraSi Tavis cxovrebiseul


gamocdilebas eyrdnoba, Tu balzaki rogorc avtori, romelic
literaturuli standartebis dakmayofilebas cdilobs?
tradiciuli midgoma am sakiTxisadmi, ra Tqma unda, avtoris
sasargeblos laparakobs. esa Tu is nawarmoebi am midgomis mixedviT,
sxva araferia Tu ara avtoris gancdebi da fiqrebi. amitom
nawarmoebis srulyofili gageba SesaZlebeli gaxdeba mxolod mas
Semdeg, rac Cven guldasmiT gavecnobiT avtoris cxovrebas, emociur
samyaros, risTvisac misi biografiis Seswavlaa saWiro. am TvalsazrisiT, magaliTad, bodleris mTeli poeziis wyaro misi Tavmoubmeli
cxovrebaa, xolo van gogis mxatvroba gasagebi xdeba misi sulieri
avadmyofobis fonze. es saskolo midgoma sakiTxisadmi sruladaa
asaxuli Cveni ganaTlebis saministros mier rekomendirebul
qrestomaTiul kritikaSi (qrestomaTiuli: 2004), sadac myarad
figurirebs qarTveli mwerlebis biografiuli monacemebi. saerTod
avtoris fenomeni evropaSi aqtualuri gaxda Sua saukuneebis Semdeg.
is ufro axali drois sakuTrebaa, rodesac evropulma rogorc
racionalizmma, aseve empirizmma subieqti aqcies analizis centrad
da Tumca, misi sawinaaRmdego araferi gvaqvs, vfiqrobT, igi ar
gamoxatavs erTaderT SesaZlo pozicias.
barti gvarwmunebs, rom Tu Cveni midgoma wminda semiotikuri
iqneba da koncentrirebulni viqnebiT Txzulebze rogorc niSnebis
sistemaze, saerTod aRar darCeba adgili avtorisaTvis, radgan
werilSi ikargeba yovelgvari subieqturoba, ikargeba avtori. werili,
misi azriT, avtoris sikvdils niSnavs.
pirveli, vinc srulad gaacnobiera sxvadasxva Txzulebis sityvebis miRma mdgari erTi da igive subieqtis, avtoris Ziebis usargebloba, malarme iyo. avtoris nacvlad wina planze man ena daayena.
misTvis enobrivi aqtioba, metyveleba, Tu wera imTaviTvea depersonalizaciis procesi. enaa is pirveladi mocemuloba, romelic
sruliad zedmets xdis misi mflobelis Ziebas. msgavsadve pol
valerim, miuxedavad imisa, rom @me-s@ fsiqologiuri TeoriiT
didad iyo gatacebuli da amitom ramdenadme Searbila melarmes
pozicia, saboloo jamSi mainc ritorikis Teorias mimarTa da
avtoris fenomeni saeWvod gaixada mas Semdeg, rac gaacnobiera misi
Semoqmedebis wminda enobrivi, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, winaswarganuzraxveli xasiaTi. malarme literaturis arss sityvaSi xedavda
da mwerlis sulier cxovrebaze apelireba mxolod crurwmenad
miaCnda. aranaklebi roli - bartis azriT - Seasrula avtoris

daviT guramiSvili da daviTiani

49

desakralizaciaSi surealizmma da Tanamedrove lingvistikam.


pirvelma imiT, rom win wamowia e.w. koleqtiuri werili, xolo
meorem imiT, rom aCvena metyvelebis procesis TavisTavadi xasiaTi,
romelic ar saWiroebs pirovnuli SinaarsiT avsebas. enam, ra Tqma
unda, icis subieqti magram sametyvelo aqtiobisas ar icis am
subieqtis pirovneba, romelic raimes mflobeli iqneboda am
metyvelebis gareT. visac jer kidev swams avtorisa, unda miaCndes,
rom wignTan mimarTebiT avtori mxolod warsulSi moiazreba; avtori
win uswrebs Tavis nawarmoebs, atarebs mas, ganicdis, iazrebs, cocxlobs
misTvis. amisgan gansxvavebiT, Tanamedrove Tvalsazrisi amjobinebs
ilaparakos ara avtorze, aramed skri ptorze, romelic teqstTan
erTad ibadeba da amitom mas ar gaaCnia teqstis gareT da
damoukideblad araviTari sxva yofiereba. is ar aris subieqti,
romlisaTvisac wigni predikati iqneboda. aseTia, bartis azriT,
Tanamedrove Sexedulebebi (laparakia gasuli saukunis meore naxevris
kritikaze) avtoris Sesaxeb.
Tu bartis Tvalsazriss gaviziarebT da vamtkicebT avtoris
da misi teqstis identobas, maSin rogor unda gavigoT nawarmoebis
kiTxvis an misi interpretaciis procesi? bartis mixedviT, romlisTvisac ucxo ar aris subieqturobis kategoria, simZimis centri
mkiTxvelis irgvlivaa koncentrirebuli. swored mkiTxvelia is
yovelgvar teleologiurobas moklebuli erTeuli, romelSiac Tavs
iyris werilis sxvadasxva enobrivi niuansebi.
magram, subieqtze xom mxolod iq SegviZlia vilaparakoT sadac
obieqti gvaqvs? Cveulebriv es ori cneba erTmaneTis gareSe ar
arsebobs da isini savsebiT urTierTSenacvlebadia. urTierTSenacvlebadoba am SemTxvevaSi maT relatiur xasiaTze migvaniSnebs.
sakiTxi imis Taobaze, Tu romeli elementi unda aviRoT subieqtad
da romeli obieqtad, damokidebulia imaze, Tu visi TvaliT SevxedavT
werils. mwerlisaTvis obieqti mkiTxvelia, viszedac mimarTulia
sityva. meore mxriv, mkiTxvelisaTvis mweralic obieqtia, romelic
misi gagebis sagani unda gaxdes. princi pSi, Tu viTarebas subieqtobieqtis terminebSi aRvwerT, am urTierTobebSi adgili aRar darCeba
mxatvruli nawarmoebisaTvis rogorc raRac TavisTavadi fenomenisaTvis. rogorc es jer kidev blumfildma aCvena damajereblad,
enobrivi aqtiobis subieqt-obieqtis (stimul-reaqciis) terminebSi
aRwera enobrivs gadaaqcevs wminda mimarTebad, romelic moklebulia
yovelgvar TavisTavad Rirebulebas da aris or erTeuls Soris
arsebuli mxolod ganmaSualebeli rgoli. Cveni statiis problema,

50

mamuka biWaSvili

Sesabamisi amocanebiT swored aq iCens Tavs. kerZod, Cven gvainteresebs


(a)SeiZleba Tu ara moviZioT analizis imgvari zogadi foni, romelic
Tavidan agvacilebda, rogorc Cven es gveCveneba, bartis poziciisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel uxerxulobebs da agvacilebda ara mxolod avtorTan
urTierTobis aucileblobas, aramed mkiTxvelsac? da (b)ramdenadaa
SesaZlebeli daviTianis swored aseTi interpretacia?
pirvel kiTxvas umjobesia statiis miwuruls vupasuxoT. rac
Seexeba meore kiTxvas, rac zemoTaRniSnul Cvens statiaSi nagulisxmevi
iyo, is gaxlavT, rom daviT guramiSvilis daviTiani flobs yvela
resurss vamtkicoT avtorisa da misi nawarmoebis identoba ara
gasuli saukunis meore naxevris aRmoCenad, aramed ufro adreul
movlenad, romelic Zalze maRali xarisxiT savsebiT refleqsuradaa
warmodgenili daviTianSi. daviwyoT jer am sakiTxis analiziT.
isev identobis Tezisidan gamomdinare, daviTiani rogorc daviTze
moTxrobili ambavi naivuri interpretaciis SemTxvevaSi, sxva araferi
iqneba, Tu ara guramiSvilis avtobiografia. ra Tqma unda, SegveZlo
mxari dagveWira misTvis da SegvenarCunebina avtori rogorc
nawarmoebis gagebis wina piroba. marTlac da teqsti amis ara erT
saSualebas iZleva:
aq cxadad iTqmis yvelai dasabam-dasasrulisa,
mefis vaxtangis ambavi, mowyalis sibrZniT srulisa,
maszedan qarTlis araki, mterTagan gabasrulisa,
merme TviT Cemis Tavisa, dakargul, dabawrulisa (wigni a. ia. 184).

maSin fragmenti, romelic TiTqmis nawarmoebis Sinaarsis gacnobis


funqciis matarebelia, met damajereblobas SeiZenda faqtebis
aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi da daviTians poetur avtobiografiad aqcevda.
ai, faqtebic:
aTas-Svidas-oc da cxramets xotinis kari davlaSqreT keti
ormoc-da-ors findriRavans cecxliT gamovbugeT Sveti
ormoc-Cvidmets brusis korols SevuryiveT taxtis sveti
ormocTvramets brusman dagvkra, Tavsa dagvaxvia reti
me Cems Zmebsa damaSora, luwisagan davrCi kenti
meRdeburgis cixeSigan damsva kareb-danakleti
(wigni a. mg. 586-587).

aseTi interpretacia ara mxolod SesaZlebelia, aramed arsebobs


kidevac arsebobis aranaklebi uflebianobiT, vidre is Tvalsazrisia,
romlis SeTavazebasac Cven vcdilobT mkiTxvelisaTvis. ramdenadac
interpretacias saqme aqvs mxolod gagebasTan da ara WeSmaritebasTan,
Tundac pirveli am ukanasknelis wina piroba iyos, amdenad azris
pluralizmi da interpretaciebis simravle savsebiT misaRebi Cans.

daviT guramiSvili da daviTiani

51

maT SeuZliaT mSvidobiani Tanaarseboba. naivuri Tvalsazrisi,


miuxedavad im xiblisa, rac yvelafer martivs gaaCnia, Cveni azriT,
moikoWlebs daviTianis rigi pasaJebis gagebisas. ufro rTul
fragmentebs rom Tavi davaneboT, romelTac qvemoT SevexebiT, rodesac
daviTiani avtobiografiad gvaqvs gaazrebuli da, am dros gvesmis:
Tumca brma var kidev vxedav qveynad Cemze ufro brmaTa (1.wigni
a.; g. 61)

unda CavTvaloT Tu ara avtoris es sityvebi misi sibrmavis


utyuar sabuTad? an ramdenad seriozulad unda davinteresdeT im
kacis vinaobiT poetis mwife yanas rom mi parvia?
midis-modis es sofeli qartexilTa zRvisebr Relavs
ukan dasdevs dro da Jami, mis naqselavs qsovs da sTelavs
is mWle kaci cels ras aqnevs, rasa sTibavs, rasa scelavs?
amad vswunob sawuTrosa, sul bnelia, rsac elavs!
(1.wigni a.; mb. 261)

wminda enobrivi TvalsazrisiT, nawarmoebis metnaklebi sisruliT


kvlevaze raime pretenziis gareSe, SeuiaraRebeli TvaliTac kargad
Cans, rom daviTiani Zalze rTuli struqturisaa da araerT
semantikur Sres gulisxmobs. ramdenadac Cven daviT guramiSvilis
da daviTianis identobis sakiTxs vsvamT, unda yuradReba mivaqcioT
imas, rom sirTulis mxriv yvelaze ufro gamorCeuli isev saxeli
daviTia. batoni revaz siraZe sabavSvo msoflio literaturis
biblioTekis seriiT gamocemuli daviTianis winasityvaobaSi
SeniSnavs, rom davTianSi d. guramiSvilis mier sakuTari me
samgvaradaa gaazrebuli: pirovnuli me (me daviT guramiSvili),
erovnuli me (me qarTveli) da zogadadamianuri me ( me, daviT
guramiSvili adamiani) (5.25). avtoriseul am sam daviTs SegviZlia
davumatoT igive saxeliT araerTgzis moxseniebuli bibliuri daviTi.
Tanac maTi poeturi saxeebi ganuwyvetliv da TiTqmis SeumCnevlad
gadadian erTmaneTSi imgvarad, rom maTi mkveTri gamijvna nawarmoebis
(ara semantikuri, aramed ufro) poeturi sazrisis rRvevis gareSe
Zalze rTulia. aqve, uTuod, unda gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom daviT
guramiSvili qarTul saero mwerlobaSi erT-erTi yvelaze ufro
religiuri avtoria. es mxolod imaSi ki ar vlindeba, rom is
praqtikulad TiTqmis mTeli axali aRTqmis galeqsvas cdilobs,
aramed imaSic, Tu rogor cdilobs amis gakeTebas guramiSvili.
daviTianis pragmatika, anu enobrivi TamaSis is wesebi, romlebic
nawarmoebis sworad wakiTxvis winapirobaa, aucileblobiT
gulisxmoben bibliur igavur enas, romelic mocemul momentSi unda
gavmijnoT poeturi sxismetyvelebisagan. bibliuri igavis ena

52

mamuka biWaSvili

stiqiurad rodi warmoiSveba daviTianSi. is guramiSvilis


mizandasaxuli enobrivi Semoqmedebis Sedegia ris Taobazedac igi
sagangebod gafrTxilebs:
ahxadeo badeo, TvalTa miec andeo
scan am leqsTa igavi, Targmne Tu giyvardeo!
qrTilis puris qerqSia Sig TavTuxi Cavdeo
qerqi gafrcqven ganagde, SigniT guls-ki sWamdeo
me es xidi savlelad diaR sworeT gavdeo,
Sen Tu mrudiT gaivli, me ra wyalSi vardeo!
daviT sworeT mogiTxrobs, Tu Sen Seigvandeo (1.wigni a.; kv. 373)

amgvari Segoneba gvibiZgebs ufro frTxilad movekidoT


nawarmoebis TiToeul sityvas, Tundac es iyos iseTi standartuli
poeturi procedura, rogoric wignis gamleqsavis, misi avtoris
saxelisa da gvaris gamocxadebaa: daviTiani vsTqvi daviT guramiSvilman gvarado. wignis dasawyisSive gaJRerebuli orive saxeli,
romelTagan erTi uTuod nawarmoebs aRniSnavs, xolo meore mis
avtors, mxolod sawyisi etapia im gzisa, romlis manZilze, sxvadasxva
enobriv TamaSebSi, damoukidebel subieqtad mdgari avtori,
TandaTanobiT gadainacvlebs da daiZireba sityvasa da teqstSi,
gaxdeba nawarmoebis organuli nawili, misi sakuTreba. avtoris mis
nawarmoebTan igiveobis Cveni Tezisi, ra Tqma unda sulac ar
niSnavs imis mtkicebas, rom kaci saxelad daviT guramiSvli ar
arsebobda an rom mas araferi dauweria. Cveni Tezisi gacilebiT
martivia da mxolod imas ambobs, rom is, rasac Cven vgulisxmobT
sakuTari saxeliT daviT guramiSvili, sxva araferia, Tu ara
daviTiani. anu Tu freges gavyvebiT da ara rasels, SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom daviTiani aris daviT guramiSvilis mniSvneloba
romlis gareSe, es ukanaskneli dakargavs ara mxolod sazriss,
aramed mTel konotaciur velsac. daviT guramiSvili ki ar gviyveba
daviTianze, piriqiT, daviTianidan vigebT ras niSnavs daviT
guramiSvli.
minda sagangebod gamovyo guramiSvilis daviTianTan
identifikaciisaTvis ramdenime bazisuri etapi: pirveli, rodesac
xdeba avtoris nawarmoebSi Sesvla, misi arsebiTi transformacia,
rac xorcieldeba guramiSvilis mier daviTianis Svilad ayvaniT,
rac araerTgzisaa gacxadebuli:
mSvilds momiwiva muxTalma, isari gulSi mamaso
ar momca Ze, arc asuli, arvin meZaxis mamaso
man damiCagra goneba da mteri Tavsa mamaso
davjeq da leqsva daviwye, vsTqvi: Tu viSvileb amaso
(1.wigni a.; mb. 555).

daviT guramiSvili da daviTiani

53

an manmade:
miTxar, mtero, davis TxovniT daviTisgan moige ra?
rad uyvedre uSobelsa, berwob, vera moige-ra?
imas Svilad vervina sjobs, daviT vinc Zed moigera
vinc gamoTqva, is iSvila, mteri imiT moigera (1.wigni a.; mb. 566)

meore, aranaklebi mniSvnelobisaa ukve guramiSvilis gabaaseba


sakuTar nawarmoebTan. amgvari dialogi, romlis analogiebi an
msgavsebani literaturaSi bevri rodia, SesaZlebeli xdeba mxolod
mas Semdeg, rac yofili avtori literaturul personaJad iqceva,
realobidan SesaZleblis modalobaSi gadainacvlebs:
Svilman hrqva: mamav, leqsTa wyobiTa
marTla ar mesmis me SetyobiTa;
Tqven brZanebT igavad me mesmis ig avad,
mibrZaneT ambad.
... Svilo, Tu amas ar Saismende,
rasac Sen mikveT, mas ar irwmende;
bers-kacs TeTr-wverasa nu mikveT werasa
cudad nu gamrji (1.wigni d.; i. 481; 495).

mesame da albaT aranakleb saintereso etapi is gaxlavT, sadac


daviTiani TiTqos imaze mogviTxrobs, Tu rogor daxata man
guramiSvili bibliuri daviTis paradigmis mixedviT. amiT ara mxolod
gaixsneba daviT guramiSvilis sazrisi, aramed warmogvidgeba misi
mTeli konotaciuri velis paradigma:
daviT Sevmose xiliTa, romelic mosa xe daviT;
mas xes moxeda ufalman keTilis mosaxedaviT.
nu medavebiT, marideT guls laxvrad mosaxedaviT.
is daviT kargiT mosaxiT, me daviT mosaxed aviT (wigni d.; ie. 6).

msgavsadve JRers daviTianis bolos wina strofi, romelSiac


gamoyenebuli warsuli drois forma daviTTan dakavSirebiT
gvaiZulebs vifiqroT, rom sityvebi sxvas miekuTvneba da ara mas,
radgan ukve gardacvlili avtori veRar dawerda:
Tqven ver dasTmobdiT CemgniT naTqvamsa,
rac TqvengniT Tqmuli aw me daviTme,
mis RvTis Zis mamis daviTis sexna
guramisSvili viyavi daviT me. (1.wigni d.; ka. 16).

warsuli dro avtorTan dakavSirebiT sulac ar aris


moulodneli da is Semzadebulia nawarmoebis wina strofebiT:
sikvdilTan gabaasebiT, anderZiT an, bolos da bolos, saflavis
qvaze dasaweriT, epitafiiT. amitom, Tu bartis kvalad avtoris
sikvdilze SegviZlia romelime nawarmoebis mixedviT saubari, maT
Soris aucileblad iqneba daviTianic.

54

mamuka biWaSvili

da mainc, ra azriT vlaparakobT aq avtoris sikvdilze, rodesac


sinamdvileSi aravis epareba eWvi imaSi, rom daviTianis yoveli
striqoni daviT guramiSvils ekuTvnis. minda davubrunde pirvel
kiTxvas romelic analizisaTvis saWiro fonis Taobaze daisva.
sapasuxod moviSvelieb vitgenSteinis enobrivi TamaSebis sinTezs
TeoriasTan, romelic ganaviTara finkma statiaSi adamianuri
yofierebis ZiriTadi fenomenebi(finki 1988). amgvari sinTezi savsebiT
SesaZlebelia imdenad, ramdenadac orive Tvalsazrisi TamaSis fenomens
emyareba. vitgenSteinisagan amjerad savsebiT sakmarisi iqneba zogadi
Tezisi, rom arsebobs enobrivi TamaSebis usasrulo veli, romelSiac
TiToeuli TamaSis nairsaxeobas sakuTari suverenuli kanonika gaaCnia.
am simravleSi Tavisi adgili aqvs poezias, poetur Semoqmedebas,
romelic, cxadia, enobrivi TamaSis nairsaxeobaa misTvis damaxasiaTebeli TamaSis wesebiT. garda TiToeulisaTvis am gansxvavebuli
wesebisa, TamaSebs rigi Tvisebebic gaaCniaT, romlebSiac ufro metia
saerTo, vidre vitgenSteinis mier reklamirebuli wesebis gansxvavebebia.
finkis statia swored am saerToze mogviTxrobs. Tavs SevikavebT
komentarebisagan TamaSis Tvisebebis mis mier warmodgenili
daxasiaTebebze da SevCerdebiT mxolod erT sakiTxze TamaSis
ontologiur aspeqtze, anu TamaSze rogorc Suaxidze SesaZlebelsa
da namdvils Soris.
gvinda poeturi enis TamaSze gavavrceloT yvelaferi is, rasac
finki sasceno gaTamaSebaze mogviTxrobs. miT ufro rom orive
SemTxvevaSi sam-sami elementi gvaqvs:
1. msaxiobi _ 2. scena 3. mayurebeli da
1. poeti 2. leqsi 3. mkiTxveli.
Tu, rac iTqmeba msaxiobze rogorc scenis moTamaSeze gavrceldeba
poetze, rogorc poeturi eniT moTamaSe agentze, maSin orientirebad
unda aviRoT kvalifikaciebi, romelTac finki gamoTqvams TamaSebis
da moTamaSeTa Sesaxeb. arsebobs TamaSebi - ambobs is sadac
adamiani garkveulwilad kargavs sakuTar Tavs. axdens Tavis rolTan
identifikacias TiTqmis ganusxvaveblobamde. is iZireba Tavis rolSi
da usxlteba sakuTar Tavs. TamaSis samyaro ra Tqma unda ararealuria.
magram es ararealuroba wanamZRvaria imisa, rom masSi gamovlindes
raRac sazrisi, romelsac Tavis mxriv wamohyveba iseTi ram, rac
faqtebze ufro realuria. faqtebis miRmiurobidan rom sazrisma
gamoanaTos, saTamaSo samyaro faqtebze ufro ubadruki unda iyos
da swored aseT SemTxvevaSi gamoCndeba TamaSis ararealobaSi
zerealuri arseba. Tavis uwyebaSi TamaSi yovelTvis raRac simboluria.
cnebiTi aparati, cnebiTi gamosaxulebebi ver amowuraven mas. is ar
operirebs arc erTeulis da zogadis gamijvniT, aramed mxolod

daviT guramiSvili da daviTiani

55

simbolos saSualebiT gvawvdis xmas. am simboloSi erT paradigmatul


figuraSi erTmaneTs emTxveva erTeuli da zogadi. paradigma ara
realuria, ramdenadac is ar gulisxmobs araviTar realur individs
da imavdroulad ze-realuria ramdenadac gulisxmobs arsebiTsa
da SesaZlebels TiToeulSi. TamaSi ara yovelTvis da, SesaZloa, ara
imdenad sarkea sinamdvilisa. amitom is, rac gaTamaSdeba, aucilebeli
ar aris arsebobdes. poetebis fantasias Seuqmnia sxvadasxva saxis
gamogonili arsebebi da zmanebebis qmnilebebi Seutania warmodgenebSi.
magram adamianis TamaSi ufro metia vidre sxvadasxva saxis qimerebis
TviTwarmodgena. Tavis pragmatul, gamsagnoebrivebul xedvaSi
saTamaSo samyaro, TamaSi gagvixsnis sxvadasxva SesaZleblobebs da
swored maT vWvretT Cven movlenili xilvebis saxiT (finki 1988:
402-403). rac esoden mniSvnelovania finkis koncefciaSi is gaxlavT,
rom TamaSis aqtiuri monawilea ara mxolod gamTamaSebeli, aramed
mayurebelic. igi ar aris sxvisi TamaSis ubralo mowme. TamaSis
procesSi iZireba ara mxolod moTamaSe, aramed mayurebelic, romelic
uSualod Wvrets saTamaSo samyaros sivrces, romelic imarjvebs
realur sivrceze. (finki 1988: 379-380). Tavis mxriv, es imas niSnavs,
rom Tuki realurad gaTamaSdeba raime, iq TamaSis miRmiuri subieqtic
moxsnilia da obieqtic. erTaderTi, rac aseT dros maTi saSualebiT
aCvenebs Tavs, aris ara realuri sagnebi da movlenebi, aramed
SesaZlebelis modalobis mqone arsebebis samyaros fenomenologia
da, Tu aqedan poeturi enis TamaSze gadavalT, cxadi gaxdeba, rom
daviT guramiSvili im iSviaTi poetebis rigs miekuTvneba, vinc yvelaze
ufro refleqsurad ganaxorciela yovelive es.
literatura
guramiSvili 1975: daviT guramiSvili. qarTuli poezia Txutmet
tomad. tomi 4. gamomc.nakaduli, Tbilisi 1975.
biWaSvili 1991: sawuTros guramiSvliseuli gageba da Wmunva.
Jurn. literatura da xelovneba # 6, 1991.
barti 1989: . . , . .
, 1989.
qrestomaTiuli... 2004: qrestomaTiuli kritika. XIX saukune.
Tbilisi 2004.
guramiSvili 1990: daviT guramiSvili. daviTiani. msoflio
literaturis biblioTeka bavSvebisaTvis. Tbilisi, gamomc.
nakaduli, 1990.
finki 11988:
988: .. .
. . . .
1988.

56

konstantine bregaZe

romantizmis istoriis
filosofia novalisis
Ramis himnebSi
me-5 himnis hermenevtikisaTvis

filologiis mecnierebaTa
kandidati;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
novalisis saxismetyvelebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi,
novalisis enis filosofia, literaturuli
da enisfilosofiuri
narkvevebi (novalisi, goeTe,
v. f. humboldti...).
interesTa sfero:
germanuli romantizmi,
hermenevtika, enis filosofia.

sakuTari istoriis filosofia germanelma romantikosma poetma da filosofosma


novalisma (fridrix fon hardenbergi, 17721801) gadmosca Tavis poetur ciklSi Ramis
himnebi (Hymnen an die Nacht), kerZod mexuTe
himnSi. novalisis istoriis filosofiis
mixedviT kacobriobis istoria sam etapadaa
dayofili:
1. egzistencialuri monizmi: kacobriobis
bavSvobis xana, anu miTosur-samoTxiseuli
yofiereba (grZnobadobis epoqa). mexuTe
himnSi kacobriobis am bavSvur-paradizul
saukunes simbolurad ganasaxierebs antikurmiTosuri saberZneTi. aqve unda iTqvas, rom
es pirobiTi, fiqcionaluri, poetur-imaginatoruli, simboluri antikuri eladaa. aq
asaxuli Zveli saberZneTi ar aris istoriulad arsebuli antikuri saberZneTi,
aramed igi koncifirebulia ufro metad
spiritualuri gagebiT.
2. egzistencialuri dualizmi: kacobriobis araistoriul, miTosur fazas
Semdgom mosdevs kacobriobis zrdasrulobis
xana, anu sakuTriv istoriuli xana (gonebis
epoqa). kacobriobis bavSvur-naivuri yofierebidan, rodesac adamiani axlos iyo RmerTTan da Tavis Tavs moiazrebda Sesaqmis erTerT Semadgemel elmentad sxva elementebTan

romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi...

57

erTad, rodesac igi jer kidev bunebis ganuyofeli nawili iyo,


istoriul epoqaSi gadasvliT iwyeba kacobriobis individualizaciis
procesi, misi gonebismieri qmedeba, ris Sedegadac xdeba misi
emansipireba _ igi Sordeba Semoqmeds, bunebas da mkvidrdeba empiriuli
realobis farglebSi. Sesabamisad, igi xdeba mokvdavi. am SemTxvevaSi,
Tavisuflebis mopoveba da individualizacia miiRweva araTavisufali
ukvdavebis gauqmebis xarjze. aq kacobriobis winaSe warmoiqmneba
erTgvari dilema, dualizmi _ erTi mxriv saRvTo wiaRSi ukvdavi,
usasrulo magram araTavisufali arseboba, xolo meore mxriv empiriul
realobaSi Tavisufali, magram sasruli, warmavali egzistencia. mexuTe
himnSi kacobriobis gadasvlas miTosuri epoqidan istoriul epoqaSi,
misi RmerTisagan gamoyofisa da individualizaciis process
ganasaxierebs sikvdilis poeturi saxe. kacobriobis axal
ontologiur safexurze gadasvla himnebSi aseve miniSnebulia
metaforiT gamofituli ricxvi da mkacri sazomi (drre Zahl und
strenge Mass), rac warmoadgens racios, analitikuri gonebis
atributebs.
3. egzistencialuri sinTezi: kacobriobis oqros xana, anu zeciuri
ierusalimis epoqa, romelic mkvidrdeba empiriul, sasrul
sinamdvileSi logosis, Ze RvTisas, ieso qristes movlinebiTa da
aRdgomis misteriis safuZvelze (spiritualuri epoqa). kacobriobis
sulieri istoriis mesame safexuri aris mis winaSe arsebuli
egzistencialuri dualizmis gauqmebis xana, rasac axorcielebs
ieso qriste da masTan erTad mTeli kacobrioba Zveli sikvdilis
(der alte Tod) damarcxebiT, romelic himnebSi aris warmavlobis,
sasrulobis, kacobriobis egzistencialuri Cixis simbolo: warmavlobisa da sasrulobis ZleviT kacobrioba kvlav ibrunebs
samoTxiseul yofierebas.
amgvarad, mexuTe himnis mixedviT ieso qriste aris sinTezi _
igi auqmebs egzistencialur monizmsa da dualizms da afuZnebs
saRvTo wiaRSi kacobriobis, aseve subieqtis ukvdav, usasrulo da
amavdroulad Tavisufal egzistencias. es aris is sulieri gza,
romelic unda ganvlos kacobriobam, da romelic amasTanave TiToeuli
individis ontologiuri amocanaa. Sesabamisad, novalisis mixedviT,
mexuTe himnSi erT ontologiur mTlianobas qmnis sakacobrio
da individualuri egzistencia, kacobriobisa da subieqtis
spiritualuri yofiereba.
amavdroulad mexuTe himnSi novalisis mier ganviTarebulia
intencia, romlis mixedviTac kacobriobis istoria gansxvavebul da

58

konstantine bregaZe

dapirispirebul epoqaTa da kulturul sivrceTa meqanikuri nazavi


ki ar aris, aramed erTi mTliani sulieri Tavgadasavalia, erTi
spiritualuri mTlianobaa. amitomac, SemTxveviTi araa, rom mexuTe
himnSi erTi mxriv miTosur-antikuri elada da meore mxriv
qristianoba erT spiritualur mTlianobas qmnis. es mTlianoba da
sinTezi empiriuli istoriis TvalsazrisiT, ra Tqma unda, ar
arsebobs, magram novalisis poeturi warmosaxvis Zalisa da misi
istoriis filosofiidan gamomdinare, misTvis antikurobisa da
qristianobis mTlianoba empiriul istoriaze maRla mdgomi, umaRlesi
spiritualuri realobaa, gansxvavebiT fridrix Silerisagan (ix.
misi saberZneTis RmerTebi, Die Gtter Grichenlands, sadac erTmaneTs
upirispirdebian antikuri da qristianuli samyaroebi). mexuTe himnSi
sxvadasxva istoriul epoqaTa da kulturul sivrceTa spiritualur
mTlianobas simbolurad ganasaxierebs warmarTi mgosnis (der Snger)
poeturi saxe. mas rogorc poets akisria mociqulebrivi misia da
gadis mociqulTa gzas: warmarTuli Zveli saberZneTidan igi miemarTeba
palestinaSi, Tayvans scems yrma iesos, eziareba qristes sjuls da
iqidan mieSureba indoeTisaken (e. i. zogadad aRmosavleTisaken),
raTa iq poeziiT iqadagos qristes sarwmunoeba. SemTxveviTi araa
isic, rom mexuTe himnSi kacobriobis samoTxiseuli yofis
simbolizirebisaTvis novalisi masalas mizanmimarTulad iRebs
ara bibliuri miTosidan, aramed ZvelberZnuli miTosidan, riTac
novalisi kvlav da kvlav mianiSnebs kacobriobis istoriis
spiritualur mTlianobaze.
aqedan gamomdinare, miuRebelia novalisis mkvlevar g. Sulcis
Tvalsazrisi, TiTqos novalisi me-5 himnSi religiaTa gaerTianebisa
da erTiani religiis ideas aviTarebdes, risi poeturi simboloc
misi azriT aris warmarTi mgosnis mociqulebrivi gza. marTalia
novalisi Tavis zogierT filosofiur fragmentSi am sakiTxze
msjelobs, magram es idea me-5 himnSi saerTod ar aris ganviTarebuli,
teqstSi msgavs intencias saerTod ar vxvdebiT. amis sapirispirod
me-5 himnSi ganviTarebulia Tvalsazrisi kacobriobis sulier
ganviTarebaSi qristianobis wamyvani rolis Sesaxeb, xolo
qristianobamiRebuli warmarTi mgosnis mociqulebrivi gza swored
qristes niSnis qveS warimarTeba.

romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi...

59

Konstantine Bregadze
Die romantische Geschichtsphilosophie in den
Hymnen an die Nacht von Novalis.
Zur Hermeneutik der 5. Hymne
Die Auffassung der Weltgeschichte, die Novalis in seinen Hymnen an die
Nacht, und zwar in der 5. Hymne darstellt (Novalis 1981: 161-173), kann als
eine einheitliche geistige Geschichte der Menschheit verstanden werden. Im
Unterschied zu der Auffassung der Geschichte als einer mechanischen Mischung
der verschiedenen Epochen und der unterschiedlichen kultureller Rume wird
die Weltgeschichte bei Novalis eher als spirituelles Phnomen aufgefasst, und
nicht als Summe chronologisch geordneter historischer Tatsachen. Daher ist es
nicht zufllig, dass der romantischen Geschichtsphilosophie von Novalis nicht die
real-historische Wirklichkeit als historische Quelle zugrunde liegt, sondern eine
mythisch-mystische Wirklichkeit: In seiner Geschichtsphilosophie erscheint die
Weltgeschichte in zwei spirituellen Formen einerseits der altgriechische Mythos,
andererseits die christlich-eschatologische Offenbarung (Geburt, Tod und
Auferstehung Christi). Aber die benutzte Quelle selbst wird der romantischdichterischen Interpretation unterzogen, sie wird von Novalis auf der Grundlage
seiner romantisch-dichterischen Tropenlehre umgearbeitet, in der die Phasen der
geistigen Entwicklung der Menschheit codiert sind. Aufgrund dieser dichterischen
Interpretation der Weltgeschichte (bzw. der Geschichte der Menschheit) wird in
den Hymnen die neue Mythologie des romantisch verstandenen Individuums
entworfen. Die Quelle dient als Stoff fr das Projekt X-stentum, fr den
romantischen Entwurf eines freien Christen, eines modernen Menschen, der die
religise Freiheit ausbt, gem einer freiheitlichen, individuellen (bzw.
dichterischen) Auffassung des Christentums. Das meint in sich eine freie
Tathandlung im Fichteschen Sinne - Merke auf dich selbst, einen individuellen,
unmittelbaren Bezug zu Gott, ohne jeglichen Vermittler, also auch ohne Vermittlung
der Kirche. Darin besteht die eigentliche rationale Mystik von Novalis, von
der sein ganzes Werk durchdrungen ist, und in besonderem Mae die Hymnen.
Sich auf diesen Weg zu begeben ist die individuelle Aufgabe fr jeden
romantisch inspirierten modernen, postmodernen, postpostmodernen etc.
Menschen.
Der spirituellen Geschichtsphilosophie von Novalis in der 5. Hymne folgend
wird die Weltgeschichte, bzw. die Geschichte der Menschheit, in drei Phasen
eingeteilt:

60

konstantine bregaZe

1. Phase Der existenzielle Monismus: Das Zeitalter der Kindheit


der Menschheit, oder das mythisch-paradiesische Dasein innerhalb der
gttlichen Dimension (die Epoche der Herrschaft der Sinne). Whrend dieser
kindlich-naiven Existenz befand sich die Menschheit in der Nhe zu Gott, der
Mensch verstand sich als ein Element der Schpfung, als Teil der Natur. In der 5.
Hymne wird dieses kindlich-paradiesische Dasein durch die mythologischen
Vorstellungen des alten Griechenlands symbolisiert. Mit dem in den Hymnen
dargestellten Bild des altgriechischen Mythos wird zugleich die antike Welt im
Allgemeinen charakterisiert.
2. Phase Der existenzielle Dualismus: Die Existenz der Menschheit
innerhalb der historischen Dimension. Der nicht-historischen, mythologischen
Existenz der Menschheit folgt das Zeitalter des Erwachsenseins also die
eigentliche historische Epoche, die Epoche der Herrschaft von Vernunft. In dieser
Periode beginnt der Prozess der Individualisierung der Menschheit, ihr
Emanzipationsprozess: Der Mensch entfernt sich von Gott, grenzt sich von der
Natur ab und findet sich im Rahmen einer empirischen Realitt, innerhalb derer
er aber sterblich ist. Der Mensch erreicht die Freiheit auf Kosten der Aufhebung
einer nichtfreien, aber ewigen Existenz in der transzendenten, paradiesischen
Dimension. Hier entsteht der Dualismus der Menschheit, das eigentliche
Entweder-Oder: Einerseits die ewige, unendliche, jedoch nichtfreie Existenz in
der gttlichen Dimension, andererseits die freie, aber endliche, vergngliche
Existenz innerhalb der empirischen Wirklichkeit. Der bergang der Menschheit
von der mythisch-paradiesischen Realitt zur historischen, Entfernung vom
gttlich-paradiesischen Dasein wird in der 5. Hymne durch das
poetische Symbol des Todes versinnbildlicht. Der Tod ist hier als Zeichen fr
das existenzielle Verhngnis der Menschheit zu verstehen, das die existenzielle
Angst verursacht. Auerdem wird in der 5. Hymne auf den folgenschweren
bergang vom Transzendenten zur Empirie, vom Unendlichen zum Endlichen,
vom Himmlischen zum Irdischen, auch durch folgende Formulierung hingewiesen:
die drre Zahl und das strenge Ma. Zahl und Ma, das sind die Attribute des
analytischen Verstandes, wodurch er die sichtbare, empirische Realitt erschlieen
und begreifen kann. Der Verstand bzw. die Vernunft ist jedoch nicht fhig, die
transzendente Wirklichkeit zu erfassen, in der allein die Menschheit die Freiheit
erringen kann. Die Formulierung Zahl und Ma kann als Anspielung auf das
zeitgenssische aufklrerische Zeitalter verstanden werden, also auf jene Epoche,
die die Herrschaft der Vernunft und des Verstandes besiegelte. Mit dieser
Formulierung macht Novalis seine eigene Haltung zum zeitgenssischen
aufklrerischen Geist deutlich, der alles Irrationale, Mystische berwinden will.
Ganz hnlich wird im bekannten Gedicht von Novalis Wenn nicht mehr Zahlen

romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi...

61

und Figuren auf eine Erweiterung und Ergnzung der Aufklrung hingewiesen
(Novalis 1981: 406).
3. Phase Die existenzielle Synthese: Das sogenannte Goldene
Zeitalter, das neue Jerusalem (die spirituelle Epoche). Diese Entwicklungsstufe
in der geistigen Geschichte der Menschheit fngt mit der Offenbarung des Logos
in der empirisch-historischen Wirklichkeit an, beginnt also mit Geburt, Tod und
der Auferstehung des Gottes Sohnes Jesus Christus. Die 3. Phase fhrt zur
Aufhebung des existenziellen Dualismus der Menschheit. Der Prozess
wird von Christius selbst exemplarisch vollzogen, indem er den alten Tod (also
das ontologisch-poetische Zeichen fr das existenzielle Verhngnis und die
existenzielle Angst des Menschen) mit dem neuen Tod und
der drauf folgenden Auferstehung berwindet. Das Geheimnis der Auferstehung
und die Teilhabe daran ist die neue ontologische Perspektive, wodurch die
Menschheit in jedem einzelnen Individuum das Unendliche erwerben und die
verlorene himmlisch-paradiesische Existenz wiedergewinnen kann. Christus ist
die Synthese, die der Menschheit und dem Einzelnen die freie und zugleich
unsterbliche, unendliche Existenz verleiht und somit die Menschheit in eine
neue ontologische Dimension fhrt, in das gttlich-paradiesische Dasein.
In der Perspektive der geschichtsphilosophischen Konzeption von Novalis
entsteht in der 3. Phase der geistigen Entwicklung der Menschheit eine spirituelle
Synthese aus der Antike, die in der 5. Hymne durch den altgriechischen Mythos
symbolisiert wird, und dem neuen christlichen Zeitalter. Diese Synthese mag aus
empirisch-historischer Sicht unmglich sein, aber die poetische Einbildungskraft
von Novalis (die freie poetische Erfindung) und die auf dieser Grundlage
konzipierte Geschichtsphilosophie lassen eine solche Projektion zu: Demnach
sind fr Novalis, im Unterschied zu Friedrich Schiller (Die Gtter
Griechenlands), die Antike und das Christentum eine einheitliche spirituelle
Ganzheit. In der 5. Hymne kommt diese spirituelle Ganzheit in der poetischen
Gestalt des Sngers und in seine Apostelweg zum Ausdruck, denn er zieht aus
dem heidnischen alten Griechenland nach Palstina, um dort dem neugeborenen
Jesuskind zu huldigen. Hier wird er zum Nachfolger von Christus und zieht
schlielich weiter nach Indostan (bzw. ins Morgenland), um dort mit der Poesie
die Erscheinung von Jesus Christus in der endlichen empirischen Wirklichkeit zu
verknden.
Diesbezglich bemerkt Gerhard Schulz, da es bei diesem Zug des Sngers
um die Vereinigung der Religionen und damit um eine Weltreligion gehe (Schulz
2001: 637). Ich denke aber, es geht hier weniger um eine Vereinigung der
Religionen. ber diese reflektiert Novalis in den betreffenden Aufzeichnungen
(Novalis 1977-1988: II, 272; III, 579), aber nicht hier in der 5. Hymne. Vom

konstantine bregaZe

62

Text her lsst sich jedenfalls davon nichts erschlieen. Der Text der Hymne besagt
etwas anderes: er erzhlt von der fhrenden Rolle des Christentums in der geistigen
Entwicklung der Menschheit, worauf der Wallfahrtsweg des Sngers symbolisch
hinweist. Beachten wir: Der heidnische Snger zieht vom Hellas nach Palstina,
um dort den Christlichen Glauben anzunehmen. Danach zieht der christianisierte
Snger ins Morgenland, um dort mit dem poetischen Wort Christus zu verknden.
Der Weg, den der Snger vollzieht, ist der poetisierte Apostelweg. Ich denke,
dieser Zusammenhang ist von Anfang an auffallend. Der ganze Weg des Sngers
steht also unter dem Zeichen von Christus. Daher ist es nicht zufllig, da bei
Novalis die Wende, der Beginn der neuen und letzten Stufe (das goldene Zeitalter,
die existenzielle Synthese) in der geistigen Geschichte der Menschheit, mit dem
poetisch aufgefassten christlichen Gott, mit dem poetisierten Christusbild verbunden
wird (und nicht mit einer utopischen Herstellung der Weltreligion). Davon
ausgehend kann bei Novalis in der 5. Hymne von einem Projekt der Weltreligion
keine Rede sein.
Indem Novalis mit dem historischen Stoff romantisch-ironisch umgeht und
die historischen Tatsachen aus eigener Sicht umarbeitet, erreicht er in der 5.
Hymne aufgrund seiner poetischen Einbildungskraft die Fiktionalisierung der
empirischen Weltgeschichte. So gibt es fr Novalis in der Weltgeschichte keine
Widersprche, keine unterschiedlichen historischen Epochen und kulturellen
Rume, sondern die Menschheitsgeschichte wird von ihm als ein spirituelles Ganzes
aufgefasst, in dem es keine geistige Zerrissenheit gibt. In ihrem Zentrum steht fr
Novalis Jesus Christus.
Bibliographie
Novalis 1977-1988: Schriften. Die Werke Friedrich von Hardenberg;
hrsg. von P. Kluckhohn und R. Samuel, in 4 Bdn und 1 Begleitband, 3.
Aufl., Stuttgart.
Novalis 1981: Werke in einem Band, hrsg. von H-J Mhl, Carl Hanser
Verlag, Mnchen/Wien.
Schulz, Gerhard 2001: Kommentar zu den Hymnen an die Nacht; in: Novalis,
Werke, hrsg. und kommentiert von G. Schulz, 4. Aufl., Verlag C. H. Beck,
Mnchen/Wien.

romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi...

63

d a n a r T i
novalisi
(1772-1801)
Ramis himnebi*
(me-5 himni, nawyvetebi)
mdumare xelmwifebiT gamefebuliyo rkinis bediswera kacTa modgmaze.
bneli da mZime sudara gadakvroda mis SiSiTmocul suls. usasrulo
iyo miwa _ RmerTebis samyofeli da maTi samSoblo. Soreuli droidan
idga misi idumalebiTmoculi nageboba. ganTiadis mewamul mTebs zemoT
da zRvis wminda ubeSi bina daedo mzes _ yvelganmyof, cxovelmyofel
naTels.
moxuc goliaTs mxrebze Seedga kurTxeuli miwa. mTebqveS
gamomwyvdeuliyvnen
deda_miwis SvilTaSvilebi. sruliad amao iyo
maTi damangreveli mrisxneba diadi RmerTebis axali modgmisa da maTi
naTesavis _ laRi adamianebis mimarT. zRvis bneli, mwvane siRrmeebi
qalRmerTis wiaRi iyo. naTliTmosil koncxebze ilxenda galaRebuli
xalxi. mdinareebs, xeebs, yvavilebsa da mxecebs adamianuri grZnobebi
hqondaT. utkbesi Rvino iRvreboda mziTmovlenili Wabukis mwife xelidan
_ RmerTi, vazis mtevnebiT damSvenebuli. mosiyvarule, dedisalersiani
qalRmerTi moiwevda oqros TavTavebis gvirgviniT Semkuli. trfobis
wminda bangi _ ulamazesi qalRmerTis utkbesi msaxureba. zecisSvilebisa
da miwismcxovrebTa maradferadi zeimi aswleulebis manZilze aCqrolebda
cxovrebas, viT gazaxuli. yoveli modgma da jiSi bavSviviT adidebda
saamur, aTasfrTian cecxls, viTarca samyaros uzenaess. mxolod erTi
moucilebeli fiqri, erTi sazareli Cveneba iyo kidev, romelic
moevlina ZrwoliT lxinis sufrebs,
suli Sei pyro sazarma grZnobam,
TviT RmerTebmac ar uwyodnen gza xsnisa,
SeZruli guli ver Semosa nugeSma.
idumaliqmna sazareli gangeba,
mrisxaneba ver daacxro vedrebam.
sikvdilma Sekra laRi puroba
tkiviliT, cremlebiT, SiSiT.

aResrula Zveli samyaro. adamis ZeTa axalgazrda modgmis lxenis


baRnari daWkna _ Sors, cariel, udabur sivrceebSi miiwevdnen gazrdili
da dabrZenebuli adamianebi. RmerTebi gauCinardnen Tavis amalasTan
* ix. novalisi, Ramis himnebi, germanulidan Targmna Kkonstantine bregaZem;
gamomcemloba meridiani, Tbilisi, 2007. (gv. 31-38)

64

konstantine bregaZe

erTad. eulad da usicocxlod idga buneba. rkinis jaWviT Sekra is


gamofitulma ricxvma da mkacrma sazomma. sicocxlis usazRvro yvaviloba
mtversa da haers gaatanes bnelma sityvebma. gamqraliyo rwmena da
yovlisgardamsaxveli, yovlisSemrwymeli zecis dobili _ fantazia.
sazarlad qroda CrdiloeTis qari udabur velze, da gaqvavebuli
saocari samSoblo zecad ganiltva. zecis SoreTi aRivso manaTobeli
samyaroebiT. samyaros suli da misi Zalni wminda siRrmeebSi, sulis
Soreul sivrceebSi ganqardnen, raTa iq daevanaT, vidre ar moawevda
Jami samyaros momavali didebulebisa. naTeli aRar iyo RmerTebis
samyofeli da saRvTo niSani _ Ramis saburveli moicves maT. Rame iqca
diad saRvTo gamocxadebaTa wiaRad, misken ibrunes piri RmerTebma da
Zils miecnen, raTa axal diad saxebad movlenodnen gamocvlil samyaros.
ers, romelic yvelasgan moZulebuli iyo da yvelaze adre euwya
sibrZne, da romlisTvisac ucxo darCa axali sulTfenis RvTivkurTxeuli
umankoeba, poeziis Rarib qoxSi jerarnaxuli saxebiT gamoecxada axali
samyaro _ pirveli qalwulisa da dedis Ze. aRmosavleTis winaTmgrZnobma
da madlianma sibrZnem pirvelma Seicno axali Jamis dasawyisi. mefis
Rarib bagisken gzas ukvalavda maT varskvlavi. Soreuli momavlis
saxeliT Tayvani sces mas oqroTi da sakmevliT, bunebis umaRles
saswaulebs. zeciuri guli yovlisSemZle siyvarulis yavavilovan Tasad
iqca _ mamis maRali saxe CabeWdiliyo masSi da Zvirfasi, fiqriTmoculi
dedis winaTmgZnobel mkerdze misvenebuliyo. ganmRrTobili gznebiT
Wvretda kurTxeuli yrmis sibrZnismetyveli Tvali momavlis dReebs,
Tavis mijnurTa dass _ Tavisi RvTiuri modgmis STamomavlebs, uSfoTvelad
Wvretda Tavisi miwieri cxovrebis gangebas.
sul male gars Semoudgnen mas mxurvale siyvaruliT Sepyrobili
bavSviviT umanko sulni. yvaviliviT Caisaxa mis siaxloves axali, ucnobi
sicocxle. uSreti sityvebi da sanatreli ambebi naperwklebiviT ifrqveoda
RmerTTan wilnayari sulis saTno bageebidan. Soreul napirebze, eladis
naTeli zecis qveS Sobili mgosani movida palestinaSi da suli da
guli uZRvna saocar yrmas:
Sen xar Wabuki, mgloviare, vinc
Cvens saflavebs moevline uxsovari droSi;
sxivo nugeSis _
kacTa modgmis lxenis sawyiso.
ramac Cagvagdo mware naRvelSi
axla agvavso netari ltolviT.
maradi sicocoxle gacxadda sikvdilSi,
Sen xar sikvdili, gvacxovne, modi.

romantizmis istoriis filosofia novalisis Ramis himnebSi...

65

lxeniTaRvsili mgosani indostanisken gaeSura _ guli misi utkbesi


trfobiT iyo nasvami. cecxlovani simRerebi daafrqvia nazi zecis qveS
da aTasobiT guli Tayvans scemda mas _ sasixarulo cnoba aTasgziT
vrceldeboda. sul male, mgosanTan ganSorebis Semdeg, netari cxovreba
msxverplad Seewira adamianTa codviTdacemas. is Wabukur asakSi miicvala,
mowyvetili Tavis sayvarel qveyanas, cremlebdaltobil dedas da Tavis
ZrwoliTaRvsil megobrebs. eniTuTqmeli tanjviT savse Tasi gamoscales
Zvirfasma bageebma. sazari SiSiT moiwevda axali samyaros Sobis Jami.
medgrad ebrZoda igi Zveli Jamis sikvdilis Zrwolas. mZime jvarad
awva mas Zveli samyaro. ukanasknelad miapyro saTno mzera dedas. da
movlenil iqna maradi siyvarulis mxsneli xeli _ man miiZina.
sul mcire Jams gadakvroda bneli sudara aboboqrebul zRvas,
modgandgare miwas. uricxvi cremli daRvares mijnurTa. beWedi aexsna
saidumlos _ zecierma sulebma zeaRmarTes lodi bneli saflavidan.
angelozni Camosxdnen miZinebulTan. Tavisi sizmrebidan dabrunda igi
axladqmnili, axali saRmrTo didebulebiT aRvsili da amaRlda
axladSobil samyaroSi. Tavisive xelebiT dafla Zveli cxedari mitovebul
mRvimeSi da Tavisi yovladZlieri xeliT lodi daado zed, romelsac
verara Zala Zvras ver uzams.
jer isev Rvridnen Seni mijnurni lxenis, aRtyinebis da usasrulo
madlierebis cremlebs Sens saflavTan. da lxeniT aRvsilTa gixiles
mkvdreTiT aRmdgari, da isinic wamogyvnen Sen. gixiles, ros dedis
kurTxeul mkerdze gznebiT daalte cremlebi, ros gaeSure
megobrebTan, fiqriT aRvsili. sityvebs warTqvamdi, TiTqos cxovrebis
xidan mowyvetils. gixiles Sen, ros iswrafvodi netarebiT aRvsili
mamis xelis saamborod, raTa Sva kacTa axali modgma da miarTva mas
oqros saukunis dauSreteli Tasi. dedac sul male wamogyva zeciuri
triumfiT. is pirveli geaxla axal samSobloSi. mas mere mravalma
Jamma ganvlo da umaRlesi sidiadiT Seimosa Seni axali qmnileba.
aTasni iltvian Senken rwmeniT, natvriT da erTgulebiT aRvsilni,
romelTac sZlies tanjvas da tkivils. siyvarulis samefoSi ivaneben
SenTan da zeciur qalwulTan, msaxuroben zeciuri sikvdilis taZarSi
da samaradisod SenTan arian. [...]

66

nino daraselia

Sorisdebuli freimuli
semantikis TvalsazrisiT
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori.
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
humanitarul mecnierebaTa
fakultetis inglisuri
filologiis mimarTulebis asocirebuli
profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`siCume - zogadi maxasiaTeblebi, ganmapirobebeli
faqtorebi~, `gza enisaken~,
saq.mecn.akad.arn.Ciqobavas
enaTmecnierebis instituti,1998. `metyvelebis
nawilebi rogorc aramkafio simravleni~, `saenaTmecniero Ziebani~ # 28,
saq. mecn.akad.arn.Ciqobavas
sax. enaTmecnierebis instituti,2002. ` On the
Nature of Interjections from
the Standpoint of Communicative Competence, Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences,
vol.170, #3. 2004 November-December. `Sorisdebuli rogorc sametyvelo
aqti~, `saenaTmecniero
Ziebani~ # 26 , 2007.
interesTa sfero:
kognituri lingvistika,
semantika, pragmatika.

rogorc cnobilia, kognitologiaSi


arsebobs adamianis grZelvadian mexsierebaSi
situaciaTa stereotipuli codnis amsaxvel
kognitur struqturaTa aRmniSvneli
ramdenime termini: freimi (minski 1975,
filmori 1982, Carniaki 1975, heizi 1979,
gofmani,1974), skri pti (Senki, abelsoni
1977), scenari (senfordi, garodi 1981), sqema
(bartleti 1932) sqemata (van deiki 1986,
taneni 1979) CamoTvlili terminebisa da
maT ukan mdgari Teoriebis arsi efuZneba
adamianis unars gamoitanos stereoti puli
daskvnebi da gamoimuSaos garkveuli damokidebuleba, ganwyoba mis gare samyaroSi arsebuli Cveuli sagnebisa da movlenebis mimarT (brauni, iuli1983: 234-238). aRniSnuli
terminologiuri mravalferovneba ar gulisxmobs urTierTsawinaaRmdego Teoriebis
arsebobas;Aes terminebi mxolod alternatiuli metaforebia, romlebic individis
mexsierebaSi samyaros Sesaxeb codnis organizebis da diskursis interpretaciisas aRniSnuli codnis aqtivaciis meqanizmebs
aRweren.
adamianis mexsierebis daxasiaTebisas
gamoyofen mis Semdeg funqciebs: informaciis
dagrovebis, amocnobis, moZiebis da gamoZaxebis
(kubriakova et al.1996: 11-12). kognitologTa
gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs is enobrivi
erTeulebi, romlebic freimuli ti pis
kognituri struqturebis aqtivacias iwveven
(kubriakova et al. 1996: 12-13). dakvirvebam

Sorisdebuli freimuli semantikis TvalsazrisiT

67

cxadyo, rom aseT enobriv erTeulTa ricxvs SeiZleba Sorisdebuli


mivakuTvnoT.
rogorc viciT, adamianis grZelvadian mexsierebaSi rogorc
realuri, aseve warmosaxviTi samyaros Sesaxeb codna sxvadasxva
ti pis reprezentaciebis saxiT aris warmodgenili. maT niSnobrivi,
kerZod, simboluri xasiaTi aqvT. isini adamianis gonebaSi axdenen
samyaros fragmentis kodirebas. amasTan erTad, adamians Seswevs
unari Seqmnas ara mxolod reprezentaciebi samyaros Sesaxeb, aramed
aseve reprezentaciaTa reprezentaciebi anu metareprezentaciebi, e.i.
azrTa enas Seswevs unari Seasrulos sakuTarive metaenis funqcia
(sperberi, uilsoni 1986: 74). SeiZleba gavavloT paraleli siRrmiseul kognitur struqturebs reprezentacia- metareprezentacia
da zedapirul erTeulebs_Setyobineba- metaSetyobineba _ Soris.
rogorc cnobilia, calkeuli Setyobinebis interpretacia or doneze
xdeba: Setyobinebas aqvs referenciuli mniSvneloba da simptomuri
mniSvneloba, anu yovel Setyobinebas Tan axlavs metaSetyobineba,
romelic gvawvdis informacias Setyobinebis warmomqmneli individis
intenciaze, ganwyobaze, anu metaSetyobineba qmnis calkeuli
gamonaTqvamis an mTlianad diskursis moduss. Cemi TvalsazrisiT,
Sorisdebuli swored metareprezentaciis verbaluri realizaciis
erT-erTi efeqturi saSualebaa. es gansakuTrebiT mkafiod
Sorisdebulis erTerT diskursul funqciaSi _ diskursis markeris
funqciaSi _ vlindeba.
zemomoyvanili ori Tvalsazrisis safuZvels Sorisdebulis
kognituri buneba iZleva. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Sorisdebulis
kognituri arsi mis indeqsurobaSi mdgomareobs. indeqsuroba madominirebeli Tvisebaa TviT iseTi SorisdebulebisaTvis, romlebic
warmoSobiT simboloebs da xatebs warmoadgenen. dakvirvebam cxadyo,
rom Sorisdebulis indeqsuri buneba gansazRvravs mis Semdeg
lingvistur maxasiaTeblebs:
1. konteqstTan mWidro kavSirs. Sorisdebuli, rogorc niSanindeqsi gulisxmobs faqtobriv, realur mosazRvreobas aRmniSvnelsa
da aRsaniSns Soris, rac Tavis mxriv ganapirobebs Sorisdebulis
polisemantur bunebas; calkeuli Sorisdebuli asocirdeba ramdenime
propoziciasTan da aseve ramdenime sakomunikacio situaciasTan,
Tumca, erTerT propozicias, iseve rogorc erTerT scenas prototi puli xasiaTi aqvs.
2. Sorisdebuli ego-ze orientirebuli enobrivi erTeulia; igi
gamoxatavs sxvadasxva ti pis propoziciul mimarTebebs: ego-s

68

nino daraselia

damokidebulebas sakomunikacio aqtis sxvadasxva elementis


mimarT_adresatis, diskursis Temis, sakuTari Tavisadmi, an mTlianad
sametyvelo situaciis konteqstisadmi. anu Sorisdebuli qmnis
diskursis modalobas, mas diskursSi uWiravs modusis sloti.
3. indeqsuroba gansazRvravs Sorisdebulis deiqtur bunebas
da rac gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia winamdebare naSromisaTvis, igi
gansazRvravs Sorisdebulis ostensur qcevis ti ps diskursSi.
sayuradReboa, rom Catarebulma kvlevam gamoavlina mWidro kavSiri
freimul semantikasa da relevanturobis cnebas Soris. d. sperberisa
da d. uilsonis relevanturobis Teoriisa (1986) da masSi
warmodgenili komunikaciis ostensur-inferenciuli modelis
TvalsazrisiT Sorisdebulis analizma damanaxa, rom komunikaciisas
Sorisdebuli asrulebs ostensuri stimulis rols, igi i pyrobs
adresatis yuradRebas, mimarTavs mas relevantur informaciaze,
asrulebs diskursSi megzuris rols, anu exmareba adresats amoicnos
adresantis intencia. komunikaciisas Sorisdebuli aris
relevanturobis prezumfciis, relevanturobis principis matarebeli
enobrivi erTeuli. Sesabamisad, igi zRudavs diskursis dasaSveb
interpretaciaTa odenobas da uadvilebs adresats diskursis
adekvatur interpretacias (daraselia 2002). Sorisdebuli, rogorc
ostensuri stimuli axdens adresatis azrovnebis stimulirebas
da iwvevs garkveuli ti pis freimis an freimTa erTobliobis
aqtivacias. adresati ki Setyobinebis aRqmisas agebs mentalur
sivrces romlis farglebSic (CarCoSi) igi axdens teqstiT
operirebas. aqtivirebuli freimi/freimebi qmnis Setyobinebis
interpretaciisaTvis inferenciul safuZvels.
aRniSnulis sailustraciod ganvixiloT Semdegi inglisuri,
qarTuli da rusuli magaliTebi:
inglisuri magaliTi, sagazeTo werili `The Guardian Weekly-s
1984 wlis 4 aprilis nomridan:
Unquiet flows the Neva
Oops! There goes Linda Blandford (March 4) choosing politely to overlook
how few denizens of culturally-benighted Los Angeles can pick up on the reference
made by that citys Lermitage hotel to Leningrads museum.
Perhaps it would be equally polite of me to pass over the fact that Lermitage
in Leningrad stands by the River Neva - whereas three sentences earlier the
erudite Ms Blandford erroneously has the Neva flowing through Moscow.
John Western,
Temple University, Philadelphia

Sorisdebuli freimuli semantikis TvalsazrisiT

69

moyvanili sagazeTo werili (dabeWdilia rubrikis Letters to the


editor qveS) warmoadgens Sorisdebul oops-is werilobiT diskursSi
gamoyenebis saintereso nimuSs. avtoritetuli inglisurenovani
leqsikonebisa da informantebis monacemebis Tanaxmad Sorisdebuli
oops araoficialuri registrisaTvis, ZiriTadad zepirmetyvelebiTi
diskursisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. man SeiZleba gamoxatos
individis gaoceba, wuxili, erTgvari mobodiSeba moulodneli, xSirad
individis mouqnelobiT gamowveuli marcxis gamo (gansakuTrebiT
raime nivTis dagdebis SemTxvevaSi). oops gamoiyeneba agreTve Secdomis
gasworebisas, magaliTad warmoTqmiTi Secdomis (esec xom garkveuli
ti pis marcxia) an Secdomaze yuradRebis gasamaxvileblad, imis
xazgasasmelad, rom es uneblied moxda.
moyvanil werilSi oops amaxvilebs redaqtorisa da mkiTxvelis
yuradRebas `The Guardian Weekly~-s 1984 wlis 4 martis nomerSi
gamoqveynebul linda blendfordis publikaciaSi daSvebul
geografiul Secdomaze publikaciaSi moskovi moxseniebulia
rogorc nevaze gaSenebuli qalaqi. amiT aixsneba zemomoyvanili
werilis saTauri `Unquiet flows the Neva~. diskursis markeris
funqciiT naxmari oops romelic werilis pirvelsave abzacSi gvxvdeba,
i pyrobs adresatis yuradRebas da auwyebs mas garkveuli ti pis
marcxis Sesaxeb. es qmnis oops-iT ganxorcielebuli ostensuri
qmedebis informaciis pirvel bazisur Sres. marcxis ti pis
dakonkreteba (am SemTxvevaSi es aris reportioris Secdoma) werilSi
xdeba. Sesabamisad oops-iT ganxorcielebuli ostencia relevanturobis garantiis matarebelia. igi adresantis intenciis
miuTiTos Secdomaze da ganmartos igi implikacias Seicavs. oopsis meSveobiT werilis me-2 abzacSi mocemuli eqsplicituri ganmarteba
ufro TvalsaCino xdeba, es ki uadvilebs mkiTxvels Setyobinebis
interpretacias. sayuradReboa, rom oops aRniSnul werilSi asrulebs
erTgvari Semarbilebeli zRudis (hedge) funqcias. werilSi Cans
avtoris ironia magaliTad linda blendfordis mimarT naxmar
epiTetSi the erudite Ms. Blandford, oops-is gamoyenebiT ki (rogorc
aRiniSna, oops uneblie, SemTxveviT Secdomas gulisxmobs) xdeba
ironiis Serbileba. moyvanil magaliTSi oops globaluri markeria,
is teqstis Semkvreli enobrivi erTeulia misi meSveobiT aRniSnuli
sagazeTo teqsti amyarebs mimarTebas rogorc eqstralingvistur,
aseve lingvistur konteqstTan; erTi mxriv, oops warmoadgens reaqcias
winare diskursze (gazeTis wina gamoSvebaSi dabeWdil publikaciaze)
da am mxriv moyvanili sagazeTo werili warmoadgens ufro farTo

70

nino daraselia

sagazeTo diskursis rgols, xolo, meore mxriv, oops mimarTulia


win, saTqmelisaken, igi moyvanil werilSi gamoqveynebul informaciazea
orientirebuli. sayuradReboa, sxva ti pis deiqturi mimarTebac
aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi oops orientirebulia adresatze (mkiTxveli,
redaqtori) da aseve me-3 pirze Secdomis Semcveli publikaciis
avtorze linda blendfordze. aRniSnul SeemTxvevaSi oops
emsaxureba ara adresantis Secdomis gamosworebas, aramed miuTiTebs
me-3 piris Secdomaze.
ganvixiloT qarTuli magaliTi nawyveti interviudan msaxiob
Tengiz arCvaZesTan.
manana jurxaZe: gaixseneT pirveli damoukidebeli nabiji.
T.a.: ... omis droa, ukve 14 wlisa var. cxonebulma babuaCemma,
nikoloz markozis Ze sxirtlaZem, gaanaTlos ufalma misi suli,
cxeni Semikazma, Semsva, Tan miTxra `Sens tolebs arasodes
gamoakldeo~ da gamiSva Tamaris kldis Ziras sofel boyvaSi. iq
Cveni axloblebi saxlobdnen da Rame maTTan unda gameTia.
warmoidgineT axla Cemi mdgomareoba, asfaltze gazrdili biWi
uceb cxenze aRmovCndi, raRa bevri gavagrZelo da mSvidobiT Cavedi.
12 ivlisia, petre-pavloba. mosaRamovda, cota naRvinebic var da
Rame darCena aRar movindome, Sevjeqi isev Cems cxenze da saxlisaken
wamovedi. Walebis gadasaxvevs mivuaxlovdiT, cxeni iqiT iwevs, me
pirdapir veqaCebi, bolos damyva... dilis rabiribo iyo, roca imereTs
gadavadeqi, Sevcbi, tanSi Jruantelma damiara, mivxvdi, rom gza damebna,
ukan uRrani tyea, movabrune cxeni, mivuSvi aRviri da TviTon cxenma
mimiyvana saxlSi. oo
oo, cxeni Zalze Wkviania... es iyo yvelaze pirveli
damoukidebeli da CemTvis mnivSnelovani nabiji.
`epoqis WuWySi gausvreli kaci~
`Tbilisis universiteti~ 2001w. 14 XII
moyvanil magaliTSi emociur Sorisdebul oo-s Semohyavs
monakveTis daskvniTi nawili. oo-s aq emfaturi datvirTva aqvs
is warmoaCens cxenis rols T. arCvaZis mier gakeTebul pirvel,
damoukidebel nabijSi. cxenis buneba erTgvari aRmoCena iyo 14
wlis biWisaTvis. Sorisdebul oo-s gareSe gamonaTqvami cxeni
Zalze Wkviania kargavs Tavis sakomunikacio datvirTvas (miuxedavad
imisa, rom gamonaTqvami Seicavs intensifikators Zalze).
Sorisdebulis gareSe igi aRiqmeba, rogorc Cveulebrivi, mSrali
komentari. amrigad, am SemTxvevaSic, msgavsad inglisuri magaliTisa,
Sorisdebuli relevanturobis prezumfciis matarebelia. amasTan

Sorisdebuli freimuli semantikis TvalsazrisiT

71

erTad, emociuri Sorisdebuli `oo~ aq ara mxolod gamonaTqvamis,


aramed diskursis moyvanili monakveTis moduss qmnis.
interess iwvevs aseve Semdegi rusuli magaliTi, nawyveti b.
akuninis moTxrobidan `probleba 2000~:
, ! ! -
, . - !
, , ,
. , .
. - ,
. -
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
. - ,
...
,
. - ,
.
, , 1901 , , 1 1900-...
moyvanili nawyveti warmoadgens moTxrobis sawyiss monakveTs,
romelSic Tavidanve gamoikveTeba kontrasti or gansxvavebul samyaros
raindul, oficruli Rirsebis epoqas me-19 saukunesa da
pragmatul, damdeg me-20 saukunes, da mTavari gmiris xedviT masTan
asocirebul vaWrukanaTa wress Soris. warsulis dabruneba
SeuZlebelia, mTavari moqmedi piri, lucki mwvaved aRiqvams warmavali
drois majiscemas, daundobel dros veraferi ver SeaCerebs da
masTan erTad Cabardeba warsuls me-19 saukunesTan asocirebuli
faseulobani, masTan erTad Cabardeba warsuls luckis, rogoc
pirovnebis is nawili, romelic am faseulobebiT cxovrobda.
ususuroba warmavali drois winaSe, ganuxorcielebeli ocnebebi da
gegmebi da amiT miyenebuli tkivili da sinanuli yovelive aman
mTavari moqmedi piri TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobamde miiyvana, yovelive
es aris Caqsovili Sorisdebul -Si, romelic qmnis aRniSnuli
monakveTis moduss, mkiTxvels karnaxobs im tonalobas, romelSic
unda iqnas wakiTxuli moTxrobis es nawili. sayuradReboa, rom
asocirdeba poetur, mxatvrul da naklebad yofiT metyvelebasTan,

nino daraselia

72

moTxrobaSi warmoadgens luckis samyaross aRmniSvnel erTgvar


simptoms. amasTan erTad, aris makavSirebeli rgoli moTxrobis
pirvel abzacebsa da momdevno monakveTs Soris.
moyvanil magaliTebSi Sorisdebulis meSveobiT adresatis
yuradRebis relevantur informaciaze gamaxvilebiT, adresanti
uadvilebs adresats informaciis damuSavebis process, amcirebs
Zalisxmevas, romelic am procesisaTvis aris saWiro da amiT qmnis
warmatebuli komunikaciis garantias.
amrigad, inglisur, qarTul da rusul enaTa masalaze Catarebulma
kvlevam cxadyo, rom Sorisdebuli miekuTvneba im enobriv erTeulTa
ricxvs, romlebic komunikaciisas axdenen adamianis grZelvadian
mexsierebaSi arsebuli freimis ti pis kognituri struqturebis
aqtivacias. komunikaciisas diskursSi sakvanZo mniSvnelobis mqone,
relevanturobis prezumfciis, relevanturobis principis matarebeli
Sorisdebuli asrulebs ostensuri stimulis rols igi i pyrobs
adresatis yuradRebas, mimarTavs mas relevantur informaciaze, axdens
adresatis azrovnebis stimulirebas da iwvevs garkveuli ti pis
freimis an freimTa erTobliobis aqtivacias. aqtivirebul freimebze
dayrdnobiT adresati agebs mentalur sivrces, romlis
farglebSic(CarCoSi) igi axdens teqstiT operirebas. aqtivirebuli
freimi/freimebi qmnis diskursis interpretaciisaTvis inferenciul
safuZvels, rac Tavis mxriv zRudavs dasaSveb interpretaciaTa
odenobas.
literatura
bartleti 1932: Bartlett F. C., Remembering : A Study in Experimental
and Social Psychology, Cambridge: CUP 1932.
brauni, iuli 11983:
983: Brown, G., Yule, G.., Discourse Analysis, Cambridge :
Cambridge University Press,1983.
gofmani 11974:
974: Goffman, E., Frame Analysis, New York, Harper and Row,
1974.
daraselia 2002: daraselia n., `Sorisdebuli da relevanturoba~,
`saenaTmecniero Ziebani~ XII, saq. mecnierebaTa akademiis arn.
Ciqobavas sax. enaTmecnierebis instituti, Tbilisi, 2002.
van deiki 11986:
986: van Dijk, Prejudice in discourse: An analysis of ethnic
prejudice in cognition and conversation. Amsterdam,1986.

Sorisdebuli freimuli semantikis TvalsazrisiT

73

kubr
iakova et al. 1996: .., .,, .
kubriakova
., .., ,
,1996.
minski 11975:
975: Minski M., A framework for representing knowledge, in:
(ed..) Winsto, P.H., The Psychology of Computer Vision, New York:
McGraw-Hill.1975.
senfordi, garodi 1981: Sanford A. J., Garrod S. C., Understanding
Written Language, Chichester 1981.
sperber i, uilsoni 11986:
986: Sperber D., Wilson D., Relevance:
Communication and Cognition, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
taneni 11979:
979: Tannen D., Whats in a frame? Surface evidence for underlying
expectations , in ( ed,) R. O. Freedle 1979.
filmori 198
1982: Fillmore Ch. J., Frame Semantics//Linguistics in the morning
calm; Selected papers from the SICOL, Seoul,1982.
Senki, abelsoni 11977:
977: Schank R. C., Abelson R.P., Scripts, plans, goals,
and understanding: An inquiry into human knowledge structures, Hillsdale
(N.J.), 1977
Carniaki 1975: Charniak E., Organization and inference in a frame-like
system of common-sense knowledge in: (eds.) R.C.Schank and B.I. NashWebber, 1975.
heizi 1979
1979:: The Logic of Frames , in (ed,) D. Metzig 1979.
gamoyenebuli leqsikonebi
qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, rvatomeuli, Tbilisi, 1950.
Cambridge International Dictionary of English, CUP, 1996.
Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, Chambers, Edingburgh, 1996.
. . , , . ,
, 1970.

74

manana kvaWantiraZe

,,ori Zmis koncepti.


interteqstulobis fsiqosocialuri aspeqtebi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis saxelobis
literaturis institutis qarTuli literaturis ganyofilebis gamge,
Jurnal `kritikis~
mTavari redaqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
,,me Cems sakuTar Senobas
vageb, ,,oTar WilaZis
mxatvruli sistemis semiologiuri aspeqtebi,
`werilebi literaturaze, ,,gameoreba.
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, semiotika.

Cveni interesis sagani qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis kargad nacnobi ori moTxrobaa:


ilia WavWavaZis `sarCobelazed~ da guram
gegeSiZis `SurisZieba~. problemebi, romlebic
maTSi daismis da SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs,
isini erT saanalizo sibrtyeze davayenoT,
orive SemTxvevaSi eTikur-moraluri xasiaTisaa da gansakuTrebiT kargad socialuri da fsiqologiuri rakursebidan
imzireba. avtorTa `mrwamssa da paToss
humanizmis cnebis Sinaarsisadmi gansakuTrebuli interesi gansazRvravs (naTaZe 2008:
217). isic cxadia, rom XIX-XX saukuneebs
Soris arsebuli veeberTela gansxvavebis gamo
igi verafriT ver iqneba erTgvarovnad
gadawyvetili. moulodneli arc isaa, rom
`ori Zmis~ koncepti kulturis saerTo
teqstSi, tradiciulad, gansakuTrebul
adgils ikavebs da literaturul teqstebs
Soris gadaZaxilebis SesamCnevi simravliT
gamoirCeva. mTavaria, rogor wyvets kulturis
konkretuli drosivrce problemas da ra
koreqtivi Seaqvs masSi.
problematikis garda, orive moTxrobas
erTi ram aerTianebs: avtorebis xazgasmiT
seriozuli, tragizmamde misuli gancda
adamianis problemisa; daZabuli, dadarajebuli mzera mis sulSi mimdinare procesebis mimarT (ilia am abstraqtul toposs
akonkretebs. esaa guli: (,,RmerTi guls ufro

,,ori Zmis koncepti. interteqstulobis fsiqo-socialuri aspeqtebi

75

Sinjavs, minam saqmes~) da mkiTxvelis pasuxismgeblobis aRZvris


Seufaravi survili. am survils ilia petresadmi, anu `saqristiano
saqarTvelos~ saxeliT molaparake pesonaJisadmi dasmuli SekiTxviTa
da braldebiT gamoxatavs, guram gegeSiZe ki Tavisi gmiris Sinagan
moZraobas Rrma fsiqologiuri SinaarsiT tvirTavs da am moZraobis
SesaZlo SedegTan dakavSirebiT mkiTxvelTan aSkara, Ria
inteleqtualur dialogs marTavs. erTi ram amTaviTve unda iTqvas:
,,SurisZieba moTxrobaa mopovebaze, `sarCobelazed~ _ danakargis
Sesaxeb gviambobs. g. gegeSiZe agrZelebs ilias mZime saubars imaTze,
vinc ver icnes, gariyes da gulgrilobiT daRupes, Tumca iqve,
moTxrobaSive eZebs gamosavals da poulobs kidec. ilias xedvis
rakursi socialuria, gegeSiZisa fsiqologiuri. orive es rakursi
erTmaneTs moralur-eTikur sibrtyeze gadakveTs.
kulturisa d zogadad, cnobierebis sivrceSi am gadaZaxilebis
arseboba savsebiT mosalodnelia, metic, swored mexsierabaa am
totaluri teqstis fundamenturi niSani. gegeSiZis gmirs uTuod
esmis ilias xma, ufro zustad, umcrosi Zmis xma, TiTqos wakiTxulic
aqvs mis mier petresaTvis gadacemuli `wignis~ araCveulebrivad
damuxtuli, `mxurvale~ teqsti, romelic Tavisi energetikiT ufro
gaxmovanebul sityvas hgavs, vidre dawerils.
biWebi ori oboli Zma erTad midian, TiTqos verc amCneven
erTmaneTs, magram uxilavi jaWviT arian gadabmulni iseve, rogorc
ilias Zmebi. zusti da metyveli suraTebis mTeli wyeba bavSvebis
mzeris rakursiTaa mowodebuli: xarbad acqerdebian da Taviseburad
`iTviseben~ garemos: sazamTros, boSa qals... maT mzeraSi ufrosi
Zmis axladgaRviZebuli mamakacuri instinqtebi irekleba, umcrosisa
_ bavSvuri cnobismoyvareoba, orives piris Cagemrielebis uimedo
survili. maTgan gansxvavebiT, ilias Zmebs avtoris Semfasebeli
sityva mihyvebaT. miuxedavad imisa, rom ilia biWebs `garedan~ xedavs,
misi damokidebuleba `Sinagania~. igi Sinagani intuiciiT afasebs
Zmebs, TiTqos gvamzadebs imisaTvis, rasac mogvianebiT SevityobT.
guram gegeSiZis gmirebs aranakleb gulgrili, angariSiani garemo
xvdebaT win, vidre ilias personaJebs. is kaci, biWebis mamis megobari
romaa da biWebs sazamTros ar uyidis mainc ver micnobeno, _
petreze uaresia da ara ukeTesi. froidis fsiqoanalizis Tanaxmad,
matramvirebeli sawyisi adamianis Sinagan bunebaSia, humanisturi
fsiqologiis mixedviT ki _ gare realobaSi devs. ilia TiTqos am
ori moZRvrebis polrizebas xdens Zmebs Soris, Tumca misi problema
umcrosi Zmaa, romelic bunebiT ki ara, socialuri garemos `wyalobiT~

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aRmoCnda ganwiruli. imas, rasac ilias es personaJi ver Zlevs,


guram gegeSiZis gmiri eWideba da imarjvebs kidec. ilias personaJebi
TavianT socialur rols ganuwyvetel SurisZiebaSi xedaven, rezikos
SemTxvevaSi ki garemosTan dapirispirebis destruqciuli impulsi
mitevebis konstruqciul gadawyvetilebaSi gadaizrdeba. ilias
moTxrobaSi umcrosi Zma grZnobs sulis Sinagan Zaxils maSinac,
roca petres sikeTe aaforiaqebs da maSinac, roca ZmasTan erTad
ganvlili gzis Sefasebas axdens, magram SurisZiebis impulssa da
swor socialur qcevas Soris arCevani ver gaukeTebia, metic,
gaazrebulad ambobs uars am ukanasknelze, ver iyenebs Tavis yvelaze
Rrma adamianur SesaZleblobas. ilia Tavis gmirs winaswar xedavs
saxrCobelaze, reziko ki im mniSvnelovan da monatrebul pasuxamde
midis, rom cxovrebasTan yoveli dapirispireba sinamdvileSi
adamianebisken aris mimarTuli da amiT cxovreba sulac ar xdeba
ukeTesi da samarTliani.
qcevis fsiqologiaSi gaziarebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, ganwyoba
qcevis meqanizmi, qcevisTvis mzaobaa. aqtivobaSi vlindeba is, rac
ganwyobaSia mocemuli, magram imis dadgenas, gaazrebulia Tu ara
qmedeba, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs pirovnebis adekvaturi
funqcionirebisaTvis. gauazrebloba fsiqologiaSi ganisazRvreba,
rogorc `reducirebuli kognitiuri aqtivobis mdgomareoba, rodesac
individi garemodan mosul signalebs avtomaturad amuSavebs
(baliaSvili 2004:5). aseTi reducirebuli aqtivobis magaliTia
umcrosi Zmis cemis scena, roca reziko gauazreblad, avtomaturad
sjis Zmas, rogorc SesaZlo damsmens. qcevis motivacia aseTia: rezikom
Seucdomlad icis, ra aris misTvis Zma da am siyvarulis, am arabavSvuri
Tavdadebis sapasuxod misgan usityvo morCilebas moiTxovs.
sakmarisia erTi winaaRmdegoba, erTi Sepasuxebac, da Cvens Tvalwin
RvarcofiviT gadmoiRvreba yvelaferi, rac cxovrebam Caaguba patara
biWis gulSi: siZulvili, risxva, sisastike, gaboroteba. `man ar
icoda, risken iyo mimarTuli es siZulvili~ _ ambobs mwerali. es
gauazrebloba badebs rezikos avtomatur qcevasac.
avtomaturad ver CaiTvleba omaras epizodi. am SemTxvevaSi
rezikos mizani gaazrebulia imdenad, ramdendac Zneli Sesasrulebelia:
mowinaaRmdege masze yvelanairad Zlieria: fizikurad, asakiT,
socialurad, Tanac, omaraze SurisZiebiT rezikom Zmis winaSe Cadenili
sakuTari danaSauli (Tu usamarTloba) unda gamoisyidos. Zmis
faqtoris garda, SurisZiebis Sinagan moTxovnilebas ganapirobebs
rezikos ,,saZmos~, anu im socialuri jgufis molodinic, romlis

,,ori Zmis koncepti. interteqstulobis fsiqo-socialuri aspeqtebi

77

socialuri mxardaWerac misTvis aucilebelia, da romelic


ritualamde misul mis yoveldRiurobas Seadgens (banaoba, gogoebze
saubari, sigaretis moweva da a. S.). mkiTxvels im `Sinaganawessac~
SevaxsenebT, romliTac moTxrobaSi aRwerili fsiqosocialuri
jgufis wevrebi TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis ibrZvian. es brZola, rogorc
wesi, agresiuli formiT mimdinareobs. Zlieri cdilobs sustis
daCagvras. ase iqceva nodara riJas mimarT, reziko nodaras mimarT,
omara riJas mimarT, da bolos, rezikoc omaras mimarT. erTi
sityviT, jgufis SigniT umkacresi ierarqia da aucilebeli
normativebia, Tumca maTi qcevis kodeqss socialuri erTianobis
gancda da rigi humanuri normebic gansazRvravs. magaliTad, megobris
Zma ar unda daCagro, samarTliani unda iyo. Tuki sazamTros Senive
`saZmos~ wevris baRidan iparav, qurdobaze, formalurad mainc, ufleba
unda moi povo, anu mas `samarTliani sasjelis~ saxe misce. rezikoc
ase iqceva da Tavisi `swori~ nabijebis gamo aqvs kidec lideris
statusi mopovebuli jgufSi.
sagulisxmoa, rom rogorc iliasTan, ise gegeSiZesTan personaJebi
swored im adamianebs upirispirdebian, romlebic socialuri da
interpersonaluri urTierTobis TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba iTqvas,
maTTvis `mimzidvelni arian. rogorc petres, ise omarasa da dedamisis
mimarT aSkarad vlindeba mTavar personaJTa ganwyobis `dadebiTi
valentoba~, magram arc erT, arc meore SemTxvevaSi ar xdeba am
`mimzidvelobis gardaqmna socialur gavlenad. cnobilia, rom `mizezi,
ris gamoc adamianebi erTmaneTze damokidebulni xdebian, uSualo
mimarTebaSia ,,mimzidvelobis dinamikasTan~ (maRraZe 2004: 81). Cvens
SemTxvevaSi personaJebi xifaTs swored am dadebiTi ganwyobis
mxridan grZnoben. ganwyoba maT ,,mimzidvelobis gavlenisagan Tavdacvas
karnaxobs. am mdgomareobis Sefaseba iliasTanaa mocemuli: ,,kinaRam
Senma sikeTem ar mominadira-o _ ise eubneba biWi petres, TiTqos
xifaTs daaRwia Tavi. magram ilias am `mimzidvelobis~ siZlierec
ar rCeba SeumCneveli (`dRemde maxsovs~). gavlenis Teoria miiCnevs,
rom socialuri da interpersonaluri kavSirebis gamaZlierebel
faqtorebs Soris gadamwyveti socialuri mxardaWeris mimarTulebaa.
`individi gverds uvlis, vinc uaryofs mas da eZebs maT, vinc miiRebs
da moiwonebs misi azrovnebisa da qcevis gzas~ (iqve). ase rom,
interpersonaluri `mimzidvelobis~ miuxedavad, petres sikeTe ver
Secvlis biWis arCevans, ver moi povebs socialur ndobas, radgan
gadawyvetilebis bolo wams biWi petres im socialur jgufs
miakuTvnebs, romelmac qurdobisken ubiZga (`eg rom kaci iyos, me ar

78

manana kvaWantiraZe

gamaZarcvinebda-meTqi~). samagierod, Zmis saxiT igi genetikurTan


erTad, srul socialur mxardaWeras grZnobs (`erTaderTi Cemi
patroni da gulSematkivari~).
amave ti pis arCevanis winaSe dgeba ,,SurisZiebis gmiric. es
epizodi personaJis xasiaTis amosacnobad Zalze mniSvnelovania da
masze odnav met xans SevCerdebiT: Tavisi amocanidan gamomdinare,
omarasadmi keTilganwyoba rezikosTvis saxifaToa. man SeiZleba
xeli SeuSalos mosalodneli brZolis win. Zmis dacvis survili,
Selaxuli Tavmoyvareoba, sakuTari TaviT ukmayofileba, cxovrebis
usamarTlobis gncda siZulvilSi gadaizrdeba da SurisZiebis saxiT
gamodis asparezze: omaras saxlSi misuli reziko aRmoaCens, rom
omaras aqvs yvelaferi, rac mas aklia. es gancda swored aq ibadeba
biWSi da ara sanapiroze, sadac TiTqmis yoveldRe xedavs omaras da
Zalian moswons _ Zlieri, lamazi, xalisiani. es interpersonaluri
mimzidveloba yuradRebis miRma tovebs im garemoebas, rom omara
socialurad `sxvaa~. (sanapiroze da banaobis `ampluaSi~, SesaZloa,
es `sxvaoba~ arc iyos TvalSisacemi). mwerali rezikos TvaliT
xedavs garemos saxls, ezos, Robes, rac mTavaria omaras dedas
keTils, sandomians. didi fsiqologiuri sizustiT aRweril am
epizodSi mkafiod Cans, rogoria deda rezikos warmodgenaSi, rogori
iqneboda misi saxli da mTeli is garemo, romelSic, cxovrebis
usamarTloba rom ara, rezikoc icxovrebda. rkinis WiSkari, biWs
mSoblebis sasaflaos rom agonebs, cementis bagiri, ezos win rom
gauWimavT, ara mxolod rezikosa da omaras Soris arsebul socialur
gansxvavebaze, aramed biWis realobasa da farul ocnebas Soris
aRmarTul gadaulaxav zRudeze migvaniSnebs.
reziko ukve siZulvils iwvevs, zrdis Tavis sulSi da am
saxifaTo gzas akvirdeba mwerali. igi Segnebulad iSorebs omars
dedisgan wamosul dadebiT energetikul signalebs, raTa atraqciam
ar daasustos. qcevis fsiqologiis enaze rom vTqvaT, misi qceva
,,uaryofiTad proaqtiuria, Tumca moTxrobaSi dadebiTi proaqtiurobis epizodsac vxvdebiT. dedis asakobrivi jgufis qalebTan
damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT, igi Sesadareblad sagulisxmo
masalas iZleva da im cvlilebebze migvaniSnebs, rac rezikos xasiaTSi
mwifdeba. am epizodSi reziko gaazrebulad ,,amuSavebs im ucnobi
qalisgan wamosul signalebs, romelic, rezikos fiqriT, mis Zmas
daCagvras upirebs (aseTive signalad aRiqmeba gawuwuli gogonas
kivilic). rezikosTvis isini garkveuli fsiqo-sicialuri ti pis
amosacnobi niSnebia: `Tavidanve amoicno am qalis xasiaTi. bundovnad

,,ori Zmis koncepti. interteqstulobis fsiqo-socialuri aspeqtebi

79

grZnobda, rom amiT iyo ase kmayofili~. am SemTxvevaSi rezikos


`proaqtiuroba~ mimarTulia sakuTari garemos Seqmnasa da konstruirebaze, iseTi velis Seqmnaze, sadac ZmasTan erTad Tavs usafrTxod igrZnobs. signalebis amocnoba ki pirovnebad Camoyalibebis
gzape miRweuli warmatebis niSania.
sxva SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme moTxrobis bolo epizodSi.
gavixsenoT, rogor ebrZvis ilias gmiri petresgan wamosul sikeTes
(`im Rames ver daviZine~) da ra sabediswero aRmoCndeba misTvis
maSin miRebuli gadawyvetileba (`gawydes, saca wvrilia-meTqi~).
rezikosTvis analogiuria omaras dedasTan Sexvedris epizodi.
swored am momentidan SeiZleba daiwyos rezikos gadagvareba. im
wamidan, omaras kvalSi rom Cadgeba da wonasworobas akargvinebs,
dinjad rom uaxlovdeba da orTabrZolaSi atanili gardatexiT
tkbeba, cxadi xdeba, rom rezikom ukve SeigrZno siZulvilis Zala
da masTan axdens sakuTari jerac Camouyalibebeli pirovnebis identificirebas. mwerali grZnobs, ra saSiSia reziko, roca masSi racionalisti moZalade ibadeba: gonebiT, mizanmimarTulad rom iyenebs
gaborotebis saSinel Zalas, mere ki, am axladaRmoCenili ,,WeSmaritebiT gaZlierebuli, cinikurad tkbeba mosalodneli gamarjvebiT:
`axla saSualeba hqonda TavisTvis Zala ar daetanebina da ise
dasweoda. is Sinaganad moemzada da auCqareblad wavida win~.
am gamarjvebiT mkiTxveli grZnobs, ratom irCevs reziko iaraRad
siZulvils. magram am incidentma isic unda gadawyvitos, ra gzas
daadgeba igi samomavlod cxovrebasTan, adamianebTan urTierTobaSi.
am arCevanma adamiani SeiZleba miiyvanos iq, sadac ilias moTxrobis
ori axalgazrda gmiri miiyvana maxaTas mTaze, erTi axlandeli,
meore ki momavali gansasjelis rolSi. guram gegeSiZe sxva
gamocdilebas gvTavazobs, Temis ganviTarebis gansxvavebul gzas irCevs,
braldebis veqtors cvlis da garedan SigniT Semoaqvs. ilias
personaJi, rogorc vTqviT, sazogadoebas debs brals. braldebis
obieqti `oTaraanT qvrivis~ `uTavbolo, uswormasworo wuTisofeli~
ki ar aris, aramed yru, ugulo sociumi, romelic, gaborotebis garda,
aRarafers utovebs adamians: `mZuls qveyana da adamiani ufro ...
Cvens Soris sabolood Cavtexe xidi. me erTi aqeT napiras davrCi,
Tqven mravalni iqiT~. guram gegeSiZis patara gmiri ki swored am
uswormasworo, usamarTlo cxovrebas upirispirdeba ufro zogad
da bundovan mocemulobas, ufro umisamarTosa da upirovnos,
abstraqtulsa da uxilavs, Sesabamisad, ufro Zliersac. am viTarebaSi
siZulvilic moumarTavia, moklebulia samarTlianobas da rezikoc,

80

manana kvaWantiraZe

damarcxebuli omarasagan daCoqebas rom moiTxovs, sastiki da


gaborotebuli ufroa, vidre samarTliani SurismaZiebeli. misi
gaboroteba sinamdvileSi cxovrebazea damiznebuli da ara omaraze.
amas TviT rezikoc igrZnobs da misive moraluri intuicia sulxansabas TqmiT, `mamxilebeli goni~ _ mitevebisken gadaagmevinebs nabijs,
ilias personaJisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic siZulvilis sasargeblod
akeTebs arCevans. ilia sazogadoebisgan elis `socialur aqtiurobas~,
im petresgan, `saqristiano saqarTvelos~ saxeliT rom umaspinZlebs
`mcire Zmebs~ da mere bedis anabarad miatovebs. iliasTan ganxeTqileba
radikaluria da Serigebac mxolod SesaZleblobis saxiT arsebobs
moTxrobis sivrcis gareT. guram gegeSiZes Serigeba moTxrobis
SigniT Semoaqvs, pirovnebis problemad aqcevs, misi gmiri Tavadve
agnebs Tavisi winamorbedis mier miugnebel pasuxs. am or moTxrobas
Soris gadaZaxili swored personaJis xasiaTis ganviTarebis doneze
ikiTxeba. aq imarTeba faruli polemika adamianis sulis raobaze.
guram gegeSiZe pasuxs iZleva ilias mier dasmul kiTxvaze _ ra
SuaSia petre? ra Tqma unda, sazogadoebis danaSauli aSkaraa, magram
kacobriobis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove doneze pirovnebam Tavad unda
aiRos pasuxismgebloba sakuTar qcevasa da gadawyvetilebaze. garemos
socialuri gavlenis daZleva SesaZlebelia da aucilebelic im
sulieri da mentaluri potencialis fonze, rasac adamiani flobs.
am azriT, `SurisZieba~ aramxolod fsiqologiuri sizustiTaa
momxiblavi, aramed adamianis sulieri Zalebis rwmeniTac.
davakvirdeT: saboloo gadawyvetilebas reziko moulodnelad,
TiTqos spontanurad iRebs. socialuri da fsiqologiuri
konteqstidan `amorTuls~, TiTqos uceb raRac sxva xma Caesmis.
Cven ver vgebulobT, ram aaRebina rezikos xeli ganzraxvaze, ram
gauCina misi adamianobis mxsneli gancda swored im momentSi, zneobrivi
ufskrulis piras rom aRmoCnda. misi sulis moZraoba fardis
miRma rCeba. SesaZloa, es ,,sxvad, ,,ucxod aRqmuli Senive msgavsis,
`Senianis~ damcirebis dakmayofilebuli instinqti iyo, myisierad
gadasuli meore ukiduresobaSi, am ltolvis simdablis gacnobierebul
aRqmaSi. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, saqme gvaqvs fsiqologiuri velis
moulodnel cvlilebasTan, misi struqturis SecvlasTan. ase rom,
rezikoSi momxdari cvlileba exeba ara mxolod rezikos, aramed
omarasac da maT Soris urTierTobis formas, savaraudod, sxvebTan
maTi Semdgomi urTierTobis formebsac. davakvirdeT ganwyobis
dinamikas finalur scenaSi: rezikos destruqciuli ganwyobis Sedegia
is, rom igi omaras daCoqebas Txovs, magram am moTxovnis sisastike

,,ori Zmis koncepti. interteqstulobis fsiqo-socialuri aspeqtebi

81

gansakuTrebulia da aSkarad araa omaras mier Cadenili saqcielis


(SemTxveviTis, saxumaros _ rogorc TviTon xsnis) da arc omaras
situaciuri qcevis Sedegi. am moTxovnaSi rezikos arsebaSi raRac
Zalze saxifaTo ram xdeba, raRac saSiSi, ucxo da faruli ganwyoba
konstruirdeba. amave ti pis ganwyobis sxva magaliTi Zmis cemis
scenaa. orive SemTxvevaSi sisastike gacilebiT aRemateba mowinaaRmdegis SesaZlo danaSauls da `acdenilia~ gamomwvev mizezs.
SeiZleboda dagveSva, rom aq Tavs iCens ucnobi fsiqologiuri energia,
romlis marTva rezikos ar SeuZlia. rogorc froidi ambobs,
`aracnobiers Cven vuwodebT fsiqikur process, romlis arseboba
unda davuSvaT, radgan mis Sesaxeb vaskvniT Sedegidan gamomdinare
ise, rom araferi viciT mis Sesaxeb (froidi 1923: 343).
guram gegeSiZis mier aRwerili Zmis cemis scena fsiqikur gamovlinebaTa winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTze, e. w. ambivalentobaze migviTiTebs. miCneulia, rom nebis sferoSi igi vlindeba ormagi qmedebebisken midrekilebaSi. emociurSi obieqtis mimarT dadebiTi
da uaryofiTi gancdebis erTobliobaSi. ambivalentoba warmoadgens
universalur fsiqikur movlenas da pirovnebis fsiqikur gaorebas
asaxavs. igi gamowveulia samyaroSi pirovnebis poziciuri
aramdgradobiT da safuZvlad udevs mTel rig momentalur
destruqciul qcevebs, magaliTad, midrekilebas obieqtebis ngrevisaken,
sadizms da a. S. (enikeevi 2002: 10). zemoTmotanil orive scenaSi _
ZmasTan da omarasTanac rezikoSi aSkarad vxedavT destruqciuli
fsiqikis niSnebs da igi aRarafriT hgavs im samarTlian, mzrunvel
biWs, manamde rom vicnobdiT.
ilias personaJi erTgan ambobs: `guli sadRac iwevda, ver davaokeT
da vera~. am fraziT ilia individis nebis warmmarTvel iseT Zalaze
gvatyobinebs, romelic cnobierebis kontrols ar emorCileba
(rusTaveli: `guli krulia kacisa, xarbi da gauZRomeli, / gulia
Jam-Jam yovelTa WirTa mTmo, lxinTa mdomeli, / guli _ brma, urCi
xedvisa, TviT veras ver gamzomeli, / verca hpatronobs sikvdili,
verca patroni romeli~). am fonze sayuradReboa rezikos finaluri
gadawyvetileba da is mosazreba, romelsac ganwyobis Tanamedrove
Teoriebi gvawvdian pirovnebis Sesaxeb: funqcionalur moTxovnilebebs,
romlebic specifikurad adamianur funqciebSi iReben saTaves Riaobis
potenciali gaaCniaT. es Ria xasiaTi vlindeba maT mudmivobaSi,
araciklurobaSi, dakmayofilebis fiqsirebuli donis uqonlobaSi,
ganviTarebis, zrdisa da realizaciis sul ufro maRali doneebisken
swrafvaSi (imedaZe 2004: 64). rezikos gadawyvetilebisgan gansxvavebiT,

manana kvaWantiraZe

82

ilias personaJis `aha, gadagiSale (guli _ m.k.) da lodi amecala~


_ am swrafvis pasiuri formaa. radgan dadebiT gadawyvetilebaSi
ar gadadis. rezikos SemTxvevaSi igi aqtiuria da moralur
gamocdilebaSi gadaizrdeba. im zneobriv impulss, reziko rom
moTxrobis finalSi saidanRac Rebulobs, mas aracnobieri awvdis,
magram am SemTxvevaSi froidiseuli `Tanatosis instinqti,
fatalurad gansazRvruli fsiqikuri energetika anu `uaryofiTi
cneba~ ki ar moqmedebs, aramed sxva, sapirispiro. uznaZis ganmartebiT,
`dadebiTi Sinaarsis cneba~, anu ganwyoba. da ramdenadac ganwyoba
`normaluri adaptaciis meqanizmia (imedaZe 2004: 65), incidenti
amowurulia. mwerali aq emSvidobeba Tavis gmirs. rezikom ukve
icis, rom siZulvili arafers aZlevs adamians, arc vnebebs
ukmayofilebas, arc siamayes. am momentidan igi brZeni, Tavisive
gamocdilebiT dadinjebuli da dasevdianebuli patara kacia. am
tanjviT mopovebul gamocdilebas andobs amieridan mwerali patara
biWis cxovrebas ,,uzarmazar, bnel da burusiT mocul qveyanaSi.
literatura
baliaSvili 2004: baliaSvili m. socialuri ganwyobebis roli
qcevis zogad konteqstSi. macne, # 1, Tb.: 2004.
enikeevi 2002: e . . . .:
- , 2002.
imedaZe 2004: imedaZe i. masalebi fsiqoanalizisa da ganwyobis
Teoris SedarebiTi analizisaTvis. macne, # 1, Tb.: 2004.
maRraZe 2004: maRraZe g. umciresobis gavlena da ganwyobis
valenturoba. macne, # 1, Tb.: 2004.
naTaZe 2008: naTaZe n. ori moTxroba. qarTuli kritikis saskolo
qrestomaTia. II. Tb.: gamomcemloba `saunje~, 2008.
froidi 11923:
923: e .
. . 1923.

83

ada nemsaZe

limonis simbolika oTar


WilaZis romanebSi
ena, miTi, religia, xelovneba da mecniereba aris
`simboluri forma~, romlis saSualebiTac adamiani
awesrigebs Tavis garSemo arsebul qaoss.
kasireri

filologiis macnierebaTa
doqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi
naSromebi:
sivrcis identifikaciis
rRveva oTar WilaZis
romanSi gzaze erTi kaci
midioda; oTar WilaZis
yovelman Cemman mpovnelman: TviTidentifikaciis krizisi; identobis problema Tanamedrove qarTul mwerlobaSi;
Txa da gigos postmodernuli versia.
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, semiotika.

XIX saukunis desimbolizebuli literatura XX saukuneSi Rrmad simbolizebulma literaturam Secvala. gamonaklisi arc Cveni uaxlesi mwerloba yofila. am TvalsazrisiT metad saintereso
mweralia oTar WilaZe. misi romanebis
mxatvruli sistema teqstis qsovilSi
CaRrmavebisas interpretaciis usazRvro
saSualebas iZleva.Aamis erT-erTi mTavari
mizezi aris e. w. `cnobierebis nakadis~
literaturasTan siaxlove, rac TavisTavad
gansazRvravs mwerlis xelweras: saTqmelis
simboloebiTa da kodebiT gadmocema. yoveli
simboluri forma warmoadgens aRqmis
gansazRvrul meTods, romlis saSualebiTac
konstruirdeba `sinamdvilis~ sakuTari,
gansakuTrebuli qveyana. Tuki movaxerxebT,
oTar WilaZis simboloTa azrobriv rezervs
nawilobriv mainc CavwvdeT, marTlac rom
saocar `qveyanaSi~ aRmovCndebiT. es aris
samyaro, romelSic sulieri Rirebulebani
da moraluri faseulobebi yvelaferze
maRla dgas, sadac yofiereba gakeTilSobilebulia, sadac sikeTis maradiulobis
problema saboloodaa gadaWrili.
oTar WilaZis simboloebi mravalferovania. mis romanebSi bevri ramis gaazreba
SeiZleba simbolurad, magaliTad: iremi,

84

ada nemsaZe

mamali, Tovli, saxedari, didi cacxvis xe, limoni, nataZrali (`yovelman


Cemman mpovnelman~); zRva, Teatri, aryian boTlSi Cadebuli kitri,
limoni, tye, cxvari, zamTris qoxi da misi binadrebi: brtyelsaxiani,
airwinaRiani da saTvaliani (`rkinis Teatri~); mamali, limoni,
nataZrali da masSi TavSefarebuli ucnobi, giJkolas dakarguli
mama, vano maswavleblis gauCinarebuli gogo (`martis mamali~) da
sxv. amgvari saxeebi teqstebSi mravlad moi poveba. maT Soris aris
ramdenime myari simbolo, romelic meordeba sxvadasxva romanSi da
yvela calkeul SemTxvevaSi sakuTari mniSvneloba aqvs. amjerad Cven
yuradRebas limonis simbolikas mivapyrobT da SevecdebiT, gavxsnaT
misi arsi da davadginoT is kanonzomiereba, rac sxvadasxva romanSi
erTi da imave simbolos gaazrebas ukavSirdeba.
jer kidev sosiuri upirispirebda erTmaneTs simbolos da
konvenciur niSans, usvamda ra xazs pirvelis ikonur elements:
saswori SeiZleba iyos samarTlianobis simbolo, radgan ikonurad
gulisxmobs Tanasworobis (Tanawonadobis) ideas, xolo sazidavi
ara. sosiuris am azris gaTvaliswinebiT, limonis ikonuri elementi
- mravalwliani maradmwvane kulturuli mcenare, velurad ar aris
SeniSnuli; kavkasiaSi misi moSenebis erT-erTi umTavresi raionia
Savi zRvis sanapiro; aqvs samkurnalo Tvisebebi - Tavidanve miuTiTebs
simbolos zogad saxeze. mxolod aqedan gamomdinarec SegviZlia
SevniSnoT, Tu ratom mimarTavs mwerali maincdamainc am simbolos:
igi aris, erTi mxriv, erovnuli identobis mimaniSnebeli (gavrcelebis
arealiT) da, meore mxriv, dadebiTi identobis niSani (samkurnalo
TvisebebiT).
simbolo, tropis erT-erTi saxeoba, iseTive Zvelia, rogorc
adamianuri azrovneba. amisTvis mxolod petre iberis `areopagetuli
krebulis~ dasaxelebac ikmarebda, sadac yovelive xiluli aRwerilia,
rogorc simbolo RvTis `uxilavi, idumali da ganusazRvreli~
arsisa. Tumc simbolos filosofiur-esTetikuri gaazreba SedarebiT
gviandelia, kulturuli ganviTarebis nayofia. misi uamravi ganmarteba
arsebobs. rogorc iuri lotmani aRniSnavs, `nebismieri lingvistursemiotikuri sistema arasrulyofilia, Tuki ar iZleva simbolos
sakuTar gansazRvrebas. ...da maSinac ki, roca ar viciT, ra aris
simbolo, TiToeulma sistemam icis, ra aris `misi simbolo~ da igi
mas sWirdeba sakuTari semiotikuri sistemis muSaobisaTvis~
(lotmani 1992: 191). Cvenc simbolos sxvadasxva ganmartebaze
dayrdnobiTa da mxatvruli sistemis konteqstis gaxsniT SevecdebiT,
SevaRwioT teqstis lingvistur qsovilSi.

limonis simbolika oTar WilaZis romanebSi

85

simbolo aris cneba, romelic afiqsirebs materialuri sagnebis,


movlenebis, grZnobadi saxeebis Tvisebas, gamoxatos idealuri Sinaarsi,
maTi uSualo grZnobad-konkretuli yofierebisagan gansxvavebiT
(averincevi 2001: 156). es ganmarteba ukve iZleva imis saSualebas,
rom limonSi davinaxoT bevri urTierTgansxvavebuli, magram ara
erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli mniSvneloba, ris SesaZleblobasac
oTar WilaZis mxatvruli sistema namdvilad iZleva.
romanSi `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~ am simbolos xvedriTi
wili sxva danarCen romanebTan SedarebiT mcirea, mxolod erTgan
aris naxsenebi, Tumc es sulac ar uSlis xels misi Rrma azrobrivi
velis Camoyalibebas. petre makabeli colad irTavs zRvispireli
Tavadis asuls. `patarZals babuca erqva, miqelaZis qali gaxldaT,
mis moaxles ki aRaTia. moaxlis garda, ficris patara yuTSi
Carguli limonis xe mohyva (romelic ori kviris Tavze gaxma da
yuTianad gadaagdes)~. limonis mniSvnelobas aq azustebs kidev
ramdenime detali. babucas masTan erTad mziTevSi mohyva sakmaod
vrceli biblioTeka, mamiseuli xmali da jvari. biblioTeka, xmali
da jvari wigniereba, erovnuli mebrZoli suli da qristianuli
rwmena kidev ufro akonkretebs im moralur-zneobriv atmosferos,
rac babucas ukavSirdeba romanSi da romlis Setanasac igi cdilobs
makabelTa ojaxSi. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, naTeli xdeba
limonis simbolos mniSvneloba. masSi moiazreba mxolod dadebiTi
sawyisi. keTilSobili warmomavlobis, uSiSari mamis Svili, qarTul
tradiciebze aRzrdili, keTili, saTno babuca sruliad sawinaaRmdego
saxea makabelebisa, romelTa saxasiaTo niSnebia: saeWvo warmomavloba,
mSiSroba, tradiciebis uqonloba, boroteba. is faqti ki, rom limoni
makabelTa ojaxSi ver xarobs da Zalze male xmeba, ori urTierTsapirispiro sawyisis erTmaneTTan SeuTavseblobaze miuTiTebs. amas
romanSi ganviTarebuli sxva, ufro masStaburi movlenebic adasturebs:
giorgas daRupva, anas gagiJeba, aleqsandresa da nikos saxlidan
wasvla, anetas ubedureba... aqedan gamomdinare, limoni romanSi aris
dadebiTi socialuri da fsiqosocialuri identobis niSani. misi
gaxmoba ki am sivrceSi dadebiTi identobis krizisis dasturia.
simbolo myari mxatvruli saxea. igi diaqroniulad arsebobs
kulturis mexsierebaSi, saidanac xvdeba mwerlis mexsierebaSi da
axal teqstSi cocxldeba. es aris simbolos sinqronuli saxe.
erTi da igive simbolo gvxvdeba erTmaneTisagan Zlier daSorebul
teqstebSi, ramdenadac mas amouwuravi azrobrivi veli aqvs,
gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebiT. Tumc amisTvis sulac araa aucilebeli

86

ada nemsaZe

vrceli periodi, ris dasturad oTar WilaZis `rkinis Teatris~


simboluri velis analizic kmara. am romanSi limoni mravalplaniani
simboloa.
dimitris ezoSi limoni ucnaur dros, adrian gazafxulze, isxams
nayofs. amis Semdeg ki ufro saocari ramec xdeba: ezoSi Semosuli
sikvdili mas wyvets, wvens gamoswuwnis, gadaagdebs da midis.
`sicocxlis geSinodes, dimitri, sicocxlis! xarbia. yvelaferi bevri
unda. Tanac axlave. me ki vicdi, vicdi da var am erT limons
miCerebuli,~ _ Tan am sityvebs utovebs gaocebul maspinZels.
dimitri maSinve xvdeba, rasac niSnavs ararsebuli limonis SeWma _
imis sikvdils, vinc jer kidev ar movlenia qveyanas. simbolos arsi
aq arc ise Zneli amosacnobia: limoni igive natoa, dimitris jer
ardabadebuli da erTaderTi qaliSvili. amgvari gaazrebisaTvis
niadagi romanSi sakmaod myaria: `[nato] xandaxan ise Rrmad Sedioda
zRvaSi, Tavi limonis xela mouCanda~; patara andros deda `ayvavebuli
limoniviT mobubune da surnelovani~ eCveneba. Tumc es yvelaferi
mxolod erTi segmentia im rTuli saxisa, rasac gansaxilveli
simbolo am romanSi itevs.
tropis es saxe imdenad Rrma da amoucnobia Tavisi arsiT, rom
leqsikonebi da enciklopediebi ver iZlevian mis azrobriv velSi
SesaRwev ualternativo gzas. wminda racionalizmi aq uSedegoa,
radgan `simbolos racionalizeba mxolod faravs mis WeSmarit
arss da cvlis yovelgvari siyalbiT. simbolo `dums~, roca Cven
mas racionalurad vekidebiT da `dums~ swored pasiuri obivateluri
damokidebulebis sapasuxod~ (losevi 1972: 188). amitomacaa, rom
mkvlevarebi erTxmad aRiareben - simbolos gaazrebisas mTavaria
teqstis azrobriv velSi wvdomis unari mwerlis msoflmxedvelobrivi da enobrivi modelis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tumc, garkveulwilad, zogadi ganmartebebi aqac gvexmarebian. garkveulwilado
imitom vambobT, rom simboloTa enciklopediaSi mocemuli ganmarteba
umniSvneloa imasTan SedarebiT, rasac oTar WilaZis mxatvrul
samyaroSi arsebuli da Cven mier saanalizod gamotanili simbolo
sakuTar TavSi moiazrebs. `qristianul simboloebSi limoni erTguli
siyvarulis niSania, ebraul simbolikaSi ki aRniSnavs mosavals~
(simboloTa leqsikoni). es simboluri veli TanaxmierobaSia natos
saxesTan: igi aris gelas siyvarulis erTguli (rac Seexeba natos
urTierTobas saba lafaCTan, es mxolod sasowarkveTili qalis
fizikuri impulsia, rasac im dResve gamoisyidis sikvdiliT) da

limonis simbolika oTar WilaZis romanebSi

87

misi nayofierebis saxe (andros dedobiT nato gelas genetikuri


xazis gamgrZelebeli xdeba).
mwerlis mier natos saxis amgvari gaazreba simboluri
gamoxatva limonSi ukve miniSnebaa personaJis zogad saxeze, xolo
sikvdilis mier misi gamowuwna imis mauwyebelia, rom igi sakmaod
male daisakuTrebs Tavis `limons~.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, limoni mravalplaniani simboloa. natos
Tavs damtydari yvela movlena - bedniereba Tu ubedureba - misi
gziT Semodis teqstSi da, Sesabamisad, Cveni aRqmis arealSic: gelas
pirveli gamoCenisas Jurulebis saxlSi limonis totze Semomjdari
Wreli Citi gamwarebuli stvens, meore mxriv ki, saba lafaCi meWeWian
narinjze daniT isargayril guls amoWris da natos ezoSi agdebs
siyvarulis niSnad. amrigad, mkiTxvelis mexsierebis siRrmeSi limoni
ramdenime sxvadasxva simboluri saxiT aRwevs: pirvel rigSi, limoni
aris nato, amitom masTan dakavSirebuli siyvarulic, ubedurebac,
siTboc, sikvdilic mkiTxvelis aRqmis arealSi Semodis limonis
sxvadasxva xatiT - mobubune, ayvavebuli, damWknari, gamowuwnili.
sityvieri simbolo Tavis TavSi kidev sxva parametrebsac SeiZleba
Seicavdes, esenia: feri, surneli, xma, gemo. limonis simbolikis kvleva
am kuTxiT sakmaod saintereso Sedegs iZleva. mas romanSi ukavSirdeba
ori feri - xasxasa mwvane da yviTeli. xma - bubuni, Sriali; gemo mJave; suni - surnelovani (anu sasiamovno). yvela es komponenti
damatebiTi mniSvnelobebis Semcvelia, romlebic avseben ZiriTad
simbolos da mis srulyofil saxes da mravalplanianobas
ganapirobeben. is, rom limoni erTdroulad aris mJavec, surnelovanic
da mobubunec, misi konotaciuri velis sifarTovis maniSnebelia.
oTar WilaZis romanebSi limonis asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa
areali TandaTanobiT farTovdeba da yvelaze did azrobriv, da
Sesabamisad, esTetikur xvedriT wonas `martis mamalSi~ iZens. Tuki
`rkinis TeatrSi~ limoni natos saxis kodirebas axdens, `martis
mamalSi~ es kodireba ormagdeba. aq limoni vano maswavleblis
gogos magieria. (ase ambobs TviTon da amasve ekiTxeba nikoc: `rogor
aris Tqveni gogos magierio?~) igi ubralod yuTSi Carguli xe ar
aris, aq misi gaCenac ararealuria. aravin icis, rogor moxvda igi
ufaraanT WerqveS: `Sublidan gamoitexa albaT an gulidan amoiWra,
radgan aravis unaxavs, rogor Seitana ufaraanT ojaxSi is zRapruli,
jadosnuri xe~. simbolo araa realisturi gamosaxvis forma, rom
misi pirvelsaxesTan maqsimaluri msgavseba moviTxovoT. simbolos
arsi ar gamomdinareobs garegnuli saxidan. is amaze bevrad Rrma da

88

ada nemsaZe

mravlismomcvelia. garegnulad Tundac sqematuri simbolo Sinaarsobrivad originaluria, miuTiTebs misgan sruliad gansxvavebul
saganze da yuradRebas amaxvilebs mis Sinagan, arsebiT niSanze. swored
amgvar gaazrebas vxvdebiT `martis mamalSi~. limonis Rrma simboluri
veli aq kidev ufro Zlierdeba, rasac damatebiTi elementebi, xis
gaCenis SesaZlo variantebi, emsaxureba: Sublidan gamoitana (Sublis
ZarRvi - sindisis mxatvruli saxe da TviT Subli - goniereba) da
gulidan amoiWra (guli - yovelgvari grZnobis, am SemTxvevaSi dadebiTis,
sawyisi: sikeTis, siyvarulis...). xes aqvs sxva simboluri velic _
maradiuli nayofiereba: `nayofs rom Seawyvet, maSinve axals gamoibams,
magiers. amitomac aravis eubneba uars, yvelas aqedan miaqvs limoni.
xes mainc araferi akldeba: alag mwifs, alag kvirti asxia, alag
yvavili~.
sainteresoa erTi garemoeba. `martis mamlis~ limons gacilebiT
myari, gamZle simboluri maxasiaTeblebi aqvs, vidre romanSi `yovelman
Cemman mpovnelman~. Tuki am ukanasknelSi arajansaR garemoSi moxvedris
gamo igi or kviraSi xmeba, ufaraanT WerqveS damkvidrebuls es ar
emarTeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom aqauri sivrce didad ar gansxvavdeba
makabelTa sivrcisagan (ufaraanT WerqveS ori mkvleli cxovrobs:
gogia da misi biZa). aq limoni TviTon ki ar iRebs uaryofiT
impulsebs, aramed iqiT gascems sikeTes, Tanac usazRvrod da uxvad,
riTac kidev ufro itvirTeba TviTon. es sikeTis maradiulobisa
da ukvdavebis oTar WilaZiseuli interpretaciaa. vano maswavlebelma
siRnaRSi mis mier Semotanili sikeTe ise Rrmad daTesa, rom mis
arsebobas safrTxes veranairi boroteba veRar uqmnis (Tanac misive
sityvebs Tu gavixsenebT - `siRnaRi TavSesafers niSnavso~ - gamova,
rom man sikeTesac gadasarCenad Seafarebina aq Tavi). `martis mamlis~
limons RvTaebriv sikeTesTan wilnayarobis Tviseba aqvs. amas romanis
Tundac is fragmenti adasturebs, roca, mwerlis sityviT,
cecxlwakidebuli xe `amovarda yuTidan da TavdaRweulma, fesvebze
miwaSerCenilma, foTlebdaWmuWvnilma xem Weri TaviT gaitana da
gugun-SrialiT, naperwklebisa da yvavilebis frqveviT cas miaSura,
ukeTes qveyanas~.
`martis mamalSi~ gogia da dedamisi ise upirispirdebian vano
maswavlebels, rogorc maioris saxli _ giorgas gomurs. am mudmiv
dapirispirebaSi ikveTeba limonis yovlismomcveli Zala. gogiasa
da dedamiss vano maswavlebeli limons arasodes aZlevs Tavisi
nebiT, isini mxolod i paraven mas. samagierod, sakuTari arsis
Sesacnobad logins mijaWvul nikos Tavad miarTmevs xes saxlSi.

limonis simbolika oTar WilaZis romanebSi

89

zemoT ukve aRniSnul xasxasa mwvanesa da yviTels aq kidev erTi


feri emateba: `TeTrad gadapentili, yviTlad daxunZluli, mwvaned
gadaxasxasebuli~. `TeTri samyaros absoluturi feria da amitomac
sisufTavis, WeSmaritebis, ucodvelobis da RvTaebriobis simboloa~
(tresideri 1999: 23), am SemTxvevaSi ki umanko, wminda, Seuryvnel
bunebaze miuTiTebs, rac afarTovebs simbolos mniSvnelobas.
romanis finalSi ukve sabolood ixsneba da konkretdeba simbolos
arsi da mizani. igi ara marto silamazisa da sikeTis saxea, aramed
im TvisebaTa gasaZliereblad da sayovelTaod dasamkvidrebladaa
Semotanili, rasac Tavad gulisxmobs. sikeTem unda amoZirkvos
boroteba da misi adgili daikavos. amas xvdeba ukve gamojanmrTelebuli niko, romelic Caswvda winaprebis mier Cadenili yvela
codvis simZimes da Tavi ki ar aarida maT, aramed gaiziara maTze
pasuxismgebloba, riTac urTulesi amocana gadaWra: Seicno sakuTari
Tavi da axla sxvis Svelasac Seecdeba. `aRaravis dauTmobs niko im
xes cocxali TaviT... is xe aucileblad aq unda darCes, miwaze. caSi
ukvalod gaqreba, miwas ki daakldeba. miwisaa, miwisTvisaa gaCenili.
ager naxavT, gogiasac Tu ar gamocvlis gazafxuli, gogiasac Tu ar
gaakargebs~... miCneulia, rom `xe Tavisi simbolikiT ganuzomelia.
igi moicavs mTel samyaros. samyaro mTliani xea, romlis CrdilSic
dasaxlda xalxi~ (xavieri 1983: 408). Tu am mosazrebas `martis
mamlis~ simbolur vels movargebT, limonis simbolika kidev ufro
garTuldeba. igi ukve sakuTar TavSi moiazrebs ara marto konkretulad xis erTi saxeobis (am SemTxvevaSi, limonis) mniSvnelobebs,
aramed zogadad xis semantikasac. samyaros erT did xed gaazrebis
tendencias romanSi emateba yovlismomcveli sikeTis rwmena, risi
damkvidrebis imediTac iRviZebs erTTviani Zilidan niko da raSic
saxe
mas amieridan vano maswavleblis motanili limonis xe e-saxe
saxe-ba
Semwed.
amgvarad, simbolo, rogorc kategoria, ixsneba sityvaSi. igi gaurbis
sinamdvilis uSualo imitacias. mas Zala Seswevs, gamoxatos bevrad
meti, vidre Cveulebrivi, grZnobadi aRqmiT SegviZlia. amitomac misi
mniSvnelobis gaSifvra gonebis martivi ZalisxmeviT SeuZlebelia.
rogorc averincevi ambobs, mas unda `Seesisxlxorco~. simbolo
imavdroulad realobasTan dakavSirebuli ucnobi Zalis niSanicaa
- saxe, romelsac SeuZlia, Tuki amis aucilebloba iqneba, gaxsnas
mTeli nawarmoebis konceptualuri qveteqsti. oTar WilaZis romanebi
amis saukeTeso dadasturebaa.

ada nemsaZe

90

simbolos azrobrivi potenciali yovelTvis ufro farToa mis


mocemul realizaciaze. sxvadasxva kulturul arealSi erTma da
imave simbolom SesaZloa sruliad gansxvavebuli azrobrivi moculoba
SeiZinos. andrei beli wers: `simbolo aris saxe, aRebuli bunebidan
(cxovrebidan) da gardaqmnili SemoqmedebiT. is aris saxe, romelic
Tavis TavSi aerTianebs Semoqmedis gancdasa da bunebidan aRebul
masalas~ (beli 1910: 8). oTar WilaZe, albaT, erT-erTi yvelaze
mkafio magaliTia imaT Soris, visac andrei belis es Tvalsazrisi
zustad miesadageba. bevri, am mxriv sakmaod mniSvnelovani, leqsikoni
limonis simbolur mniSvnelobebze dums (magaliTad, jek tresideris,
qeTevan elaSvilisa da zaza abzianiZis, internet-leqsikonebi...). is
uamravi variacia da xazi, rasac mwerali sakuTar teqstebSi gvTavazobs, sxva araferia, Tu ara mwerlis quraSi gadamuSavebuli `bunebidan
aRebuli masala~, ris Sedegadac viRebT saocrad individualur,
Rrma da mravalSrian, rTul mxatvruli saxeebs. simboloTa oTar
WilaZiseuli gaazreba Taviseburia. amaze TviT simbolizebisaTvis
aRebuli sagani - limoni - miuTiTebs, rac arc ise gavrcelebuli
simboloa. qarTul teqstebSi igi ar gvxvdeba. avtoris mizani aq
sxvaa. oTar WilaZis mxatvrul sistemaSi erT-erTi mTavari problema
pirovnuli identobis _ socialurisa da fsiqosocialuris _
mopovebaa. Cven mier gaanalizebuli simbolos arsi pirdapir kavSirSia
masTan. kerZod, iq, sadac limoni ver xarobs (magaliTad, makabelTa
saxli romanSi `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~), fsiqosocialuri
identobis krizisia, xolo sadac xarobs (magaliTad, nikos papis
saxli `martis mamalSi~), iq identifikacia xorcieldeba. oTar
WilaZis mxatvruli enis specifikaze saubrisas m. kvaWantiraZe
aRniSnavs, mxatvruli teqsti enis konotaciur dones aniWebs
upiratesobas denotaciurTan SedarebiT. es ki qmnis `mouxelTebeli
da mgulisxmebeli azrebis sivrces~, sadac mniSvneloba mibmuli
araa niSanTan (kvaWantiraZe 2005: 157). `mouxelTebeli da
mgulisxmebeli azrebis sivrceSi~, sxva mniSvnelobebTan erTad, uTuod
limonis is simboluri mniSvnelobebic arsebobs, razec ukve gvqonda
saubari.
literatura
kvaWantiraZe 2005: kvaWantiraZe manana, gameoreba (werilebi, eseebi).
Tb.: gamomcemloba `erovnuli mwerloba~, 2005.
averincevi 2001: . . - . 2- . ., 2001.

limonis simbolika oTar WilaZis romanebSi

91

beli 1910: . . .: 1910.


losevi 1972: . . . .: 1972.
lotmani 11992:
992: . . . T. 1. : 1992.
tr
esider
999: . . .: tresider
esiderii 11999:
, 1999.
simboloTa leqsikoni: . http://simbols.ru/
havier
983: Xavier Leon-Dutour. Dictionari of the New Testament: French
havierii 11983:
edition by Terrence Prendergast, 1983.

92

nana trapaiZe

sicilis poetika uaxles


mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori. baTumis SoTa
rusTavelis saxelmwifo
universitetis ufrosi
maswavlebeli.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
,,droisa da sivrcis xedva-gancda n.baraTaSvilis
SemoqmedbaSi~, ,,baZvis
filosofiuri koncepti
da misi rusTveluri
interpretacia~, ,,n.baraTaSvilis filosofiuri
narativi~, `Wkvianisa~ da
`zemxedveli cnobierebis~
binaruli opozicia,
,,g. tabiZe klasikur da
modernistul paradigmaTa
konteqstSi.
interesTa sfero:
literaturis Teoria,
kritika, sicocxlis filosifia.

me-19-20 saukunis mijnaze literaturul procesebSi mniSvnelovani Zvrebi da


cvlilebebi xdeba. iwyeba tradiciis
gadaxedvis rTuli epoqa. gadaazrebis sagani
xdeba yvela esTetikuri da mxatvruli
kategoria, romelzedac Seiqmna azrovnebisa
da gamoxatvis klasikuri paradigmebi.
klasikisadmi damokidebuleba (negatiur
formebSi) ase warmosdgeba: tradiciuli
esTetikisa da poetikis dekonstruqcia da
zurgSeqceva parodirebisa da ironiis gziT.
es gza sakmaod nayofieri da gamomsaxvelobiTi aRmoCnda TviTon tradiciis
aTvisebisa da masTan poziciuri gaformebis
TvalsazrisiT; tradicia, parodiul-ironiulad modelirebuli, romelic amgvarad
agrZelebs arsebobas, modernizmSi interteqstur doneze adasturebs Tavis Tavs,
xolo postmodernizmSi hi perteqstur
doneze.
parodireba, ironia adamianis samyarosTan (yvela mis konkretul mocemulobaSi)
gaucxoebis Sinagan manZils gamoxatavs. rac
metia gaucxoebis manZili, miT metia da Rrma
ironiisa da parodiis funqciuri mniSvneloba teqstSi.
* * *
nicSesSemdgom epoqaSi gaucxoebis
problema mxatvruli aTvisebis umTavres
sagans warmoadgenda. nicSes epataJuri

sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

93

sicilis eqo gamWoli da xangrZlivi aRmoCnda. klasikur da


modernistul epoqaTa mijnaTSorisi realiebis mxatvrul doneze
proecirebisas ironia modernizmSi paradigmul mniSvnelobas iZens.
nicSem uaryo sulis universalizmi, RvTiuri naTlisa da wesrigis
koncepti, masze dafuZnebuli religiuri azrovneba da cnebiTi
azrovnebis privilegia. RvTis nebis koncepts adamianuri neba
daupirispira, ris Sedegadac RmerTis ideaSi aRarc araferi ganixileba
da aRarc araferi gadawydeba.
nicSes Tanaxmad, wesrigisa da harmoniis idea miTologiurad
Zevs apolonur sawyisSi, cnobierebis konstruqciuloba aRiarebuli
da dadgenili, rogorc igi uwodebs, axali demonis sokrates
cnebiT azrovnebaSi, xolo agraruli wrebrunviTi, entropiuli droisa
da Caketili sivrcis gaxsna religiurad sakralizebulia
qristianobaSi. Sedegad erTmaneTis pirispir aRmoCndnen, erTi mxriv,
samyarouli wesrigi, kosmiuri harmonia, cnobierebis konstruqciuloba,
logosi, cnebiTi azrovneba, veqtoruli, maradmedini dro da
gaxsnili, transcendenturi sivrce da sakraluri aRdgoma; meore
mxriv, instinqtebis konstruqciuloba, aracnobieri sawyisi,
metaforuli azrovnebis sirTule, cikluri dro da maradiuli
dabrunebis, kvlavganaxlebis desakralizebuli idea, romelic
miTologiurad dionisur sawyisSi moiazreba, filosofiurad
mis (nicSes) azrovnebaSi, religiuri done ki am pozicias aRar
moepoveba, radgan RmerTi mokvda; magram Tu maincadamainc adamianis
religiur yaidaze mowyobil cnobierebas es sicariele ar eTmoba,
igi isev axali drois saxarebaSi (antisaxarebaSi) zaratustraSi
unda eZios...
nicSes filosofiaSi sicilis metafora umTavresia. gandegili,
romelic Camodis gamoqvabulidan, zemoT mimaval mwirs ukan mixedavs
da ityvis: mjerodes? am moxuc wmindans Tavis tyeSi RmerTis
gardacvaleba jer ar smenia! da isini Sordebian mocinarni viTarca bavSvebi. (nicSe 1993:16). zaratustras cnobierebis Sinagani
veqtori miemarTeba ara RmerTisaken, transcendentisaken, aramed
sakuTari Tavisaken, amqveyniuri, miwieri sawyisisaken adamianisaken,
gansxvavebiT gandegilisagan, romelsac RmerTi uyvars da ambobs:
adamiani aRar miyvars, adamiani CemTvis usruli nivTia, adamianisadmi
siyvaruli damRupavda (nicSe 1993:15). cnobierebisa da sulis es
polaruli moZraobebi gadaikveTebian sicilis metaforaSi. sicili
WeSmaritebis metaforaa. gandegilis sicili gamoxatavs RmerTis
arsebobis, rwmenis WeSmaritebas, mwirisa sikeTisa da borotebis

94

Nnana trapaiZe

miRma yofnis, RmerTis daZlevis WeSmaritebas, SeiZleba asec iTqvas,


rom es aris samyaros mimarT hosa da aras WeSmaritebaTa
dapirispireba, romelTac nicSe sicilis paradigmul saxeSi aTavsebs.
Sesabamisad, sicili nicSesTan niSnavs argadaxris wonasworobas
WeSmaritebis moxelTebis myisierobaSi srul fokusirebasa da
koncentrirebas (rac yovelTvis araa SesaZlebeli). swored am
codnis gadasacemad Camodis igi adamianebTan mTidan.
* * *
kirkegoris, Sopenhaueris, nicSes, froidis, haidegeris
filosofiuri siaxleebis Suqze evropul literaturaSi iqmneba
mdidari mxatvruli praqtikac, romelsac qmnian joisi, elioti,
mani, kafka, kamiu, sartri da sxvebi ...
am avtorebma tradiciis mimarT sruliad axali damokidebuleba
SeimuSaves, maT Seqmnes mxatvruli azrovnebis sruliad sxva
paradigmebi. t.s.elioti SemoqmedebiT siaxles, tradiciis sruli
dauflebis, aTvisebis Semdeg, pirad da SemoqmedebiT gamocdilebebSi
misi sruli amowurvis rezultatad ganixilvas. maSasadame, tradicia
ar SeiZleba daikargos, an gverdi aevlos. erTaderTi, rac Semoqmeds
Tavis individualur profils Seaqmnevinebs tradiciasTan misvlaa.
is gza, romelsac Semoqmedi am dros gaivlis, aris gza ara gansxvavebis,
aramed (mi)msgavsebisa, romelic gansxvavebebze gadis, radgan yoveli
gansxvaveba umal msgavsebaze mianiSnebs da piriqiT.
meti sicxadisTvis erTi fragmenti t.s.eliotis werilidan
tradicia da pirovnuli niWiereba: tradicia bevrad farTo
mniSvnelobis cnebaa. is memkvidreobiT ar gadmogvecema da Tu gvwadia,
Tavgadakluli Sromis fasad unda SeviZinoT. tradicia, upirveles
yovlisa gulixmobs istoriis SegrZnebas...istoriis SegrZneba
gulisxmobs, rom warsuli ara marto warsulad aRviqvaT, aramed
Tanamedroveobadac...istoriis SegrZneba, romelic SegrZnebaa droisa
da warmavlobisa orivesi erTad mwerals tradiciulobas
aniWebs...mwerals unda esmodes, rom evropuli azrovneba azrovneba
misi qveynisa, azrovneba bevrad ufro farTo, aucilebeli, rasac
Tavis droze mixvdeba, vidre misi sakuTari azrovneba aris azrovneba,
romelic icvleba da misi cvalebadoba ganviTarebaa, gzad rom arafers
tovebs...(elioti 1989:407-409)
klasikisa da Tanamedrove literaturis mimarTebis sakiTxi
umTavresi iyo jeimz joisisTvisac. klasikasa da moderns Soris
gansxvaveba misTvis ukavSirdeba mxatvruli interesebis sferoSi

sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

95

arsebul arsebiT sxvaobaze miTiTebas. klasikuri literatura


warmoadgens adamianis pirovnebis dRis Suqs, im dros, rodesac
Tanamedrove literaturas ainteresebs mwuxri, umal pasiuri, vidre
aqtiuri goni.(yiasaSvili 1983:14).
am paradigmul SuqCrdilebSi parodia da ironia kulturaTSorisi komunikaciuri aqtis, misi istoriuli uwyvetobis funqcias
atarebs. swored amgvari ganmazogadebeli funqcia udevs safuZvlad
t.eliotis ironiasa da grotesks. cnobilia, rom joisis ulises
gageba homerosis odiseas gareSe SeuZlebelia, radgan ulises
mTeli modernistuli sazrisi parodiul konteqstze gadis.
interteqsturi dialogi imdenad Rrmaa da Sinagani, rom igi raime
formalur mxareSi ver poulobs gamovlenas da mTlianad akumulirebulia parodiis Sinagan sazrisSi. homerosi joisisaTvis
kacobriobis jansaRi simboluri gabrZolebaa Sinagani sulieri
mTlianobis, pirovnuli harmoniulobis SenarCunebisaTvis. swored
es ZiriTadi homerosiseuli ideaa parodirebuli meoce saukunis
keTili, magram wvrilfexa odisevsis, leopold blumis erTdRiani
mogzaurobiT adamianis dawvrilmanebuli, dafleTili sulieri
samyaros qaotur gzebze.(yiasaSvili 1983:27).
rogorc zemoaRniSnulma msjelobebma cxadyo, tradiciis daZleva
misi aTvisebis gziT xdeba. me-20 saukunis literaturaSi ironia
tradiciis aTvisebis formad iqca. igi erTdroulad tradiciis
gagrZelebisa da misi wyvetis gmoxatvacaa: SeiZleba iTqvas, ironiaze
gadis sademarkacio zRvari klasikasa da moderns Soris, ironiaze,
romelic gamoxatavs miTiTebas acdenebis Sesaxeb.
modernistul da postmodernistul paradigmebSi ironiis
mxatvruli funqciis gasaazreblad Tvali mivadevnoT epoqis
msoflmxedvelobriv tendenciebs.

* * *
pirvel rigSi, unda daviwyoT imiT, rom modernizmSi Cndeba
globaluri ironiuli kiTxvebi RmerTis arsebobis mimarT. am kiTxvebSi eWvqveS dgas TviTon religiuri rwmenis moraluri safuZveli
da cxovrebis namdviloba. Sesabamisad, sinamdvile gaazrebul iqna,
rogorc iluzia, romelsac araviTari erTmniSvnelovani sazrisi da
obieqturoba ar gaaCnia. yvela tradiciuli uwyeba sinamdvilis
Sesaxeb, rogorc RmerTis ideidan aRmocenebuli, yalbia da dasagmobi.
samyaro, rogorc realoba SeiZleba iyos mxolod warmodgena, romlis
Sesaxebac gvauwyeben niSnebi, garkveuli pirobiTobebi. arada, es realoba

96

Nnana trapaiZe

mTeli istoriis manZilze gvarwmunebda Tavis namdvilobas, absoluturobas da apriorulobas...


da Tuki ar arsebobs araviTari absoluturoba,, romelzec idga
Cveni (qristianTa) warmodgenebi sikeTisa da borotebis Sesaxeb,
teleologizmi, romelic gansazRvravda adamianis sulier moZraobebsa
da orientirebs, transcendentalizmi, romelic idealursa da universalurs xdida yvela adamianur ideasa da rwmenas, maSin SesaZlebelia SevTanxmdeT yvelaferze razec gvinda da rogorc gvinda!
magram aseT SemTxvevaSi sadRac sxlteba Tavad sinamdvile, rogorc
aramdgradi da ganusazRvreli. igi aRar aris iq, sadac tradiciulad
egulebodaT. sinamdvilis dinamiuroba aRar ganisazRvreba stabiluri
Sinagani RerZiT, metic, aseTi RerZi SeiZleba cnobierebis stagnaciisa
da sazogadoebis moraluri blefis, religiur yaidaze mowyobili
cnobierebisa da azrovnebis wesis inerciad da/an mis simulaciadac
mogvevlinos, rac upirvelesad TviTon rwmenis sakraluri Sinaarsis
gayalbebaa...
magram es ar niSnavs, rom adamianma uari Tqva iseT universalur
garantiebze, rogoricaa stabiluroba, simarTle da sicxade (gamWvirvaloba), piriqiT, albaT misTvis es garantiebi ise sasicocxlo
da sabediswero arasodes yofila,rogorc axla birTvuli da
qimiuri iaraRiT aRWurvil da navTobiT mironcxebul samyaroSi.
metic, moTxovna aRniSnul garantiebze safrTxis totalobis
proporciulia...
aq ki modernistuli metafizika adgils uTmobs ironias, iseve
rogorc metafora metonimias, semantika ritorikas, mizani
TamaSs, ierarqia anarqias, transcendenturi imanenturs...(ihaba
hasani). aseT dros postmodernisti qmnis iseT realobas, romelic
ufro hgavs namdvils, vidre namdvili Tavis Tavs. amgvarad is, rac
meoradia, pirveladis adgils iWers. metic, mis gverdiT ise Tavsdeba,
rom uproblemod da sruluflebianad ganagrZobs pirveladobis
simulacias. meorad realobas pirveladisagan gansxvavebiT axasiaTebs
meti mdgradoba, stabiluroba, gasageboba, molodinis gamarTlebis
meti xarisxi. anu yvelaferi is, rac pirvelad realobaSi myisieria
d msxltomi..
radgan aRar arsebobs WeSmaritebisa da absoluturis koncepti,
Sesabamisad ironia qmnis farTo sivrces sxvadasxva ideis, interpretaciis, aRqmis mravalgvarobisaTvis, romlebic Tanabaruflebianni
arian, xels ar uSlian erTmaneTs da rac mTavaria, Tavisufalni
arian avtorTa Zalauflebisagan; anu ironia emsaxureba teqstobriv
da gareteqstobriv realobaTa Tavisufal aRqmiT variaciebs.

sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

97

am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa bartis teqstis koncefciis


sinTezirebis mcdeloba (C.jeiksi,c.dani) postmodernistuli ironiis
TeoriasTan (jeimsoni da poirieri). swored maT wamoswies ormagi
kodis koncepti.
ormagi kodireba da masTan dakavSirebuli Txrobis ironiuli
modusi postmodernistul nawarmoebebSi gamomdinareobs sakuTari
azris mimarT specifikuri damokidebulebiT, rac imas niSnavs, rom
igi orientirebulia mkiTxvelis aRqmis enobriv stereotipze. amitom
postmodernistebi mimarTaven masobrivi literaturis Janrebisa
da meTodebis gamoyenebas da maT parodirebas (Tanamedrove... 1999:195).
Txrobis parodiuli modusi seriozuli mxatvris erTaderTi
eqsistencialuri poziciis gamoxatulebaa, romelsac is acnobierebs.
jeiksi postmodernizmis mTavar niSnad swored parodiul dualizms,
igive ormag kods miiCnevs. aq mkvlevari gulisxmobs ori an orze
meti teqstualuri samyaros parodiul Sepirispirebas. amgvarad
gagebuli postmodernizmi erTdroulad gamodis modernistuli
praqtikis gamgrZelebladac da mis damZlevadac, radgan igi ironiulad
gadalaxavs Tavisi winamorbedis stilistikas(Tanamedrove...
1999:245)
klasikuri modernistuli parodiis nacvlad postmodernizmSi
ukve gvaqvs pastiSi (italiuri pasticco opera, sxva operis
nawilebisagan Semdgari, popuri). igi parodiisagan imiT gansxvavdeba,
rom axla gasaparodirebeli aRaraferia, aRar aris is seriozuli
obieqti, romelzec SegeZlo dagecina. rogorc o.m.freidenbergi ambobs,
parodireba SeiZleba mxolod imisa, rac cocxalia da wminda,
postmodernizmis epoqaSi ki arferia arc cocxali da aRarc wminda
(xalizevi 2000:154-157).
postmodernizmi, rogorc erTgvari antiTeza modernizmisa, Tavis
TavSi aerTianebs msoflio kulturul gamocdilebas da es mTlianoba
absurdis rangSi ahyavs. Sesabamisad, aq ironia da groteski klasikuri
Sinaarsobriv-Tematuri sivrcidan formalur-kompoziciur sivrceSi
gadadis anu struqturuli maorganizeblis statuss iZens. klasikuri gagebiT parodireba xorcieldeba im yofieri bazisis semiotikuri usafrTxoebisa da mis mdgradobaSi darwmunebulobis
situiaciaSi, romelTan mimarTebaSic igi iqmneba. postmodernizmi ki,
romelmac mogvca kulturis istoriaSi normebis samyarosa da
antisamyaros urTierTgamsWvalvis unikaluri precedenti, ukiduresad
axlos mivida qaosis gagebasTan (Tanamedrove 1999:86). antisamyaros
postmodernistuli qaosis maorganizebeli ki aris karnavaluri
niRabi, romlis ukan mxolod qaosi da absurdia (iqve).

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antikuri karnavaluri qaosi da sibnele adasturebda


sicocxles, gamoxatavda mas sxva ganwyobilebiT realiebSi, romelic
eWvqveS ar ayenebda arsebobis seriozul models, maSin, roca
postmodernistuli karnavaluri groteski wrmoiSoba dabneulobis
afeqtisagan azris sxltomisa da ngrevis winaSe(iurkovi 2001:87).
dabolos, Tuki klasikur azrovnebaSi sicili, rogorc
SemoqmedebiTi aqti dadebiT damokidebulebaSi sicocxlis
WeSmaritebis dadastureba iyo, xolo uaryofiTi gagebiT miTiTeba
raRac cudze, xolo orive poziciaSi safuZvelmdebare aris wesrigi,
rogorc TviTon samyaros princi pi, modernistul da postmodernistul paradigmebSi sicili Tavis ironiul gamovlenaSi aris
miTiTeba acdenaze qaosur moZraobaSi.. es aris totaluri acdena
enasTan, kulturasTan, eqsistenciasTan. postmodernistuli teqstis
gageba am acdenis wakiTxvaSi, ironiis amoxsnaSi mdgomareobs. es
imas niSnavs, rom avtori ki ar adgens teqstTan mimarTebis gzebsa
da saSualebebs, aramed reci pienti. aqedan TamaSi teqstTan/samyarosTan mimarTebisa da (avto)komunikaciis erTaderTi forma da
saSualeba da asaxvis Tanamedrove strategiaa..
formisa da Sinaarsis tradiciuli klasikuri paradigmis
daZlevis Semdeg struqturis monistur paradigmaSi ironia aRsaniSnsa
da aRmniSvnels Soris makonstruirebel rols TamaSobs, igi
struqturuli kompoziciis fundamenturi gageba xdeba.
postmodernistuli struqturirebis strategia TamaSis strategiaa. realobam, romelmac daamxo yvela avtoriteti, cxadia, mokla
ndobac, rogorc damokidebuleba, radgan aRar arsebobs is, riskenac
SeiZleba iyos igi mimarTuli. Sesabamisad, TamaSi axal eTikur
realiebs qmnis, romelSic tradiciuli eTikuri binarulobebi,
dualisturi midgomebi, monistur mniSvnelobebze daiyvaneba. es
umTavresi, amosavali monisturi koncepti ki aris struqtura,
romelic Tavis funqciur mocemulobaSi komunikaciuri mniSvnelobis
matarebelia,
teqstobrivi struqturirebis veli enis velis Tanafardia. ena
postmodernistul azrovnebaSi gaigeba rogorc SeTanxmebiTi,
konvencionaluri fenomeni, amdenad enobrivi pirobiTobis sakiTxi
Tanamedrove simbolur azrovnebaSi umTavresia, metic, am azrovnebis
ganmsazRvrelic, romelic warmoSobs axal metaenobriv realobas,
rac qmnis postmodernistuli metateqstebis mTel specifikas.

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* * *
postsabWoTa da posterovnulgamaTavisuflebeli epoqis qarTul
literaturaSi kulturuli da mxatvruli memkvidreobis sakiTxi
epoqalur realiebTan organulad gaxda dakavSirebuli. erTi mxriv,
ideologiurad degradirebuli da falsificirebuli mxatvruli
cnobiereba, meore mxriv, stabiluri nacionaluri birTvi, romlis
fokusSic eqceoda mxatvruli azrovnebis mTeli kulturuli tradicia, erTdroulad iqca daZlevisa da dekonstruqciis sagnad.
amaTgan, es ukanaskneli bevrad rTul amocanas warmoadgens, radgan
igi mxolod tradiciis bunebrivi amowurvis, SemoqmedebiTi sisavsis
Sedegad SeiZleba daibados. Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi anu ideologizirebuli xelovnebis usaxur kliSeTa daZleva SesaZloa sazogadoebrivi waxalisebis, metic, sazogaoebrivi dakveTis saganic
iyos, meoregan, TviT yvelaze liberalur sazogadoebaSic ki,
SeuZlebelia aseTi SekveTa arsebobdes. igi cnobierebis sruliad
TavisTavadi, Sinagani da amasTan kanonzomieri movlena Tu iqneba
da araferi sxva.
SemoqmedisaTvis es sabediswero riskicaa im sazogadoebaSi, romelsac,
sazogadod, istoriul gamocdilebiT mocemulobaSi
upiratesad uZevs (ga)Tavisufleba, rogorc procesi da ara
Tavisufleba, rogorc mdgomareoba. aman ki ucnauri sazogadoebrivi
eTika Camoayaliba uReli moraluria, amdenad savaldebuloc, radgan
poziciurad mxolod masTan (uRelTan) SeiZleba gaformde. garda
amisa, es pozicia uflebas ar gitovebs darCe pirispir, marto
(gnebavT uRelTan) es xom koleqtiuri poziciaa, sadac
pasuximgebloba yvelasia da aravisi..
marTalia, am poziciur gaformebaSi politikuri uRl(eb)isagan
gaTavisuflebis Suasaukuneobriv-feodaluri paTosi
dResac
(saubedurod) uadgilo ar aris (Siga da gare politikur realiaTa
gaTvaliswinebiT...), magram am paTosma imTaviTve (vgulisxmobT 8090-ian wlebs) saSiSi stereoti puli ganvrcoba SeiZina, rac
gamoixateba realuri Tavisuflebis siZulvilSi, radgan igi koleqtiuri poziciuri midgoma ki aRaraa, aramed piradi, individualuri
mdgomareoba, romelSic pasuxismgeblobis xazi mxolod pirovnebaze
gaivlis..
piradi pasuxismgebloba pirad Sexedulebebze gadis, piradi
Sexedulebebi pirad gamocdilebasa da istoriaze, aq ki CixSi
SevdivarT, radgan CvenSi jer kidev dominanturi iyo (da garkveulad
dResac rCeba) istoriis orgvari narativi sxvisi istoria da

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eris istoria; mudmivad gadavwerT, vimeorebT, vizepirebT xolme


an erTs, an meores, an xan erTs, xan meores (aseT SemTxvevaSi
namdvili teqstic SeiZleba daikargos da misi wamkiTxvelic).
es ki imas niSnavs, rom raRac udavod Seicvleboda, imitom, rom...
unda Secvliliyo! (istoriasa da Tanamedroveobas sqolioSi mainc
unda gakeTeboda piradi komentarebi...), mxolod SemoqmedebiTad
gadaazrebulma piradma gamocdilebam SeiZleba azidos yvela
dawerili Tu dauwereli teqsti, mxolod ase SeiZleba gaTavisufleba
gavlenaTa da ZaladobaTa yovelgvari uxamsobisagan!
rogoric Cvena varT, Cveni samSobloc iseTia. Tu raimea Cvens
xelSi, es samSoblos bedia. misi bedi yvelaze mTavaria, radgan igi
Cveni bedicaa. erTica da meorec iTxovs ukeTesi iyos, Tu bedma ar
isurva da am bedkrulma qveyanam yvela omi windawinve ar waago!..
literatura, xelovneba sazogadoebis Tavisuflebis testi iyo
yovelTvis (diax, literatura da xelovneba da ara rusuli bazebisa
da ama Tu im xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg brZola, romelTagan
gaTavisuflebis pirovnul-moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobiTi pozicia
iseve saeWvoa, rogorc 70%-iani Tanxmobisa da erTsulovnebis
safuZveli natoSi Sesvlaze...).
Tavisufleba, ga-Tavisufleba, erTi mxriv, kliSeebisagan,
stereoti pebisagan, meore mxriv, mwvervalebisagan, romelic iseve
totalurad batonobs azrovnebis Tavisuflebis xarisxze, rogorc
pirveli da ara nakleb axdens cnobierebis uzurpaciasa da stagnacias,
qarTuli literaturuli perspeqtivis sarisko gamowveva aRmoCnda,
metic, igi gardauvalic iyo. es gamowveva sakmao gabedulebiTa da
epataJurobiT iqna miRebuli.
Cveni saubris sagans ar warmoadgens am gamowvevis yvela
kulturuli da mxatvruli waxnagis analizi. Tumca, Txrobis
parodiuli modusi qarTuli postmodernistuli literaturis
globalur amocanaTa gasaRebia, mTeli teqstualuri sivrcis simZimis
centric.
magram aq umal erTi uxerxulobis winaSe aRmovCndiT: roca
literatura msoflmxedvelobrivi sakiTxis ilustracia da
strategia xdeba, igi meorad mniSvnelobas iZens, am dros Tavad
literatura, mxatvruli sityva, rogorc fenomeni ikargeba da
misi konotaciuri mniSvneloba xdeba pirveladi. garda amisa aq
literaturuli procesebis sruli masStabic fragmentulia da
arasruli da garkveul tendenciaTa moniSvnis farglebs ar scildeba...

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am xarvezTa gaTvaliswineba albaT Semdgomi kvlevis perspeqtivaa,


amJamad ki ramdenime avtorze SevaCereT yuradReba, romelTa SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba gvayenebs kulturuli konfliqtis (rogorc
dialogis formis) winaSe. cxadia, axsna ar sWirdeba imas, rom
konfliqti krizisis Sedegia, klasikuri paradigmebi qarTul
literaturaSic ganicdian gamomsaxvelobiT kriziss, rac umal maTi
reviziisa da axali formebis sakiTxs svams.
* * *
klasikuri paradigmebis dekonstruqciis TvalsazrisiT
upirvelesad unda aRiniSnos daTo barbaqaZis trfoba wamebulTa.
visac es teqsti waukiTxavs dameTanxmeba, rom aq koreqtuloba da
moraluri cenzura iseTive erozias ganicdis, rogorsac RmerTis
ideaze dafuZnebuli kultura. magram igive mkiTxveli albaT imasac
igulisxmebda, rom aq avtoris piradi neba da piradi eTika arafer
SuaSia. es sinamdvilis eTikaa da (albaT) gardauvalobis neba(?)
(gana yvela namdvili mwerali yvela droSi amaze ar werda?...). erTi
mxriv, SemoqmedebiTi konstruqciuloba, xolo, meore mxriv, (kulturul, sulier, mxatvrul-siuJetur) mTlianobaTa fragmentaciisa
da dekonstruqciis kompoziciuri gadawyveta parodizebisa da
sinamdvilisadmi sarkastuli Tavdasxmis gziT xdeba. aq ironizebulia
ara mxolod Teocentruli tradicia da cnobiereba, aramed
Tanamedrove falocentruli eqsistencia. karnavalur-eqsistencialuri
groteski SeiZleba vuwodoT im formas, romelsac ukidures formebSi
gvTavazobs avtori da romelic am xarisxiT arsad gameorebula,
Tumca ki qarTuli postmodernistuli diskursis arsebiT kompoziciur movlenad SemdgomSic gvevlineba...
erotikuli eqstazi, religiuri eqstazis parodiuli invariacaa,
romelic masobriv qselur, jaWvur (inter)aqciad aris warmodgenili,
rac gadmocemulia saxarebiseuli genialogiis (abraam Sva isak...)
Tematuri reminiscenciiT, ufro swori iqneboda gveTqva interteqstiT. aseve, sasuliero literaturis mxatvruli enobrivi pozicia
da ucenzuro orgiastuli ritorika totaluri da globaluri,
ukiduresad gamWoli kulturul-RirebulebiTi acdenebis damowmebaa.
dabolos es aris teqsti, romelSic cnobierebisa da gamoxatvis
sferoSi arsebuli yovelgvari tradiciuli konvencia darRveulia
da diskreditirebuli. swored postmodernistuli groteskis
saSualebiT gamasxaravebulia eqsistencialuri ferxulis
karnavaluri ganwyoba da parodirebuli misi simdable, siyalbe da

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sicariele. ,,trfoba wamebulTa aRwers ,,iseT cxovrebas, roca ara


mxolod urTierToba aRar aris siyvaruli (da arc am urTierTobis
dasasrulis Semdeg darCeba siyvarulis istoria) da sxeulTa mier
erTmaneTisaken ltolva da Sejaxeba aRar warmoqmnis erotikul
mTels, aramed roca aseTi cxovreba gacnobierebuli da cnobierebis
mierve legitimirebulia... (barbaqaZe, mimowera... 2006:128-131)). aqedan
gasagebia, rom ,,msxverplTa agiografiis Semoqmedis eqsistencialuri
kritika Tu ra dialogur poziciaSi SeiZleba iyos i.WavWavaZis
,,bednieri erisa da m. javaxiSvilis ,,jayos xiznebis satirasTan:
,,trfoba wamebulTa iyo im kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis survili, Tu
ratom dawera erTma ,,bednieri eri, meorem ki ,,jayos xiznebi
(barbaqaZe, mimowera... 2006:116-118).
tradicia, rogorc RirebulebiTi, ise gamomsaxvelobiTi, fonia,
romelSic parodirebulia misi absoluturoba da moiniSneba
epoqaluri Cixi _ ,,eqsistencialuri SeWirveba (barbaqaZe 1994:9),
romelSic pirovneba mxolod moraluri marcxis upiratesobiT
aformebs sakuTar Tavs: man icis, rom saTamaSo ,,aRaraferia, yvela
TamaSi ukve gaTamaSda, magram igi mainc xdeba moTamaSe wagebul
omSi... eqsistencialuri karnavali, rogorc warmodgena, TamaSi,
pirovnuli moralis da-miwebis, krizisis nevrozuli, isteriuli
maskaradia, omis parodiaa, romelSic omi da mSvidoba iseTive
inversiul da Tan nivelirebul opoziciad iqceva, rogorc gamarjveba
da damarcxeba.
enis, Txrobis, cnobierebisa da emociis fragmentacia da
diskretuloba ukiduresobamde aris miyvanili m. ebanoiZis leqsebSi.
es teqstebi warmoadgenen erTgvar semiotikur palimfsestebs,
romlebSic Zveli teqstebi gadafxekilia da zed gadawerilia axali.
am gadafxekisa da gadaweris procesSi iqmneba axali metateqsturi
poetika, _ erTgvari semiotikuri bilingva (ormagi kodi), rac svams
semiotikuri arqeologiis warmarTvis sakiTxs...
gamosaxvis enobrivi stereoti pis krizisi avtors yvela
klasikuri poziciis gareT ayenebs. samyarosa da enas Soris
postmodernisti ver dasvams tolobis niSans, radgan ena yovelTvis
naklebia samyaroze. Sesabamisad, postmodernisti ar ayalbebs realobas enis sasargeblod, ubralod, igi mas tovebs, gadis gareT
(metaforulad albaT iq, sadac haeri ufro gamWvirvalea da
sufTa da mzec mudam Subis tarzea, sadac mxolod Suqia da ara
SuqCrdilebi anu sadac sintaqsi da punqtuacia savaldebulo
kanonis Zalas kargaven...). metic, samyaro es aris is, sadac adgili

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rCeba kanibaluri aqtisaTvis daamaxinjo sakuTari Tavi da moZebno


sityvebi (akakis sityvebi). enis mimarT avtoris eqsteritorialuri pozicia imeorebs RvTaebriv pozicias samyaros mimarT
igi masSi ar monawileobs, igi mis gareTaa. es gameoreba akakis
reminiscenciiT xdeba (risi qvecnobieri safuZvelic SesaZloa akakis
ganumeorebeli, RvTiuri Saravandedi iyos). rac, Tavis mxriv, avtoris
reminiscenciaa. ase ikvreba postmodernistuli poeturi integrali
RmerTi-akaki-avtori.
sityvaTa dakargva anu enis mitoveba, ironiuli konteqstiT
niSnavs, rom isini ubrundebian sakuTar arsebobas anu yofierebas,
romelSic
Cemi qmari tansacmelebis maRaziaSi
arCevs CemTvis kremisfer paltos
da arCevs sityvebs,
romlebmac Cveni aryofna unda Secvalon
sawolSi,saflavSi,maradisobaSi.
(akakis sityvebi(ebanoiZe 2006:14)

sityvis, enis opoziciuri gagebaa sicili. sicili wonasworobaa,


an wonasworobis sulieri drama. igi yofierebis gareT yofnis
formaa, romelic mudmivad ejaxeba yofierebis SigniT yofnis formas
enas,sityvas.
sicili, romelic waiRebs sityvebs
sicili,romelic waSlis rkinigzis vagzals
sicili,romelic ibadeba smeniT
da sakuTar Tavs veRar usmens
qreba sityvebsa da siCumeSi
(iqve)

leqsSi ironizebulia avtoris niRbis postmodernistuli


koncepti. yovel CvenganSi, RmerTSi da aravin-Si klasikuri
subordinacia sruliad nivelirebulia, RirebulebiTi prioritetebi
gamqrali. magram ironia, romelic taepTa kiTxviT SinaarsSi aris
akumulirebuli swored aq mogvaxelTebinebs avtors: es aris
SemoqmedebiTi distancirebisa da/an identobis (avtoris niRbis)
postmodernistuli paTosi:
vin moawers xels am sityvebs,
nebismieri Cvengani, maT Soris RmerTi?
nuTu aravin?
(iqve)

Nnana trapaiZe

104

poemis margaliti da sicariele poetika saTaurSive imeorebs


maradisobisa da warmavlobis, Semoqmedebisa da yofierebis opozicias.
udabno, sicariele, margaliti, xmebi metaforebia. udabno yofierebaa,
sicariele yofierebis Sinaarsi. udabnos Tavisi mefe hyavs, romelsac
ainteresebs margalitis fasi. margaliti xelovnebis metaforaa,
romelic sikvdilisagan mzaddeba, magram ufro metia, vidre sikvdili.
igi sikvdilis Segrovebaa batis frTis kalmiT, Sesabamisad misi
safasuri sicocxlea, xelovanis sicocxle da sicocxlis mTeli
RirebulebiTi Sinaarsi.
es maradiuli drama rusTavelis piradi dramis warmosaxviT
rekonstruqcias edeba safuZvlad. xelovanisa da politikuri
Zalauflebis (romelic Tavis Zlevamosilebas margalitebis
msxvrevaSi gamoxatavs) poziciuri acdenis mxatvruli proeqciiT
ironizebulia am acdenis fataluri gardauvaloba da rusTavelis
garSemo istoriis dumilis SesaZlo safuZvelic.. Tu am yvelafers
siuJeturi konteqstidan miTis da sinamdvilis urTierTmimarTebis
sivrceSi gadavitanT, aRmoCndeba, rom ironizebis sagani swored es
mimarTebaa, ufro swored miTisa da realobis empiriuli acdena.
aqedan SeiZleba ganvazogadoT, rom acdena samyaros (empiriul
realobaTa) wesrigis safuZvelSi Zevs, xolo damTxveva, moxelTeba
azrovnebisa da warmosaxvis. es ori realoba, warmosaxviTi da
empiriuli, erTmaneTis wesebs ver daarRvevs, maTi ontologiuri
morfologia avtonomiuria. ormagi kodirebis postmodernistuli
koncepti teqstis gramatikis, semiotikuri struqturis gnoseologiuri (SemecnebiTi) gasaRebia. am wesrigis ideur maorganizeblad ki ganxilul teqstSi swored reducirebuli ironia
gvevlineba:
...daamtvrie, Tqva mefem gaognebulma. ar daibna aiazi da ise, rom
veravin moaswro, kivilSi da CoCqolSi, mefisa da xalxis winaSe
daamsxvria margaliti. mefem Tvalebze xeli aifara. sakrebulo
wamoiSala. gana mefis brZanebaze metad fasobs margaliti? iyvira
monam Tqven mxolod margalits xedavT, xolo Tqvens mefes vera,
warmarTebo, qva gaaRmerTeT, mimarTa nazir-vezirTa didkacur manerebs.
mefe ar giyvarT, Tqven mas atyuebT. mefem jalaTs dauZaxa.
gedis frTis kalmiT dawerili poema sasaxlis karze dilis
civ, namian sigrileSi miutaniaT. zogis azriT, is vefxvis tyavze
daiwera.
udabno xmebiT aris savse.
margaliti da sicariele
(ebanoiZe

2006:14)

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105

gansakuTrebul interess karnavaluri groteskis, parodiisa da


ironiis mxatvruli mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT iwvevs z.burWulaZis
Semoqmedeba. z.burWulaZis romanebSi groteski, parodia, ironia,
karnavaluri sicili kulturul, enobriv da Janrul kodebs Soris
kompoziciur-komunikaciuri korelaciis garda avtoris niRbis
funqciasac asrulebs.
ase magaliTad, mineraluri jazis dasawyisSive ironizebulia
bibliur, yofier da mxatvrul-simbolur xdomilebaTa implicituri
providencia (bibliuri sityvis koncepti, samyaros evolucia,
moskovuri cirkis gastroli TbilisSi): pirvelad iyo sityva,
mere evoluciis Seuqcevadi aqti ganxorcielda, xolo erT mSvenier
dRes moskovuri cirki sagastrolod Tbiliss ewvia(burWulaZe
2003:13). amgvar xdomilebaTa jaWvSi (sintagmaSi), romelSic
moxsnilia yovelgvari RirebulebiTi subordinacia, desakralizebulia
Sesaqmis aqti da misi teleologiuri sazrisi, romelic Turme
miemarTeba ara gankiTxvis dRisaken, aramed moskovuri cirkis TbilisSi
gastrolisaken. sintagma erT mSvenier dRes aseve ironiuli
desakralizaciis funqcias asrulebs.
magram burWulaZis romanebSi es ironiuli desakralizacia mTeli
siuJeturi da simboluri planiT groteskis ganviTarebas iZens,
rac gamoixateba SemdegSi: yofierebis absurduloba (politikurideologiuri SinaarsiT gansakuTrebulad aqtualizebuli romanSi
saxareba virisa mweralTa kavSiris krebis saxiT, romelzec
ganixileboda galaktionis arasabWoTa sizmrebi. sabWoTa mwerali
unda xedavdes meqanikur sizmrebs,romelic savse iqneba bednieri
sakolmeurneo cxovrebiTsaxreba virisa.gv85)..), kulturulsulier da yofierebis RirebulebiT korelatTa
gaTiSva
( ..romeliRac meorexarisxovan moTxrobaSi gamoyenebul
Sorisdebulze rom daicav kaci sakandidatos amaze mamuliSviluri
saqme raRa gindaT...saxareba virisa102 an ..wamovwvebodi leRvis
CeroSi da aRarafers aRar vifiqrebdi. aramed gavakeTebdi imas,
rasac Cemi winaprebi akeTebdnen, anu yovelgvari fiqris gareSe
avuwyobdi bunebas fexs... mineraluri jazigv135), TviTironia
(...ara mgonia sakuTari Tavis iseTi metkbe da nebuke sxvaca naxoT,
me rom var... mineraluri jazi 9), xalxur da literaturul
idiomaTa da mxatvrul saxeTa miznobrivi kalkireba(ase vnebiT, ase JiniT da amgvari gatacebiT mgoni
parodireba (
marto zevsi aWdobda ukvdav tuCebs neqtriani Tasis kideze...
saxarba virisa gv.67, ...muram uneblied gulamoxvinCviT daiwyo

106

Nnana trapaiZe

askecad cremlTa dineba, mineraluri .jazi130 ...CemTvis dResaviT


aris naTeli, Tumca amavdroulad sulerTia ras ityvis Cemze
STamomavloba, magram vici STamomavlobisTvis araa sulerTi ras
vetyvi me mas, mineraluri jazigv.142), simulakrebi religiur
mebze ((imTaviTve jer Tavad saTauri romanisa
Temebze
da filosofiur Te
saxareba virisa; ...ra vqna, Zvelebur yaidaze gaxlavar
gazrdili,mtkiced mwams ,rom raJams adamis Ze ufals ganudgeba,
bunebriv rids dakargavs wmindanTa mimarT, xatebs, mamaTa salocavs
Semurtlavs da Seaginebs da sakuTri bedis mowyobas TviTon anu
ufalTan SeTanxmebis gareSe Seecdeba, zustad emaSin waxdeba misi
saqme....aq SeiZleba Semomedaon, zemoT ar iyo, rom cinikosobdi,oden
qristes kvarTma da ciskris locvam rogor unda dagvicvaso?
Tumca es mxolod adasturebs Cems azrs. qvesknelis yovlismnTqmeli
da musris gamvlebi WiaRuebis kerZi Seviqne,da Seviqnebi kidec, amis
dardi Tu geqnebaT, Cemo batonebo,odnav gadaWarbebuli an zemoT Tu
meTqvas, an axla Tu vambobde. xan mwams, xan eWvis Wia mxravs. egrea,
adamieni var da araferi adamianuri ar meucxoeba.. mineraluri
jazi gv.127-128 an ...gulaxdilad rom mogaxsenoT sul mTlad
gamotvinebulxarT Tu marTla ggoniaT, rom me am kiTxvaze gi pasuxebT.ise, miniSnebiT, SemiZlia miganiSnoT, sad unda daazustoT:
pasuxi ix. jadosnuri mTa, Tavi meeqvse, cvlilebani ,.Tumca ki
minda gagafrTxiloT,rom sul amaod daSvrebiT da mocdebiT, Tu
zemoTa TavSi marTla CaixedavT, rameTu igive iqneba, Tuki aristoteles
metafizikas, anda imave metafizikaze darTul Toma aqvinelis
komentarebs im imediT CaabulbulebT, rom rasme gaigebT... mineraluri
jazi gv134).
avtoris mizani empiriul, saazrovno da kulturul pirvelwyaroTa
fiqtiurobis Cvenabaa, rac saboloo jamSi yovelgvari tradiciuli
saazrovno arsenalis gaufasurebasa da umaqnisobaze miuTiTebs da
SemoqmedebiTi krizisis, mxatvruli apokalifsis (rogorc aRsasrulis) dadgomas gvauwyebs, rac mineralur jazSi simbolizebulia
Samugias absurduli gamoZiebis
dasasruliT (ufro swored
dausruleblobiT) internetkafeSi. es mogzauroba internetSi
jojoxeTSi mogzaurobis miTiur-simbolur paradigmas imeorebs.
imas, rasac avtori SemoqmedebiT klimaqss eZaxis SemoqmedbiTi
apokalifsia, romelSic ironiasa da TviTironias aRsarebis funqcia
aqvs miniWebuli, xolo groteskis mTeli tragizmi miemarTeba im
carieli adgilisaken, sadac adre samyaros RirebulebiTi mTlianobis
garantad RmerTi egulebodaT. sicarielis tragizmi z.burWulaZis
romanebis karnavalur-parodiuli proeqciis, enobriv TamaSebsa da

sicilis poetika uaxles mxatvrul azrovnebaSi

107

avtoris niRabSi mTlianad an nawilobriv reducirebuli ironiis


azrobrivi ukufenaa. da roca mwerali ambobs me ar vici rogor
iwereba kargi wigni, es unda niSnavdes imas, rom man ar icis
rogor unda moeqces, ra uyos am sicarieles itiros Tu icinos!
groteskis saSualebiT avtori dualisturad wyvets emociuri da
racionaluri recefciis sakiTxs, riTac erTsa da imave dros
uzrunvelyofs aRqmis demokratiasac, Txrobasa da implicitur
mkiTxvels Soris komunikaciuri aqtis warmatebulobas da aseve
avtoris niRbis ironiul, damcinav orazrovnebas, romelic miemarTeba
klasikuri gulubryvilo aRqmisaken (aRmqmelisaken), stereotipuli
wakiTxvisaken (wamkiTxvelisaken), ris molodinsac avtori Riad,
ironiulad adasturebs xolme Tavis SemoqmedebaSi.
* * *
dabolos, sicilis postmodernistuli poetika warmoaCens
literaturuli procesebis Sinagan dinamikas, metic, masSi xdeba
tradiciis kulturuli gadaformeba-metafrastireba da misi
damtkicebac. igi tradiciisa da novaciis, nacionalur-sakacobrio
kulturisa da individualuri TviTcnobierebis gamaerTianebel birTvs
warmoadgens. ironia, groteski, parodia da karnavaluri sicili
postmodernistuli kreaciis gamformebeli, maorganizebeli sawyisia.
aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, uaxlesi qarTuli literaturuli
procesebi, erTi mxriv, gamoxatavs tradiciis stereoti puli
wakiTxvisagan gandgomis tendencias, meore mxriv, axal TviTmyofad
formaTa Ziebis process...
yovel droSi, epoqaTa zRvarze, tradiciiTa da warsuliT
epigonobasa da auTvisebel siaxleTa mimbaZvelobas Soris arcTu
didi adgili rCeboda xolme WeSmariti siaxleebisaTvis, anu istoriis
realuri dasrulebisa da Semdeg axal formebSi misi kvlav
aRdgenisaTvis... SeiZleba vilaparakoT da vikamaToT imis Sesaxebac,
arsebobs Tu ara saqarTveloSi postmodernistuli realoba, romelic
moiTxovda literaturuli procesebis kursis iseT cvlilebas,
romelic bolo periodis qarTul sinamdvileSi postmodernistuli
Teoriisa da praqtikis talRis agorebas mohyva... amJamad imis
ganxilva, arsebobs Tu ara saqarTveloSi iseTi yofiereba, romelic
gansazRvravda postmodernistul cnobierebas, Tu piriqiT, da
romlisganac bunebrivad daibadeboda axali literaturuli
produqti, arc warmoadgens Cveni saubris sagans.
faqtia, arsebobs da iqmneba literatura, romelic cdilobs
daarRvios dro-sivrculi lokali, werisa da aRqmis stereoti pi.

Nnana trapaiZe

108

Sesabamisad, Teoriuli da kritikuli recefcia erTaderTi gzaa am


procesisa da misi Sedegebis WeSmariti TviTRirebulebis dadgenisaTvis.. am TvalsazrisiT ki saTqmeli jer kidev bevria dawyebuli
literaturuli ierarqiebisa da reputaciebis dadgena-gansazRvridan,
damTavrebuli gemovnebisa da literaturuli cxovrebis problemebiT...
Cven mier dasmuli Teoriuli problemis kvlevas, sxvadasxva
cnobadobis mqone avtorebis Suqze, gansaxilveli sakiTxis RirebulebiTi arsis gamWoli mniSvnelobis gansazRvris garda Tan
axlda Tanamedrove literaturuli arealisa da cnobadobis kompetenciis iribi moniSvnis survilic. Tomas mani ityoda,
TanamedroveebSi didi warmateba iSviaTad xvdebaT xolme WeSmarit
da didebul avtorebs da Cveni azriT, arc cnobadobaa maincadamainc
lamazi ram, romelsac erTaderTi ufleba eqneboda kritikis mowyale
mzera upirobod moitacos..
literatura
barbaqaZe 2000: barbaqaZe d. trfoba wamebulTa kiTxvebi da
socialuri garemo; Tb., 2000.
barbaqaZe 1994: barbaqaZe d. ,,Semxvedri winaRmdegobebi, Tb., 1994.
barabqaZe 2006: barabqaZe d. fragmentarium 1. Tb., 2006.
barbaqaZe, mimowera... 2006: barbaqaZe d. d/d Tb., 2006 (mimowera
d. CixlaZesTan).
burWulaZe 2003: burWulaZe z.mineraluri jazi, Tb., 2003.
burWulaZe 2004: burWulaZe z.saxareba virisa, Tb., 2004.
ebanoiZe 2006: ebanoiZe m.margaliti da sicariele, q., 2006.
elioti 1989: elioti t.s. tradicia da pirovnuli niWiereba,
wigniSi eseebi, Tb., 1989.
Tanamedrove... 1999: . ,
1999.
iurkovi 2001: .. , : ; 11. 2001 .
Symposium, 16. , 2001.
nicSe 1993: nicSe f. ase ityoda zaraTustra, Tb., 1993.
wifuria 2008: wifuria b.postmodernizmi; ix;literaturis Teoria
Tb., 2008.
yiasaSvili 1983: yiasaSvili n. jeimz joisi, ulise,winasityvaoba;
Tb., 1983.
xalizevi 2000: . . , ., 2000

109

k u l t u r i s

s e m i o t i k a
Tamar berekaSvili

esse marginalobasa da
mowyenilobaze

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis


ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifoUuniversitetis asocirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`Tanamedrove Rirebulebebi da idealebi~, `postmodernizmi Tanamedroveobis konteqstSi
(kulturis filosofia)
da sxva. gamoqveynebuli
aqvs ramdenime statia so-cialur da politikur
filosofiaSi _ `demokratizacia (g. JorJolianTan da m. musxeliSvilTan erTad), `Tanamedrove socialuri viTareba saqarTveloSi
(rusul enaze xarkovis
universitetis masalebSi) da sxva.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, kulturis
filosofia.

XX saukunis xelovnebam, iseve rogorc


mTlianad kulturam TvalnaTliv warmoaCina
erTiani monoliTuri stilis, ideologiis,
strategiis SeuZlebloba. ganviTarebis erTi
magistraluri xazis moSlam safuZveli daukarga
Zveli tipis liderebis, kerpebis arsebobas.
mweralma da sazogadod Semoqmedma dakarga
maswavleblis, mentoris funqcia, rac srulebiTac
ar niSnavs geniis, niWis, Semoqmedebis dakninebas,
ubralod Semoqmedma dakarga Tavisi `sidiadis
taxti~ (kristeva). xelovnebis nawarmoebi aRar
emorCileba raRac `monomoTxovnebs~, aucilebel
kanonebs. is gaxda pluralisturi, `poliRirebulebrivi~ da es poliRirebulebebi nakarnaxevia
calkeuli adamianebis, avtorebis gemovnebiTa da
unariT.
magistraluri da xSirad angaJirebuli
avtorebis gverdiT sworuflebianad warmoCindnen marginaluri Semoqmedebi da saerTodac marginaluri adamiani gaxda aranakleb
saintereso da mniSvnelovani, vidre ZiriTadi
diskursis matarebeli pirovnebebi. swored
eqscentriuli ti pi, romelic upirispirdeba
da akninebs arsebul kerpebs, warmoadgens XX
saukunis 60-ani wlebidan dRemde mxatvrulobis aqtors.
Zveli wesrigis da Cveuli paradigmebis
dangrevis winaswarmetyveluri grZnoba ukve
me-19 saukuneSi daibada. apokali psisi XIX
XX saukunis mijnis ZiriTadi motivia rogorc
xelovnebaSi ise filosofiaSi. Fin de siecle-is
gancda Seexo mTel diskursiul da saazrovno
sferos. `RmerTis sikvdili~, `masebis amboxeba~,

110

Tamar berekaSvili

msoflio katastrofa, am epoqisTvis damaxasiaTebeli xatia. swored


am talRazea mosuli mTeli avangardi, `vercxlis saukune~, siurealizmi
da absurdi.
da marTlac, XX saukune uamravi ubedurebis, omis, revoluciis
epoqa gaxda. gaufasurda ZiriTadi unificirebuli principi, eWvis qveS
dadga naqebi standartebi, ierarqiuloba, monoreligiuroba. universalurma
sayovelTao naraciebma adgili dauTmes erTsulovan lokalur
praqtikebs da SexedulebaTa da ideaTa am pluralizmSi marginaluri
midgomebi, gariyulebi, marginalebi aqtualurni da sainteresoni gaxdnen.
kulturaSi daikarga erTiani standartis mniSvneloba.
vin aris marginali da ratom gaxda marginaluri yofa, marginaluri xedva egzom mniSvnelovani da misaRebi?
cneba marginaluroba (laT. margo sazRvari, kide, marginalis
sazRvarze myofi) gamoiyeneba socialur da humanitarul mecnierebebSi,
filosofiaSi pirovnebis an jgufis zRvruli mdgomareobis
aRsaniSnavad ZiriTadi socialuri erTobliobis mimarT. is gansazRvruli, rogorc wesi, dabali socialuri statusis aRmniSvnelia.
marginaluri pirovneba umciresobas miekuTvneba, romelic imyofeba
socialuri struqturis sazRvarze an mis gareT; is eweva zogadmiRebuli normebisgan gansxvavebul cxovrebis wess da iziarebs
gansxvavebul Rirebulebebs. marginalobis cnebas sociologiuris
garda ontologiuri ganzomilebac aqvs, ramdenadac gamoxatavs iseT
mdgomareobas, romelic specifikuri TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. es aris
sazRvarze yofnis unari, Zala zRvruli poziciis warmoCenisa.
marginalurobam, romelic istoriulad aRiqmeboda rogorc
negatiuri movlena, rogorc normaluris, pozitiuris darRveva da
amitom saSiSroebis matarebeli, mavnebluri, TandaTanobiT SeiZina
dadebiTi Rirebuleba. (v. terneri, m.eliade). terneri miiCnevs, rom
axali socialuri struqturebi Cndeba martooden Zveli
struqturebis sazRvarze, periferiaze.
frangul struqturalizmSi uxvad gamoiyeneba terminebi:
`marginaluri subieqti~, `marginaluri sivrce~, `marginaluri
arseboba~. J. deridam sazogadod uaryo normis idea da wamoayena
`gansxvavebulis~ mniSvneloba. TandaTanobiT qreba `centris~ arsi.
r. barti marginalobas ganixilavs rogorc swrafvas axlisken, gzas
kulturuli stereoti pebis rRvevisken~.
marginalobis filosofiur ganazrebas win uswrebda am fenomenis
asaxva da ganmtkiceba xelovnebaSi a. kamius `ucxo~, beketis
`godos molodini~, e. ioneskos `martorqebi~, selinjeris da kepotes,
v. kafkas, J-p. sartris nawarmoebebi da sxva.
msoflio omebma da revoluciebma naTlad warmoaCines, rom
marginaloba nebismieri adamianisTvis sruliad bunebrivi da

esse marginalobasa da mowyenilobaze

111

mosalodneli mdgomareobaa. e. gidensis azriT, Tanamedrove kacobrioba


ukve ara imdenad progresisa da sayovelTao keTildReobisken iRwvis,
risi imedic dakarguli aqvs, aramed riskebis Semcirebisken, imitom
rom kargad aqvs gacnobierebuli `normis~ myisiereba da mowyvadoba.
srulebiT kanonzomieria, rom marginaloba gamoyenebadi gaxda
ara marto sociologiaSi, aramed kulturis filosofiaSi. kontrkulturis fenomenebi sxva araferia, Tu ara marginalobis aRzeveba da
ZiriTadi kulturis tolfasovani statusis damkvidrebis mcdeloba.
marginalobis filosofiuri cneba axasiaTebs sxvadasxva kulturuli
fenomenebis specifiurobas da vrceldeba dominirebuli diskursis
gareT. is ar ewereba azrovnebis gabatonebul paradigmaSi. swored
marginaluri amzeurebs kulturis magistraluri mimarTulebis
winaaRmdegobebsa da paradoqsebs. baxtinis azriT, kultura xorcieldeba kulturaTa sazRvarze. mqadageblebi da xelovanebi
midrekilni arian marginalobisa da liminarobisken.
Amdenad, marginaluri Rebulobs progresulis mniSvnelobas
ayalibebs ra kontrkulturas. avstrieli istorikosi da kulturis
Teoretikosi Eernest hans gombrixi amtkicebs, rom yvelaferi, rasac
dRes uwodeben Tanamedrove xelovnebas, amoizarda daukmayofileblobis grZnobidan. sul ufro metad aRiareben, rom XX saukunis
xelovneba da mTlianad kultura marginaluria.
rodesac vlaparakobT marginalizaciaze, rogorc Tanamedrove
kulturis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes maxasiaTebelze da misi rogorc
kontr-kulturis efeqtze, srulebiTac ar vgulisxmobT, rom Tavad
kulturis Semoqmedni arian socialuri marginalebi. marginaluria
maTi xedva, midgomebi, marginaluria maTi gemovneba. sainteresoa ra
iwvevs am gansxvavebuli Rirebulebebis gaCenas da damkvidrebas. ratom
uCndeba xelovans moTxovnileba Secvalos arsebuli kanonebi, stili,
arsi. ueWvelia, rom `novatorobis~ am aqts, moTxovnilebas didwilad
iwvevs Cveulis, kargad Camoyalibebulis, mravaljer gameorebulis
moyirWeba da amis Sedegad warmoqmnili mowyenilobis gancda.
filosofosTa umravlesoba mowyenilobis fenomens ganixilavs
rogorc borotebas, Tumca aseTi Sefaseba maSinve mexamuSeba, ra wams
vixseneb oblomovs an germantebisken moseirne svans, prustis romanis
gmirs.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom valter beniaminovi apirebda mowyenilobaze wignis daweras. mowyeniloba xom gaugebrobaSi arsebuli
adamianis grZnobaa da swored am gaugebrobidan gamosvlis survili
gvibiZgebs gaazrebisa da Semoqmedebisken. mowyenilobaze werda bevri
filosofosi da mwerali dawyebuli paskalidan, damTavrebuli iseTi
Tanamedrove mwerlebiTa da filosofosebiT, rogoricaa kamiu an
kortasari. solomonis amaoebac sxva araferia, Tu ara mowyenilobis

112

Tamar berekaSvili

gancda. da mainc mowyeniloba gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove adamianis


xvedria. RmerTis sikvdilze SeiZleba elaparaka martooden
Tanamedrove erTferovani cxovrebiT Zalian daRlil da mowyenil
adamians, romlisTvisac `kulturam~, gagebulma rogorc sicocxlis
arsma, mniSvneloba dakarga.
Ffernando pessoa ase wers mowyenilobaze: `mowyeniloba - imdenad
eqstremaluri grZnobaa, rom misi damarcxeba ar SeiZleba TviTmkvlelobis
aqtiTac ki, es SesaZlebelia martooden raRac SeuZleblis gziT,
martooden iseTiT, rac saerTod ar arsebobs bunebaSi~.
swored am moZlierebuli mowyenilobiT Tanamedrove cxovrebaSi
aixsneba Tanamedrove adamianis miswrafeba garTobisaken, `sainteresos~
Ziebisken, rac meorexarisxovnad xdis WeSmariti Rirebulebebisken
swrafvas. am fenomenis gamoxatulebaa sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli
masobrivi kultura, romelic inteleqtualTa yuradRebasac
imsaxurebs, Tundac maT es uaryon. masobrivi kultura xom swored
Tavisi cvalebadobiT, myisierebiT, siWreliT gamoirCeva, Tavisi mudmivi
ganaxlebiT. masobrivi kulturis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes da Zalian
popularul saxeobas warmoadgens moda, top-modelebis monawileobiT
didi defile, rac warmoadgens `axlis mudam dabrunebas~, valter
beniaminovis sityvebiT. roca vsaubrobT modaze, upirveles yovlisa
vgulisxmobT swored mis sanaxaobriv mxares, romelic yvelaze
metad tansacmlis warmodgenaSi warmoCindeba, magram Tanabrad SeiZleba
vilaparakoT modaze nebismier sxva sferoSi avtomanqanebi, aveji,
samkaulebi, telefoni da a.S.
modis nimuSi rogorc movlena ar saWiroebs gansakuTrebul
xarisxs, is unda iyos axali, yovelTvis axali. uwyvetad unda
iqmnebodes axali sagnebi, obieqtebi da stilebi. modasTan da
sazogadod mas-kulturasTan dakavSirebiT Cndeba reklamis cneba.
Tavad reklamac masobriv kulturas miekuTvneba didwilad. reklama
aucilebelia masobrivi kulturis obieqtis gasasaReblad, gasayidad.
amisTvis reklama cdilobs warmoaCinos reklamirebadi obieqtis
gansakuTrebuloba, Tavisebureba, xarisxi. xSirad bevr reklamirebad
obieqts reklama enacvleba da reklama cxovrobs damoukideblad,
rogorc erTi raRac sfero, romelic sxva sferoebTan erTad
sazogadoebas gars axvevia. sazogadoebaSi, sadac umTavresi roli
informacias miekuTvneba, da es informacia v. beniaminovis TqmiT,
gamudmebiT unda ganaxldes, `gamocdilebis aqciebma fasi dakarges~.
informacia da arsi ki Zalian gansxvavebuli cnebebia. Tanamedrove
adamianis cxovreba mowyenilobis gadalaxvaa, romelmac is Sei pyro,
imis Semdeg, rac gauCnda bevri Tavisufali dro.
rasakvirvelia mowyenilobac araerTgvarovania. arsebobs misi
sxvadasxva saxeoba. svendseni oTxi saxis mowyenilobas ganixilavs:

esse marginalobasa da mowyenilobaze

113

1) situaciur mowyenilobas, rodesac adamiani raRacis molodinSia,


magaliTad, matareblis an koncertis;
2) gulgacruebis mowyenilobas, rodesac adamiani elodeba raime
mniSvnelovans movlenisagan, magram Sedegad yvelaferi mtknari da
uSedego aRmoCndeba;
3) egzistencialuri mowyeniloba, rodesac iseTi grZnobaa, rom
suli moklebulia Sinaarss da samyaro erT adgilzea gayinuli;
4) kreatiuli mowyeniloba, romelic xasiaTdeba ara imdenad
SinaarsiT, ramdenadac SedegiT, magaliTad, roca adamiani iZulebulia
gamudmebiT ASeqmnas raRac axali.
kulturis filosofiiT dainteresebuli adamianebisTvis
sainteresoa swored mowyenilobis mesame da meoTxe ti pi. egzistencialuri mowyeniloba SeiZleba gaCndes gamocdilebis simciris
gamo. am mowyenilobis gadalaxvis mcdelobisas adamiani eZebs sul
ufro da ufro axal SegrZnebebs imis magivrad, rom TandaTanobiT
miiRos gamocdileba.
adamiani, romelic realur cxovrebaSi ver poulobs kmayofilebas,
romelic gulgacruebulia da amdenad mowyenili, qmnis gamogonil
samyaros. mowyeniloba stimuls aZlevs SemoqmedebiT aqtiobas. xSirad
swored xelovnebaSi hpovebs adamiani wonasworobas da harmonias.
bevri mwerali da moazrovne miiCnevs, rom mowyeniloba rCeulTa
suls axasiaTebs da naklebadaa cnobili mdabioebisTvis. ase miiCneven
leopardi, Sopenhaueri, kirkegori, nicSe da sxvebi. nicSe miiCnevs,
rom mowyeniloba win uswrebs kreatiul, SemoqmedebiT moqmedebas.
SemoqmedebiTi naturis adamianebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli mowyeniloba,
martivi da mdabio naturebi ki cdiloben moicilon igi, gaeqcnen
mowyenilobas. nicSesTvis adamiani Tavs ganamtkicebs imiT, rom Tavs
ganixilavs Tanamedrove samyaroSi rogorc sixaruls. es sixaruli
iswrafvis maradisobisken, magram es maradisoba cirkularulia da
ara wrfivi. maradisoba axlaa. mowyenilobas misi gadalaxvis
SemTxvevaSi sixarulis motana SeuZlia. magram es sixaruli
zeadamianuria, maSin rodesac mowyeniloba adamianuria, metismetad
adamianuri. magram mowyenilobis gadalaxva yvelas ar SeuZlia, Tumca
yvelam unda scados.
miuxedavad imisa, rom nicSes egzistencialistebs ver mivakuTvnebT,
SesamCnevi gaxdeba erTgvari paralelizmi Tu maT naazrevs mowyenilobis
gaazrebis kuTxiT ganvixilavT, nicSesa da egzistencialistebis
TvalsazrisiT adamianze. kamius mowodeba, rom adamiani aujanydes
ubedurebebs _ sikvdils, avadmyofobas, sinacisfres, mowyenilobas _
enaTesaveba nicSeseul zeadamianisken swrafvas, xolo sartris idea
adamianis unarze gaakeTos `swori~ arCevani da ar darCes mcdari
cdunebebis msxverpli, swored mowyenilobis daTrgunvis gzaa.

114

Tamar berekaSvili

mowyenilobaze saubrisas aucileblad Cndeba ironiis Tema.


mowyenilobaSi TiTqosda araferi komikuri ar aris, magram
mowyenilobisas gaaqtiurebuli gaazrebisa da analizis procesebi
ueWvelad ironiasac Seicaven. Tavis TavSi Caflul adamians ar
SeiZleba ar hqondes ironia. niSandoblivia romantikosTa gansakuTrebuli ironia, rodesac awmyoTi, realurad dRes arsebuliT
gulgacruebulebi da mowyenilebi isini cxovrebis arss, mSveniers
da keTils eZeben warsulSi, Soreul qveynebSi, velur bunebaSi.
ironiiTaa gamsWvaluli sartris piesa `daxuruli WiSkari~ (`huit
clos~). cvlileba da siaxle arRvevs erTferovnebas da jojoxeTi
sxva araferia, Tu ara Cven TviTon, rodesac cudi, yalbi arCevanis
Sedegad, samudamo mowyenilobas vimkiT, rodesac Tvalis xamxamis
unaric ki dakargulia da aRmoCndeba, rom xamxami es Tvalis dasvenebaa,
sixalisea, Svebaa.
mowyenilobis fenomeni metad arsebiTia semuel beketisTvis da
miuxedavad imisa, rom mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi, piesebSi is am sityvas
TiTqmis ar iyenebs, mowyenilobis Tema misTvis umTavresia da bevri
nawarmoebisTvis ganmsazRvrelic. misi adreuli `ese prustze~ swored
mowyenilobas exeba. Tavis ganTqmul piesaSi `godos molodinSi~
mowyenilobis komikurobas aRwers, es mowyenilobis komediaa.
`xelovneba es STagonebuli simartivea~, komunikacia SeuZlebelia
da nebismieri xma, sityva matyuaraa, is gulgrilia imis mimarT,
rasac ambobs. yvela velodebiT didi patiebis dRes, raRac diad
dRes, magram dadgeba ki es dRe?
mowyeniloba ganimarteba aq rogorc personaluri arsis
ararseboba. adamians araferi darCenia, garda imisa, rom elodos
axali arsis gaCenas, povnas. magram es lodini usasruloa da uSedego.
sainteresoa, rom egzistencializmis da absurdis ganviTareba
ukavSirdeba axali grZnobebis, realobebis, SegrZnebebis, Tvalsazrisebis,
axali Rirebulebebis ganviTarebas. Tu wina saukuneebSi mowyeniloba
(da marginaloba) rogorc problema, rogorc mniSvnelovani da xSirad
adamianis qcevis, qmedebis ganmsazRvreli gancda arc ganixileboda,
egzistencializmi swored mowyenilobis fenomenis analizs axdens,
Tumca ki TiTqosda uSualod es ar aris misi mTavari mizani. magram
ganixilavs ra egzistencias, arsebobas, rogorc ZiriTad cnebas,
ganmsazRvrels adamianis sicocxlis arsisa, egzistencializmi gverds
ver uvlis mowyenilobis fenomens.
haidegeris TvalsazrisiT, arsebobs mowyenilobis sxvadasxva
saxeebi, dawyebuli zedapirulidan da damTavrebuli egzistencialuriT.
haidegers surs gaaRviZos mowyeniloba, romelic SeiZleba Tvlemdes,
rac Zalian saSiSia, imitom, rom is am SemTxvevaSi Rebulobs sxvadasxva

esse marginalobasa da mowyenilobaze

115

formas, moZraobs droSi da maSin, rodesac Cven TiTqosda vebrZviT


mas, is `iZinebs~ da masTan erTad iZinebs filosofosobis ganwyoba,
ganazrebis ganwyoba. es damangreveli Zalaa da amitom saWiroa
gaRviZeba. unda gaviRviZoT, raTa movaxdinoT Cveni SesaZleblobebis
realizeba. anu haidegeric frangi egzistencialistebis msgavsad
miiCnevs, rom SesaZlebelia da aucilebeli mowyenilobis gadalaxva.
mowyenilobaze msjelobisas xSirad saubroben mis damangrevel
bunebaze. Sopenhaueri laparakobs imaze, rom mowyenilobam SeiZleba
miiyvanos adamianebi TviTmkvlelobamde an koleqtiur TviTmkvlelobamde. magram xom ar xdeba es raRac ciklis, raRac `proeqtis~
dasrulebis, srulyofis Sedegad, rogorc ki raRac `proeqti~
sruldeba, aRwevs Tavis srulyofas, iwyeba mowyeniloba, romelic
angrevs yovelive Cveuls da damdgars.
mowyeniloba rogorc TeTri furceli Seicavs potencials.
mowyenilobaSi sicarielea, romelic SeiZleba mgrZnobiare iyos axlis
mimarT. mowyeniloba arRvevs Cveul konteqsts da sagnebsa da
movlenebs axal konfiguraciebs aniWebs, is sZens maT axal arss,
Tumca SeiZleba sruladac daukargos nebismieri arsi. amdenad,
negatiuri mniSvnelobis paralelurad mowyenilobas SeuZlia
pozitiuri cvlilebebi moaxdinos.
amasTanave mowyeniloba xels uwyobs Tavisi meobis, Tavisi arsis
gagebas, rac TviTrealizaciis SesaZleblobas iZleva. nicSe miiCnevs,
rom `is vinc mowyenilobis winaSe damcav nagebobebs aSenebs, is am
damcav nagebobebs uSenebs sakuTar Tavs~.
zemoTqmulidan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom rogorc marginalizacia,
ise mowyenilobis gancda erTgvarad xels uwyobs Rirebulebebis
gadafasebas, axlebur xedvas da axali sruliad gansxvavebuli
struqturebis Seqmnas. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom erTi da igive, an
msgavsi movlenebis, xatebis gameoreba iwvevs mobezrebas, interesis
dakargvas da mowyenilobis gancdas. mowyeniloba ki SeiZleba gaxdes
an garTobis, sxvadasxva swrafad cvalebadi movlenebisa da
sanaxaobebisaken swrafvis safuZveli an axali samyaros Seqmnis
sawindari, kontrkulturis Camoyalibebis winapiroba.
axali Rirebulebrivi sistemis, gansxvavebuli kulturuli
stilis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba ukve gulisxmobs imas, rom pirovneba
an pirovnebaTa jgufi warmoadgens marginalurs.
aq unda SevniSnoT, rom socialuri marginalizacia da kulturuli
marginalizacia gansxvavebuli fenomenebia. kontrkulturis Semoqmedi
srulebiTac ar aris aucilebeli, rom iyos socialuri marginali.
socialuri marginalizacia mZime xvedria. albaT did winaaRmdegobebs
ejaxeba isic, vinc gansxvavebul Rirebulebebs iziarebs kulturis,
xelovnebis sferoSi, magram aseTi marginalizacia ar aris damakninebeli,

Tamar berekaSvili

116

is ar axdens pirovnebis stigmatizacias da TandaTanobiT lumperizacias. Tu socialuri marginali or kulturul Tu socialur


erTianobas Sorisaa, maT zRvarzea da orivesgan gariyuli, marginali,
romelic axal stils qmnis xelovnebisa Tu azrovnebis sferoSi,
sruliad mowyvetilia ZiriTadi kulturis sistemas; is cnobierad
emijneba mas, imitom rom ar iziarebs am kulturuli sistemis
ideebs. socialuri marginali ki ar emijneba ZiriTad kulturas,
aramed mas uWirs arCevani. is ar aris protestanti, is msxverplia
ori sxvadasxva sistemisa, romelTac is erTdroulad nawilobriv
miekuTvneba da iziarebs. meore mxriv, bolomde ver esadageba misgan
damoukidebeli mocemulobis gamo. SemoqmedebiTi potencialiT
swored is adamiani xasiaTdeba, vinc mTlianad uaryofs wamyvan,
centralur paradigmas.
amgvarad, rogorc marginalizacia, ise mowyeniloba ar warmoadgenen
erTmniSvnelovnad uaryofiTi Sinaarsis cnebebs. bevr SemTxvevaSi
isini urTierTdakavSirebulia. mowyenili adamiani, romelic ufiqrdeba
garemos da movlenebis absurdulobas, marginalia siameebis maZebar
sazogadoebaSi, sadac mravalgzis meordeba erTxel dawerili scenari
da sadac erTi da igive sityvebi imdenjer aris gameorebuli, rom
maT dakarguli aqvT mniSvneloba. martooden mowyenilobis fskeramde
amowurvis SemZle Semoqmeds SeuZlia mowyenilobiT gafantuli Zveli
xatebisgan gaTavisuflebuli suliT daiwyos axali xatebis da
axali sityvebis Seqmna, yvelasgan TviTgamijnuls da marginalizebuls.
es procesi usasruloa.
literatura
kr
isteva 11974:
974: . .
kristeva
XIX . . 1974
terner
984: . , . 1983
ternerii 11984:
eliade 1998: . . 1998
beniamini 1997: . N 12 1997
pessoa 1997: . N 9 1997
nicSe 11990:
990: . .
2- , . 2, . . 1990
nicSe 1990: .
. 2- , . 1, . . 1990
sartr
998: - , . 1998
sartrii 11998:
svendseni 1007: e , ,
2007

117

SoTa bostanaSvili
daviT bostanaSvili

naS/enis prezentacia

SoTa bostanaSvili:
saqarTvelos teqnikuri
universitetis arqiteqturis fakultetis sruli
profesori; arqiteqturis
saerTaSoriso akademiis
profesori; poeti.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
arqiteqturis poetika;
Tbilisis ritualebis sasaxle; sazRvrebis konfliqti da urbanuli konfliqtis sazRvrebi; uridod da uderidod; protoposti, anu gavTend-i.
interesTa sfero:
filosofia, filologia,
literatura.
daviT bostanaSvili:
arqiteqtori. stu-s arqiteqturis doqtoranti.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
arqiteqtura da xelisufleba,arqiteqturis semiologia, casaxle
interesTa sfero:
kulturologia, lingvistika, literatura.

es teqsti semiotikis wina nomerSi (4, 2008)


dawyebuli diskursis - niSani da naSeni enis
gagrZelebaa. neologizm naS
naS/enis
enis, prezentaciiT
arqiteqturis semiotikis gansakuTrebul bunebazec
mivaniSnebT, romelsac lingvisturi hibridi
niSanaSeni ver gamoxatavs.

naSenis dekonstruqciiT miRebuli naS


naS/
enis SesaZleblobebi (saTqmeli, uwyeba,
Setyobineba, mesiji, medialuroba) gaizarda,
gamdidrda da garTulda. ase magaliTad: naS
naS/
enis gatexva (amoReba, amodgma, wagrZeleba,
damokleba, Cagdeba da misT.) an/da: naS
naS/eniT
eniT
enad gakrefa.
moxiblva, naS
naS/enad
naSenis morfemul-grafemuli transenad ar aris mxolod enobrivi
formacia naS
naS/enad
TamaSi, axali konotacia, koncepti, an semantema;
gnebavT, enis areva, - diseminacia, an semiozisi.
saqme is gaxlavT, rom naS
naS/eniT
eniT warmodgenilia iseTi ram, rac erTdroulad materialuria, - naSenia da amave dros - enaa,
niSania, erTicaa, meorec da arcerTia, raRac
sxvaa; aRmniSvnelia, romelsac ori aRsaniSni
aqvs da orive usxlteba.
enad warmodnaS/enad
asec SeiZleba vTqvaT: naS
genilia sityvis da sagnis, logosis da telosis Tanamyofoba, - enis materialuroba
da materiis enoba (metyveleba, ritorika) S/enoba. enis materialurobaSi vgulisxmobT
imas, rac TargmanSi ikargeba. sityvieri
sxeuli ar gvemorCileba, rom sxva enaSi gadavitanoT [derida 2000: 268].

118

SoTa bostanaSvili, daviT bostanaSvili

bolosdabolos, naS
naS/enis
enis paradigmatuli saTave, sityvis
gansxeuleba da sxeulis gansityvebaa.
naS
eniT aRniSnulia da warmodgenilia isic, rac erTdroulad
naS/eniT
aris da arc aris; is, rac Tavis myofoba-armyofobaSi adasturebs
Tavis inter-esse-obas, yofna-aryofnas Soris myofobas - sainteresoobas, polisemanturoba-diseminaciis erTdroulobas. am niSniT
gvagondeba platonis qora. qora ar ganekuTvneba arc eidosis
saxeobas, arc mimesisis saxeobas [derida 1998: 145]. J. deridas da
arqiteqtor p. eizenmanis erToblivi wigni Chora L Works enobrivi
TamaSia qorasa da qorals Soris.
ise, arc arqiteqtura aris erTi batonis msaxuri termini
(terminus - laT. sazRvris mcveli). arqiteqturaSi, konteqstis
kvalobaze, vgulisxmobT, rogorc naSens (kedeli, saxli, qalaqi) da
mis aRkazmulobas, ise profesias; xelovnebis an/da saxalxo meurneobis
dargs; zogadad ki, wesrigis romelime sivrcis mowyobis dagegmvis
wess, koncefcias, gegmas, struqturas da misT.
bolo xanebSi arqiteqtura metismetad metaforuli (metaphora
- gadatana, gadasvla) gaxda da im gadasasvlelad gadaiqca, romliTac
wesrigis sxvadasxva sivrceebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian (peresrtoikis arqiteqtura, axali evropis arqiteqtura da sxva). ase,
naS/eniT
rom arqiteqturaze saubrisas SegviZlia naS
eniT (da eniT)
vilaparakoT. Cveni eniT saubari ki metakritikis (da semiotikis)
movaleobaa. misi valia ara is, rom aRmoaCinos namuSevarSi Tu
avtorSi raime dafaruli, Rrma da saidumlo rac aqamde SeumCneveli
darCa, ... aramed mxolod miusadagos misi periodis ena ... kritikuli
diskursi - rogorc, ufro metad, logikuri diskursi - sxva araferia,
Tu ara tavtologuroba: is mTlianad metyvelebaSi gamoixateba,
Tumca mTel Tavis arss dayovnebaSi aTavsebs, ... kritikuli dasabuTeba,
Tuki aseTi arsebobs, damokidebulia saTanadoobaze, ara aRmoaCinos
gansaxilveli namuSevari, aramed sapirispirod, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia
eniT laparaki swored
dafaros is sakuTari eniT [barti 1963]. naS
naS/eniT
dayovnebul
sakuTar
enas
enis neografizmi
aseT
da
warmoadgens. naS
naS/enis
fukos azrsac adasturebs, rom damwerlobis pirveladoba
eniT laparaki is laparakia,
eWvgareSea [fuko 2004: 79]. da erTic: naS
naS/eniT
romlidanac ar SegviZlia gamovitanoT saboloo ganaCeni, magram
mniSvnelobs da afarToebs Cvens warmodgenebs. ai yovelive is, rac
enis prezentacias da mis semiotikur damkvidrebas.
Seexeba naS
naS/enis
SeniSvna: winamdebare teqstSi naS/enis saxeliT imuSavebs Tavad
ena im enis Sesaxeb, romelmac ukve moixelTa naSeni. aseTi ena gaxlavT
arqiteqturis istoria, Teoria da poetika.

naS/enis prezentacia

119

aqvs Tu ara arqiteqturas sakuTari ena, mere varkvioT; axla ki


vaRiaroT, rom xuroTmoZRvruli refleqsiebi, tradiciulad,
sametyvelo da grafikuli eniT aris davalebuli, _ diskursi da
naxazia misi metaena.
enis gavlenis sferoebi SezRudulia
aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom naS
naS/enis
naTesaobiTi (is), moqmedebiTi - (iT) da viTarebiTi (ad) brunvis
niSnebiT.
naSeni, rogorc saxeli (saxelobiTi brunva) enas ver atrialebs,
verafers mogviTxrobs (moTxrobiTi brunva); arc miReba aqvs
(micemiTi brunva) da arc subieqt-obieqtia, visac, an rasac SeiZleba
mivmarToT. samagierod, hyavs didi sanaTesavo, moqmedebs da cvlis
viTarebas.

naS/enis poetika
enis da literaturis mravalsaukunovani gamocdileba SeiZleba
xuroTmoZRvrebaSi gadavitanoT da arqiteqturis poetika
vuwodoT xuroTmoZRvrebas (am sityvis etimologiuri mniSvnelobiT),
im teqstebs, romlebic trdiciulad warmogvidgenen naSenis arss
koncefcias da ideologias; ganixilaven naSenis esTetikis sakiTxebs:
kompozicias, metrul-ritmul sistemebs, proporciebs, simetrias,
perspeqtivas, orderul sistemas da misT.
metakulturis epoqaSi arqiteqturis poetika es aris refleqsia
Tavad poetikaze, mis mier Se/quCebul teqstebze (rogorc naSenze,
aseve nawerze) da saerTod samyaroze, sagnebsa da movlenebze, rogorc
artifaqtebze. am gagebiT arqiteqturis poetika dRes es aris
arqiteqturis metapoetika, an/da naS/enis poetika.
literaturaTmcodneobis analogiiT warmovadgenT mas sam nawilad:
zogadi, aRweriTi da istoriuli .
naS/enis poetikis amocanebi:
1. refleqsia msoflio arqiteqturaSi uwyvetad, an xangamoSvebiT
rmalur
moqmedi princi pebis (Temebis) fo
formalur
rmalurii niSnebis klasifikaciaze .
2. naSenis xuroTmoZRvruli enis da yofiTi samSeneblo
enis - specifikis garkveva.
3. naSenis funqciuri, struqturuli da stilisturi
klasifikacia.
4. naSenis kulturologiuri orientacia; cifrul teqn.
epoqaSi axal paradigmaTa fiqsacia da sistematizacia.

120

SoTa bostanaSvili, daviT bostanaSvili

naS/enis aRwer
iTi (deskr
aRweriTi
(deskrii pciuli) poetikis amocanaa
ama Tu im arqiteqtoris, jgufis an skolis Semoqmedebis individualuri niSnebis dadgena.
naS/enis istoriuli poetikis amocanaa arqiteqturaSi ama
Tu im mimdinareobis, stilis, koncefciis, tendenciis aRmocenebis
istoriuli procesis dadgena da maTi adgilis gansazRvra kulturis
sazogado problemur velTan - epistemesTan mimarTebaSi.
warmodgenili sistema gansazRvravs arqiteqturis fenomens _
erTis mxriv mis miwier raobas, meores mxriv simbolur tipologias niSnebisa da kodebis sistemas da im inter esse-s
(Soris yofna), riTac poetika ukavSirdeba semiotikas.
naS/enis poetika xuroTmoZRvrebis istoriis axali wakiTxvis,
Tu gnebavT, kritikuli wakiTxvis da paraleluri Txrobis
kvaldakval cdilobs gadaweros xuroTmoZRvrebis istoria tradiciuli qronotopuli sazRvrebis gauqmebiT: saxeebiT gansxvavebulni
(stili, epoqa, adgili) daaaxlovos saxelebiT - masa, kedeli,
ride, sveti, kibe, CarCo.
masa simZimis, materiis da Zalis damkvidreba; masiurobis
araindividualurobis gamovlena.
kedeli barieri, sazRvari, karCaketiloba, SeuRwevadoba,
gadaulaxavoba, dacva da saimedooba.
ride niRabi, zRude, SefuTva.
sveti gravitaciuli mizidulobis mimarTuleba, orientiri.
kibe ierarqiuli struqtura, svla, kavSiri.
CarCo reglamentireba, Tavmoyra, gamoyofa, warmoCena,
gansakuTrebuloba.
arqiteqturis poetikis manifesti
SeiZleba aswavlo mxolod is, Tu rogor unda iswavlos.
Cemi Zalisxmeva mimarTulia arqiteqturaSi miTis da poetis
dasabruneblad, rac gulisxmobs humanitaruli azrovnebis primats
es ki bunebasTan da adamianurobasTan dabrunebas niSnavs, imis
gaTvaliswinebiT, rom XX saukune ukve moxda.
memkvidreobisadmi pativiscema xels ar uSlis imis aRiarebas,
rom kultura barieria, igi qmnis azrovnebis stereoti ps, romelic
unda davZlioT.
arqiteqturis ,,geni iracionaluria da mowodebulia marTos
sivrce simboloebiT da niSnebiT.

naS/enis prezentacia

121

niSani da naSeni nangrevis poetikas gvimxels, - rom Soreuli


da axali qaosis saSeni masalac arqiteqturaa.
arqiteqtura iwyeba iq, sadac mTavrdeba pragmatizmi da
sargeblianoba, sadac suls meti sivrce sWirdeba vidre sxeuls;
sadac codnas warmarTavs intuicia da gancda; sadac logikas aRemateba
xilva da warmosaxva.
arqiteqtura xelovnebaa da meTodur yalibebs ar emorCileba.
arqiteqtura xelovnebaa es ki gamorCeuli unaria gamoxato
emociebi da gaaRviZo sxva adamianebSic es niSnavs SeinarCuno
bavSvoba da TamaSis azarti; gaocebisa da aRtacebis unari; gaocebisa
imiT, rac Sens garSemoa da rasac TiTqos pirvelad xedav; aRtacebisa
imiT, rom yofna saocrebaa da xilva dResaswauli.
xelovneba aris is, rac realobas aklia, rasac is malavs da
rac misganve unda ga/movityuoT. iqneb realoba arafers malavs da
ubraloa.., da xelovneba realobaze akidebuli danaSaulia.
arqiteqtura xelovnebaa es ki is samefoa, sadac ar
isjebian dogmatebisa da kanonis darRvevisaTvis, sadac ar isjebian
diqtatis, Tavxedobis, intrigebisa da provokaciebisaTvis, radgan
mSvenierebas amkvidreben. mSvenierebis wyaro ki empiriuli sinamdvilis
miRmaa, moklebulia sargeblianobas da uangaro siamovnebas iwvevs.
SoTa bostanaSvili. 1995.

naS/enis semiotika
niSanTa sferoSi saqmianoba sam saxeobad warmodgeba:
Sexameba
1. niSanTSewyoba (-Sexameba
Sexameba), moicavs naratiul nairgvarobebs:
literaturuls, religiurs, mecnieruls, politikurs, yofiTs da
sxva. niSanTSewyobis xuroTmoZRvruli paradigmebi unda
aRvweroT bunebis an/da kulturis formaTa urTierTganlagebebiT,
rac praqtikaSi, masStabisa da funqciis cvlilebebis kvalobaze,
warmoqmnis sivrcul nairgvarobas (situaciebs, modelebs, fenomenebs):
baRs, ezos, bans, quCas, moedans, kompleqss, sofels, qalaqs da
maTi keTilmowyobis elementebs - mcire formebs. es eqsplikaciaeqspozicia bunebriv niSnebTan erTad (mTa, tye, mindori, zRva, mdinare,
CanCqeri da sxva) gansazRvravs sivrcul nairgvarobaTa poetikas da
semantikas.
2. niSanTaRweriloba gramatikis, leqsikonebis da lingvisturi
kvlevebis saqmea.

122

SoTa bostanaSvili, daviT bostanaSvili

niSanTaRwerilobis xuroTmoZRvruli eqsplikacia


ganfenilia arqiteqturul teqstebSi: leqsikonebSi, orderuli
sistemebis analizSi, arqiteqturuli universaliebis paradigmebSi
da arqiteqturis metapoetikis arqeti pebSi (gnebavT, konceptebSi,
an/da semantemebSi). maTi gamaerTianebeli niSania sax(e)li konceptualuri samwevri saxe - saxeli - saxli (nimuSi, niSani
- saxeldeba - naSeni).
SeniSvna: sax(e)li calke diskursis sagania.
Seneba dainteresebulia axali niSnebis SemotaniT
3. niSanT
niSanT(aR)Seneba
- neologiiT, niSanTSemoqmedebiT da semiurgiiT
semiurgiiT.
semiotika - mecniereba niSnebis Sesaxeb - dakavebulia niSnebze
refleqsiebiT (niSnuri refleqsiebiT) da ganiyofa sam (+ erT)
nawilad:
1 . semantika - niSnis mimarTeba mniSvnelobasTan da aRsaniSnTan;
2 . sintaqtika - niSanTa urTierToba;
3 . pragmatika - niSnis da momxmareblis urTierToba.
(m. epSteins semiotikaSi Semoaqvs meoTxe mimarTuleba semionika)
semionika).
4. semionika - es aris mecniereba axali niSnebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb.
axali niSnebis Seqmna da maTi Setana praqtikaSi ukve semiurgiis
saqmea.
ismis kiTxva: ra potenciali da ra meTodebi arseboben axali
niSnebis aRmosaceneblad?
aq uadgilo ar iqneba goeTes gaxseneba: pirvelad iyo saqme da
Tu es asea, maSin semiurgia demiurgia; arqiteqtoric, Tu is
demiurgia, misi saqmea semiurgia. am konteqstSi arqiteqtura aRmniSvnel
formad warmodgeba, magram ras aRniSnavs is? aris ki masSi mocemuli
mniSvneloba? ra aris is, rac misi daweris SesaZleblobas qmnis?
iqneb arqiteqtura arafersac ar aRniSnavs da Tavad gvevlineba
Tavdapirvelad, saxelis maZieblad, aRsaniSnad?
Semdegi publikaciebi swored am kiTxvebze pasuxebis Ziebas
mieZRvneba. aq ki gasaziarebelia is azri, rom niSanTSemoqmedebis
sistemuri SesaZlebloba umTavresad internetTan iqneba dakavSirebuli. mxolod qseli, rogorc mTlianoba, aris niSanSemoqmedebis
amocanaTa Tanazomadi .., rom kulturis SemoqmedebiT sferoebSi
TandaTan met adgils daiWers niSnebis gaCena [epSteini 2004: 654].
sainteresoa, da iqneb damajerebelic, azri imis Sesaxeb, rom
droTa viTarebaSi niSanTSemoqmedni ( ) aranakleb rols
Seasruleben sazogadoebaSi, vidre kanonTSemoqmedni ( ).
am fiqris mizezia is, rom kanoni zRudavs yvelas saerTo aucileblobiT,
axali niSani ki uqmnis TviTgamovlenis axal saSualebebs. Tu am

naS/enis prezentacia

123

azris perifrazs gavakeTebT, maSin samomavlod menaSeneebs meniSneni


ar Camouvardebian. asea Tu ara es, sxva saqmea, erTi ki cxadia, rom
yovel axal sityvasTan erTad Cndeba axali azri, axali naSenis
molodini da axali niSani - saswauli. diax, niSani saswaulia.
niSani - niSi, gina saswauli, niSani somxuria, saswauli - qarTuli
[saba 1991: 595].
azrovneb - niSnavs xelaxla Seqmna ena [epSteini 2004: 655],
xelaxla Seqmna saswauli. is radikaluri transformaciebic
saswaulia, rasac bolo aTwleulebSi xuroTmoZRvrebis ena ganicdis.
aq mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs arqiteqturis S/enebis aRreva marketingis
enasTan.
marketingis semiurgiuli sfero brendingi da kreativi
dakavebulni arian ra axali sasaqonlo niSnebis SeqmniT (sityvieri,
saxviTi, bgeriTi), xSirad faraven arqiteqturis tradiciul enas,
laparaks ar acdian, pirSi uvardebian da sityvas awyvetineben. aseTi
araTavazianobis magalTebia reklamebiT gadatvirTuli fasadebi.
maTi Semtevi energia miswvda iatakqveSeTSi gaxiznul xuroTmoZRvrebasac - metros. Cvens qalaqSi, axali saukunis dasawyisamde,
arqiteqturis ukanaskneli mohikani metros gvirabiani sadguri
iyo. reklamam da bilbordma es salaparako Rruc dauxSo
xuroTmoZRvrebas.
Cvens sinamdvileSi axali arqiteqtura Tavisi bolSevikuri
odiseis dasawyisSia, barbarosul stadiaSia. kulturis da istoriis
gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, axali drois (x)uroTmoZRvrebis
meTodebi daixveweba, s zeena? albaT gaocdebian kidec, roca Seityoben,
rom samyaros pirvelsaxe daewyoba da Sedegad minis amreklavi
zedapirebisa da reklamebis sivrceSi moveqceviT, rogorc ityvian
qva qvaze ar darCeba. gansxeulebuli media - iqneb es aris
xuroTmoZRvrebi qva da niJara iyo, - kvrivi da fuRuro - vnaxoT,
vuyuroT...
literatura
saba 1991: orbeliani s.s. leqsikoni qarTuli, Tbilisi: merani
1991.
barti 1963: barti r. ra aris kritika? Targ. Jurn. afra #13
Tbilisi: 2008.
fuko 2004: fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi, Tbilisi: gamomcemloba
diogene 2004.
der
ida 11998:
998: . . .- 1998
derida
der
ida 2000: . . .- 2000.
derida
epSteini 2004: . . .: 2004

124

izabela petriaSvili

globaluri da lokaluri
kodebi reklamaSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis
sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo
universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis
enebis centris maswavlebeli, inglisuri filologiis mimarTuleba.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis
semantikuri da pragmatikuli Taviseburebebi (monografia); konteqstisa da
vokabularis roli reklamaSi; deiqsisis kategoriebis realizacia avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi;
avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis
lingvistur-stilisturi
Taviseburebani (inglisuri
romanis masalaze); referencia da implikacia
avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi;
sametyvelo aqtebis Teoria avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis pragmatuli analizis WrilSi.
interesTa sfero:
lingvisturi pragmatika,
stilistika, sociolingvistika.

rogorc cnobilia, reklama Tanamedrove


kulturis arsebiTi Semadgeneli nawilia.
igi ara mxolod biznesis mniSvnelovani
iaraRia, aramed komunikaciis relevanturi
saSualeba da diskursis gansxvavebuli tipia
globalizebul samyaroSi. Tumca, zogjer
reklama im produqtebze, romlebic mTel
msoflioSi gamoiyeneba, ar aris efeqturi;
zogierTi sareklamo slogani kargad ver
muSaobs. aqedan gamomdinare, warmatebuli
reklamis Sesaqmnelad mniSvnelovania
globaluri kodis arseboba.
rogor davweroT efeqturi reklama
es aris erT-erTi umTavresi problema,
romelsac reklamis Seqmnisas vawydebiT postsabWoTa saqarTveloSi. statiaSi warmodgenilia qarTuli da inglisuri reklamebis
SedarebiTi analizi. monacemebi gaanalizebulia struqturul, semantikur da pragmatikul WrilSi. saanalizod SerCeulia
ZiriTadad qarTuli sabanko da farmacevtuli
produqtebis reklamebi da sloganebi da
Sedarebulia sxvadasxva ucxoeli lingvistis
mier ganxorcielebul inglisuri reklamebis
analogiur kvlevebTan saerTo lingvopragmatikuli maxasiaTeblebis dadgenis
mizniT, rac SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
ganvsazRvroT globaluri da lokaluri
kodebi reklamaSi. reklamis enis verbalur
doneze reprezentaciisas analizi fokusirebulia gramatikul struqturaze, xolo araverbalur doneze mokled aris ganxiluli

globaluri da lokaluri kodebi reklamaSi

125

feris, xatis, simbolos roli reklamis mesijis interpretaciaSi.


reklamis struqturulma analizma gviCvena martivi gramatikuli
struqturebis gamoyenebis siWarbe (mokle, martivi, elifsuri
winadadebebi da a. S.), romlebic mainc aRwevs mizans, miuxedavad
imisa rom xSir SemTxvevaSi amgvari winadadebebi aramarTebuli
iqneboda normalur werilobiT gamoyenebaSi. liCis mixedviT,
diziunqciuri stili anu, gramatikulad Zalian martivi ena,
gulisxmobs mis gamoyenebas iseT situaciebSi (maT Soris reklamebSi),
romlebSic gramatikuli struqturebis organizebis maRali xarisxi
araekonomiurad da zedmetad miiCneva. amgvarad, reklamebSi gamoyenebuli
winadadebebis ti pebi, brZanebiTi kilos gamoyeneba, uaryofiTi formebis
Tavidan arideba SeiZleba CaiTvalos globalur kodad struqturul
doneze.
rac Seexeba reklamebis pragmatikul WrilSi ganxilvas, aq mravali
faqtori (rogorc verbalur, ise ara-verbalur doneze) iyris Tavs.
reklamis umTavresi funqcia aris myidvelis darwmuneba iyidos esa
Tu is produqti. Tumca garda am ZiriTadi funqciisa, mas SeiZleba
qondes sxva funqciebic, rogoricaa garToba, informireba, gafTxileba
da sxv. swored am funqciebis warmatebulad ganxorcielebisaTvis
did mniSvnelobas iZens iseTi ara-verbaluri faqtorebi, rogoricaa
reklamis dizaini, musika, feri, xati, indeqsi, simbolo. niSnis cneba
arsebiTia reklamis elementebis sworad gasagebad. garda amisa,
arsebobs kidev ori sakvanZo cneba presupozicia da relevanturoba
radgan swored maTi meSveobiT xdeba reklamis mier imaze meti
informaciis gadacema, vidre reklamaSi eqspliciturad gadmocemuli
informaciaa. am mxrivac, rogorc inglisuri, ise qarTuli reklamebis
analizma gviCvena, rom yvela es niSani SeiZleba aRviqvaT rogorc
globaluri kodi, Tumca reklamis sworad interpretacia
SesaZlebelia mxolod lokaluri kodis gaTvaliswinebiT.
statiaSi naTqvamia, agreTve, rom gaziarebuli unda iqnas inglisuri
enis rogorc lingva frankas mier akumulirebuli gamocdileba.
inglisuri reklamis teqnika unda iqnas aRebuli rogorc globaluri
sareklamo kodi, Tumca, amasTanave, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnas miRebuli
kulturis specifikidan gamomdinare Taviseburebebi.

126

izabela petriaSvili

GLOBAL AND LOCAL CODES IN ADVERTISING


Advertising is an important aspect of communication who is
communicating with whom and why, in what kind of society and situation, through
what medium. Advertising is not only an important business dimension, but an
integral aspect of communication in our modern globalized world, which focuses
on issues from a range of fields including pragmatics of intercultural discourse.
Some very creative minds come up with seductive combinations of sound, image
and words, but tests show that we often dont remember the brand being
advertised.
The article deals with the study of Georgian advertisement catchphrases
and slogans, mainly for pharmaceutical products and bank services, to compare
them with existing studies of English advertisements by different linguists in order
to state some common linguo-pragmatic features which will make it possible to
identify global and local codes in advertising. I will focus on the analysis of the
grammatical structure as a verbal representation of the advertising language, and
the role of some non-verbal features, such as colours, image and symbol in the
interpretation of the message of advertisements.
The language of advertising must be a language of immediate impact and
rapid persuasion. It must bring the advertised produce into attention, stress its
qualities in the most attractive way, clearly outline the reason for buying it, and,
preferably, leave a memorable echo of what has been said about the product
ringing in the readers/listeners/viewers mind. Advertisements do differ amongst
themselves according to the purpose for which they are designed, the medium in
which they are presented and the places in which they are found. But there are
nearly always certain linguistic features present in any advertisement that serve to
mark it very clearly for what it is.
The linguistic features include a basically simple grammatical structure,
especially as regards the sentences, most of which are short and many of which,
in dispensing with anything that is not absolutely necessary, manage to work very
effectively without parts that would be considered essential in normal written
usage. In this respect Leech uses the term disjunctive style as contrasted to
discursive style (under the word style he means a variety of language the use
of which is governed by contextual features other than the identity of the speaker/
writer i.e. register). According to Leech (Leech 1963:257), disjunctive style,
( i. e. grammatically very simple language), is generally found in situations where
a high degree of grammatical organization would be uneconomical and redundant.
This is generally so in the case of advertisements.
As for the sentence structures used in the language of advertising we meet all
types of sentences (simple, compound, complex), as well as minor sentences,
which do not have a verb used in advertising because information is put across to
the consumer in a very brief manner (e.g. a cool mint gel; Tqveni da Tqveni

globaluri da lokaluri kodebi reklamaSi

127

pirmSos saimedo damcveli; dRe tkivilis gareSe! TBC Card meti


Tavisufleba!; and incomplete/elliptical sentences, e.g. Help! gtkiva? sesxi
espreso swrafad da giraos gareSe; yvelgan aversi
aversi, aversi
TvenTvis! tkivilidan Svebamde ... 15 wuTi.
It is very frequent to use a series of short sentences for impact on the reader.
This impact is especially clear at the beginning of a text, often using bold or large
type for the headline or slogan to capture the attention of the reader. e.g.
gayidvebis lideri! moxerxebulia xmarebaSi. saimedo. optimalur
timalurii kompleqtacia.
kompleqtacia.; TBC BROKER CAPITAL +, etc .
Many sentences consist of constructions which could usually only occur as a
subordinate part of a sentence, but which become independent items in the
language of advertising. e.g. umoklesi gza tkivilis dasamarcxeblad!
Zlieri, swrafi, usafrTxo! saxalxo banki: depozitebis aqcia - 17
weli damoukideblobidan.
Another very common grammatical feature of advertising language is the
large number of imperative verbs: daamarcxeT tkivili 15 wuTSi! SexvdiT
gazafxuls alergiis gareSe! daiviwyeT stresi, gaRizianeba da
daRliloba! dazogeT dro, gaimartiveT gadasaxadi. depoziti
pozitivi miiReT maqsimaluri pozitivi.
Thus, all the above features of grammatical structure in advertisements can
be viewed as a global code in the advertising language. Furthermore, as advertising
normally emphasises the positive side of a product avoidance of negatives is
another common feature, which can be regarded as a global code as well. In the
material of my analysis negative sentences were practically not encountered.
Language has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour. This is
especially true in the fields of marketing and advertising. The choice of language
to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is vitally
important.
Visual content and design in advertising have a great impact on the consumer,
but it is language that helps people to identify a product and remember it. The
target audience also puts its own meaning into certain words. Different people
sometimes interpret language in different ways. That is where understanding the
meaning in the context becomes most relevant and the principle of local
interpretation is understood as the local code of the advertising language ( which
I deal with in my article: The Role of Context and Vocabulary in Advertising,
saenaTmecniero Ziebani, t. XXVIII, 2008).
The unusual aspects of language that are sometimes found in advertising can
be fruitfully considered to be examples of artful deviations. As an illustration of
this P. Sells and S.Gonzalez bring the following two examples.
VW ad (Rolling Stone, May 23, 2002): re-tuned. re-conditioned. heck,
its been re-everything-ed. Out of the blue, to re-everything would be hard

128

izabela petriaSvili

to interpret, but in the context provided by the advertisement, its meaning is


clear.
In Cointreau (In Style, August 2002) a blend, Be Cointreauversial.
Besides the main function of advertising persuading the addressees to buy
it may have other functions as well, such as amusing, informing, misinforming,
worrying, warning. It is the complex interaction of society, its culture, values and
beliefs of those people who make and experience it. Advertisements provoke
social, moral and aesthetic judgments ranging from the most positive to the most
negative. (Cook 2001)
Despite the peculiarities characteristic to the language of advertising
everybody agrees that advertising is ordinary communication, and advertising
language ordinary language, and that the ideas from linguistics and semiotics
that have been applied in many domains of language and cultural behavior carry
over directly to the analysis of advertising.
Besides structural, semantic and stylistic features characteristic to the
advertisements on the verbal level, which we consider as a global code, there are
also other, non-verbal features crucial for understanding and interpreting the
meaning of advertisements, such as the sound/music, image, sign, colour etc.
The concept of a sign is fundamental to understanding the meaningful elements
in an advertisement. Beyond this, there are two key concepts, namely,
presupposition and relevance which are important because they allow us to see
the primary means by which advertisements can communicate much more
information than what is explicitly presented in them. Presuppositions are a crucial
part of advertising as they can cause the reader to consider the existence of
objects, propositions, and culturally defined behavioral properties.
If we refer to C. S. Peirces (1960) three categories of denoting expressions
or objects icon, index, and symbol, in an advertisement any image of the
product is an icon, representing the product more or less accurately. An index is
generally quite culturally-bound, representing something by association, though
there are globally accepted indexes. e. g. in TBC ad for quick consumer loans a
clock indicates to the swiftness of actions, or a picture of a field full of flowers in
anti-allergic drug ads, etc. These indexical components of advertisements have
connotations, which typically connect the advertisement to a larger cultural context.
Symbols need little illustration; everyone can easily think of company symbols.
e.g. globally recognized McDonalds Golden Arches is, of course, originally
indexical from the name. In terms of cultural significance, a company is wellserved if its symbol becomes an index a signifier which goes beyond what it
directly signifies to some larger association. The symbol, too, may come to be
indexical over time. This represents a very strong cultural establishment of the
symbol, and may be a very powerful marketing tool. (e. g. the Lion in BOG ads,
a red cherry for the mobile operator Bali, as well as its Georgian initial letter B
b which graphically looks like a cherry).

globaluri da lokaluri kodebi reklamaSi

129

One of the most important functions of an advertisement, besides


informativeness, is persuasion. Different types of advertising may have different
proportions of informative and persuasive content. Hermern (Hermern 1999)
observes that even informative content may be persuasive, for example if it indicates
superior performance of some product. In order for a communication to be
persuasive, the reader must accept some or all of its emotional content, and to
do that, the reader must have a reason for doing so. Hermern distinguishes
among the following kinds of power through which an advertisement may have a
persuasive influence:
reward power: the product promises some positive benefit.
coercive power: the product is presented upon pain of threat or
punishment.
referent power: the message associated with the product fits into the
readers value system.
expert power: the product is presented by an expert.
star power: the product is associated with a celebrity figure (the latter is
added by P. Sells, S. Gonzalez).
Colours contribute a great deal to the advertisements. The color choices
advertisers make are more than aesthetic decisions; colors have been known to
affect (and reflect) a persons mood or emotions, current style trends and cultural
beliefs and symbols, as well as represent personalities. Colour choices can also
correspond to levels of salience. Besides, Colours carry some message to the
readers/viewers of the advertisements. e.g. in Georgian bank advertisements every
bank has its clearly recognizable colours: e.g. BOG (Bank of Georgia) orange
(they were first in Georgia to make intensive use of the colour for advertising
purposes). Besides dominating orange colour in their office facades or interiors,
they have orange credit cards, their logo is an orange lion, there are even orange
cabs in the city. Paint company Glidden suggests a very interesting interpretation
of colours. According to them, orange is the color of autumn, spice, form and
design. In bright tones, orange is jovial, cheerful and playful. Deepened, it becomes
exotic and exciting. If orange is your choice, you have abundant energy with an
eye for structure and organization. Your social nature finds you surrounded by
family and friends. The latter meaning is undoubtedly considered in the symbol of
Aldagi-BCI Insurance Company. Likewise, Peoples Banks colour is red,
the single most dynamic and passionate color, symbolizes love, rage and courage.
Demanding attention, red has great emotional impact. Those who select red are
aggressive, impulsive and strive for success. TBC has cool and constant teal
indicating stability and resistance to change. If teal is your favorite color, you are
a sensitive individual, and have excellent taste. Optimistic and trusting, you have
a high degree of faith and hope, easily trusting others. VTB Bank and Basis
Bank choose the color of tranquility, blue, cool, soothing and orderly. The color
of royalty, blue brings comfort and serenity to our lives. If you choose blue, you

izabela petriaSvili

130

have a basic need for a calm, harmonious, and tension-free existence. Capable,
conservative and sensitive to others, you make a loyal and trustworthy friend.
PSP Pharmaceutical Company uses green the color of life, and represents
freshness, security, and tranquility. Green creates an atmosphere that is calm and
restful, and characterizes the intense power of nature. If you select green, you
seek stability, balance and persistence. You are a moral and affectionate individual.
Perhaps the creators of these companies images had some of these features
in mind when they made their choices. Besides, these companies are easily
remembered and easily recognized by their colour. Thus, colour can also be
regarded as a global code of advertising. However, it can also carry some culture
specific features and become at the same time a local code, as is the case with
the colours of Bank Republic (black, red and white), which, besides the global
meaning that these colours carry, for a Georgian they are also the colours of the
first National Flag of Independent Georgia (though we have a different flag now).
Thus, the results of the study of the language of advertising proved that the
experience accumulated by the English language (which serves as a lingua franca)
should be shared; the English language and the techniques and features used in
English advertising can be considered as a global code, though some culturespecific features constituting the local code should also be taken into consideration
for successful creation of advertisements.
Bibliography:
Cook, G. 2001: The Discourse of Advertising. Routledge.
Hermern, L. 1999: A Study of the Language of Advertising. Lund University
Press.
Leech, G. N. 1963: Disjunctive Grammar in British Television Advertising. Studia
Neophilologica. A journal of Germanic and Romance Philology. vol. XXXV.
No. 2.
Peirce, C.S. 1960: Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, Volume 2.
C. Hartshorne.
Sells, P. Gonzalez, S. 2002: The Language of advertising.
http://www.stanford.edu/class/linguist34/index.htm
http://www.gliddenpaint.com/Ideas_Inspiration/psychology_of_color.html

131

gia joxaZe

sxeulis Tavgadasavali:
qarTuli versia
(meore werili)

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistent-profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
XIII_XIV saukuneebis
saqarTvelos istoriidan,
avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri
msoflmxedveloba da
istoriuli esseebi.
interesTa sfero:
eklesiisa da religiis
istoria da istoriuli
anTropologiis problemebi.

adamianis sxeulia mizezi senis gavrcelebisa, _ ityvis miSel fuko Tavis ,,klinikis
dabadebaSi. metic: seni sxeulis meSveobiT
vlindeba, sxeulSi awydeba sivrces, romelsac
gansxvavebuli konfiguracia aqvso [fuko
1998:8-9] da Sua saukuneTa evropis medicinac
yvelaze did gamocdilebas infeqciur
daavadebebTan brZolaSi SeiZens.
am xanis gamaukacurebeli epidemia Savi
Wiri iyo, romliTac ganixvna da daixSo Sua
saukuneTa karibWe.
Savi Wiris, rogorc ,,baqteriologiuri
iaraRis, gamoyenebis pirveli recidivi jer
kidev Zvel aRTqmaSi gvxvdeba: filistimelebs
RvTis kidobnis misakuTrebisTvis ufali
sjis _ ,,gvemda maT bugrebiT, ,,qalaqis
mkvidrT didian-patarianad... gamoaCndaT
bugrebi... cas miswvda qalaqis RaRadi
(pirveli mefeTa, 5, 5-12).
gamanadgurebeli omebisa da adamianTa
masobriv gadaadgilebaTa sanitaruli Sedegi
sameurneo cxovrebis yvela sferos moSla,
SimSili da farTomasStabiani epidemiebi iyo.
kacTa modgmas sakvebis ararseboba Tangavda.
907-dan 1014 wlamde dasavleT evropaSi
daregistrirebulia SimSilobis 28 mtanjveli weliwadi. 1032-35 wlebSi ,,didma SimSilobam SeZra saberZneTi, safrangeTi,
inglisi... stiqiaTa mZvinvareba da arasaxarbielo klimaturi pirobebi iwvevda SimSils.

132

gia joxaZe

adamianebi Wamdnen yvelafers, razec xeli miuwvdebodaT.


klunis monastris beris, raul glaberis qronikis Tanaxmad,
gareuli cxovelebisa da frinvelebis STanTqmis Semdeg, dauokebelma
SimSilma adamianebi aiZula, mZoric eWamaT da iseTi rameebic CaedinaT,
risi Tqmac qronografs Zrwolas hgvrida. evropa lamis kanibalizms
daubrunda. amas Tan erTvoda antihigienurobac. romis papma kliment
III-m gamosca brZanebuleba, romlis Tanaxmadac kviraobiT araTu
banaoba, piris dabanac ki ikrZaleboda, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT
saxarebiseuli epizodis vulgarizebul gagebasa da gavrcelebaze:
farisevelTa kiTxvas qristem xom ase upasuxa: ,,xeldaubanlad Wama
ar bilwavs kacs! (maTe, 15, 2-20). yinvam (,,mcire gamyinvareba) kidev
ufro gaamZafra dasavleT evropaSi Seqmnili antisanitaruli viTareba:
civi wyliT dabana arc Tu momxiblavi aqti gaxldaT [kirianovi
2002:9]. sadac SimSilia, iqvea sneulebac. gamosakvebad daZruli
migracia yovelTvis epidemiebs imkis. 1087 wels germaniasa da
safrangeTSi Savi Wiris epidemiam ifeTqa. 1089 wels safrangeTSi,
germaniaSi, inglissa da skandinaviaSi pirvelad gamoCnda axali seni,
e.w. ,,wminda cecxli _ cxeleba. 1092 wels aRnusxulia pirutyvisa
da adamianis didi sikvdilianoba. 1094 wels Wiri moedo germanias,
safrangeTs, niderlandebs... 1147 wlis jvarosnuli laSqrobis dros
SimSilma da sneulebam gaanadgura germanelTa laSqris didi nawili.
erTi anonimi avtoris TqmiT, cocxlebi ar kmarodnen mkvdrebis
dasamarxad. 1212 wlis bavSvTa jvarosnulma laSqrobam _ anu
SimSilma da avadmyofobam _ aTobiT aTasi ymawvilis sicocxle
imsxverpla. XIII saukuneSi SimSili mZvinvarebs poloneTSi, safrangeTSi,
livoniaSi, avstriaSi, moraviaSi, CexeTSi... adamianebi Wamen katebs,
ZaRlebs, cxenebs, cxedrebs, Sxamian mcenareebs... [kirianovi 2002:9].
mudmivad daunayrebelma suldgmulma dakarga fizikuri winaaRmdegobis unari, ramac Tavisi roli Seasrula im gaukacurebaSi,
romelic 1384 wlis did Jamianobas mohyva. cxedarTa simravlis
gamo maT damarxvaze zrunva amao movaleobad iqca. erT-erT yvelaze
katastrofulad miiCneven ,,Savi sikvdilis (Wiri da misi Tanamdevi
daavadebebi) epidemias XIV saukunis Sua xanebSi. metropoliaTa
mosaxleobis naxevarze meti gawyda _ mTel dasavleT evropaSi 26
milionze meti adamiani daiRupa [le gofi 2000:104; 221].
seni sikvdilTan gaigivda. cocxlebisa da micvalebulebis
samyaroTa urTierToba dairRva. aikrZala samgloviaro procesiebi
da ceremoniebi. micvalebulebs saxlis win yridnen. dasaflavebis
rituali saerTod ar axsovdaT, an misi usazRvrod damcrobili

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

133

varianti sruldeboda. idga panikuri SiSi, sulieri da xorcieli


gansacdeli [le gofi, triuoni 2008:101-104].
Savma Wirma, aseve sxva epidemiebma, gamoavlina sqolastikuri
medicinis sruli uunaroba. saSrobze dasxmuli melaniviT gantotvili
senianobis SeCereba veravin SeZlo. aman Zalze Searyia eqimTa
avtoriteti. saZulvel profesiaTa siaSi ,,eqimic SeaqvT. amas garda,
Sua saukuneebSi kvlavac SemorCenilia pirvelyofili mentalobis
naSTebi _ primitiul sazogadoebaTaTvis niSandoblivi akrZalva _
uwinaresad _ sisxlis tabu: is vinc sisxls exeba, uwminduria! [le
gofi 2002:64-67]. Sua saukuneTa dasavleTis sisxliT gaumaZRari
sazogadoeba TiTqos meryeobs sisxlis TxeviT gamowveul netarebasa
da misgan mogvril Zrwolas Soris, Tumc, Semdgom amgvari
damokidebuleba icvleba [le gofi 2002:64-67]. moqalaqeTaTvis
micemul profilaqtikur rekomendaciaTa Sinaarsi aseTia: ,,yovelmxriv
SeecadeT, Tavi aaridoT sajaro musaifs, raTa erTmaneTis haeri ar
CaisunTqoT da erTma sneulma ramdenime ar daavados. ganmartovdiT
da uari TqviT mowamlulhaeriani garemodan mosulTan Sexvedraze
(pietro da tosinio, Tractatus de pestilentia).
Sua saukuneebisaTvis niSandobliavia mudmivi daavadebebi,
romlebic didxans mZvinvarebdnen erTsa da imave adgilebSi. aseTi
iyo e.w. ,,ofliana, romelsac Tan sdevda Zlieri cieb-cxeleba da
ofldena; Wleqi anu tuberkulozuri adeniti; abscesi, gangrena,
wylulebi, egzema (wm. lavrentis cecxli), simsivne, Sankri, wiTeli
qari (wm. silvianis madli), saymawvilo, avitaminoziT gamowveuli
sneulebani, sxvadasxva saxiCrobani, nervuli daavadebani: epilefsia
(wm. ioanes daavadeba), meorenairad _ e.w. ,,wm. gis cekva, tifi,
yvavili, dizenteria, malaria, yivanaxvela, jer kidev VII saukunidan
momdinare keTri _ Sua saukuneTa yvelaze didi sanitaruli problema...
[le gofi 2000: 222-226; le gofi, triuoni 2008: 104].
Tumc, keTri sulieri satkivaric iyo, radgan imdroindeli adamianis
cnobierebaSi nebismieri daavadeba simbolizdeboda: keTrovani
codvilad aRiqmeboda, romelic eswrafoda Tavisi sul-xorcis
biwisagan, gansakuTrebiT _ avxorcobisagan ganwmendas. keTrovnis
wamebuli sxeuli sulier wylulebze mianiSnebda. Cveulebriv, miaCndaT,
rom keTrovani mSoblebma akrZalul periodebSi _ marxvisas, Sobis
wina dRes da a.S. _ Casaxes. keTri codvis, Tanac, yvelaze mZime _
seqsualuri codvis produqtad kvalificirdeboda. amis safuZvelic
Zvel aRTqmaSia: keTrovnis wylulis aRmoCenis Semdeg mRvdeli sneuls
uwmindurad scnobda, romelic ,,gancalkevebiT unda cxovrobdes

134

gia joxaZe

Tavisi sacxovrebeli banakis gareT (levianni, 13, 46). keTrovani


samoqalaqo sikvdilis proceduras gadioda, cocxal mkvdrad iqceoda
_ arTmevdnen qonebas, acilebdnen ojaxs, socialur garemos, Cveul
materialur wyobas. Tuki mainc rTavdnen gareT gamosvlis nebas,
Wriala unda aexmaurebina, bukisTvis unda Caebera, eJvani aeJRarunebina,
raTa sxvebs misgan garidebis dro da saSualeba miscemodaT. keTrovani
erTgvar mwvalebladac aRiqmeboda: ,,mwvalebloba sulis senia, romelic
simbolurad eklesiis jansaR sxeuls mocilebul sneul sxeulSi
vlindeba, _ ase werdnen da ase swamdaT [le gofi, triuoni
2008:105-107].
XIII saukunis jvarosnuli laSqrobebis Sedegad (rac xels
uwyobda keTris farTod gavrcelebas) iqmneba sagangebo organizacia
_ wm. lazares ordeni. keTrovanTa TavSesafrebsac lazareTebi ewodaT,
Tumc, amgvar sasneuloebs meore saxelic hqondaT: leprozoriumebi
(Lepra- keTri), romelTa ricxvi 1226 wels safrangeTSi oriaTasamde
aRwevs. 1250 wlisaTvis ki centraluri evropa 19000 leprozoriumma
dafara [kirianovi 2002:10]. monastrebTan stacionaruli dawesebulebebis Seqmna, romlebsac Tavs sneulni, moxucebi da invalidebi
afarebdnen, albaT, bizantiidan iRebs saTaves. evropul saavadmyofoebSi
eqimebad monazvnebi msaxurobdnen, romlebic, ZiriTadad, ,,marxviTa da
locviT mkurnalobdnen. Tumc, gamoricxuli ar aris, samonastro
saavadmyofoebSi xalxuri medicinis danatovriTa da antikur avtorTa
TxzulebebSi amokiTxuli meTodebiTac esargeblaT [kirianovi 2002:9].
1163 wels romis papma aleqsandre III-m monazvnebs aukrZala medicinisa
da samoqalaqo samarTlis swavlebisaTvis monasterTa datoveba.
medicinisaken gza saeroebsac gaexsnaT, rasac eklesiis mier
mowonebuli da tiraJirebuli ori motivic amyarebda: sayovelTao
keTildReobaze zrunvisa da Sromis, rogorc aseTis, madlian saqmed
miCneva [le gofi 2002:67].
albaT, amitomac, ,,sneuli ,,Ratakis sinonimad aRiqmeboda da _
piriqiT. glaxakad miiCnevdnen ara mxolod materialurad RatakT,
aramed _ daucvelT, uufleboebs, Zaladobis msxverplT, qvriv-oblebs,
piligrimebs, monebs, tyveebs, martoxela qalebs, xeibrebs, daWrilebs,
uZlur moxucebs... aqedan gamomdinare, imdroindel hospitalebSi
ara imdenad mkurnalobdnen, ramdenadac TavSesafriT uzrunvelyofdnen,
uvlidnen, kvebavdnen da a.S. [kirianovi 2002:10].
Sua saukuneTa epoqaSi aRnusxul saswaulTa umravlesoba
gankurnebiT gamoixateba. aq mTavari personaJi wmindania. Tumc, qristes
pirovneba aseT midgomasac ambivalenturad aqcevs: keTri, rogorc

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

135

codvis mTavari simbolo, amave dros, qristes simbolocaa _ qristem


itvirTa kacTa modgmis mTeli mankiereba kacobriobis gansakurnad.
sneuli Tan gankicxulia, Tan _ rCeuli. bibliuri rwmuneba _ Christus
medicus _ aq ganmsazRvrel rols TamaSobs. qriste saswaulebrivad
kurnavs adamianis sxeulsac da sulsac da kacobriobas xsnis gzas
aniWebs. qriste wamalicaa, radgan adamianTa wylulebis gansakurnad
gamoiyeneba. is uRviZebs sneuls tanjvisa da Tvinierad daTmenis
Rirebulebas. sulis wamlobiT gvinergavs moTminebis madlmosilebas,
aRdgomiT ki Cveni dasneulebuli sxeulis gamosyidvis Tavmdebia.
amdenad, qriste daavadebuli, tanjuli sxeulicaa.
kurneba RvTis saqmea. samedicino gamocdileba ejaWvis magiasa
da religias. ZiriTadi roli eniWeba magiur wes-Cveulebebs,
daavadebulze simboluri Jestebi ,,gansakuTrebuli sityvebisa da
sagnebis TanxlebiT zemoqmedebs. XI-XII saukuneebSi am wes-CveulebebSi
gamoCnda qristianuli kultis sagnebi, qristianuli simbolika.
warmarTuli Selocvebi qristianizdeboda. warmoiSva axali
qristianuli formulebi, gaifurCqna wmindanTa kulti. wmindanTa
saflavebze uamravi adamiani dadioda janmrTelobis gamosakeTeblad.
wmindanebs uZRvnidnen saCuqrebs, sTxovdnen Semweobas, cdilobdnen,
maT romelime nivTs Sexebodnen da a.S. XIII saukunidan gaformda
wmindanTa e.w. ,,specializacia _ wmindanTa panTeonis naxevars
gansazRvruli daavadebis meurved miiCnevdnen. gavrcelebuli iyo
amuletebi, romlebic mTavar profilaqtikur saSualebad
gamoiyeneboda: spilenZis an liTonis firfitebi, romlebzec locvis
fragmenti, angelozTa saxelebi iyo amotvifruli; wmindanTa
nawilebiT sakralizebuli avgarozebi; iordanes wyliT savse
flakonebi, samkurnalo balaxebi... miiCnevdnen, rom naTloba da ziareba
dadebiTad moqmedebs adamianis janmrTelobaze. Sua saukuneTa nebismier
daavadebas Tavisi locva an Selocva Seesatyviseboda. samkurnalo
Tvisebebs miawerdnen, aseve, purs, wyals, marils, rZes, Tafls, saaRdgomo
kvercxebs...
Sua saukuneebSi popularulia hi pokrates siZis, polibiosis
e.w. ,,oTxi siTxis Teoria: adamianis sxeuli Seicavs sisxls, balRams,
yviTelsa da Sav naRvels. es gansazRvravs sensac da sijansaResac.
amasTan, sruli sijansaRe maSinaa SesaZlebeli, roca siTxe _
xarisxobriv-raodenobrivad _ urTierTproporciulia da erTmaneTTan
saukeTesod Sezavebuli. seni maSin Cndeba, Tu romelime siTxe an
Zalian mravldeba, an Zalian mcirdeba da sxvebs gamoeyofa. sneuldeba
ara mxolod is adgili, saidanac esa Tu is siTxe ukuiqceva, tanjva

136

gia joxaZe

da tkivili ganicdeba im adgilasac, sadac siTxe grovdeba, ris


Sedegadac Zlieri sacobi warmoiqmneba.
samxreTitalieli alkmeon krotonelis (daax. 500 w. Cv. w-mde)
azriT, janmrTeloba miiRweva sinotivis, simSralis, siTbos, simwaris,
sitkbosa da sxva maxasiaTeblebis TanabarTavsebadobiT. erT-erTis
gaZliereba, gansakuTrebiT _ siTbosa an simSralis momateba _
daavadebas iwvevs. maT Sobs sakvebis gadaWarbebuli doziT miReba
an piriqiT _ SimSili. seni ibudebs sisxlSi, Zvlis tvinsa da Tavis
tvinSi. sens xandaxan garegani mizezebi _ wyali, adgil-garemo, sevda
da sxva misTanani _ ganapirobebs. janmrTeloba yovelive zemoT
CamoTvlilis SeTanadebaa.
JorJ diubi Tavis wignSi ,,mamakacuri Sua saukuneebi aRniSnavs,
rom XII saukunemde feodalur kulturaSi saerTod ar iCendnen
interess sxeulis satanjvelisadmi, yovel SemTxvevaSi es naklebad
aRelvebdaT. amas ganapirobebda cxovrebiseuli pirobebis sisastike
da sirTule, Sua saukuneTa ideologiis samxedro-mamakacuri xasiaTi.
aqac bibliuri safuZvlis anarekli sxivdeba: Semcdar evas RmerTi
ase sjis: ,,satanjvels gagimravleb da gagiZneleb orsulobas. tanjviT
Sob Svilebs. adams ki eubneba: ,,pirofliani Wamde purs, vidre
miwad miiqceode. amgvarad, pirveli adamianebi ara mxolod mokvdavni
gaxdnen, aramed _ tanjulnic. mamakacis xvedri Sromaa, qalisa _
tanjva. raki qalisTvis tkivilia niSandoblivi, mamakacma is arad
unda Caagdos. mamakaci ar itanjeba, yovel SemTxevevaSi, amas ar
gamoxatavs. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, is diacis mdgomareobamde ecema.
Tumc, ase mxolod XII saukunemde fiqroben. Semdeg tkivils araTu
gamoxataven, ganadideben kidec.
francisk asizeli, romelsac mravali daavadeba RrRnida, calkerZ,
sxeuls codvis instrumentad, ,,mtrad miiCnevda, romelic unda
daiurvo da alagmo, calkerZ _ ,,Zmas uwodebda mas, daavadebebs ki
,,debad moixseniebda. es praqtikuladac aisaxa wmindanis cxovrebaSi:
jer Tavisi sneulebebis gankurnvas erTaderTi mkurnalisagan _
qristesagan moeloda, Semdeg papis eqimebsac mimarTa. ieso ziraqis
sibrZneSi aris aseTi debuleba: ,,ufalma miwisagan Seqmna wamlebi
da gonieri kaci ar ugulebelyofs maT (sibrZne ziraqisa, 38,4).
sxeulma Rirebuleba SeiZina. hubert romanelis sityvebic amis
dasturia: igi mouwodebda sulier Zmebs, ar gamoefitaT sxeuli da
ar ugulebelyoT higiena, radgan es asustebs adamians da qedmaRlad
aqcevs. sxeuli yovelTvis sulieri miznebisaTvis unda gamoviyenoT,
Tumc, mis misaRwevad tanjva da daTmena aucilebeli ar ariso.

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

137

qristes garda Sua saukuneebis epoqis adamiani sxva mkurnalTac


mimarTavda. droTa ganmavlobaSi sulis mkurnal mRvdelmsaxurTa
gverdiT sxeulis mkurnali eqimebic gamoCndnen. isini erTdroulad
iyvnen swavlulebica da praqtikosebic. iqmneboda profesiuli
korporaciebi, samedicio skolebi, universitetebi. eqimebi profesionalebad yalibdebodnen da amaSi gasamrjelosac iRebdnen: Tumc,
es gaxldaT ara mkurnalobis sazRauri (gankurnebis unari saRvTo
madlad miiCneoda), aramed _ im Sromisa, romelsac avadmyofis fexze
dasayeneblad swevdnen.
diagnostikis antikuri praqtika, rac pulsis gasinjvasa da
enis Semowmebas efuZneboda, Sua saukuneebSi uroskopiam Secvala.
korbeelma egidiusma (1165-1213) SemoiRo da Semdeg farTod gavrcelda
Sardis analizi. medikosTa korporaciul emblemadac SuSis WurWeli
matula gaxda, romelic am meTodisTvis gamoiyeneboda. uroskopiasTan
erTad xSirad mimarTavdnen sisxlis gamoSvebasac, gansakuTrebiT _
monastrebSi.
arc eqsperimentebze ambobdnen uars, igonebdnen axal wamlebs,
magram eklesiis ideologiuri gavlenis SiSiT, romelic yovelgvar
siaxles krZalavda, galenis saxeliT iniRbebodnen, mis TxzulebaSi
amokiTxulad asaRebdnen. gamoigones gautkivarebis axali xerxi _
,,saZile Rrubeli, romelic lencofas, induri kanafis wveniTa da
opiumiT iyo gaJRenTili.
diagnostikis TvalsazrisiT arc imas iviwyebdnen, rom sxeulis
movlenebi ciur sxeulTa ganlagebas Seesabameba.
Sua saukuneTa medicinas unda vumadlodeT trepanacias, motexil
kidurTa Casmas, analuri fistulebisa da buasilis operirebas.
Sua saukuneebis qirurgebs SeeZloT sisxldenis SeCereba mowviT,
magnitis meSveobiT sxeulidan ucxo metalebis amoReba, Wrilobis
Sekerva. farmakologia spirtisa da vercxliswylis gamoyenebiT
gamdidrda. spirti swored am dros aRmoaCines da antiseptikur
saSualebad aqcies.
XIII saukunes ganekuTvneba sxeulis gakveTis praqtika. eklesias
pirdapir arasodes aukrZalavs es aqti. is mxolod kuboTa amoTxrisa
da cxedarTgatacebis winaaRmdeg reagirebda. Tumc, sxeulis gakveTas
ufro imisTvis mimarTavdnen, rom galenis esa Tu is debuleba
daedasturebinaT: mokled, sxeuls jer ,,kiTxulobdnen da SemdegRa
Wvretdnen [le gofi, triuoni 2008:105-117].

gia joxaZe

138

seni da salmoba
Sua saukuneTa saqarTveloSi Zalze mkrTalad, magram mainc Cans
TiTqmis sinonimuri samedicino aqtivoba: qsenoni gelaTis monasterTan
(varaudoben, rom gelaTis akademiaSi iswavleboda medicina), varZiis
afTiaqi, sasneulo vanis qvabebSi, Targmnili samedicino literatura...
i. javaxiSvilis miTiTebiT, ,,uZlur-myofni, ,,dasneulebulni da
,,sneulni ,,sasneuloSi Tavsdebodnen, sadac maT ,,mesneule _
erTgvari mowyalebis Zma uvlidaT. sxvaTa Soris, didi mecnieri
dasabeWdad amzadebda kidec monografias ,,adamianis janmrTeloba
da janmrTelobisaTvis mzrunveloba Zvel saqarTveloSi [javaxiSvili
1984:55-56]. samwuxarod, ar viciT, Sesrulda Tu ara i. javaxiSvilis
ganzraxva.
arsebobs erTi beletristuli Canaweric: qarTuli medicinis
mkvlevar m. SengeliasTan saubarSi akademikos g. wereTels uxsenebia
erTi arabuli wyaro, romliTac TiTqos dasturdeboda TbilisSi
Tamaris dros arsebuli ,,SesaniSnavad mowyobili samefo (saxelmwifo) saavadmyofo [Sengelia 1985: 29-30]. am wyaros bedi CvenTvis
ucnobia.
JamTaaRmwerlis ,,aswlovan matianeSi, romelic XIII saukunis
saqarTvelos saukeTeso wyaroa, adamianebi, ZiriTadad, imitom avaddebian,
rom uRvTod moiqcnen. aseTi midgoma bunebrivia Sua saukuneebisaTvis
da qarTuli teqsti gamonakliss ratom unda warmoadgendes?! magram
mainc gvikvirs, rom ar ayovnebs RvTis sasjeli da sens da salmobas
TiTqmis myisieri sikvdili mosdevs: Tavisi Zis _ daviTis monRolebTan
mefed dasamtkiceblad gamgzavni rusudani ,,tkiviliTa da uzomo
mwuxarebiTa Seicveboda, mogvianebiT _ ,,tkbilisa SvilisaTvis mwared
ileoda da dasneulebuli gardaicvala tfiliss, Tanac, TviTonve
hyvedrida Tavs, ,,ra igi yo Zmiswulsa Tvissa daviTs zeda, viTar
eqsoria hyo [qarTuli proza 1982:323-324].
JamTaaRmwerlis Tanaxmad, tkivili da seni RvTis iaraRia uRvToTa
dasasjelad _ rusudanis sneulebaca da sikvdilic daviT laSagiorgis Zisadmi gamovlenilma misma usamarTlo damokidebulebam
gamoiwvia.
daviT laSas Zes, ukve gamefebulsa da dacolSvilebuls, ufali
senis movlinebiT imitom sjis, rom ,,Jamsa siberisa misisa ara
marTlad vidoda winaSe RmrTisa... iwyo Slad saydarTa saepiskoposoTa. romeli sanatrelTa mefeTa Sesavalni sofelni mieniWnes,
ganscemda, egreTve monasterTa. daviT laSas Ze sibidan wamosvlisas

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

139

,,dasneulda salmobiTa muclisaTa, magram RmerTma arc es ikmara:


,,swrTvida RmerTi ara CvenebiTa, aramed SvenierebiTa Zisa misisaTa
sikvdilisa gloviTa: dasneulebuli giorgi marTlac ,,sisxlisa
mdinarebisgan aRsrulda [qarTuli proza 1982:366-367].
Tu Semoqmedi qristianebisadmi aseTi daundobelia, ormagad
tanjavs warmarTT: ,,Seedva salmoba boroti yaens arRuns... seni igi
gangrZeldeboda oTxisa Tvisa JamTa [qarTuli proza 1982:401].
noinebs yaenis gamokeTeba SeuZleblad miuCneviaT, lodini mobezrebiaT
da sneuli winamZRoli mouSTviaT, Tanac, im dRes (12 marts), roca
yaenma dimitri II-s mohkveTa Tavi. JamTaaRmwereli azustebs: ,,sacnaur
iqmna, viTarmed amisTvis moiwia seni boroti arRuns zeda, romel
dasTxia sisxli ubralo mravali da ikadra cxebulsa RmrTisasa
xelis Sexebad. morali igivea: yaenis dasneuleba sxva udanaSaulo
adamianTa daxocvasTan erTad mefis mkvlelobas gamouwvevia.
iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom aq umizezod aravin avaddeba.
cxadia, aq ar igulisxmeba samedicino mizezi: imdroindel qarTvel
elitas ukve ZaluZs xojayofilis ,,wigni saaqimois qarTuli
Targmanis wakiTxva da warmodgenac aqvs, ra daavadebas ra udevs
safuZvlad... magram Sua saukuneobriv sqemaSi Teologiur debulebas
_ yvelafris mizezi RmerTia _ es epistema STaunTqavs.
JamTaaRmwereli daavadebas ramdenime saxeliT moixseniebs: ,,seni,
,,sneuleba, ,,salmoba (satkivari). seni SeiZleba iyos ,,mcire
(msubuqi daavadeba), ,,boroti (mZime daavadeba), ,,mware, rac albaT,
mwvave tkivils ukavSirdeba... gvxvdeba aseTi formac: ,,salmoba rame
(gaurkveveli seni), Tumc qarTul teqstSi TiTqmis yvela seni
gaurkvevelia. JamTaaRmwerlisTvis mniSvnelovani is ki ar aris, Tu
ra daavadeba Seeyara ama Tu im istoriul personaJs, aramed is, rom
swored is daavadda, vinc daaSava.
kidev ratom aris TiTqmis yvela seni ucnobi da saxeldaudebeli?
SesaZloa, aq saqme gvqondes imis sawinaaRmdego viTarebasTan,
razec miSel fuko wers Tavis ,,klinikis dabadebaSi.
Sua saukuneTa saqarTveloSi avadmyofs jer kidev ar aRiqvamen
subieqtur simptomTa matareblad. seni jer kidev ar qceula Secnobis
obieqtad. eqimi sens ki ar xedavs, aramed warmoidgens mas. ar Cans
saeqimo diskursi. tkivili jer kidev neitraluri codnaa. am idumal
konfiguracias ena saerTo, ufro sworad, jerac daunawevrebeli
terminiT ixseniebs [fuko 1988;8-9]. amitom, jobs, sneuleba bibliuri
metaforiT SeiniRbos. vTqvaT _ aseTiT: ,,seni igi sodomelTa da
salmoba gomorelTa moiwia... [qarTuli proza 1982:365]. amas erTi

140

gia joxaZe

ideologiuri mizani aqvs: unda damkvidrdes, rom yvela seni ukeTur


qmedebas mosdevs. misi saerTo saxelia ,,seni igi sodomelTa da
salmoba gomorelTa. sodomisa da gomoris metafora imdenadve
Zrwolismomgvrelad unda axmiandes, ramdenadac _ qristianTa
Semafxizleblad.
Tu es msjeloba odnav mainc axlos dgas simarTlesTan, arc is
unda gagvikvirdes, rom mTel aswlovan matianeSi sul ramdenime
senia metnaklebad determinebuli. ZiriTadad, es muclis sneulebania
_ ,,salmoba muclisa. kuW-nawlavis daavadebani marTlac farTod
mosdeboda imdroindel evropas. rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, es
SeiZleba yofiliyo muclis tifi an dizenteria. i. javaxiSvils es
,,sisxas magvar muclis daavadebad (sisxa _ dizenteria) miaCnda,
Tumc, danamdvilebiT amis garkveva, albaT, mainc SeuZlebelia
[javaxiSvili 1982: 86-87]. muclis tifi jer kidev Zveli
berZnebisTvis iyo cnobili. hi pokrate da galeni aRwerdnen am
daavadebis mZvinvarebas berZenTa da romaelTa armiebSi. termini
,,tific (typhus), rac qarTulad ,,nisls niSnavs, hi pokrates
SemoRebulia. es termini Zvelad yvela im daavadebas aerTianebda,
romlebsac Tan cieb-cxeleba sdevda. tifs nawlavuri baqteria _
salmonela avrcelebs: gamaRizianebeli organizmSi dabinZurebul
produqtsa da wyalTan erTad aRwevs. imaves Tqma SegviZlia
dizenteriazec: isic uZvelesi droidanvea cnobili. dizenteriis
infeqciis wyaro daavadebuli an baqteriamatarebeli adamiania, romelic
gamoyofs dizenteriis mikrobebs. daavadebas buzic avrcelebs.
dizenteriis mikrobebi tifis mikrobebis msgavsadve xvdeba
organizmSi.
samwuxarod, es qrestomaTiuli cnobebi imis garkvevaSi nakleb
gvexmareba, Tu kerZod ra daavadeba iyo ,,salmoba muclisa, romelsac
asi wlis ganmavlobaSi ara erTi istoriuli personaJi mousravs.
,,muclis salmobiT arian avad daviT laSa-giorgis Zeca da
misi vaJi giorgic. es ukanaskneli avadmyofobas ise gauTangavs,
TiTqmis mkvdari hgonebiaT: ,,idva uxmrad, uZravad, sulTa
aRmomfSvinveli... amosunTqvasac Zlivs axerxebdao.
amave senSeyrili daviT laSa-giorgis Ze eqimebs ver ganukurnavT
da ,,cxedriT (sakaciT) wamouyvaniaT. mamaca da Svilic am daavadebas
umsxverplia [qarTuli proza 1982:365;377].
teqstSi aRwerilia arRun yaenis Tavsdamtydari ,,salmoba
boroti: ,,ganxmes yovelni asoni misni da molpesca xorcni da
Zvalni amoscvivdes... kninRa mimsgavsebuli iyo mkvdarsa... ganrRveuli

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

141

TaviT ferxadmde... [qarTuli proza 1982:401]. Znelia am aRweriT


daavadebis zustad dadgena, ise ki, cnobilia, rom arRun yaeni (12841291) dambladacemuli gardaicvala.
yazan yaenic ,,dasneulda seniTa muclisaTa da mokvda.
vaxtang III ,,muclis salmobiT gardacvlila.
ucnobi seniTaa avad sargis jayeli.
vaxtang daviT narinis Zes ,,mcire ram seni Sehyria, Tumc, am
simciris miuxedavad, mainc gardacvlila [qarTuli proza 1982:385387; 402;423;426].
muclis neulebaTa garda ,,aswlovan matianeSi ixsenieba kidev
erTi daavadeba _ nikrisis qari, e.w. podagra: daviT VIII-s ,,miT
senica Seedva boroti, mikrisi, xelTa da ferxTa, da uxmar iqmna...
borotsa sensa Cavardnili uRonoebda [qarTuli proza 1982:422].
Tu gavixsenebT, rom am daavadebis berZnuli saxeli qarTulad
,,fexis maxed iTargmneba, SesaZloa virwmunoT JamTaaRmwerlisa:
nikrisis qari marTlac zRudavs moZraobas, saxsarSi Semavali Zvlebi
iSleba, saxsris funqcia irRveva da avadmyofi Sromisuunaro xdeba.
davubrundeT muclis sneulebebs, romelTac imdroindeli
evropisaTvis niSandobliv viTarebamde mivyavarT: ganuwyveteli omebi,
erT adgilas dabanakebuli jari, cudi sanitaruli pirobebi infeqciis
wyaro xdeba. JamTaaRmwerlis teqstSi gardacvalebis gamomwvev
mudmiv mizezad ,,muclis salmobis dasaxelebac epidemiaze unda
miuTiTebdes. daviT laSas Zeca da misi vaJic sibaze sneuldebian.
ra iyo siba?
JamTaaRmwerlis cnobiT, iranis monRolma gamgebelma hulagum
CrdiloeTis ulusis SesaZlo Tavdasxmis asacileblad SirvanSi,
md. CaRanusunis piras TavdacviTi nageboba aaSenebina, romelic
Txrilisa da Robisagan Sedgeboda. monRolebTan erTad sibaze
morigeoba Semodgomidan gazafxulamde qarTvelebsac evalebodaT.
Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, ra sanitarul pirobebSi unda ecxovra
erTad Seyril masas! Sedegic ar ayovnebda. i. javaxiSvilis SeniSvniT,
mefeebic Tu ver axerxebdnen am senisaTvis Tavis acilebas, ubralo
mosaxleoba ra dReSi iqnebodao [javaxiSvili 1982:86-87].
infeqciebs noyier niadags omebis Sedegebic uqmnida:
JamTaaRmwerlis teqstSi araerTganaa aRwerili, Tu ra Zrwolismomgvreli viTareba sufevda momxdurTa saomari operaciebis Semdeg
saqarTvelos mxareebSi, qalaqebSi, soflebSi: ,,sisxlisa mdinareni
diodes. tvini kacTa, dedaTa, berTa, CCvilTa Tma da sisxli, Tavi
mxarTagan ganSorebuli, nawlevni cxenTa mier daTrgunvilni urTierTas

142

gia joxaZe

aRreul iyo. ,,kvalad xedvides zogni sayvarel SvilTa, zogni ZmaTa


da mamaTa, colni qmarTa da qmarni colTa upatiod mkvdar mdebareTa,
cxenTa mier daTrgunvilTa da folocTa Sina ZaRlTa mier zidulTa.
da arca Tu daflvasa miwasa Sina Rirs hyofdes. ,,savse iyvnes
moklulTa mier qalaqni da sofelni, velni, tyeni, mTani da xevni.
amas garda, zogi sabrZolo fandis Sedegic Sobda infeqcias: mag.,
lamSi CaZiruli cxen-kaci [qarTuli proza 1982:300-309;422-423].
epidemiebis afeTqebas xels uwyobda SimSili. am udides sacTurze
mudmivad gvaxsendeba s. bulgakovis ,,socializmi da qristianoba,
romelSic avtori adamians meurneobis tyves uwodebs. es gamowveulia
bunebisadmi adamianis damokidebulebis cvlilebiT, rac TviT
adamianuri arsebis sulier Seryvnas mohyva. samyaroSi sikvdilma
daivana, sicocxles zRvari daedo. aqedanaa adamianis damRupveli
damokidebuleba sakvebze, samyaros stiqiebze, romelTa dauflebac
mas mainc ver ixsnis naadrevi Tu nagvianevi sikvdilisagan [bulgakovi
1917:223]
magram adamianis bedi mainc am sacTurze hkidia da, asea
JamTaaRmwerlis teqstSic: SimSili aiZulebdaT, aTasi uwminduroba
eWamaT da daavadebuliyvneno.
vaxtang III-is zeobisas ,,mesamed iqmna (!) puris mokleba, rameTu
yovlad ara i poeboda sasyidlad, arca didiTa fasiTa. eseoden
ganZvinda SimSili, romel mZorsa arawmidasa, uridad Wamdes... yrmani
mkvdarTa dedaTa ZuZuTa leSkTa swovdian [qarTuli proza 1982:415].
Cans, antihigienurobis problemac idga. es forsmaJorul viTarebas
unda gamoewvia, Torem imdroindel saqarTveloSi dabanas rom ucxo
xilad ar aRiqvamdnen, JamTaaRmwerelic adasturebs: daviT laSagiorgis Ze, Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi bnel xaroSi Cagdebuli, qarTvel
didebulTa Txovnisamebr rumis sultanma gaaTavisufla da uwinaresad
_ ganabanina. am aqtiT iwyeba misTvis xelaxali sicocxle.
roca yaenma abaRam noinebs daviT narinze Tavdasxma daavala,
daviTs abanoSi miuswres: mefe ,,ZliT Seeswra cxensa, erTiTa kabiTa
marto ivltoda [qarTuli proza 1982:333;378]
adamianebi mxolod somatur daavadebaTa msxverplni rodi xdebian:
teqstSi ramdenjerme aRiniSneba, rom maT sulieri tkivilic asneulebT:
,,rusudani tkbilisa SvilisaTvis mwared ileoda. daviT laSagiorgis Ze Svilis sikvdilma daauZlura [qarTuli proza 1982:324;
372].
Sua saukuneTa sqema iTvaliswinebs gankurnebis procesSi RmerTis
monawileobas. qarTuli teqsti adasturebs, rom gavrcelebulia

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

143

xatTa ganmkurnebeli praqtika. erTgan dmanisis RvTismSoblis xatia


naxsenebi, meoregan _ martyofisa. es gaxldaT xelTuqmneli xatis
asli, romelic saqarTveloSi anton martyofels moutania edesidan.
giorgi ufliswuls muclis salmoba didxans gaugrZelda. daviTi
dmanisis RvTismSoblis taZarSi wavida. es ar aris Cveulebrivi
msvleloba: mefe da misi mxlebelni fexSiSvelni da mxurvaled
mtiralni iTxoven Semweobas. xati avadmyofs Seaxes da isic mswrafl
,,viTarca uvnebeli warmojda.
aseve ikurneba daviT laSa-giorgis Zec, roca man ,,moyvaneba
brZana martomyofis xatisa. aqac cremlis Rvra da vedrebaa gadarCenis
piroba. manamde ki, saqarTvelodan gaZevebul ymawvil daviTs
RvTismSoblis is xati Seeweva, romelic Tan waeRo: ,,daidva pirsa
da TvalTa da cremlni simwarisani gardmosTxivna... am SemTxvevaSi
xati amuletis funqciasac asrulebs, rac ase gavrcelebulia evropaSi:
,,misces xati igi da dahkides yelsa amave epizodSi gankurnebis
uebari saSualebaa locva [qarTuli proza 1982:366;320].
marTalia, avadmyofobis gankurnebisas qarTveli profesionali
eqimebi TavianT evropel kolegaTa msgavsad sruliad uunaroni
arian, magram versad wavuvalT imas, rom teqstSi isini orjer mainc
ixseniebian:
daviT laSa-giorgis Ze ,,mkurnalTa ver uZles kurnebad an
,,ver gankurnes mkurnalTa [qarTuli proza 1982:377;366]. wminda
Teologiur-ideologiuri motivebis garda, es samedicino
TvalsazrisiTac gasagebia: tifis klinikac XIX saukuneSi aRiwera
da dizenteriis mikrobic imave periodSi aRmoaCines.
amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XIV saukunis qarTuli teqsti
srulad emsgavseba Sua saukuneTa evropis istoriul dokumentebs,
rogorc samedicino codnis, ise _ ideologiuri wyobis TvalsazrisiT. an es marTlac ase iyo, an swored ase unda aRweriliyo.
literatura
bulgakovi 11917:
917: . . ,
le gofi, tr
iuoni 2008
triuoni
2008: . , . ,
,
le gofi 2002
2002: . , , ,
,
kir
ianovi 2002: . . , ,
kirianovi
fuko 1998: . , ,

144

gia joxaZe

qarTuli proza 1982: qarTuli proza, wigni III, meTerTmetemeToTxmete saukuneebis mwerloba, JamTaaRmwereli, monRolTadroindeli matiane, Tbilisi
Sengelia 1985: m. Sengelia, renesansi da Zveli qarTuli medicina,
Tbilisi
javaxiSvili 1984: i. javaxiSvili, Txz., t. VI, Tbilisi
javaxiSvili 1982: i. javaxiSvili, Txz., t. III, Tbilisi

145

s e m i o t i k i s
T e o r i a
d a
i s t o r i a
mirian ebanoiZe

klasikis kvleva
araklasikuris batonobis
xanaSi
filosofiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori.
akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis
sruli profesori filosofiaSi;
gelaTis sasuliero akademiis leqtori.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
diskursi da ena. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
fragmentebi diskursis
problemebze. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
diskursi. quTaisis saxelmwifo universitetis
gamomcemloba, quTaisi,
2006.
,,margaliti da sicariele (poeturi krebuli)
quTaisi, 2006
interesTa sfero:
literatura, semiotika,
filosofia.

fukos yoveli proeqti axlos aris


`klasikur teqstebTan~. `diskursis
wesrigSi~ is Tavad SeniSnavs, rom hegelis
aCrdili paradoqsulad kvlav gaxda
mniSvnelovani (fuko 1996:92). amaSi mas
adanaSaulebs Jak derida werilSi `kogito
da sigiJis istoria~. fuko racionalizmis
agresias imeorebs, rac sigiJeze werisas
gamovlinda. sigiJes ara aqvs ena, es
fsiqiatriis enaa, SeniSnavs is fukos cnobil
naSromTan dakavSirebiT, sadac sigiJis
istoria dawerilia Tavad sigiJidan
gamomdinare, `subieqtis xmis gareSe~, esaa
`sityvebi enis gareSe~. `me vcdilobdi ara
am enis (igulisxmeba sigiJe) istoriis, aramed
am dumilis `arqeologiis~ daweras~ - wers
fuko. deridas azriT, siCume, romlis
arqeologiazec vsaubrobT, aRaraa dumiliT
warmoSobili an aradiskursiuli. Tavad
arqeologia ukve aris organizebuli ena,
proeqti, wesrigi, sintaqsi, Sroma. ena da
dasavluri goneba warmoadgenen sigiJis
obieqtivacias, mis dapyrobas. am istoriul
(istoriisSemqmnel) danaSauls veravin ver
gaeqceva, vinc am enaze laparakobs, veraferi
ver gaiqceva am enidan. fuko imeorebs am
danaSauls deridas azriT, riTac wesrigi
braldebuli xdeba Tavad wesrigis SigniT.
Tu garedamkvirveblis statusi miuRebelia,

146

mirian ebanoiZe

maSin vin wers am sigiJis istorias, Tavad fukos sayvareli fraza


rom vixmaroT `vin laparakobs?~ ras eyrdnoba es ena da Tu arafers
emyareba, vin acxadebs amis SesaZleblobas? romel enaze da logosis
ra istoriuli situaciidan iwereba sigiJis istoria? logosTan
dakavSirebiT deridas fukosgan gansxvavebuli pozicia uWiravs.
Tuki fuko berZnuli logosis mTlianobaze, `sokrates Semrigeblur
dialeqtikaze~ wers, riTac logosis alternativaze Tu ara, misgan
ganTavisuflebaze mainc fiqrobs, deridasTvis berZnul logoss
aqvs sawinaaRmdego, oRond sakuTar TavSi da arc sokrates
dialeqtikaa Semrigebluri. misTvis umniSvnelovanesia gayofa,
ganxeTqileba, rac logosisTvis Sinagania. gaZeveba da gandevna logosisa
xdeba Tavisive Tavidan, es Separulia yvelgan, TviT kartezianul
kogitoSic, mis Sedegad vRebulobT gansxvavebas da gansazRvrebas.
Tavisi sawinaaRmdegos SeqmniT is, rogorc wesrigis obieqti
dafarulia, daculia misiT da ikiTxeba masSi. kidev erTi sityva,
riTac am process axasiaTebs derida, aris gadawyveta, rac
dakavSirebulia istoriisa da istoriulobis SesaZleblobasTan.
rogor SeiZleba am gayofis istoria daiweros, Tuki igi Tavadaa
istoriulobis Semqmneli? istoriulobis istoria? derida amas
uwodebs `saSiS lingvistur gadatanas~, rac Targmanis problemasTanaa
dakavSirebuli (derida). azrovnebis pirveli artikulacia, pirveli
sintaqsuri gamoyeneba ukve qmnis diskurss. es ukve `Sromaa~, xolo
filosofosi warmoadgens molaparake subieqts. laparaki `sigiJidan~
SeuZlebelia, radgan is `Sromis ararsebobaa~, `dumilis arqeologia~
ki determinirebul dumilze laparakobs da ara iseT dumilze, rac
Tavisufalia istoriisa da metyvelebisagan. siCume, CaxSuli metyveleba
dakavSirebulia Zalisxmevasa da akrZalvasTan, rac gvaZlevs istorias
da metyvelebas, limits aZlevs Sromas da i pyrobs enas (derida).
derida laparakobs kogitos temporalizaciaze, romelsac
eqvemdebareba determinirebuli dumili, sigiJe, negatiuroba. `sigiJe
kogitos aCrdilia~. Tavis werilSi mas mohyavs herderis sityvebi:
`unda arsebobdes sisulele, raTa sibrZnem gadalaxos igi~. ena
gamocalkevebulia sigiJisgan mxolod `gamWvirvale zoliT~, razedac
joisi wers. es gamWvirvale zoli aris ena da azrovneba. ena
damsxvreulia sigiJiT. is qmnis Tavis Tavs sigiJis winaaRmdeg
sigiJidanve da misgan mxolod gamWvirvale zoli hyofs. azrovnebas
da araazrovnebas saerTo fesvi gaaCnia. logosSi ena da siCume ar
arian gayofilni. fuko axdens negatiurobis miTvisebas `mfarvelobis

klasikis kvleva araklasikuris batonobis xanaSi

147

kartezianuli, Zalauflebrivi JestiT~. isic laparakobs


`Zalisxmevaze~, rac metafizikisa da Teoriuli codnis sazomebSi
ketavs azrovnebas. `me, romelic vazrovneb, ar SeiZleba giJi viyo~ es mniSvnelobs maSin, Tu me giJi var, miiCnevs derida. dekarte mis
gandevnas moiTxovs mxolod droebiT, dasawyisSi, eWvis
arahi perboluri momentis ganmavlobaSi. misi azriT, Cven miveCvieT
kogitos CarCos da Cvens TavSi darwmunebulni gavxdiT. dekartesTan
ki kogito nulovani wertilia, romelSic determinirebuli azrovneba
da araazrovneba saerTo warmoSobidan modian. aqedan iwyeba
opoziciuri determinirebuli formebis istoria, dialogi, romelic
gaqvavebul mdgomareobaSi gadadis. filosofiisaTvis Cveuli
istoriuloba damyarebulia tranzitze, hi perbolasa da sasrul
struqturas Soris dialogze, totalobis daxurvasa da misgan
gaqcevaze, istoriasa da istoriulobas Soris mimosvlaze. sivrcis
gaxsna mxolod sigiJis datusaRebiTaa SesaZlebeli. mcdari azria,
rodesac sigiJes ganixilaven zedrouli azriT da mis
temporalizacias damatebiT fenomenad miiCneven. temporalizacia
sivrcis gaxsnaa sigiJisTvis, moZraobaa, romelic aerTianebs mas
logosis moZraobaSi. metyvelebis borotad gamoyeneba mis
Zalauflebriv da dampyroblur xasiaTs faravs, faravs dialogs,
rogorc absolutur Zalauflebas da metyvelebasa da cxovrebas
Soris kavSirs (derida).
dekartTan dakavSirebiT derida SeniSnavs, rom, totaloba ar
gamoricxavs masze aRmatebas, piriqiT, emyareba mas. amis safuZvels
Tavad totaloba iZleva, radgan igi `dalaqavebulia sigiJiT~. aqedan
gamomdinare, Tu samyaros totaloba ar arsebobs, Tu araazrovneba
(uazroba) SeWrilia samyaros totalobaSi, masze maRla dgas da
Cemi azris Sinaarss ayalibebs, Tu me ar SemiZlia movixelTo
totaloba da amis miuxedavad kvlav vqmni proeqts da formulirebas
amisTvis, igi SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc usasrulo da
aradeterminirebuli totalobis ganWvretaze mimarTuli. es proeqti
Tavad warmoadgens sigiJes da gacnobiereba sigiJis, rogorc misi
Tavisuflebis da swored misi usakuTrivesi SesaZleblobis,
mimarTulia sakuTar TavSi CaRrmavebiT `uazrobis (araazrovnebis)
boroti geniosis~ Zalis winaaRmdeg da es winaaRmdegoba sakuTar
TavSi bunebrivi adamianis reduqciiT xorcieldeba. am azriT, Tvlis
igi, araferia naklebad Semrigebluri, vidre kogito Tavis Cveul,
inauguralur momentSi. samyaros totalobis daZlevis proeqti
araa ufro Semrigebluri, vidre sokrates dialeqtika, roca arsebobis

148

mirian ebanoiZe

totalobaze amaRleba xdeba, Cven aRmovCndebiT faruli mzis sinaTleSi,


rasac platonTan `epekeina tes ousias~ hqvia, esaa saswaulebrivi
transcendencia, demonuri hi perbola.
urTierToba gonebas, sigiJes da sikvdils Soris ekonomiuria.
esaa gansxvavebaTa struqtura, romlis gacalmxriveba dauSvebelia.
igi SeuzRudavia da dasafasebeli. araekonomiuri xarjva miiReba
ekonomiis mier da gadailaxeba. `es cda-Tqma-demonuri-hi perbola
ar aris erT-erTi cda sxvaTa Soris wers derida, - ufro metic,
es araa siCumis sawinaaRmdego, aramed kondicirebulia masSi. isaa
survilis warmomSobeli safuZveli da atarebs Tavis TavSi Zalauflebis kvals (survili araa gagebuli rogorc voluntarizmi,
aramed rogorc istoria, vneba). is ufro dawerilia (damwerlobiseulia), vidre Tqmuli, anu ekonomiuria. am weris ekonomias qmnis
regularuli urTierToba imasa, vinc eqscidirebs da eqscidirebul
totalobas Soris? gan-sxvaveba absoluturi eqscesisa (derida)~.
deridas azriT, aqti, romelic xorcieldeba, verasodes ver cnobs
sakuTar Tavs. maSin, rodesac fuko dekartes racionalizms
upirispirebs sigiJes, is imyofeba kvlav daviwyebisa da gaxsnis,
dafarvisa da gamovlenis ekonomiur velSi, sadac sinamdvileSi logosi
aZevebs sakuTar Tavs da ara sigiJes. esaa klasika da ara dekarte,
SeniSnavs derida. igive modeli muSaobs huserlTanac. aqac
safuZvlebis daviwyeba da dafarva qmnis kriziss, obieqtivizmis
safrTxes gonebisaTvis, normaluroba ki asocirebulia
trancendentalur reduqciasTan. faqtobrivi samyaros neitralizacia
aris uazrobis neitralizacia (Cvens SemTxvevaSi sigiJis, an kidev
piriqiT, logosisa. amas aq didi mniSvneloba ara aqvs), Zalisxmevis
mouxelTebeli forma. derida transcendentalur fenomenologias
awmyos metafizikaze damyarebulad acxadebs (`huserliseuli
cocxali awmyo aris azrovnebis gansazRvrulobis, damajereblobis
Semarigebeli safuZveli~), magram fukos moTavseba dekartesa da
huserlis tradiciaSi mxolod ironiul Jestad SeiZleba miviCnioT,
rasac aseve Wirdeba Zalisxmeva, Tumca, rasakvirvelia arakartezianuli.
fukos nawarmoebis miCneva klasikad SesaZloa ufro myar safuZvels
emyarebodes. klasikis cnebis eliotiseuli kriteriumebis mixedviT,
klasikuroba obieqturi korelatis SeqmniT gamoixateba. ara
sityvebis, aramed sagnebis Seqmna. xilulobebis saxiT fukos
klasikurobaze laparakis saSualebas gvaZlevs vizualizacia, rac
diskursis gverdiT xorcieldeba. Tavidan fuko laparakobs
aradiskursiulobaze, magram mxolod negatiuri mniSvnelobiT, rac

klasikis kvleva araklasikuris batonobis xanaSi

149

gamoixateba maTi damatebiTobiT gamonaTqvamTa velisadmi, ekonomiuri


da socialuri institutebi, praqtika aradiskursiulia. maT Soris
determinacia ar arsebobs da diskursiulobas da aradiskursiulobas
Soris diskursiuli urTierTobebia,magram, saboloo angariSiT, arc
maTi reducireba xdeba, sxva naSromebSi ki ufro metad izrdeba
maTi roli. gamonaTqvamTa miRma rCeba panoptikumi `meTvalyureoba
da dasjaSi~, xedvis arqeologia `klinikis dabadebidan~ da a. S.
marTlac, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi gadaiqceoda Tanamedrove analitikuri filosofiis erTerTi variantis Semqnelad da Semoifargleboda enis problemebiT. tradiciuli damokidebulebisgan
gansxvavebuli interpretacia SemogvTavaza Jil deliozma, romelmac
gamonaTqvamTa diskursiuli praqtikis garda codnis velis
formirebisTvis xilulobis aradiskursiuli praqtikis mniSvneloba
gaxada TvalsaCino F(fuko 1998:72-97). igi sargeblobs Sinaarsisa
da gamosaxvis terminebiT, magram cdilobs gaeqces sosiuriseul
aRsaniSn-aRmniSvnelis damokidebulebas, risTvisac mimarTavs
elmslevs(fuko), Tumca Sinaarsis aRsaniSnisgan da gamosaxvis
aRmniSvnelisgan gamijvna zedmetad TviTneburi gagebaa elmsleviseuli
cnebebisa. Sinaars aqvs Tavisi forma da substancia, iseve, rogorc
gamosaxvas aqvs Tavisi forma da substancia. (maT aranairi epoqa,
aranairi `wanamZRvrebi~, aranairi `weltanchanuung~ win ar uswrebs).
maT Soris ar arsebobs arc mizez-Sedegobrivi, arc simboluri
kavSiri. gamonaTqvamis obieqti diskursiuli obieqtia da ara xiluli,
Tumca izomorfizmze yovelTvis ocnebobdnen, rogorc fuko aCvenebs
`klinikis dabadebaSi~, iqneba es epistemologiuri ocneba, rodesac
klinika cdilobs gaaigivos simptomi da niSani, Cveneba da metyveleba,
anda esTetiuri ocneba, rodesac `kaligrama~ erT da igive formas
aZlevs teqsts da naxats, ligvistursa da plastiurs, gamonaTqvams
da saxes. magritis naxatis komentirebisas fuko acilebs naxatis
Sinaarss gamonaTqvamisgan `es milia~ (cnobili vitgenStainiseuli
`es xea~). Sinaarsisa da gamosaxvis warmodgena blanSoseuli `ara damokidebulebiT~ xdeba SesaZlebeli, Tumca, rogorc deliozi
SeniSnavs, blanSos `aradamokidebuleba determinaciisa da wminda
aradeterminirebulisa kartezianulia, fukosTan ki or formas,
determinaciasa da determinirebuls Soris `aradamokidebulebaa~,
rac ufro kantianuria, kantTanac `nivTi TavisTavad~ ar reducirdeba
da misi determinirebuloba ar emTxveva absoluturi determinaciis
formas (`me vazrovneb~ pirvel SemTxvevaSi da dro-sivrcis wminda
determinirebulobis forma). ara-damokidebuleba SeiZleba Tu ara

150

mirian ebanoiZe

damokidebulebas gamoxatavdes? bolo periodSi fuko yuradRebas


amaxvilebs problematizaciaze, riTac WeSmariteba mogvecema urTierTSeusabamo da gamomricxavi urTierTobebiT. Tu Cven vaCvenebT
rom merkantilizmi da antimerkantilizmi XVII s-Si erTi da igive
TamaSidan warmoiSva, viciT, ras niSnavs problematizacia. Cven
SemTxvevaSi esaa diskursis kvali sagnebze da piriqiT. esaa brZola,
sadac orive mxare atyvevebs erTmaneTs, anu gamonaTqvamebi usasrulod
ewevian xilulis determinacias.
brZola zedapirze, fukos sityvebiT Tu vityviT, afrontaciis
pirobebSi mimdinareobs. esaa Teatri adgilebis gareSe, sadac
diskurssa da aradiskursiulobas Soris usasrulo `brZolaa~
(derida).
xiluloba fukosTan esaa `xiluloba xedvis gareSe~. igi
istoriulia da ar warmoadgens referents, sagans. Tu gamonaTqvami
enas emorCileba, xilulobebi sinaTlis mier aris Seqmnili. unda
gavixsenoT, rom fukosTvis Semecnebis sferoSi axali sagani rom
Semovides, amisTvis ar aris sakmarisi ubralod `Tvalebis gaxela~,
`yuradRebis miqceva, gacnobiereba~. sagani ar elodeba misaRebSi
brZanebas, romelic mas xilul obieqtad gadaaqcevda. axali sagnis
Camosayalibeblad saWiroa Semecnebis veli axleburad aigos, mas
axali struqtura mieces. fukos kantis transcedentaluri
apriorebis nacvlad Semoaqvs istoriuli apriorebis cneba. istoriuli apriori msjelobis sayovelTao pirobas ki ar gansazRvravs,
aramed gamoTqmis realobis, sxva gamoTqmebTan misi Tanaarsebobis
pirobebs, igi warmoadgens am gamoTqmaTa warmoSobis, transformaciisa
da gaqrobis princi pebs. istoriuli aprioris mixedviT dasaxsruli
gamoTqmaTa sistemebi arqivs warmoadgenen (fuko 1996:127-131). arqivi
gagebulia rogorc kanoni, romelic imas gansazRvravs, rac SeiZleba
iTqvas, Tu deliozis interpretacias miviRebT, imasac, rac SeiZleba
davinaxoT.
suraTs xedav?
rodesac postmodernizmzea laparaki, yvela wigni erT modelze
trialebs, yvela teqsti erT gverdamde SeiZleba daiyvano, bodriari
mosawyenia.
fuko cota labirinTulia, anu klasikuri.
is arRvevs klasikur gzebs da amitom aris labirinTuli,
ara, piriqiT, ,,virgiliusma ar icoda, rom klasikas qmnida.
simwife klasikis niSania.
xaTusi: simwife rogor izomeba?

klasikis kvleva araklasikuris batonobis xanaSi

151

miqaeli.: simwife vinc ar icis ver auxsni, vinc icis, axsna ar


sWirdeba:
es suraTs etyoba
xaTusi: ki magari frazaa, oRondac me gkiTxe, SenTvis ras niSnavs
simwife, albaT ver axsni.
miqaeli.: Senma suraTma es icis da amitom ar laparakobs: masac
hkiTxe, raa simwife.
xaTusi: damunjda samyaro Cems winaaRmdeg!
qali istoriiT: erTi niSani istoriulobaa. sirTule, oRond
ara TviTmiznuri, naklebi originaloba, anu mxolod iq SesamCnevi,sadac
originalobas cotaRa amCnevs. maRali kulturis SedegebiT
sargebloba. originaloba xSirad mouwifaobis Sedegia da aseve am
kulturis auTviseblobis.
xaTusi: ganvagrZo provocireba?
Semokreba gaklia Senive elementebis, imis rac gars gaxvevia.
esec klasikis niSania, ki ar gaklia es. piriqiT, es Seni Tvisobaa.
ara, Sekreba saWiroa.
ar vici rogori iqneba ,,Semokrebili. iqneb aRar iyos saintereso.
miqaeli.: ezra paundiviT provincieli Wkuis maswavlebeli.
faSistic.
paundi faSisti rom ar yofiliyo, arc saintereso iqneboda
sofleli aRar iqneboda. mere yvelaferi misi sofeli gaxda.
veneciaSi srul siCumeSi. faSisturi, xmauriani siCume, nazi sisastike.
msxverplic da jalaTic. diadi gulgriloba!
es mxiblavs, Tavmdablobis imedis gareSec ki.
fukos yoveli proeqti axlos aris `klasikur teqstebTan~.
`diskursis wesrigSi~ is Tavad SeniSnavs, rom hegelis aCrdili
paradoqsulad kvlav gaxda mniSvnelovani.
literatura
der
ida 11983:
983: Derrida,Cogito and the history of madness,Berkley,1983
derida
fuko 11998:
998: . . ` ~
1998
fuko 11996:
996: . . . ` -~. . 1996
fuko 11996:
996: . . / . . 1996.

152

Tamar lomiZe

metafora da metonimia

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia


WavWavaZis saxelmwifo
universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da
kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis
poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, leqsmcodneoba,
literaturis istoria
da Teoria, mxatvruli
Semoqmedebis fsiqologia.

metaforisa da metonimiis arsis Sesaxeb


msjelobisas gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom
metafora qronologiurad ufro adreuli
warmomavlobisaa, vidre _ metonimia. metaforuli azrovneba adamians axasiaTebda misi
istoriis adreul etapebze: ,,metafora, rogorc kompleqsuri da gamaigivebeli azrovnebis forma, win uswrebs enisa da miTosis
urTierTgamijvnas. misi aRmocenebisas cnobierebis elementebi jer kidev araa gamoyofili da gaigivebis swored es procesi _
metaforizaciaa (freidenbergi 1998:116).
unda ganvasxvaoT metaforuli azrovneba
(metaforuli ,,RerZi) da verbalurad formulirebuli metafora. marTalia, orive maTgani sinTezis princi ps emyareba, magram metaforuli azrovnebis Tvisebaa sityvaTa mniSvnelobebis erTgvari aglutinacia, maSin, rodesac verbalurad formulirebul metaforaSi impliciturad monawileobs uaryofis elementi. kerZod, a. veJbickas azriT,
metaforis siRrmiseuli struqturis
semantikuri eqsplikacia unda Camoyalibdes
amgvari formiT: ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ara...
aramed... (veJbicka 1990::148). Tu sakmaod
gacveTil magaliTs moviSveliebT (,,riCardi
lomia), maSin: ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es
riCardi ki araa, aramed _ lomi. aseve, iakob

metafora da metonimia

153

curtaveliseuli metafora ,,movida mgeli igi saWiroebs Semdegnair


eqsplikacias: ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es varsqeni ki ar iyo, aramed _
mgeli. es ,,SeiZleba iTqvas migvaniSnebs, rom uaryofa monawileobs
mxolod poeturi metaforebis semantikaSi, magram ar SeimCneva
metaforul azrovnebaSi, romelic aucileblad rodi moiTxovs
sityvier gamoxatvas.
azrovnebis metonimiuri da metaforuli planebis gansxvaveba
gamoixateba agreTve diqotomiiT: nacnobi/ucnobi. TvalsaCinoa, rom
metonimiis safuZvelia warmodgena nacnobi, analitikurad gaazrebuli
sagnis Sesaxeb. metafora emyareba ucnobi, simultanurad aRqmuli
sagnebis Sesaxeb warmodgenaTa urTierTdaaxloebas. jer kidev
potebnia akavSirebda nacnobi saxeebis mxatvrul xorcSesxmas maT
metonimiur bunebasTan (potebnia 1976:342). marTlac, Tu SevecdebiT
metonimiis siRrmiseuli struqturis semantikur eqsplicirebas,
aSkarad gamovlindeba misi zemoaRniSnuli Tviseba. mag., ,,erTi kaTxa
davlie _ ,,yvelam icis, rom sityva ,,kaTxis warmoTqmisas me
vfiqrob ludze; an: ,,Tergdaleulebi Cvens literaturas SemoeWrnen,
rogorc namdvili revolucionerebi (v. kotetiSvili) _ ,,yvelam
icis, rom sityva ,,TergdaleulTa warmoTqmisas me vfiqrob maT
Sesaxeb, vinc XIX s. Sua xanebSi ganaTleba ruseTSi miiRo da
Semdgom saqarTveloSi dabrunda.
,,metonimia amqrqalebs sagnis konturebs, _ wers r. iakobsoni
metonimiis kerZo nairsaxeobis, sinekdoqes Sesaxeb (iakobsoni
1990:330). marTlac, metonimiuri detalis ,,msxvili planiT warmoCena
iwvevs aRmqmeli subieqtis yuradRebis gamaxvilebas detalze da
ara mTlianad saganze. metafora, Tavis mxriv, amqrqalebs, abundovanebs
sagnis Sesabamisi termis konkretul mniSvnelobas, gadahyavs ra is
kontinualur semantikur velSi.
Semdgom, metonimia, rogorc suqcesiuri aRqmis Sedegi, anawevrebs
drosa da sivrces diskretul nawilebad, xolo ,,metaforul
gamonaTqvamSi gamoricxulia droisa da adgilis garemoebaTa
monawileoba (arutiunova 1990:156).
xazgasasmelia, rom metafora literaturis evoluciis procesSi
arsebiT transformaciebs ganicdis. esaa istoriulad cvalebadi,

154

Tamar lomiZe

aramudmivi Sinaarsis mqone termini (vgulisxmobT metaforas rogorc


trops, da ara metaforis ,,RerZs). SesaZloa, formalurad metaforis
Tvisebebis mqone tropi ar warmoadgendes sakuTriv metaforas.
am debulebis dasasabuTeblad unda gavixsenoT, rom seleqcia
(metaforis princi pi) yovelTvis gulisxmobs paradigmis wevrTa
gaerTianebas ,,virtualur, mnemonikur rigSi. misi wevrebi yovelTvis
in absentia gvxvdeba (sosiuri 1977:156). amasTan, zogierTi mxatvruli
sistema iTvaliswinebs metaforis in praesentia funqcionirebas (ix.
amis Sesaxeb qvemoT). es maSin xdeba, rodesac aqtualuria ganmeorebadi,
nacnobi metaforebis gamoyenebis tendencia. gaqvavebuli, myari
metaforebi, rogorc nacnobi saxeebi, am niSniT inacvleben metaforuli
planidan metonimiur planSi. amis magaliTebi uxvad gvxvdeba,
gansakuTrebiT _ Sua saukuneebis literaturaSi.
* * *
xSirad gamoiTqmis Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom gauqmebulia
(magaliTad, dialogurobis baxtiniseuli koncefciis zegavleniT)
niSnis Zveli, sosiuriseuli binaruli gageba, iseve, rogorc orpolusiani koncefciebi ena/metyveleba da sinqronia/diaqronia (laxmani
2001:269). magram poetikaSi Tanmimdevrulad araa gamokvleuli
enisa da metyvelebis gamoxatulebebi poeturi figurebisa da
tropebis sferoSi. arada, aSkaraa, rom enisa da metyvelebis planebis
realurad arsebuli opozicia saSualebas iZleva, SemuSavebul iqnas
tropebis axleburi klasifikacia, sadac gamoikveTeba maTi
gansxvavebuli niSan-Tvisebebi imisda mixedviT, Tu romel plans
ganekuTvneba TiToeuli maTgani. saerTod, Tu ar CavTvliT
iakobsoniseul koncefcias, romelSic SeimCneva amgvari Teoriis Seqmnis
erTgvari mcdeloba, aseTi sakiTxi poetikaSi arc ki wamoWrila.
poetikaSi sawyis, amosaval aqsiomad enisa da metyvelebis
opoziciuri mimarTebis aRiareba, upirveles yovlisa, ganmartavs im
garemoebas, Tu ratom eTmoba upiratesi yuradReba metaforis arsis
gaSuqebas, maSin, rodesac specialur gamokvlevebSi sxva tropebs
meorexarisxovani adgili eTmoba xolme.

metafora da metonimia

155

saqme isaa, rom metafora, Cveni azriT, warmoadgens erTaderT


trops, romelic ganekuTvneba enis plans, xolo yvela danarCeni
tropi da figura SeiZleba davajgufoT, rogorc metyvelebis planis
sxvadasxvagvari gamoxatulebani.
metafora erTaderTi tropia, romelic uSvebs garkveul
Tavisuflebas nagulisxmevi meore wevris mimarT _ es ukanaskneli
SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad iqnes aRqmuli sxvadasxva subieqtis mier.
amitom Wirs metaforis sruli eqsplikacia. is arasodes emTxveva
sakuTar ganmartebas. nagulisxmevi (virtualuri)sityva an warmodgena
semantikuri bundovanebiT gamoirCeva: ,,rac ufro difuzuria sityvis
mniSvneloba, miT ufro iolia misi metaforizeba... azrobrivi niuansebi
warmoiSoba mRvrie semantikur garemoSi (arutiunova 1990:149).
metafora erTaderTi tropia, romelzec zemoqmedebs enis planidan
metyvelebis planSi gadayvana (anu paradigmidan sintagmis warmoqmna).
aseT SemTxvevaSi metafora kargavs Tavis specifikas da Sedarebad
iqceva: ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, garkveuli gagebiT, yvela metafora
elifsuria ex definitione, radgan mTlianad eqsplicitur metaforas
Cven saerTod ver vuwodebT metaforas... (veJbicka 1990:149).
vfiqrobT, eqsplicituria, agreTve, gacveTili, tradiciuli
metaforebi, romlebic formalurad kvlav metaforebad rCebian, magram
inacvleben metaforis ,,RerZidan (metaforuli planidan) metonimiuri
,,RerZisken (metonimiuri planisken). marTlac, maTi virtualuri
wevrebi erTmniSvnelovnad gasagebia (nacnobia) enobrivi koleqtivisTvis da sintagmebis saxiT aRiqmeba. amgvar metaforebs SeiZleba
vuwodoT,,metonimiuri metaforebi. vafiqsirebT ra, rom WeSmariti
* rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, metaforas, iakobsonis kvalobaze, mivakuTvnebT
paradigmatul poluss. paradigmis wevrebi ki, sosiuris gansazRvriT, ,,ar aris
cnobierebaSi mocemuli garkveuli raodenobis, an garkveuli mimdevrobis saxiT
[sosiuri 1977:158]. amitom gansazRvruli sityvebis (cnebebis) myari SekavSirebis
gziT warmoqmnil sintagmebs metaforebad ar miviCnevT, ganurCevlad imisa, rogoraa
isini warmodgenili metyvelebaSi _ orive wevriT, Tu mxolod erTiT. arsebiTi
aq isaa, rom ukanasknel SemTxvevaSic ki mkiTxvelis (an msmenlis) cnobierebaSi
warmoiqmneba myari asociacia nagulisxmev meore wevrTan.
iakobsoni metaforis princi pad asaxelebs xan substitucias (Senacvlebas),
xan seleqcias, xan ki _ orives. vfiqrobT, ufro koreqtulia metaforis principad
martooden seleqciis aRiareba, radgan substitucia safuZvlad udevs ara
marto metaforas, aramed _ sxva tropebsac (J. Jenetis azriT ki _ yvela trops
[Jeneti 1998:34]). rac Seexeba seleqcias, e.i. alternatiul variantTa SerCevis
operacias, is damaxasiaTebelia martooden metaforisTvis.

156

Tamar lomiZe

metafora ganekuTvneba enis (paradigmatikis) plans, mokled


davaxasiaTebT sxva tropebs.
m. l. gasparovis miTiTebiT, tropebis mTeli simravle daiyvaneba
eqvs saxeobamde, romelTac daemata meSvide tropi: ,,tradiciuli
ritorikuli Teoriis eqvsi tropis garda, poeturma praqtikam
gamoigona meSvide maTgani, romelsac aqamde ar miuRia saxelwodeba
da gansazRvra. eqvsi tradiciuli tropi iyo: metafora _ mniSvnelobis
gadatana msgavsebis mixedviT, metonimia _ mniSvnelobis gadatana
momijnaveobis mixedviT, sinekdoqe _ mniSvnelobis gadatana odenobis
mixedviT, hi perbola _ mniSvnelobis gaZliereba, da, bolos,
emfaza _ mniSvnelobis Seviwroeba (,,es adamiani namdvili adamiani
iyo; ,,aq gmiroba unda gamoiCino, is ki mxolod adamiania). am
nusxas axalma drom daumata, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, antiemfaza _
mniSvnelobis gafarToeba, gabundovaneba (gasparovi 1980:190).
ganekuTvneba Tu ara yvela es tropi metyvelebis plans? am
planisTvis damaxasiaTebeli ra TvisebebiT gamoirCevian isini?
metonimia, rogorc analitikuri tropi, sintagmaturi xasiaTisaa.
is imave niSniT ganekuTvneba metyvelebis plans, rogorc, magaliTad,
myari (,,gacveTili) metafora. metonimiis virtualuri wevri
aucileblad cxadad, erTmniSvnelovnadaa gansazRvruli enobrivi
koleqtivis cnobierebaSi da masSi sintagmaturad nawevrdeba
warmodgena obieqtis Sesaxeb. analitikuri tropebis ricxvs
ganekuTvneba sinekdoqec, anu obieqtis detalis mixedviT am obieqtis
aRniSvna. amgvarivea hi perbolac, romelic emyareba gansxvavebuli
sagnebis an movlenebis urTierTSejerebas, da, agreTve, emfaza, romelic
analogiuri xerxiT aigeba. zemoCamoTvlili tropebi metyvelebaSi
ixmareba myari sintagmebis saxiT. Sesabamisad, isini SeiZleba
metaforis warmoqmnis princi pad seleqciis (da ara substituciis) aRiareba
saSualebas iZleva, mkafiod ganvasxvaoT es tropi sxvebisgan. terminma ,,substitucia
zogierTi mkvlevari miiyvana iseT arakoreqtul daskvnebamde, rogoricaa: ,,yoveli
tropi, misi gansazRvris Tanaxmad, warmoadgens wevrTa substitucias da, maSasadame,
gulisxmobs am wevrTa garkveul ekvivalenturobas, Tundac maT mimarTebaSi ar
iyos araferi analogiuri: rodesac vambobT ,,anZas imis nacvlad, rom vTqvaT
,,gemi, Cven vaqcevT ,,afras ,,gemis substituciad, e.i. mis ekvivalentad [iqve].
sityvebi ,,afra da ,,gemi urTierTs ukavSirdeba momijnaveobis mixedviT, amitom
sityva ,,afra sinekdoqurad aRniSnavs ,,gems. substitucia aq marTlac
xorcieldeba, ris gamoc Znelia metaforisa da sinekdoqes maorganizebel principTa
urTierTgamijvna. magram Tu metaforis warmoqmnis erTaderT principad seleqcias
miviCnevT, maSin es princi pi, ra Tqma unda, ar gavrceldeba sinekdoqeze, romelic
ar gulisxmobs araviTar seleqcias _ ,,afra yovelTvis sinekdoqurad aRniSnavs
mxolod da mxolod ,,gems.

metafora da metonimia

157

ganvsazRvroT rogorc figurebi, xolo metafora _ rogorc sakuTriv


tropi.
riTaa ganpirobebuli metaforisa da danarCeni tropebis
(figurebis) mikuTvneba, Sesabamisad, enisa da metyvelebis planebisadmi?
albaT, imiT, rom metafora imTaviTve warmoadgenda ara trops, armed
_ arqauli azrovnebis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas (,,metaforulobas)
maSin, rodesac metyveleba jer kidev Camouyalibebeli iyo. amiT
aixsneba, rom mis virtualur meore wevrs aucileblad unda axldes
is semantikuri bundovaneba, araerTmniSvnelovneba, romelic adamianis
azrovnebis, ,,metaforuli azrovnebis damaxasiaTebeli niSani gaxldaT
istoriis gariJraJze.
literatura
arutiunova 11979
979
979: .. . (
) // . ., 1979.
gasparovi 1980
1980: .. // . ., 1980.
veJbicka 1990
1990: . -- //
., ., 1990.
Telia 11988
988
988: ..
- // .
., 1988 .
iakobsoni 11990
990
990: .. . // . ., 1990.
laxmani 2001: . . ., 2001.
potebnia 1976
1976: .. . ., 1976.
Jeneti 11998
998 : . , .2. ., 1998.
sosiur
977: . . . ., 1977.
sosiurii 11977:
freidenbergi 1998
1998: .. .
., 1998.

aRsaniSnavia, rom e.w. ,,sintagmatur tropebs aerTianebs kidev erTi niSanTviseba, kerZod, ,,momijnaveobis asociaciis mixedviT organizebuli tropebi _
sinekdoqe, metonimia da a.S. _ yvelaze naklebad emociogenuria. es tropebi
warmoSobs ufro simboloebsa da zogierT etalonizebul warmodgenas, vidre
xatebs. sakmarisia gavixsenoT, rom iseTi somatizmebi, rogorebicaa xeli, fexi,
Tavi, guli da a.S., maTi gadaazrebisas ganapirobebs meoradi mniSvnelobis
simbolur wakiTxvas (xeli _ Zalauflebis, nacnobobis, subieqtTan miaxloebis da
a.S simboloa) (Telia 1988:32).

158

salome omiaZe

konceptis cneba
lingvokulturologiaSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli
profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`SeuZlebeli Sexamebani~
Tanamedrove poeziis enaSi;
qarTuli diskursis ligvokulturul SemadgenelTa struqtura, semantika da funqcionireba;
qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli _ lingvokulturologiur kvlevaTa
fundamenturi wyaro;
erovnul-kulturuli
konceptebi: `bedi~, `wuTisofeli~; Targmanis
adekvaturobis Sesaxeb
kognitiuri midgomis
TvalsazrisiT.
interesTa sfero:
stilistika, ritorika,
kognitiuri lingvistika,
semiotika, lingvokulturologia.

lingvokulturologiuri konceptis
(SemdgomSi _ koncepti) gageba ar emTxveva
cnebis klasikur (tradiciul) definicias,
romelic sagnis arsebiT niSanTa erTobliobas
gulisxmobs. Tanamedrove kulturologiuri
da lingvokulturologiuri midgoma
konceptisadmi, uwinares yovlisa, sulieri
Rirebulebis cnebad miiCnevs mas, rac erTxel
kidev amtkicebs humanitarul mecnierebaTa
paradigmis morig cvlas, roca gasuli
saukunis dasawyisSi gabatonebuli sistemurstruqturuli paradigmis adgils anTropocentruli paradigma ikavebs. rogorc
mkvlevrebi aRniSnaven, Rirebulebebis
problema, rogorc wesi, yovelTvis im epoqebSi
Cndeboda, roca xdeboda kulturuli
tradiciis gaufasureba, sazogadoebis
ideologiuri diskreditacia (aTenis
demokratiis krizisma aiZula sokrate
pirvelad daesva kiTxva: ra aris sikeTe?).
aqsiologiuri Seferiloba, romelic
koncepts axlavs, iwvevs mis gancdasac.
konceptebi, rogorc mentaluri erTeulebi,
aramarto gaiazrebian, aramed ganicdebian
kidec, ufro zustad, maT mimarT vlindeba
simpaTiisa da antipaTiis emociuri mimarTeba
(stepanovi 1997:41). garda gancdisa,
konceptis Semfasebluri Seferiloba
`semiotikur simWidrovesac~ aCens: koncepti
gamoxatulebis planSi warmodgenilia mTeli
rigi enobrivi sinonimebiT, Tematuri velebiT,
andazebiT, folkloruli da literaturuli

konceptis cneba lingvokulturologiaSi

159

siuJetebiT, qcevis stereotipebiT, materialuri kulturis sagnebiTa


da sxv., rac miuTiTebs Sesabamisi konceptebis mniSvnelovnebaze
adamianis cxovrebaSi.
cnebisagan konceptis gamoyofis saSualebad logikuri semantikis
warmomadgenlebs (frege, CorCi, karnapi...) miaCniaT cnebis ganSreveba
iseT wyvilebad, rogoricaa `moculoba~ da `Sinaarsi~, `eqstensionali~
da `intensionali~, `denotati~, `signifikati~, `mniSvneloba~ da
`sazrisi~. am wyvilTa meore wevrebs eniWeba `konceptis~ saxeli.
aq `koncepti gulisxmobs raime saxelis cnebiTi Sinaarsis semantikuri
warmodgenis saSualebas, xolo mniSvneloba _ obieqtTa klass
(simravles), romelTanac igi gvgzavnis. Tu am dayofas gadavitanT
abstraqtul obieqtebze _ cneba-universaliebsa da sulier
Rirebulebebze, romlebic sinamdvilis saganTa ganusazRvrelad farTo
klasis hi postazirebul Tvisebebsa da mimarTebebs warmoadgenen,
aRmoCndeba, rom amgvari konceptebi umoculobo cnebebia, wminda
azrobrivi konstruqtebi, radganac denotaturad isini obieqtTa
`cariel simravles~ Seesabameba... isini mxolod azrovnebis subieqtis
cnobierebaSi arseboben~ (vorkaCevi 2004:19).
rogorc s. vorkaCevi aRniSnavs, konceptis gamoyofis Tanamimdevrulad lingvistikur niSans gvTavazobs n. d. aruTinova. misi
ganmartebiT, konceptebi `cxovrebiseuli filosofiis cnebebia~,
`msoflmxedvelobriv terminTa yofiTi analogebi~, romlebic
ganmtkicebulia bunebrivi enis leqsikaSi da romlebic uzrunvelyofen
eTnosis sulieri kulturis stabilurobasa da memkvidreobiTobas.
konceptebi amgvari gagebiT warmoadgenen yofiT-filosofiuri
(uwinaresad eTnikuri) cnobierebis erTeulebs, isini kulturulad
niSnadi, aqsiologiurad Seferili da msoflmxedvelobriv
orientirebulia. `filosofiuri da eTnikuri terminebis yofiTi
analogebi bunebrivi enebis leqsikis farTo sferos qmnian~ (aruTinova
1993:31). marTalia, `kulturul koncepts~ am Sexedulebis Tanaxmad,
lingvistikuri statusi eniWeba da amdenad iqmneba SesaZlebloba
isini aRiweros `samyaros enobrivi suraTis~ terminebiT, magram,
rogorc vorkaCevi samarTlianad aRniSnavs, mTlad cxadi da udavo
ar unda iyos azri, romelic zemomoyvanili sityvebidan arapirdapir
gamomdinareobs: wminda mecnierul, msoflmxedvelobrivsa da eTikur
cnebebs raime kulturologiuri specifika ar gaaCnia. amas
ewinaaRmdegeba `azrovnebis stilTa~ da `mecnierul paradigmaTa~ _
`azrovnebis kulturaTa~, rogorc saerTod kulturis Semadgeneli
nawilis, arsebobis faqti~ (vorkaCevi 2004:16).

160

salome omiaZe

enobrivi konceptualizacia, rogorc leqsikur erTeulTa


Sinaarsobrivi planis semantikuri warmodgenis saSualebaTa
erToblioba, rogorc Cans, sxvadasxva kulturaSi gansxvavebulia
(veJbicka 1997:238), magram semantikuri warmodgenis mxolod specifika
ar unda iyos sakmarisi konceptis, rogorc lingvokulturologiuri
cnebis, gamoyofisaTvis. yuradsaRebia specialur literaturaSi
gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi amis Taobaze. fiqroben, rom enobrivi da
kulturuli Taviseburebani aq ufro metad SemTxveviTia da isini
ver asaxaven semantikis erovnul-kulturul (sakuTriv eTnikur)
Taviseburebas, da arc yvela gansxvaveba calkeul leqsikur erTeulTa
Sida formebs Sors SeiZleba miviCnioT konceptualuri TvalsazrisiT
Rirebulad (dobrovolski 1997:42). aqve dgeba sakiTxi mentalobisa
da mentalitetis Sesaxeb, kerZod, maTi urTierTmimarTebisa da ara
identurobisa.
ama Tu im enis matarebelTa msoflaRqmis specifikas asaxavs
konceptTa, rogorc semantikur erTeulTa, erToblioba, romelic
qmnis konceptualur sferos. swored es sfero Seesabameba mentalobas,
rogorc samyaros xedvis saSualebas. rac Seexeba mentalitets,
romelic eris kognitiur, emociur da qceviT stereotipTa simravled
ganixileba, mis sferoSi Sedis eTnikuri specifikiT niSandebuli
konceptebi (maslova 2001:49). mentalobasa da mentalitets Soris
sazRvari anu gansxvaveba konceptTa farTo da viwro mniSvnelobebs
Soris ar aris mkafio. dRes arc arsebobs ama Tu im
lingvokulturuli erTobis Tanamedrove mentalitetis aRweris
formaluri saSualebebi. erTaderT kriteriumad miiCneven enis
leqsikur semantikaSi asaxuli kognitiuri da fsiqologiuri
stereoti pebis masobriobasa da invariantulobas (Telia 1996:235).
lingvokulturologiur gamokvlevebSi erTiani azri ar aris
imis Sesaxeb, Tu enis konkretulad romeli erTeulebi ukavSirdeba
koncepts, Tumca kavSiris arsebobas konceptsa da gamoxatvis verbalur
saSualebebs Soris yvela aRniSnavs. igi miaCniaT `sityvaSi
ganzogadebul (signifikaciur) saxed, romelic samyros erovnuli
suraTis fragments asaxavs~; `koleqtiuri cnobierebis nebismier
diskretul erTeulad, romelic asaxavs realuri an idealuri
samyaros sagans da verbalurad aRniSnuli inaxeba erovnuli enis
mexsierebaSi~ (vorkaCevi 2004:34).
marTlac, enaSi arsebobs konkretuli leqsikuri erTeulebi,
romlebic nominaciuri formiT warmoadgenen materialursa da
socialur kulturas, iqneba es yofis specifikuri realiebi Tu

konceptis cneba lingvokulturologiaSi

161

sazogadoebrivi institutebi, xolo sulieri da qceviTi kultura


leqsikur semantikaSi konotaciebis saxiT gvevlineba. amdenad,
konceptisa da misi realizaciebis sakiTxi ukavSirdeba sakuTriv
enaTmecnierul problematikas. konceptis, rogorc verbalurad
gacxadebuli sazrisis, Seswavla unda gulisxmobdes am sazrisis
povnierebis sferosa da misi komunikaciuri realizaciis donis
dadgenas. amasTanave, sityva, rogorc enis leqsikur-semantikuri
sistemis elementi, yovelTvis realizdeba ama Tu im leqsikuri
paradigmis SemadgenlobaSi, ris gamoc igi SeiZleba ganvixiloT
rogorc am sityvis leqsikur-semantikuri variantebiT agebuli
leqsikuri paradigmis invarianti, aseve, ganvixiloT rogorc amave
sityvis erT-erTi leqsikur-semantikuri variantis Sesabamis sinonimTa
rigis saxeli. yvela SemTxvevaSi koncepti, rogorc wesi, miemarTeba
im sxvadasxvagvar sinonimur (leqsikur, frazeologiursa da
aforistul) erTeulTa erTobliobis gamoxatulebis plans, romlebic
am koncepts aRweren enaSi. amgvarad, mTel leqsikur-semantikur
paradigmas da ara paradigmis erT-erT wevrs ukavSirdeba konceptis
cneba.
rac Seexeba lingvokulturuli konceptis Sinaarsis plans, isic
Seicavs semantikur niSanTa, sul mcire, or rigs: 1) masSi Sedis
konceptis enobrivi realizaciebisaTvis saerTo semebi, romlebic
lingvokulturuli, eTnosemantikuri specifikiT aris niSandebuli
da dakavSirebuli enis matarebelTa mentalobasTan an nacionaluri
enobrivi pirovnebis mentalitetTan (vorkaCevi 2004:37). erovnulkulturuli specifikis qona sityvisTvis is niSania, rac mas konceptis
statuss aniWebs (neroznaki 1998:85).
rogorc vxedavT, koncepti semantikurad warmoadgens garkveul
abstraqcias, romelic Tavis enobriv realizaciaTa mniSvnelobebs
ganazogadebs. abstraqtulobis maRali xarisxi aqvT metafizikur
konceptebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, suli, siyvaruli, WeSmariteba,
bedniereba, Tavisufleba da misT. isini miemarTebian sulier
RirebulebaTa `uxilav samyaros~. am mentalur arsTa sazrisi SeiZleba
gacxaddes mxolod simbolos, niSnis saSualebiT, romlis xatovani
sagnobrivi Sinaarsis meSveobiT gamoixateba abstraqtulis Sinaarsi.
mkvlevarTa azriT, swored es iwvevs amgvar konceptTa SedarebiT
advil `sinonimizaciasa~ da e. w. `konceptualizebuli sferos~
Seqmnas, sadac metafizikur sazrisebsa da sagnobrivi samyaros
movlenebs Soris Cndeba semantikuri asociaciebi, erTmaneTs erwymis
sulieri da materialuri kulturebi.

162

salome omiaZe

amgvarad, konceptTa ricxvs miekuTvneba mxolod semantikuri


warmonaqmnebi, romelTa sia sakmaod SezRudulia. isini sakvanZo
erTeulebs warmoadgenen erovnuli mentalitetis, rogorc misi
matareblebis samyarosadmi specifikuri mimarTebis, gagebisaTvis.
enobrivi niSnis Sinaarsobrivi mxaris adekvaturi aRniSvnisaTvis
axali terminis SemuSavebam, romelic moxsnida tradiciuli
`mniSvnelobisa~ da `sazrisis~ funqciur SezRudulobas da romelSic
organulad iqneboda Serwymuli logikur-fsiqologiuri da
enaTmecnieruli kategoriebi, gaaCina metoqe nominaciuri erTeulebi:
`koncepti~, `lingvokulturema~, `miTologema~, `logoepistema~.
amaTgan ufro sicocxlisunariani pirveli aRmoCnda, romelmac
gamoyenebis sixSiriT Camoitova sxva danarCenebi, miuxedavad imisa,
rom dasaxelebul proterminTa Soris saerTo is iyo, rom yoveli
maTganis meSveobiT cdilobdnen aesaxaT mouxelTebeli, e. w. `xalxis
suli~, anu enobriv codnaTa warmodgenis eTnikuri specifika.
rac Seexeba konceptis definiciur niSnebs, maT Soris SeiZleba
davasaxeloT Sida danawevreba, `semiotikuri simWidrove~,
`komunikaciuri relevanturoba~, `gancdiToba~, `etimologiuri
mexsiereba~ abstraqcia (leqsikur realizaciaTa mniSvnelobebis
ganzogadeba, romelic moculobiTa da siRrmiT aRemateba Cveulebrivi
sityvis ganmazogadebel Zalas), agreTve, mravaldonianoba, rac aRniSnul
realizaciaTa simravleze abstraqciis intervaliT ganisazRvreba
(igulisxmeba `protokonceptebi~ _ monoglosuri konceptebi _
poliglosuri konceptebi). am niSanTagan zogi fakultatiuria.
arsebiTi ki is aris, rom konceptis semantikaSi gamoiyofa cnebiTi,
xatovani da RirebulebiTi komponentebi, amasTanave, cnebiTi Semadgeneli
ar daiyvaneba ubralod `sagnis arsebiTi niSnebis~ Sesaxeb
informaciaze, xolo mTlianad koncepti moicavs komunikaciurad
mniSvnelovan mTel informacias, iqneba es Sidasistemuri, pragmatikuli
Tu etimologiuri. amgvar konceptTa erToblioba qmnis enis
konceptur sferos, sadac koncentrirebulia eris kultura anu
igi warmoadgens enobriv-kulturul codnaTa erTobliobas.
konceptosferodan igeba enis mflobelis msofl-gageba. magaliTad,
qarTuli marTlmadidebluri cnobierebis konceptosferoSi, sadac
asaxulia Cveni xalxis mentaliteti da sulieri gamocdileba, aris
konceptebi: amaoeba, boroteba, saTnoeba, damdableba, Tanalmoba,
sasoeba, ziareba, miteveba, cxoneba, jvarcma da sxv., romelTagan
TiToeuli sakraluri azris Semcvelia. aRniSnul midgomaSi ganmsazRvrelia leqsikur semantikaSi moqmedi samyaros konceptua-

konceptis cneba lingvokulturologiaSi

163

lizaciis xerxi, xolo kvlevis ZiriTad saSualebas, rogorc miiCneven,


warmoadgens konceptualuri modeli, romlis saSualebiTac gamoiyofa
konceptis semantikis bazisuri komponentebi da dgindeba maT Soris
arsebuli mdgradi kavSirebi (mixalCuki 1997:29).
enis simdidre ganisazRvreba ara marto leqsikuri maragisa da
gramatikuli SesaZleblobebis simdidriT, aramed koncepturi samyaros,
konceptosferos simdid-riT, romelSic yalibdeba erovnuli enobrivi
pirovneba (maslova 2004:17).
literatura
aruTinova 1993: . . //
. . ., 1993.
dobrovolski 11997:
997: . ., -
(I) // . ., 1997,
6.
veJbicka 1997: . . . . ., 1997.
vo
rkaCevi 2004: . .
vorkaCevi
., 2004.
Telia 11996:
996: . . . . ,
. ., 1996.
maslova 2001
2001: . . . ., 2001.
maslova 2004
2004: . . ,
., 2004.
mixalCuki 11997:
997: . .
( )
// . . 56, 4, 1997.
neroznaki 11998:
998: . . y:
/ /
. , 1998.
stepanovi 11997:
997: . . . :
. . ., 1997.

164

giorgi SavguliZe

semiotikidan
filosofiisaken

akaki wereTlis universitetis saerTaSoriso


urTierTobaTa saswavlosamecniro kvleviTi institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
franguli struqturizmi
da rolan barti rasinis
Teatris Sesaxeb (2002 w.)
ojaxi, legitimacia da
legitimuroba (2005 w.)
interesTa sfero:
struqturalizmi, sociologia, politikuri filosofia.

franguli struqturizmis warmomadgenlebi, ikvleven sinamdvilis erT romelime


konkretul mxares, _ es iqneba eTnologia,
fsiqologia, xelovnebaTmcodenoba, mecnierebis
istoria, Tu literaturaTmcodneoba,
Tanamedrove sazogadoebis zogadi problemebi
aisaxeba struqturalistur koncefciebSi
da unda iTqvas, rom kacobriobis mier
dagrovili codnisadmi struqturalisturi
midgoma, codnis, mecnierebis xiluli teqstis
miRma arsebuli jerac aqamde uxilavi
teqstis TeTri sicarielis danaxvas
emsaxureba (fuko). aqve isic unda aRvniSnoT,
rom struqturalistebi upirispirdebian
codnis imgvar gagebas, rogoric Camoayaliba
klasikuri epoqis racionalisturma mimarTulebam. erTis mxriv, maTi koncefciebi
Seicavs kritikas klasikuri racionalizmis
mniSvnelovani debulebisa da meores mxriv,
ayalibeben Semecnebis sruliad axal vels.
aseTi winaaRmdegobrivi damokidebuleba
klasikuri evropuli racionalizmisadmi
gvidasturebs da migvaniSnebs neoracionalisturi koncefciis rTul xasiaTze.
mecniereba, rogorc Teoriuli codnis
forma, flobs im xerxebsa da saSualebebs,
romlebic gamoimuSavebs sakuTar refleqsias da masze dayrdnobiT axdens winare
codnis safuZvlebis gaazrebas da agebs axali
codnis vels.
struqturalistebis azriT, mecnierebas
SeuZlia dagvanaxos, rom adamianuri cnobiereba

165

ar daiyvaneba mxolod racionaluri azrovnebis donemde, rom istoriis


warsul periodebSi, epoqebSi SenivTebulia raRac maradcocxali
specifika, romelic Tanamedrove mecnierebam ki ar unda CaaxSos,
aramed unda moaxdinos misi rekonstruireba. es procesebi ar aris
winaswargansazRvruli da erTmniSvnelovnad determinirebuli, romlis
ekonomikur-materialuri da sulieri faqtorebi urTierTzemoqmedeben
da mudmivad warmoSoben am procesebs.
struqturalisturi moZRvrebis konstruqcia, romelic TiTqmis
`msoflmxedvelobriv~ donemde iqna ayvanili, iZleva sakmaod STambeWdav
suraTs, romlis sruli da gaformebuli saxiT Camoyalibeba
dakavSirebulia k. levi-strosis, J. lakanis, r. bartis da m. fukos
saxelebTan. k. levi-strosis, rogorc eTnologis mTavari kritikis
sagans warmoadgens evropocentrizmi; mecnierebis istorikosis m.
fukosaTvis _ evolucionisturi progresizmi; fsiqolog J.
lakanisaTvis _ raciocentrizmi; literaturaTmcodne r. bartis
mTavari Tema ki _ aqronizmia (dros gareSe mdgomi esTetikuri
Rirebulebebi da idealebi).
sabWouri filosofiis warmomadgenlebs, romlebic struqturalizms ganixilavdnen dialeqtikuri materializmis poziciebidan,
miaCndaT, rom struqturalizmi ar SeiZleba ganixilebodes erTian
monoliTur Tvalsazrisad (avtonomova 1977: 51), rac ara marTebulia,
radgan struqturalizmis warmomadgenelTa Teoriebi yvelgan da
yovelTvis emyareba Semdeg princi pebs: 1. ena, rogorc niSanTa sistema;
2. sistemis gaazreba cnobierisa da aracnobieris organul
mTlianobad; 3. elementi, rogorc sistemis struqtura.
literaturaTmcodne r. barti da mecnierebis istorikosi m.
fuko amuSavebdnen tradiciuli, istoriagamovlili evropuli
kulturis masalebs, J. lakani _ fsiqoanalizs, k. levi-strosi
sazogadoebriv organizacias da pirvelyofili adamianis sulier
struqturas. kvleva struqturalizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
zemoTaRniSnuli sami princi pis gamoyenebiT da masze dayrdnobiT
xorcieldeboda, ramac struqturalizmi udaod monoliTur
moZRvrebad warmoaCina.
struqturalizmis gamoCenas XX saukunis 50-60-iani wlebis
frangul mecnierebaTa parnasze arc ukritikod Cauvlia. fransua
Satles werilSi `sadamdea misuli struqturalizmi?~ (Satle
1967), saCoTirod miaCnda am `fsevdomimarTulebaze~ yuradRebis
gamaxvileba. Satle TviTreklamas, eklektizmsa da `ideologiur

166

giorgi SavguliZe

deboSs~ swamebda struqturalizms da bodiSs uxdida mkiTxvels,


brWyalebSi Casmul problemaze rom sTavazobda mokle biografias.
struqturalizmis irgvliv bumi klod levi-strosis SromebTan
aris dakavSirebuli, magram misi Semdgomi kvlav gaxmaureba ukve
miSel fukos saxels ukavSirdeba. safrangeTis filosofiur da
literaturul wreebSi gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia fukos
meoTxe da mexuTe wignma _ `sityvebi da sagnebi~ (1966 w.), `codnis
arqeologia~ (1969 w.). gamokvleva aRiqves, rogorc struqturalizmis
morigi gamovlineba. kvlav daisva sakiTxi: bolosdabolos, ras
warmoadgens struqturalizmi?! Satles, struqturalizmi ar miaCnda
erTian da raime arsebiTi xasiaTis mqone mimarTulebad. mis
warmomadgenlebs ufro is akavSirebs, rasac TviT ukuagdeben da
uaryofen, vidre is, rasac amtkicebeno. Satles es Sexeduleba
struqturalizmis mowinaaRmdegeTa saerTo azrs gamoxatavs.
Satle struqturalizmis warmomadgenlebs oTx ZiriTad jgufad
hyofs: pirveli jgufis sulis Camdgmelia eTnologi k. levi-strosi,
mis SromebSi ganxilulia egreTwodebuli `primitiuli sazogadoebis~
struqturebi, romelTa Seswavlisas mkvlevari cdilobs daSordes
am sakiTxze mecnierebaSi arsebul stereotipebs da uSualod realuri
viTarebidan gamomdinare axdens analizs. am aspeqtSi Satle ar
kamaTobs, magram sasacilod miaCnia (misi sityvebia) levi-strosis
mier erTi konkretuli dargis safuZvelze miRebuli daskvnebisa
da meTodologiis gavrceleba sxva humanitarul mecnierebebze.
meore jgufi, romelsac Jak lakani Taosnobda, froidizmis
perspeqtivaSia moqceuli da kvleva-Ziebas awarmoebda fsiqiur
daavadebaTa problemebze dayrdnobiT. f. Satles aqac mxedvelobaSi
aqvs konkretuli Sedegebi da uars ambobs maT ganzogadebaze.
mesame jgufma Seqmna `Zalze sxvadasxvanairi Sromebi, romelTa
Soris yvelaze cnobili da marTebulia miSel fukosa da rolan
bartis ideebi~ (Satle 1967). kritikosi am jgufis mimarT SedarebiT
lmobierebas iCens da mouwodebs maT nicSeanuri `filosofiuri
keTilsindisierebisaken~ da gatkepnili gzisagan ganze gadgomas.
meoTxe jgufi, marqsisti struqturalistebisa lui alTuseris
TaosnobiT, cdilobda dialeqtikuri materializmis moZRvrebis
ganviTarebas. f. Satle levi-strossa da alTusers Soris aTavsebs
moris godelies, romelic miznad isaxavda istoriuli materializmis
CarCoebis gafarToebas.
Jan pol sartris azriT, `fuko, adamianebs awvdis imas, rasac
isini saWiroeben: eklektikur sinTezs, sadac rob-griie,

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struqturalizmi, lingvistika, `tel-keli~ da lakani rig-rigobiT


gamoyenebulia istoriuli ganWvretis (reflexion historique)
SeuZleblobis dasamtkiceblad~ (deqsi 1967). Jan pol sartri
cdebao, _ ambobs deqsi, _ rodesac igi struqturalizms (miSel
fuko) istoriis Praxi-is uaryofas swamebs. yvela mecnierebas ori
Semadgeneli nawili aqvs: pirveli, umTavresi, struqturebis gamoyofa
da, meore, maTi gardaqmnisa da erTimeoreSi gadasvlis Seswavla.
suraTis gasamartiveblad, SeiZleba iTqvas, pirvel moments ikvlevs
miSel fuko, meore momenti ki sartris filosofiis mizidulobis
centrs warmoadgens. magram es ori momenti, pier deqsis azriT,
erTimeores ki ar gamoricxavs, aramed avsebs. deqsis TvalsazrisiT,
fukos damsaxureba isaa, rom igi aRadgens istoriul manZils,
distancias, saukuneTa cvlaSi eZebs evropuli azrovnebis ZiriTad
struqturebs.
struqturalizmiT gamowveul paeqrobaSi TviT struqturalizmis
cneba gaxda dasadgeni. sartri mas negatiur elfers aniWebs da
sisxlis Segubebas (stase) amsgavsebs istoriis ganviTarebis
struqturalistur interpretacias. pier deqsi emxroba piaJes
gansazRvrebas, romlis Tanaxmad `Cvens winaSea cnebaTa sami didi
kategoria: struqturebi anu organizaciis formebi; funqciebi,
raodenobriv an energetikul RirebulebaTa wyaro da
mniSvnelobani ((significations)~
)~ (deqsi 1967).
struqturalizmTan mimarTebaSi sagulisxmoa cnobili
filologis norTrop frais sityvebi, romelic semantikuri
gamokvlevebis Sesaxeb Semdegs werda: `CemTvis, ra Tqma unda, cnobilia,
rom axla viTardeba axali tipis boboqari (igulisxmeba XX saukunis
60-iani wlebi) da friad bundovani inteleqtualuri moRvaweoba...
amasTan urTierTkavSirSi aRmoCndnen erTmaneTisagan iseTi dacilebuli
codnis dargebi, rogorebicaa: uZvelesi istoria da maTematika, logika
da sainJinro saqme, sociologia da fizika. yvela im wigns, romelSic
es axali ideebia gadmocemuli, daaxloebiT ise Sevcqeri, rogorc
mose mis win mTaze movlenil RmerTs _ krZaluli SiSiT~ (veimani
1975).
***
erTis mxriv, sakmaod damuSavebuli meTodis arsebobam da meores
mxriv, konkretul mecnierebebSi struqturuli meTodologiis
damkvidrebam sakvlevi masalis specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT sruliad
axali realobis winaSe daayena mTeli mecnierebis sfero, vinaidan
igi mkvlevars ubiZgebda sakvlevi obieqtis sxva rakursiT

168

giorgi SavguliZe

danaxvisaken. amasTan dakavSirebiT Jan-maqs oziasi ityvis:


`struqturalizmi xdeba meTodi, romelic metyvelebs Tavisi obieqtis
sufTa enaze~ (oziasi 1971: 72).
rogorc cnobilia, meTodi arasodes ar aris gulgrili sagnis
mimarT, yoveli axali xerxi sruliad sxva TaviseburebebiT
warmogvidgens erTi da igive sagans da am SemTxvevaSi ara mxolod
sagani gansazRvravs meTods, aramed meTodic axdens ukuqmedebas
saganze, rac sxva WriliT gviCvenebs mas.
struqturuli meTodis konkretul mecnierebaze gamoyenebisas
SeiniSneba am meTodisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli originaluri Tavisebureba,
kerZod, igi iwvevs am mecnierebis CarCoebSi damoukidebeli da
gansakuTrebuli nawilis Seqmnas da amdenad, mkvlevarebi zogjer
arc mTlad usafuZvlod miuTiTeben ori mecnierebis arsebobaze _
tradiciulze da struqturulze. magaliTad, tradiciuli
lingvistika, struqturuli lingvistika; literaturaTmcodneoba,
struqturuli literaturaTmcodneoba (cvetan todorovas terminiT
poetika); anTropologia, struqturuli anTropologia; eTnografia,
struqturuli eTnografia (levi-strosis terminiT eTnologia).
am gansxvavebaSi arsebobs raRac pirobiToba, vinaidan mecniereba
ganisazRvreba pirvel rigSi Tavis sagniT da amocanebiT da ara
gamoyenebuli meTodiT. axali meTodologiis gamoyeneba ar
iZleva axal mecnierebas
mecnierebas. meTodologiuri xerxis gamoyeneba
saSualebas iZleva gamoyofili iqnas gansakuTrebuli sfero
mecnierebaSi da gafarTovdes Cveni codna sagnis Sesaxeb.
aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, sainteresoa franguli
struqturalizmis warmomadgenlis cvetan todorovas mosazreba.
igi Tavis wignSi `poetika~ (todorova 1975) gvTavazobs struqturuli meTodologiis gamoyenebis gziT axleburad iqnes agebuli
mecniereba literaturis Sesaxeb. mas miaCnia, rom literaturuli
masalis kvlevisadmi biografiuli midgoma aranair mecnierul
Rirebulebas ar warmoadgens da amdenad igi literaturaTmcodneobis
sferos ar unda ganekuTvnebodes. aseTi daskvnidan gamomdinare,
todorova erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs da asaxelebs literaturaTmcodneobis Seswavlis or ufro SesaZlo variants: pirveli
varianti literaturuli teqstis rogorc aseTis Seswavlaa. aseT
SemTxvevaSi, literaturuli nawarmoebi warmoadgens erTaderT
obieqts da kvlevis saboloo mizans, aq mocemulia misi interpretacia.
meore SesaZlo varianti gulisxmobs calkeuli nawarmoebebis
ganxilvas, rogorc romelime abstraqtuli struqturis gamovlineba.

semiotikidan filosofiisaken

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am SemTxvevaSi analizis obieqti xdeba ukve ara calkeuli nawarmoebebi,


aramed misi jgufebi. mkvlevari miiswrafvis saerTo kanonebis
dadgenisaken, romelTa mixedviT aigeba nawarmoebi. aseT midgomas,
todorovas azriT, SeiZleba vuwodoT mecnieruli kritika, vinaidan
aq, am SemTxvevaSi, urTierTTan mezobloben gamokvlevebi fsiqologiasa
da fsiqoanalizSi, sociologiasa da enTologiaSi, filosofiasa da
istoriul mecnierebebSi. am gamokvlevebSi uaryofilia literaturuli nawarmoebis avtonomiuroba, romelic ganixileba rogorc
literaturuli kanonzomierebebis gare fsiqologiis, sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis an e.w. `adamianis sulis~ sferos sakuTreba. am SemTxvevaSi,
todorova Tvlis, rom mkvlevaris amocanas warmoadgens mxatvruli
nawarmoebis azris asaxva am miznisaTvis romelime ufro Rrma enaze
SerCeuli gamonaTqvamis saxiT. mxatvruli nawarmoebis kvleva
emsgavseba amoSifvras an Targmnas, vinaidan mkvlevaris winaSe nawarmoebi
mocemulia rogorc `raRac~ da misi mizania, amocanaa gaSifros am
`raRacis~ poetikuri kodi, imis mixedviT, Tu rogori buneba gaaCnia
am `raRacas~, _ filosofiuri, fsiqologiuri, socialuri Tu kidev
romelime sxva. amisda mixedviT, ganxiluli ti pis kvleva SeiZleba
mivakuTvnoT codnis Sesabamis sferoebs. aseTi xasiaTis gamokvlevebs,
todorovas azriT, mecnierebaze pretenzia aqvT imdenad, ramdenadac
maT obieqtebs warmoadgenen sxvadasxva mecnierebebSi ganwesrigebuli
kanonebi (fsiqologiuri, sociologiuri da sxva) da ara calkeuli
faqtebi, romliTac xdeba am kanonTa ilustrireba.
literaturuli masalisadmi midgomis es ori varianti,
todorovas azriT, ar aris SeuTavsebadi, piriqiT, isini avseben
kidec urTierTs, magram imisda mixedviT, Tu raze keTdeba ZiriTadi
aqcenti, yovelTvis SeiZleba iTqvas, Tu romeli dominirebs am ori
variantidan.
calkul nawarmoebTa interpretaciis gziT poetika cdilobs
ara am nawarmoebSi mocemuli azris garkvevas, aramed im saerTo
kanonebis Semecnebas, romlebic ganapirobeben mis warmoqmnas. meores
mxriv, poetika mecnierebaTa sferoSi mocemul kanonebs eZebs TviT
literaturaSi. maSasadame, poetika gamoxatavs literaturisadmi
rogorc `abstraqtul~ midgomas, aseve gamowvlilviT midgomas
`Signidan~.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, rogorc vxedavT, struqturuli
poetikis kvlevis obieqts warmoadgens ara literaturuli
nawarmoebi Tavis Tavad, aramed iseTi gansakuTrebuli ti pis
gamoTqmebis Tvisebebi, rogoric aris literaturuli teqsti. am

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TvalsazrisiT, yoveli mxatvruli nawarmoebi ganixileba rogorc


romelime ufro abstraqtuli struqturis realizacia. amdenad,
struqturuli poetika dainteresebulia literaturul nawarmoebebis SesaZlo qveteqstebiT. mas ainteresebs is abstraqtuli
Tviseba, romelic warmoadgens literaturuli faqtis ganmasxvavebel
niSans. aseTi saxis kvlevis amocanaa ara literaturuli nawarmoebis
Txroba, aramed literaturuli teqstis struqturis da
funqcionirebis Teoriis Camoyalibeba, _ Teoriisas, romelic
iTvaliswinebs literaturuli SesaZleblobebis mTel krebuls,
romelSic realuri literaturuli nawarmoebebi daikaveben
gansazRvruli kerZo SemTxvevebis, realizebuli SesaZleblobebis
adgils.
literaturaTmcodneobis am formiT gagebisaTvis, da kidev ufro
naTeli rom gaxdes sakiTxi, SevexebiT lingvisturi filosofiis
profesoris mamuka biWaSvilis poetikas `Sagrenis tyavis meore
mxares~ (biWaSvili 1996). mecnieri balzakis novelidan exeba teqsts,
romelic gamosaxuli gaxldaT Sagrenis tyavis erT mxares, `Tu me
mflob, yovelives mflobeli iqnebi. magram Seni cxovreba
Cemi iqneba. RmerTma ase ineba. isurve da Seni survilebi
Sens cxovrebas Seufarde. es cxovreba aq aris. yoveli Seni
survilis mixedviT me iseve Sevmcirdebi, rogorc Seni dReebi
Semcirdebian...~ (balzaki 1952: 65-301). misgan gansxvavebiT mecniers
ainteresebs tyavis meore mxaris sruliad ucnobi Sinaarsi, anu is,
razedac migvaniSnebs `xiluli teqstis TeTri sicariele~ (fuko).
am miznis ganxorcielebisaTvis mkvlevari mimarTavs semiotikuri
struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebel triadas: aRmniSvneli (designati),
aRsaniSni (denotati) da niSani (sazrisi anu mniSvneloba).
mocemuli sqemis mixedviT Sagrenis tyavze gamosaxuli citata arkvevs
tyavis mflobelis prioritets da enobriv sistemaSi warmoadgens
aRmniSvnels. sqemis meore elementi _ aseT SemTxvevaSi, Tavad
Sagrenis tyavi aRsaniSnis funqcias asrulebs. dasaZebni rCeba am
ori elementis reduqciis produqti _ sazrisi. amis Semdgom,
mamuka biWaSvili kvlav mimarTavs `Sagrenis tyavidan~ kidev erT
fragments, romelic poetikis dasawyisSi citirebuli pasaJis
komentars warmoadgens. moxuci sovdagari Semdegnairad uxsnis rafael
de valentens tyavis erT mxares CaWedili warweris sazriss: `axla
minda oriod sityvaSi adamianuri cxovrebis didi saidumlo
gagimxiloT. adamiani iSriteba or instiqturad Sesrulebul
aqtSi, romelic aSrobs misi arsebobis wyaroebs. ori sityva

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gamoxatavs sikvdilis am ori mizezis yovel formas: survili


da Zala... aq, Tqva man maRali xmiT da Sagrenis tyavze
miuTiTa, aq Zala da survilia SeerTebuli. aqaa Tavmoyrili
Tqveni socialuri ideebi, Tqveni gadaWarbebul survilebi,
Tqveni TavSeukavebloba, Tqveni sixaruli, romelic adamians
klavs, Tqveni mwuxareba, romelic sicocxles amZafrebs, imitom,
rom tkivili SeiZleba cxare siamovneba iyos da sxva araferi...
da ra aris sigiJe Tu ara survilis da Zalis siWarbe~
(balzaki 1952).
amiT ukve moZebnili iqna pirveladi enobrivi sistemis samive
elementi _ tyavis erT gverdze gakeTebuli warwera (aRmniSvneli),
Tavad tyavis Sesabamisi mxare (aRsaniSni) da survili (sazrisi).
warmodgenili semiotikuri elementebis Sesabamisi Sinaarsebis
eqsplikacia gviCvenebs, rom Sagrenis tyavis mTeli idumaleba imgvari
Zalis konstituciaSi mdgomareobs, romelic garkveuli pirobebis
xarjze nebismieri survilebis Semsrulebelia.
amgvarad, mkvlevaris mier gamovlenili iqna nawarmoebis
abstraqtuli struqturebi da amis Semdgom msjelobaSi Semoaqvs
politikuri diskursi da akeTebs daskvnas, romlis Tanaxmad, upirveles
kandidatad im Zalisa, romelsac nebismieri survilis Sesruleba
SeuZlia, saxelmwifo da mmarTveli politikosebia. enobrivi sistemis
struqturaSi aRmniSvnelis `Zalis~ gverdiT, `saxelmwifos~ Setanis
SemTxvevaSi igi aRsaniSnis adgils daikavebs. da kvlav, mecniers
axla dasaZebni rCeba am ori elementis produqti. mimarTebam unda
gaxsnas latenturi enis sazrisi da migvaniSnos imaze, Tu ra aris
moxazuli Sagrenis tyavis ukana mxares. mecnieri askvnis, Sagrenis
tyavis ukana mxares gamosaxulia saqarTvelo, romlis sazRvrebi
Sagrenis tyaviviT qreba,* am qveynis politikosebis dauokebel
ltolvebTan da mravalferovan survilebTan SesabamisobaSi.
rogorc vxedavT, amgvari xasiaTis samecniero kvleva arRvevs
literaturis sferos avtonomiurobas da masSi CarTulia rogorc
politika, aseve fsiqo-analizi da filosofia. mkvlevari moxerxebulad iyenebs enobriv niSanTa cvalebadobas, roca igi erTis
garda aRniSnavs kidev sxva sagans, ise rom ar wyvets pirveli
sagnis aRniSvnas. aqve davZenT, rom amgvari enobrivi sistema
alegoriulia, radgan allegorie niSnavs erTis Tqmisas raRac metis
Tqmasac.
* mamuka biWaSvilis naSromi `Sagrenis tyavis meore mxares~ daiwera 1996 w.

172

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amgvarad, konkretuli kvlevebis sferoSi struqturul analizs


moaqvs dadebiTi Sedegebi, romlebic, albaT, imiT aixsneba, rom
struqturalisturi lingvistikis wanamZRvrebis ukan swori
analitikuri xerxebi dgas.
struqturuli meTodis nayofierma gamoyenebam sxvadasxva
konkretul mecnierebebSi, e.w. `struqturuli mecnierebebis~ warmoSobam mkvlevarebi daayena sakiTxis filosofiuri gaazrebis
aucileblobis winaSe. propi levi-strosTan samecniero kamaTisas
aRniSnavda: `Tu mTeli rigi faqtebisa da maTi kavSirurTierTobis
aRwera da Seswavla xdeba, maSin maTi aRwera movlenis, fenomenis
axsnaSi gadaizrdeba, da amgvari fenomenis axsna... filosofiur
fiqrebsac gvgvris~ (propi 1984: 9).
***
dRis wesrigSi dadga struqturuli meTodis Seyvana zogad
filosofiur problemaTa ojaxSi. meTodis farTod gavrcelebam
sxvadasxva mecnierebebSi da efeqturma gamoyenebam struqturalizmis
Tayvanismcemlebic SesZina safrangeTSi, rasac xels uwyobda, erTis
mxriv, egzistencializmis kraxi (XX saukunis 60-iani wlebi).
struqturalizmma pretenzia gamoTqva ara mxolod meTodologiis
rolze, aramed mTlianad filosofiur problematikaze, mis Zireul
sakiTxebze, iseTi msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze, romelic gavlenas
axdens politikaze da cvlis mTlianad saxelmwifo ideologias
(grecki 1971:10).
frangi inteleqtualebis modur filosofias egzistencializms
struqturalizmi Caenacvla. arsebobis egzeistenciurma koncefciam
da misma absurdis filosofiam asaxa sazogadoebis namdvili krizisi,
romelic meore msoflio omis Semdgomi evropuli cxovrebis
niSandobliv maxasiaTebels warmoadgenda. maT mier dasmul kiTxvas,
_ `rogor vicxovroT~ _ pasuxi ver gaeca da egzistencializmi
rogorc gabatonebuli koncefcia XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi miicvala. qarTveli filosofosis guram TevzaZis
marTebul SeniSvniT, `roca raime mniSvnelovani filosofiuri
mimarTulebis marcxi gamomJRavndeba xolme, es, rogorc wesi, niSnavs
yovlismomcvelobaze misi pretenziis usafuZvlobis gacnobierebas.
misi warmomadgenlebi amas, saerTod, filosofiis dasasrulad
miiCneven~ (TevzaZe 2002:528). fukom sartri ukanasknel filosofosad
CaTvala da ase daayena sakiTxi: SeuZlia Tu ara adamians sxvagvarad
iazrovnos, vidre azrovnebs, sxvagvarad aRiqvas, vidre aRiqvams. XVIII

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saukunis moazrovnis baumgartenis Teoriam filosofiidan


mecnierebaTa gamoyofis Sesaxeb ukuprocesi SeiZina, mecnierebi kvlevis
axali gamdidrebuli meTodebiTa da xerxebiT kvlav daubrundnen
filosofias. uwyvetoba ukve aRar aris istoriis mTavari da
Zireuli kategoria, mis adgils wyvetadobis kategoria ikavebs.
fukos azriT, swored aseTi saxis kvlevas SeuZlia moxazos sfero,
sadac filosofia eswrafvis ganviTarebas raRac mocemul garkveul
epistemeSi. mecnierebis istoria es aris ganzidvisa da mizidvis
Seuqcevadi procesi, iseve rogorc bunebaSi zRvis talRaTa miqceva
da moqceva. struqturalizmi namdvil humanitarul mecnierebaTa
istoriis dasawyisad gamocxadda da Tu aqamde msjelobdnen da
msjeloben postmodernizmze arqiteqturaSi, literaturaSi,
lingvistikaSi, politikaSi, amis Semdgom, postmodernizmi istoriis
sxvadasxva sferoebis kvlevis Sedegad filosofiaSic damkvidrda
(TevzaZe 2002:515).
kacobriobis ganvlil, istoriis xangrZliv da momqancveli gzis
TiToeuli etapis (epoqis) inteleqtiT daZlevas adamiani axali da
axali epistemeTi axerxebda. epoqaluri moZraobiT dagrovil
epistemeTa grovaSi CaiZira adamiani da adamianur mimarTebaTa pirveli
bunebrivi sawyisi, is, riTac (ukve inteleqtualurad SiSveli) adamiani
moevlina samyaros.
adamiani, rogorc struqturis elementi, amyarebs kavSirs struqturis sxva elementTan adamianTan, bunebasTan, kulturasTan
(adamiani_A; buneba_B; kultura_C) AA; AB; AC; mimarTebaTa
kavSirSi aisaxeba adamianis qcevis motivacia, romlis struqturuli
mimarTeba gvaZlevs saSualebas sxvagvarad aRviqvaT samyaro.
struqturalizmma, rogorc meTodma, SeZlo SeeRwia adamianis
moRvaweobis sxvadasxva sferoebis Rrma labirinTebSi da misi
elementebis mimarTebaTa gamokvleviT sruliad axali sinamdvilis
winaSe dagvayena. aRniSnuli meTodiT msjelobam ekonomikasa da
politikaSi `axali sazogadoeba~ mogvca, ideologiaSi _ `axali
memarjveneebi~ da `axali memarcxeneebi~, literaturaSi _ `axali
romani~, literaturaTmcodneobaSi _ `axali kritika~, istoriografiaSi _ `axali istoria~ da yvela erTad `axali filosofiaa~.

giorgi SavguliZe

174

literatura
avtonomova 1977: ., , . , ., 1977.
Satle 11967:
967: Chtlet F., O en est le structuralisme? La Quinzaine Littraire
I-er au 15 juillet 1967.
deqsi 1967: Daix Piere, Sartre est-il dpass? Les Lettres fran caises,
1168, fevrier 1967.
veimani 11975:
975: ., , ., 1975.
todo
rova
975: , . :
todorova 11975:
(. , . , ., 1975).
biWaSvili 1996: biWaSvili m., Sagrenis tyavis meore mxares, Jurnali
`tetrameroni~, Tb., 1996 w.
balzaki 1952: balzaki o., Sagrenis tyavi (Targmani geronti qiqoZisa),
gamomc. `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~.
propi 1984: propi v., zRapris morfologia (Targmani mariam
karbelaSvilisa), `mecniereba~, Tb., 1984.
971: , , , .,
gr
ecki 11971:
grecki
1971.
TevzaZe 2002: TevzaZe g., XX saukunis filosofiis istoria,
gamomc. Tsu, Tb., 2002.

175

s e m i o t i k a

d a

s x v a
diana anfimiadi

danaSaulis semiotika
enobrivi paTologiebi

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis


zogadi da gamoyenebiTi
enaTmecnierebis kaTedris
doqtoranti, poeti
(literaturul konkurs
`wero~s(2008) I premiis
mflobeli) eleqtronuli literaturuli
biblioTekis lib.ge_s Tanaavtori, literaturuli Jurnalis
lil redaqtori,
araerTi literaturuli
proqtis avtori da
Tanaorganizatori, ramdenime samecniero da literaturuli publikaciisa da erTi poeturi
krebulis _ `Sokoladi
_ avtori.
interesebi yvelaferi,
rac ki enis -Yyofierebis
saxlSi cxovrobs,
niSani Seqmnis procesSi
da Semdeg...

Tanamedrove kriminalistikuri kvlevis


erT - erT saintereso da aucilebel nawils
metyvelebis fonoskopiuri eqspertiza amgvari
kvlevisas warmoadgens. sadac gansaxilveli
masalis specifikuroba saintereso enobrivi
da fsiqologiuri niSnebis aRmoCenis saSualebas iZleva.
statiis mizans warmoadgens damnaSavis,
rogorc socialuri cnebisa da erTgvari
fsiqo - socialuri semiotikuri niSnis, gamovlena da misTvis damaxasiaTebeli lingvisturi Taviseburebebi. Sedegad, garkveuli
intersistemuri universaliebis dadgena da
maTi warmomSobi mizezebis gamoaSkaraveba.
CvenTvis mniSvnelovania fsiqo - socialuri da lingvistikuri problematikis
gadakveTis is wertili, rasac qcevisa da
cxovrebis wesis metyvelebaSi gamoxatva hqvia.
sakiTxi interdisci plinuria da xangrZliv auditoriul kvlevas emyareba.
gamosakvlev masalas Seadgens fonoskopiuri eqspertizisaTvis sakvlevad
warmodgenili audio da video masala.
(konkretuli magaliTebis moyvana gamosakvlevi masalis specifikidan gamomdinare,
ar moxdeba.)
visaubrebT zogad da konkretul niSnebze
sakvlevi masalis konkretizaciis gareSe.

176

diana anfimiadi

gamokvleuli masala da diqtorTa metyvelebaze dakvirveba,


gvaZlevs im varaudisa da hi poTezis dayenebis SesaZleblobas,
rom damnaSavis fsoqosocialuri aspeqti da mis mier sametyvelo narativSi gamoxatuli enobrivi paTologiebi
urTierTmimarTebaSia
urTierTmimarTebaSia.
damnaSave, rogorc socialuri da iuridiuli cneba, warmoadgens
niSans, sadac aRsaniSni aris zogadi danaSaulis cneba, xolo
aRmniSvneli _ danaSaulis konkretuli ti pi.
aRsaniSnsa da aRniSvnels Soris mimarTeba myardeba konkretuli
viTarebidan gamomdinare, zogad da konkretul cnebas Soris mimarTeba
situaciis pirobiTobazea damyarebuli.
aRsaniSni - anu zogadi danaSaulis cneba, Tavis TavSi bevr
qvefaqtorsa da mizezs moicavs, rogoricaa _ fsiqologiuri faqtori
- pirovnebis araswori fsiqologiuri Camoyalibebis procesi,
kompleqsebi, bavSvobis stresebi, bavSvobaSi gadatanili avadmyofobebis
fsiqologiuri Sedegebi da sxva, da socialuri - araswori aRzrda, mZime bavSvoba, ganviTarebis cudi pirobebi, areuli ojaxuri
mdgomareoba..
es faqtorebi, xSirad xdebian damnaSavis fsiqologiis
Camoyalibebis wammarTveli mizezebi.
enobriv paTologiebze dakvirvebisas cxadi xdeba, rom SeZenili
enobrivi paTologiebis mizezebsac xSirad aseTive fsiqologiuri
da socialuri aspeqtebi Seadgens da zogjer piriqiT, enobrivi
paTologiebi gvevlinebian mizezTa rolSi.
xangrZlivi enobrivi da fsiqologiuri dakvirvebis Sedegad,
SesaZlebelia vivaraudoT, rom danaSavis niSnis qveS moazrebuli
socialuri sistemis SemadgenelTa did umravlesobas axasiaTebs
enobrivi paTologiebi, romlebic pirovnebis fsiqosocialur da
sametyvelo individualizmTan mWidro urTierTkavSirSia.
eqspertizis winaSe sakvlev masalad warmodgenil fonogramebze
dafiqsirebulia sxvadasxva ti pis damnaSaveTa metyveleba. zogjer
es aris faruli Canaweri, sadac saSualeba gvaqvs diqtoris enobriv
kompetenciebze bunebriv garemoSi visaubroT, an e.w xmis nimuSi,
sadac bunebriv narativze msjeloba Zneli xdeba, Tumca, diqtorTaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi individualizmi aseT SemTxvevebSic
ZiriTadad SenarCunebulia.
gamokvleva mimdinareobs enis sxvadasxva safexurze, fonetikuridan
dawyebuli semantika - sintaqsiT damTavrebuli.
kvlevis konkretuli nawili, romelsac aq warmovadgenT, emyareba

danaSaulis semiotika enobrivi paTologiebi

177

daaxloebiT asamde diqtoris metyvelebas.


es pirovnebebi sxvadasxva socialur da sazogadoebriv wres
ekuTvnian, ganaTlebis sxvadasxva done aqvT, Tumca aerTianebT is, rom
Cven mier gamoyofil socio - semiotikur niSanTa sistemaSi jdebian.
pirvel rigSi unda gamoiyos enobriv paTologiaTa ori jgufi:
1) SeZenili
2) Tandayolili
Tu SeZenili paTologia SeiZleba Tavis TavSi imave mizezebs
Seicavdes, rasac pirovnebis fsiqikis damaxinjeba da Sedegad damnaSavis
miRebaa, Tandayolili paTologia piriqiT, mizezTa Soris gvevlineba.
magaliTisaTvis, enabluoba SeiZleba raime didi stresis Sedegi
iyos, magram Tu igi Tandayolilia, SesaZloa kompleqsis mizezic
gaxdes, xolo kompleqsi - damnaSavis fsiqologiis Camoyalibebis
erT-erTi mTavari mizezia.
kriminaluri fsiqologia damnaSavis moqmedebas mravali
saintereso kuTxiT ganixilavs, misTvis sainteresoa damnaSavis
fsiqologia, kriminogenuli motivacia, socialuri wre, Seqmnili
situaciis roli, danaSaulis gamomwvevi mizezebi.
yovelive es gvaZlebs saSualebas davakvirdeT damnaSavis
fsiqologiis Camoyalibebis process, romelSic mravali subieqturi
Tu obieqturi faqtori iRebs monawileobas.
rac Seexeba am wris metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs,
garkveuli uxerxulobisa da sakiTxis arasworad gagebis saSiSroebis
Tavidan asacileblad, ar vilaparakeb Tandayolil sametyvelo
defeqtebze, rogoricaa, sametyvelo aparatis nebismieri saxis
anatomiuri paTologia. Tumca, ukve vTqvi, rom garkveuli rolis
TamaSi aseT paTologiebsac SeuZliaT, Tu pirovnebis dabali
TviTSefasebisa an sxvadasxva saxis kompleqsebis Camoyalibebis
mizezebad iqcevian, rasac sazogadoebis mxridan araswori damokidebulebis SemTxvevaSi, individisa da sociumis gaucxoeba SeiZleba
mohyves.
magaliTisaTvis warmovadgen
saeqsperto daskvnis cxrils,
romelic aerTianebs im ZiriTad sametyvelo paTologiebs, romelic
axasiaTebs CvenTvis saintereso sociojgufs. (cxrili miRebulia
sametyvelo Taviseburebebis Sejerebis safuZvelze).
daskvniTi cxrili mocavs enis yvela dones, fonologiidan
dawyebuli sintaqsiTa da semantikiT damTavrebuli.

diana anfimiadi

178

cxrili N# 1
damnaSavis sociomodelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
metyvelebis Taviseburebebi
xmovanTa Zalian mokle, an metismetad dayovnebuli warmoTqma
xmovanTa midrekileba reduqciisaken
midrekileba difTongizaciisaken
i - mokle, susti da xandaxan umarcvlo alofoniT warmodgenili
u - mokle, susti da xandaxan misi umarcvlo alofoniT
warmodgenili
xmovanTa asimilacia
xmovanTa disimilacia
xmovanTa rigis cvla
TanxmovanTa warmoebis adgilis

da ragvarobis cvla

-rbili l

rbili r
-zogadad,

rbilad gamoTqmuli sonantebi

( r, l, m, n, )

bolokidur TanxmovanTa dakargva


Tanxmovnebis reducireba da zog SemTxvevaSi dakargvac ki.
TanxmovanTa asimilacia, regresuli, kontaqturi da distanciuri
amoweuli da darbilebuli mkveTri Tanxmovnebi, umniSvnelo
cvlileba bgeraTa warmoTqmis rigSi, bgeraTa winwarmoeba
mkveTrad gamoxatuli midrekileba nazalizaciisaken
yru TanxmovanTa gamJRerebis tendencia, romelic ar iZleva
morfonologiur cvlilebas, Tumca SesamCnevia mosmenisas.am dros
yru Tanxmovani iZens misive rigis mJReris Tvisebebs, magaliTad,
y emsgavseba R-s, p-b-s, k-g-s

da a.S,xsenebuli mizezis gamo rig

SemTxvevaSi xdeba afrikatTa gamartiveba, anu dezafrikatizacia


adgilis zmnizedaTa dialeqturi variantebis gamoyeneba
brunvis niSanTa kargva msazRvrel-sazRvrulis SemTxvevaSi
zmnis drois formaTa araswori gamoyeneba
zmnis subieqtur da obieqtur piris niSanTa araswori xmareba:
kontaqtis formaTa araswori gamoyeneba
I TurmeobiTis araswori gamoyeneba
Temis niSanTa araswori gamoyeneba

danaSaulis semiotika enobrivi paTologiebi

179

mravlobiTi ricxvis formaTa araswori gamoyeneba


zmniswinTa dialeqturi variantebis gamoyeneba
TandebulTa arasistemuri gamoyeneba
sityvaTa araswori SeTanxmeba

brunvaSi;

ZiriTadad areulia qarTuli winadadebis wyoba, diqtori winadadebis


wevrebs ganalagebs imis mixedviT, Tu romeli wevria misTvis am
etapze mniSvnelovani
winadadebas awarmoebs spontanurad, ris gamoc,

xSirad, azrobrivi

lafsusebis Sesavsebad iyenebs gamoTqmebs ra vici, raRaca


uadgilo intonaciuri maxvili
maxvilis gamoyeneba winadadebis azrobrivi centris dasafiqsireblad, xSirad maxviliT axdens winadadebis logikuri centris
cvlilebas
TxrobiT winadadebaSi iyenebs ramdenime maxvils, aqcentisa da
intonaciis gasaZliereblad
maxvilis ufunqcio gamoyeneba
araswori sunTqviTi aseve metyvelebiT pauzas, Tumca, xSirad
teqstis azrobrivi mxare da pauza erTmaneTs ar emTxveva.
uadgilo pauza
Jargoni, ucxo sityvebi, barbarizmebi
sityva parazitebi ( ra vici,

raRaca

da a.S

es cxrili, rasakvirvelia, ar moicavs mTels monacemebs, calkeul


SemTxvevaSi mas SeiZleba gamoakldes an miematos sxvadasxva niSnebi.
amas umravles SemTxvevaSi Tan erTvis inteleqtis dabali
koeficienti, mwiri da erTferovani leqsika da sxva.
rasakvirvelia, ar SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom am faqtorTa arseboba
da urTierTmimarTeba yovelTvis garkveul Sedegs iZleva, rom nebismier
SemTxvevaSi araswori sametyvelo procesis analizisas pirovnebis
garkveul ti pTan gvaqvs saqme. es mxolod konkretuli, SezRuduli
raodenobis masalaze dakvirvebiT gamotanili daskvnebia, gamokvleuli
masalis 70 procenti Cven mier dasaxelebul enobriv ti pSi jdeba,
Tumca arsebobs gamonaklisebic.
am mcire gamokvlevis statistika gvavaraudebinebs, rom am
mizez - Sedegobriobas garkveuli safuZveli namdvilad aqvs da
sametyvelo narativis Tavisebureba pirovnebis fsiqo - socialur
identobasTan kavSirSia.

180

naTela arvelaZe

niRabi, Teatris
vizualuri ena

xelovnebis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos
saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
msaxiobi, reJisori, repeticia (1978). Teatris
istoriis swavlebis sakiTxisaTvis (2002); Teatrmcodneobis kvlevis
formebi (speqtakl "samSoblos" Seswavla rekonstruqciis meTodiT)
(1998); Teatrze da ara
mxolod... (2006).
interesTa sfero:
saTeatro kritikis formaTa transformaciis
problema; Teatris istoriis Seswavla Tanamedrove mecnieruli mignebebis konteqstiT; saTeatro
sakomunikacio enis sxvadasxva aspeqti; Teatris
semiotika.

mecnierebaTa urTierTgamdidrebis procesma, rac amJamad ukve TvalnaTliv gamoikveTa,


TiToeuls Seuqmna ganviTarebis ufro maRali
faza. miuxedavad imisa, rom mecnierebis garkveuli dargis xvedriTi wona am procesSi
ufro metia, zogisa naklebi, amjerad Tavad
Tvisebis mniSvnelobas gamovyof, rogorc
friad sagulisxmo faqts. am mxriv sainteresoa TeatrmcodneobiTi Ziebanic, rogorc
saTeatro xelovnebis Semswavleli prioritetuli dargisa. Teatris SeswavlisaTvis
faseulia semiotikis, rogorc erTgvari
metamecnierebis, kvlevis formaTa, Tu
mignebaTa gaazreba, rac gaamdidrebs TeatrmcodneobiT Ziebebs da kidev ufro gamokveTs
msjelobis sabuTianobas efemeruli obieqtis,
speqtaklis, Semecneba SefasebisaTvis.
Teatris istoriis Seswavlis, Teoriisa Tu
saTeatro kritikis Semdgomi ganviTarebisTvis, metad sagulisxmod mesaxeba aRniSuli
mecnierebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli SesaZlo
zusti msjelobis gaazrebiT efemeruli
movlenis sasceno Semoqmedebis sxvadasxva aspeqtis kvleva.
rogorc cnobilia, realoba TavisTavad
aris ena, xolo kultura ganixileba, rogorc
enaTa konglomerati. Teatrs, rogorc realobis sarkes, mis models, rogorc kulturis Semadgenel nawils, iseve, rogorc
xelovnebis nebismier dargs, Tavisi ena gaaCnia
cocxali sasceno qmedeba... ena xom niSanTa
sistemiT arsebuli mocemulobaa da amdenad,

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

181

saTeatro xelovnebis semiotikuri kvleva am niSanTa sistemis


gaSifvrasa da amokiTxvas efuZneba. niSani, rogorc cnobilia, simbolos
Canasaxobrivi formaa (loki), xolo ena ki niSanTa zogadi Teoriis
erT sistemas warmoadgens (barti ). amrigad, Teatris sametyvelo
ena, niSanTa erTi sistemis gaSifvra amokiTxva, speqtaklis Seswavlis
erT-erT optimalur gzad, saxeobad SeiZleba miviCnioT, rac kidev
ufro dasabuTebuls xdis dadgmaze msjelobas da mis Sefasebas
(uwinaresad mxedvelobaSi maqvs interpretaciis, mxatvruli
gadawyvetis princi pis, TamaSis wesis, qveteqstis da sxva plastebis
mikvleva, maTi saxeldeba, warmodgenis aqtualobis gansazRvra zezeamocanis da zeamocanis miTiTebis Sedegad).
amjerad, saTeatro xelovnebis niSanTa erTi sistemis mxolod
erT aspeqts ganvixilav, raTa naTeli moefinos ramdenad mniSvnelovania
semiotikuri kvlevis gamoyeneba speqtaklis wakiTxvaSefasebisTvis,
misi masStabis warmoCenisaTvis, obieqturobisa da sabuTianobis
xvedriTi wonis amaRlebisaTvis.
niRabi, rogorc religiur-sakraluri movlena, ritualis nawili,
xolo Semdgom ki saTeatro qmedebis erTiani sistemis nawilic,
sasceno xelovnebis specifikuri sakiTxebis Seswavlis dros
gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis obieqti aRmoCnda. Tanamedrove mecnierTa
mier Seswavlili da miTiTebulia misi arsi da mniSvneloba, misi
formebi da genezisi, amasTanave, mikvleulia isic, rom masSi
kodirebulia garkveuli informacia. amrigad, niRabi erT-erTi wyaroa
dafaruli, saidumlo codnis SecnobisTvis.
rogorc cnobilia, antikuri epoqis berZnuli Teatri sanaxaobiTi
kulturis, religiur- sakraluri ritualis wiaRidanaa amozrdili.
dionises kultTan dakavSirebuli ritualidan iSva profesiuli
Teatri da amdenad, Teatri TavisTavad eyrdnoba da iyenebs religiuri,
sakraluri, pirvelqmnili ritualis formebs... niRabsac _ pirdapiri
da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT (saxis SeRebvidan dawyebuli da
materialuri niRbebisa Tu niRabi simboloebis SeqmniT dasrulebuli). berZnuli Teatri iyenebda materialur niRbebs,
Suasaukuneebisa Tu aRorZinebis epoqaTa TeatrisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia saxis mTliani Tu sanaxevrod dafarva materialuri niRbiT
an rTuli grimis gamoyenebiT. es Tviseba SeiniSneba rogorc evropuli
da aRmosavluri TeatrisTvis, agreTve, sxva kontinentTa sanaxaobiTi
kulturisaTvis.
Tanamedrove TeatrmcodneTa gamokvlevebsa Tu saTeatro
kulturis sxvadasxva aspeqtTa Seswavlisadmi miZRvnil naSromebSi

182

naTela arvelaZe

vxvdebiT niRbis ufro farTo gagebiT gamoyenebas. specialistebi


sul ufro da ufro xSirad mimarTaven am termins, rogorc msaxiobis
mier Seqmnili personaJis aRmniSvnels. amgvari midgoma, am terminis
aseTi SinaarsiTac gamoyeneba Teatris istoriisTvis cnobili faqtia.
italiis saero TamaSebis wiaRidan warmoSobili ficarnaguli
Teatri, profesiuli, improvizaciuli komedia del arte sami ti pis
niRbiT iyo cnobili da ara marto materialuri niRbis gamoyenebiT.
saTeatro literaturis mixedviT, am Teatris sami saxis niRabia
cnobili : 1. saxalxo komediuri (msaxurTa niRbebi pirveli da
meore Zani );
2. SeyvarebulTa liriuli niRbebi (jer erT, xolo Semdeg ori
wyvili); 3. satirul-mamxilebluri niRbebi (batonebis niRbebi:
tartalia, pantalone, doqtori). am klasikuri niRbebis damuSavebiT,
axali plasetebisa da aspeqtTa gamdidrebiT xdeboda scenaris
mixedviT moqmedebis ganviTareba. CemTvis savsebiT misaRebia niRbis
am SinaarsiTac gamoyeneba da misi damkvidreba samecniero Tu sxva
saxis saTeatro literaturaSi.
uZvelesi ritualebis monawileTa, Semdgom ki msaxiobTa pirisaxis
dafarva materialuri niRbiT, feradi saRebavebiT an rTuli grimiT,
ramdenime obieqturma pirobam warmoSva. maT Soris, religiuri,
specifikuri, wminda praqtikuli mizniT xdeboda (axlac xdeba)
misi gamoyeneba. umTavresi ki aris TamaSis Tanamdevi aucilebloba
sakuTari mes SemweobiT sxvisi, sxva me-s warmodgena da am procesis
SeniRbva, misi idumalebiT Semosva, amiT ki erTgvari iluziis
Seqmna.
uZvelesi ritualis monawile, niRbis SemweobiT (verbalur
saSualebebTan erTad) warmosaxavda, vTqvaT, totems, imeorebda misTvis
damaxasiaTebel vizualur verbalur Taviseburebas. Nnebismieri
niRabi (materialuri, saxis SeRebva, martivi da rTuli grimis
gamoyeneba) am procesis monawile xdeboda. misi gamosaxvis forma
ritualis, am sakraluri TamaSis, am idumali aqtis (RmerTebTan
Tu miRmier samyarosTan kavSiris inscenirebis) garkveuli informaciis
matarebeli realobac gaxldaT. imave procesiT gamoirCeva ukve
Teatraluri TamaSi. aq sxvadqcevis ritualuri aqtis ganxorcieleba
(msaxiob-adamianis me_dan personaJiadamianis Seqmna, warmosaxva), am
xiluli da ambivalenturi aqtis warmodgena personaJTa erTobliobiT,
sasceno qmedebiT xdeba. amdenad, niRabi (materialuric da personaJi
simboloc) erTian sasceno nawils warmoadgens da SesaZlebelia
is ganvixiloT, rogorc niSani, garkveuli informaciis matarebeli,

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

183

umetesad ambivalenturi mocemuloba. igi damoukidebel arsebobasTan


erTad, mTliani sanaxaobis konteqstSic ganixileba da amdenad, masSi
kodirebuli informacia am ormagi xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiTac unda
amoixsnas.
speqtakli, saTeatro teqsti, personaJTa da sxva komponentTa
erTiani sistemiT, dinamikaSi arsebuli mocemulobaa. yoveli personaJi
Tavisi individualuri ritmiT, Tavisi dinamikiT gamoirCeva da
erTveba am saerTo dinebaSi. magram yoveli personaJis (aq vgulisxmob
ara marto dramis avtoris mier Seqmnil rols, aramed speqtaklis
personaJs, Teatris yoveli komponentis Tanaxmieri monawileobiT
Seqmnil mTlianobas, uwinaresad ki msaxiobis avtorobiT warmodgenil
personaJs) improvizaciul dinamikaSi arsebobs individualurTan
erTad zedrouli da statikuri mocemuloba, rogorc maradiulobis,
ucvlelobis, simbolo. is erTgvari dvritaa am ti pis, kacobriobis
am modgmis, Tundac am garkveuli statusis ganmsazRvrel
mocemulobisaTvis. personaJis garegnoba, saqcielTa rigi, laparakis
manera, mTlianad fsiqo-fizikuri xati, warmosaxavs garkveul ti ps,
romelic zogadisa da individualuris erTobliobiT moqmedebs
scenaze da zemoqmedebs mayurebelze. Aam improvizaciul dinamikaSi
zis da zogjer dominanturad funqcionirebs statikuri, zedrouli
mocemuloba, maradiulobis, TiTqmis
xelSeuxeblobis mudmivi
SegrZnebisTvis arsebuli niSani simbolo. zogadisa da individualuris Tanaarseboba, am nacnobiucnobis erTianoba, am improvizaciuli moqmedebiT spontanurad dabadebuli Strixisa Tu
Sefasebisa da statikuri simyariT arsebuli dvritas Tanaxmianoba,
Tavis mxriv, niSani simbolos mTlianobas maStabs hmatebs da
mravlis es mowesrigebuli Tanaarseboba xasiaTis simkvrivesac avlens
da mayurebelze zemoqmedebis procesSi asociaciuri nakadis maStabsac
aZlierebs. personaJi niRabic mTeli amgvari modgmis personificirebul realobas qmnis.
Tanamedrove TeatrSi SeiniSneba niRbis nebismieri saxeobis
arseboba: mravalSriani, feradovani an TeTri grimiT Semosili
pirisaxe, rTuli da xatovani grimiT dafaruli saxe, materialuri
unificirebuli niRabi, materialuri niRbiT naxevrad dafaruli
saxe, kanisferi grimi, romelsac tons uwodeben da sxva. Yyovel
calkeul SemTxvevaSi niRabi, misi forma da feri, iqmneba speqtaklis
gadawyvetis princi piT da gamoxatavs im informacias, rac Caido
masSi dramis Teatraluri analizis, interpretaciis Sedegad. niRabi
mikrosamyaros raobis gamomxatvelic aris da amdenad, informaciis

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simravlesac itevs. personaJi-niRbis ambivalentoba individualurisa


da zogadis SenivTebiTa da, amasTanave, azrobrivi partituris
simwyobrisa Tu mravalgvarobis Sedegsac warmoadgens.
radganac msaxiobi qmnis ara marto erT konkretul individs,
aramed personaJiT warmodgenili da gacxadebulia kacobriobis
amgvari modgmis sazogado ti pic, es Tanafardoba qmnis kidec am
axali individualobis namdvilobisa da moulodnelobis (nacnobiucnobi) efeqts. rac ufro myaria am zogadis xvedriTi wona, ramdenad
originalurad zis da funqcionirebs am zogad-statikurSi
individualur-dinamikuri Strixebi, niuansebi, Sefasebebi, saqcielTa
rigi, miT ufro rTuli da maStaburia Seqmnili personaJi-niRabi,
romelic TavisTavad saTeatro enis erT-erTi niSania. amgvari
princi piT ganxorcielebuli, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, materializebuli
azrobrivi partitura, msaxiobTa ansambli ukve niRabTa sistemaa
anu niSanTa sistema. igi mTliani sanaxaobis azrobrivi partituris,
mxatvruli gadawyvetis princi pTa matarebeli mocemulobaa, protagonistia sxva komponentTa scenaze SeTanxmebuli Tanaarsebobisa.
Ddamxmare komponentebi, saTeatro enis niSanTa sistemis Semadgeneli
nawilebi funqcionireben speqtaklSi ormxrivi SinaarsiT: damoukidebladac da konteqstiTac. es suverenoba da, amasTanave, damokidebuloba (qveSevrdomoba) niWieri damdgmeli gundiT gawonasworebulia, miRweulia Sinagani Tanaxmiereba, organuli Tanaarseboba.
am erTobliv niSanTa sistemaSi kodirebulia garkveuli informacia,
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, ganpirobebuli azrobrivi partituriT,
mxatvruli gadawyvetis principiT (ze-zeamocaniT, zeamocaniT, gamWoli
moqmedebiT, saqcielTa rigiT, vizualur-verbaluri sxva gamosaxvis
formebiT, romelSic, Tavis mxriv, kodirebulia azrobrivi, grZnobaTa
da fizikuri partiturebi). Sanaxaobis, rogorc saTeatro teqstis
Seswavla (Secnoba-Sefaseba), am niSanTa sistemis, rogorc saTeatro
enis amokiTxviT aris SesaZlebeli.
* * *
mayureblis mier speqtaklis personaJTa pirveladi aRqma, umetesad
vizualuri saSualebis erTobliobiT xdeba. amdenad, metad sagulisxmoa reJisorisa da mxatvris mier dekoraciis, kostumebis,
butaforiis, aqsesuaris da sxva vizualur saSualebaTa gadawyveta.
amjerad ganvixilav kostums, rogorc niRbis vizualuri gaformebis
erT-erT saxeobas, mis nawils. personaJi-niRabi (materialuri-sulieri
gamosaxuleba) TavisTavad ambivalenturia, inaxavs da gamoxatavs

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

185

mravalgvar da mravalsaxobriv informacias. qsovilis faqtura,


feri, formaTa Sexameba, garkveul Targze gamoWra, samkauliTa da
maqmaniT an bewveuliT da naqsovi detalebiT, brWyviala mZivebiT,
moqarguli gulispiriT gaformeba yvelaferi erTad, SesaZlebelia
miviCnioT Teatraluri teqstis vizualuri plastis Semadgenel
nawilad. amdenad, speqtaklis wakiTxvisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania
TiToeuli am Semadgeneli nawilis simboluri mniSvnelobis
gamokvleva, gamovlena, maTi funqciis gansazRvriT saerTo maniSneblis
warmoCena, maTi urTierTSeTanxmebiT axali mTlianobis, axali
mocemulobis mTeli sistemis amocnoba, daSifruli koduri sistemis
gaSifrva da Sefaseba.
ferTa simboluri raoba, ferTa Sexamebis gamiznuloba, emblematur
ferTa mniSvneloba, ra Tqma unda, speqtaklis azrobrivi partituris
mxatvruli gadawyvetis princi pzec migvaniSnebs da imasac miuTiTebs
ra azris matarebelia es niSani. amjerad mxolod oriod magaliTs
movuxmob qarTuli Teatris sinamdvilidan.
kote marjaniSvilis speqtakli uriel akosta (karl guckovis
drama , urieli uSangi CxeiZe, ivdiTi veriko anjafariZe, mxatvari
petre ocxeli, kompozitori Tamar vaxvaxiSvili, qoreografi
daviT maWavariani, marjaniSvilis Teatri, 1929 weli) ivdiTis
kostumis, rogorc niRbis garegnuli plastis analizi.
reJisorisa da mxatvris mier dekoraciisa da kostumebiT
gadawyvetiT dominirebda TeTri, Savi, ruxi feri (yviTels SedarebiT
mokrZalebuli datvirTva qonda). ivdiTis samoseli am sami feris
Sexamebis nawili gaxldaT. am ferebiT igrZnoboda personaJis
naTesauri, wodebrivi kuTvnilebac, am SemosazRvruli da mtkice
rkalis garRvevis mcdelobac, misgan Tavdaxsnis, gamijvnis wadilic.
jer kidev aRorZinebis epoqis mier mikvleuli, damuSavebuli da
warmoCenili konfliqti pirovnebis movaleobasa da grZnobas Soris,
dramaSi religiuri fanatizmis foniT uerTdeba epoqaTa dilemas.
ivdiTi Tavisi istoriuli winaprebis memkvidrec aris da erTgvarad
emijneba kidec maT, SemosazRvruli asparezic garRveuli Cans. ivdiTi,
miuxedavad imisa, rom moqmedebis dro avtors miTiTebuli aqvs
(1640weli), ganaTlebis epoqis adeptia da amdenad, gonis primatiT
moqmedeba am droebis warmmarTvel Tvisebas avlens. ivdiTi jer
kidev ar aris emansi pirebuli qalbatoni, romelic axali epoqis
pirmSo gaxdeba, pirovnebis amboxiTa da sociumTan dapirispirebis
mtkice nebiT, sakuTari gamorCeulobis damkvidrebis JiniT rom

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SeZravs msoflio scenas. axali drama amgvari personaJis sasceno


ambis gaTamaSebiTac Seva Teatris istoriaSi.
reJisorisa da msaxiobis interpretaciiT (mTeli damdgmeli
gundis TanamoazreobiT) ivdiTi ormagi kontrapunqtiT warmoaCenda
konfliqtis Tvisebasa da xarisxs, romelsac aZlierebda Svilis
movaleoba, rwmenis sidiade da siyvarulis erTguleba. sociumis
fanatizmi da ojaxis keTildReobisaTvis Tavdadeba (mamis nebis
gaTvaliswineba! ) is mocemuli piroba, romlis borkilebsac eWideboda
qalis sulier samyaroSi almodebuli rwmena, siyvaruli da Svilis
movaleoba. grZnobisa da movaleobis konfliqti drois mTxovanTa
SeferilobiT warmoaCina mweralma da aseve gaTamaSda scenaze, ukve
sxva epoqis moTxovnaTa kvaldakval.
ivdiTi Tvinieri Svili, Smagi Seyvarebuli, gulficxi mowafe,
SemarTuli axladmoqceuli aseT adamianur TvisebaTa erTobliobiT
gamorCeuli qalis Sesrulebas sTavazobda reJisori msaxiobs. am
TvisebaTa dominants reliefurad warmoaCenda veriko anjafariZe.
is TamaSobda Tamamad, vnebianad, grZnobaTa siwrfeliT, texili
eqspresiiTa da saxieri plastikuri partituriT, riskiani intonaciiT.
mayurebeli TvalnaTliv xedavda, rogor imsxvreoda misi sulieri
samyaro sazogadoebis myarad nagezi moralis zRudeTa, fanatikosTa
Cakiruli mrwamsis karibWeTa, am mkvidrad amoyvanili cixe-simagris
spontanuri ganrRvevis wuTebSi. TanamoZmeTa orTodoqsaluri
msoflmxedvelobis imperativiT dabinduli gonebis, gaqvavebuli nebis,
Tavdadrekili morCilebis, am uRirsebo arsebobis marwuxebisagan
daxsnis samsxverploze ivdiTs gamohqonda unikaluri Sesawiri
sakuTari norCi sicocxle. reJisoruli Canafiqri msaxiobis maRali
rangis ostatobiT iyo warmoCenili. ivdiTi verikos mikro
samyaroSi aboboqrebuli Widili gamWvirvaled iyo gamotanili
sasceno ficarnagze, TvalnaTliv Canda da ikiTxeboda Sinagani
dapirispireba ivdiTi Svilis Tvinierebasa (movaleobasa) da
ivdiTi Seyvarebulis Seupovrobas (grZnobas) Soris.
konkretuli samyaros gamoxatulebad gaxldaT Cafiqrebuli
dekoracia da personaJTa samoselis ferebi, maTi Sexameba da
Tanaarseboba. ivdiTis kostumis TeTri da ruxi feri, Rrma gaazrebis
Sedegad daibada. TeTri WeSmaritebis, naTlis, umankoebis,
RvTaebriobis da sxv. simboloa. dasavluri tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT, TeTri pozitiuris mimaniSnebelia, amasTanave, axladmoqceulis
simbolodac aris miCneuli. am miniSnebaTa erTobliobas Tu
CavukvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT reJisorisa da msaxiobis mier ivdiTis

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

187

rolis interpretaciasTan siaxloves, SesaZloa, am Canafiqris


identurobas, Tundac
ferTa simbolikasTan. uwinaresad,
gasaTvaliswinebelia dramis ambavi, romelic epoqis winaaRmdegobaTa,
dapirispirebul mxareTa msoflmxedvelobiT gansxvavebulobazea
aWrili. speqtaklic am ambis gaTamaSebis Sedegad warmoaCenda
ukompromiso pirovnebis (am SemTxvevaSi urielis) Sinagan
Tavisuflebasa da, amasTanave, religiur fanatikosTa sisastikesTan
Serkinebis masStabsac. ivdiTi uriel akostas Rirseuli mowafe,
mimdevari da trfiali gaxldaT. ivdiTi da urieli am brZolis
protagonistebi arian. maTi samoselis ferTa gamaSic SeigrZnoboda
es kontrasti: kuTvnileba garkveuli wrisa (TanamoZmeTa), rac kostumis
saerTo moyvanilobis msgavsebiTac SeigrZnoboda da maTgan gandgomis
moTxovnileba, amis SesaZleblobis, am pozitiuri svlis gamosaxuleba
gaxldaT TeTri feris sxivCamdgari gamonaTeba.
TeTri feri ivdiTis, rogorc neofitis niSan-simbolodac
ikiTxeboda, samsxverplod ganwirul umankoebazec mianiSnebda. am
SemTxvevaSic TeTri feri ambivalenturi Sinaarsis mimaniSneblad
SeiZleba miviCnioT.
ruxi feris simboluri gamoxatuleba migvaniSnebs gandgomas,
morCilebas, Tavmodrekas. garemo, romlis wiaRSic iSva da aRizarda
ivdiTi, swored Tvinierebas, Tavdrekas, morCilebas iTxovs da amkvidrebs TanamoZmeTa naSierebSi. es msoflmxedvelobiTi pragmatizmiTacaa warmoqmnili. TeTrisa da ruxis Tanaarseboba migvaniSnebs
sazogadoebis mZvinvare marwuxebzec, uRimRamo yofis borkilebzec
da maTgan Tavdaxsnis wadilzec, Seupovrobis mniSvnelobazec da
Svilis morCilebazec, erTsa da imave dros. sazogadoebis uRimRamo
yofa da rwmeniT gaciskrovneba, morCilTa agresia da rwmenisa da
siyvarulis mSveniereba samyaros konkretuli arseboba ferTa
gamiTac iyo damowmebuli, xolo Savi feris gaelveba (fonic!) avbediTi
finalis perspeqtivasac mianiSnebda. ivdiTis siyvaruli, axladmoqceulis siwminde, Svilis valdebuleba TavisTavad ganwiruli
Canda am mrume garemoSi. STamomavlis Tviniereba (saerTod Tviniereba)
da siyvarulis yovlismomcveloba, yovlisSemZleoba SeuTavsebeli
sidideebi gaxlavT. msxverplSewirvis mwuxare akordi asrulebda
ivdiTisa da urielis uiRblo trfobis dramas. Aamrigad, rolis
gadawyvetis, TamaSis wesis, konfliqtis xarisxis mimaniSnebeli
aRmoCnda SerCeuli kostumebi: qsovilis sikmkvrive, stilizebuli
Targi, ferTa Sexameba, ferTa TanaarsobiT gaZlierebuli kontrasti.

188

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ivdiTis kostumis Sefaseba mxolod mWidrod naqsovi flasis


ferTa SerCeviT sakmarisi ar aris. es mxolod erTi aspeqtia im
mxatvruli Rirebulebisa, TavisTavad da saxierad rom metyvelebs
petre ocxelis gemovnebasa da azrovnebis simwifeze. Aaranaklebi
mniSvnelobisaa samoselis moyvaniloba, Targi, romelzec aris
gamoWrili ivdiTis (sxva personaJebis) kostumi. welze morgebuli
TeTri zedatani mTavrdeboda Tavisuflad daSvebuli da nakecebiT
gawyobili kalTebiT, maraosaviT gaSlili marjvena saxeloTi. es
stilizebuli, realuri modisa da irealuri moyvanilobis
Tanaarseboba, zemoqmedebis efeqts aZlierebda, Seucnobelisa da ucxos
ieriTac avsebda sasceno sivrces. ivdiTis texili, sxarti, anazdeuli
moZraobebiT sxadasxvagvarad iSleboda kalTis nakecebica da saxelos
gaSlili daboloebac. es ritms, dinamikas, eqspresias gamokveTda da
aZlierebda, amasTanave, haerovnebas, silazaTesa da simSvenieres hmatebda
ara marto msaxiobs, aramed sasceno sivrcesac. kabis moyvaniloba
yvelaze mniSvnelovnad SeigrZnoboda ori epizodis gaTamaSebiT: menases
ojaxSi wveulebis dros, romelic urielis gandevniT dasruldeba
da ivdiTis monologis dros, sinagogisken mimaval uriels rom
gascqeris. menases vilaSi maRali, TeTri kibis safexurze nela
eSveboda de santosi, aleqsandre imedaSvili, wyevlis yovel muxlze
welSi ixreboda erT mxares aRmoCenili stumrebis masa. uriel
akosta uSangi CxeiZe, amayad idga mopirdapire mxares, idga marto,
yvelasgan uaryofili. de santosis sityvebis Semdeg ise mokvdebi,
rom ver gaigeb vercerTi qalisgan mxurvale alerss!, ivdiTi, veriko,
welSi gaswordeboda, gamoeyofoda Tavdaxril masas, Zlierad
Sehyvirebda: rabino, styui! da urielisaken garboda maraosaviT
gaSlili saxeloTi da sivrceSi gaSlili nakecebiani kabis kalTebiT.
erT arsebad qceuli wyvili trfobisa da Seupovrobis siamayed
qceul qandakebas Camogavda. axla isini uxmod upirispirdebodnen
de santossac da morCil, usaxur masasac TanamoZmeTa rux gunds,
scenis meore kuTxeSi rom Sejgufebuliyo. mkrexelobiT gaognebuls
TiTqos TavSi waeSina marjvena. Bbolos ivdiTi-veriko, imave kibiT
maRla arboda. zeviT, maRali kibis Tavze Semdgari, haerSi gawvdili
marjvenaTi da mtkice SeZaxiliT asrulebda epizods: visac aqvs
rwmena da nebisyofa, is mTel qveyanas daimorCilebs! im wuTebSi
ivdiTi cis kabadonze gaWrisaTvis mzad myof frTosans Camogavda,
Tavisufali navardisTvis gaCenili, frTaaSlil frinvelis qandakebas
emsgavseboda. kabis kalTis gaSlili nakecebi axla mwyobrad
asrulebdnen zenaarisken mimarTuli, maraosaviT gaSlili saxelos

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

189

saerTo monaxazs. Ddaxvewili plastikuri monaxazi da musikis


maJoruli fraza, CuqurTmasaviT exveoda da amSvenebda mizanscenas,
metaforis rangSi amaRlebuli sasceno saxiereba zeaRmtac
zemoqmedebas axdenda mayurebelze.
amrigad, niRbis vizualuri gaformebis nawili, kostumi, misi
feradovneba, qsovilis xarisxi, Targi, aqsesuarebi da sxva, erTiani
sistemiT inaxaven da gamoxataven sanaxaobis mizandasaxulobas,
damdgmeli gundis Canafiqrs, mxatvruli gadawyvetis princips. rogorc
zemoT aRiniSna, msaxiobis Cacmuloba gamoxatavs epoqasac,
stilsac,xasiaTis arssac.
robert sturuas speqtakli yvaryvare (polikarpe kakabaZis
komediis yvaryvare TuTaberis Tavisufali interpretacia, yvaryvare
ramaz CxikvaZe, mxatvrebi- mirian SveliZe, uSangi imerliSvili,rusTavelis Tetri 1974weli). gandidebis maniiT SepyobilTa,
yvaryarizmis sindromiT SepyrobilTa, medrove bedis mebrZolTa
msvlelobas gviCvenebda reJisori, epoqaTa monacvleobis avbediTobas
warmoaCenda damdgmeli gundi, roca piruTvnelad warmosaxavda
politikur piramidaze yvaryvares aRmasvlis ambavs. fexSiSveli
yvaryvare-ramaz CkikvaZe, arsaidan gamoecxadeboda saswaulis momlodine
xalxs, mesiad movlenilad Seracxda yvaryvares sakuTari xvedriT
svegamwarebuli, usaxuri masa. revoluciis qafiT aRzevebuli,
revolucioneri sevastis `xeldasmiT~ waTamamebuli medrove, axla
revolucioner winamZRolad evlineboda gaognebul masas. mere da
mere beladad, demiurgad gardasaxuli yvaryvare, tiranad ecxadeboda
gasavaTebul, uRimRamo yofiT gaCanagebul brbos. politikur
sarbielze am xelSesaxeb cvlilebas epoqaTa mimaniSnebeli niuansebis
monacvleobiT warmosaxavda reJisori. am procesis umTavresi
protagonisti yvaryvare CxikvaZis modifikaciasTan erTad, misi
Cacmulobac gaxldaT. Aam mravalmxrivi, mravalplastiani, ambivalenturi
niRbis arsis warmosaCenad damdgmelma gundma airCia metad riskiani,
magram saxieri, upovari yvaryvare (amis niSani is gaxldaT, rom
yovel situaciaSi, aRmasvlis yovel safexurze is fexSiSveli
imyofeboda) myisierad irgebda sxvadasxva samoss, rogorc axali
epoqis dadgomis nivTmtkicebas: mas xan Sin naqsovi jvalos grZeli
TeTri perangi emosa, (aq TeTri feris ubiwoba Seryvnili gaxldaT
postmodernizmis ironiiT, parodiuli elferiT warmosaxavda
nebismier faseulobas, TviT ferTa simbolikac Tavdayira iyo
warmosaxuli), xan samxedro mundiris imperativi hqonda wamocmuli,
xan ruxi feris asketuri kiteli, an umklavebo da yelmoxsnili

190

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maisuri, sanaxevrod rom ufaravda torss. ambis zedroulobis niSans


aq msaxiobis kostumic warmoaCenda.
Mmixeil TumaniSvilis speqtakli zafxulis Ramis sizmari
(Seqspiris komedia, mxatvari giorgi - aleqsi mesxiSvili,
kinomsaxiobTa Teatri ,1992 weli). bunebis sifxizlis, siyvarulis
mcxunvarebis, ymawvilkacuri siancis, zRvardaudebi fantaziis, silaRis
ritmiT iyo aRsavse sasceno ambavi, romelic Seqspiris komediis
umTavres Tvisebaze iyo amozrdili aq yvelaferi SesaZlebelia,
SeyvarebulTa planetaze araferia tabuirebuli! mSvenieri i polita
mzia arabulis stilizebuli kabis kalTa, moCiTuli xaliCasaviT,
aTasafrad hqonda gawyobili, is yvavilebiT aWrelebul melodiasac
Camohgavda. giJmaJi sicelqis, Tavneba sixalisis, natifi vnebis
nivTmtkicebadac gvevlineboda mxatvris uzado gemovnebiT Seqmnili
kostumi, romelic sxva personaJTa samosis erTian sistemaSi
organulad ixateboda da axalgazrduli siCauqis eqod aRiqmeboda.
es erTiani sistema (yoveli personaJi- niRabis Cacmuloba) ki
zmanebasaviT mouxelTebel, axalgazrdulad onavar, almodebul
trfials, am giJmaJ vnebianobas, moliclice irealurisa da mkacri
realobis Tanaarsebobas, organulad gamoxatavda. es Seusabamoba
(magaliTad, hermias haerovani kaba da Tanamedrove, uxeSi, mokleyeliani
Ceqma), es kontrasti iwvevda iumors, zomier ironiasac da zRaprul
siames hgvrida moulodnelobis efeqtiT gaocebul mayurebels
zRaparSic, sizmradac xom yvelaferi SeiZleba moxdes!
goCa kapanaZis speqtakli mariam stiuarti (Sileri,
razumovskaias nawarmoebTa mixedviT, mxatvari baqar janaSia,
kostumebis mxatvari nino asaTiani, rusTavelis Teatris mcire
scena, 1977 weli) finali. scenis siRrmidan rampisaken auCqareblad,
amayad, fiqrianad modioda mariam stiuarti_marine kaxiani. xasxasa
wiTeli, farTokalTiani kaba moxdenilad hqonda morgebuli koxta
sxeulze. am goroz msvlelobaSi igrZnoboda personaJis didebuleba,
yioda jiSi da STamomavloba! Savi feris mZime fardebis foni,
kaeSansa da avbediT winaTgrZnobas aZlierebda, TiTqos, dedofali
mariami wyvdiads ganerida, mrume simkacridan modioda win, rampisaken.
modioda Rirseulad, welgamarTuli, qedmaRali, modioda taatiT,
modioda pewiani, eSxiani, mimzidveli sidiadiT, modioda da Tan
mohqonda mamakacTa trfialis simxurvaliT ganebivrebuli
mandilosnis Tavdajereba, uiRblo dedoflis faTerakiani
biografiisagan gandgomili pirovnebis simSvide, silamazis sinatife
da msxverplis miusafroba. is modioda nela, ar irxeoda kabis

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

191

kalTac ki, Tavze ki gvrigvinis nacvlad SaravandediviT edga Rirsebis


diadema. is modioda nela, warbebSeuxrelad, amayad Tavaweuli, modioda
didxans, Sotlandiis yvavilis mSvenieri hangis ritmiT (Sotlandiis
ar aRiarebuli himni), mihqonda auracxeli mamakacis ganuyofeli
trfialis siTamame da ugvirgino dedoflis naRvliani gandideba.
eSafotisaken mimavali mariami TiTqos axladdaRvrili sisxlis
nakvalevs tovebda am eklian gzaze. elisabedis epoqas es sisxiani
kvalic SemorCeba_inglisis Wirveuli dedoflis mSvenier
Sotlandiel dedofalTan pirovnuli qiSpis Sedegi- sajalaTo
kunZze dagorebuli mariamis Tavi! anu, uwinaresad, elisabedi-qalisa
da elisabedi-dedoflis lamazi msxverplis simbolo. msxverplTSewirvis rituali gamoisaxa am msvlelobiT. ase dasrulda sanaxaoba.
reJisori, uTuod wiTeli feris sikvdil-sicocxlis mimaniSnebel
interpretacias iTvaliswinebda, rodesac mxatvarTan erTad personaJis
kabis stils, fersa da qsovils irCevda. reJisoris informaciiT,
mas pakistanSi SeuZenia wiTeli feris atlasi-abreSumis qsovili
da maqmani mariam stiuartis kostumisaTvis. rogorc Cans, damdgmelisaTvis metismetad mniSvnelovani yofila mariamis safinalo
samoseli, amitomac ar dauSurebia dro, energia, finansebi. marTlac,
Zlier STabeWdilebas axdenda mayurebelze qsovilis brwyinvaleba,
haerovneba da simkvrive, kabis koxta moyvaniloba da pewi. Ees
efeqturi kaba da dinji msvleloba, STambeWdavi musikaluri Tanxleba,
Savi fardebis foni, naTeli sxiviT ganaTebuli mariamis figura da
mis pirisaxeze aRbeWdili kaeSani urTierTganpirobebuli mxatvruli
gadawyveta da msaxioburi Sefaseba gaxldaT. msaxiobs Svenoda
Cacmuloba, moxdenilad atarebda kabas, am gangaSis mauwyebeli kostumiT
mniSvnelovnad mohqonda Tan am movlenis miRma arsebuli qaluri
bednierebis netarebaca da dedoflis avbediTi finalis mSfoTvare
sevdac, pirovnebisa da banovanis maradiuli miusafrobac. dedofali
iq, kulisebSi miicvala TiTqos, axla ki eSafotisken misi amayi
suli miemarTeboda mxolod. rogorc cnobilia, winareistoriuli
adamianis interpretaciiT, sisxli sulTan iyo gaigivebuli.
daviT andRulaZis speqtakli meored mosvla, anu viziti
(fridrix diurenmatis molodinis viziti, mxatvari aivengo WeliZe,
kostumebis mxatvari Temur ninua, ira SaraSiZe, aleqsandre axmetelis
Teatri, 2001 weli). klara caxanasiani nana faCuaSvilis samosi
metad STambeWdavi gaxldaT (klaras kaba abram bazelis saxelosnoSi
SeukeravT taftis, abreSumisa da gamWvirvale qsovilis SexamebiT).
Sua scenaze qandakebasaviT uZravad idga gamexebuli klara. fermkrTal

192

naTela arvelaZe

pirisaxeze idumalebisa da moulodnelobis sicive aRbeWdiliyo.


TeTri, TvalismomWrelad qaTqaTa, uzomod farTokalTiani kaba naxevar
sivrces faravda. qolgasaviT gaSlili krinolini TiTqos mzrunvaled
efineboda mTel qalaqs, mTels moqalaqeebs. eris simbolika ubiwoeba,
sinaTle, sibrZne... da klaras mrume, zRvardaudebeli SurisZieba
urTierTgamomricxavi sidideebi gaxlavT, am kontrastiT aRwevda
reJisori mizans warmoeCina klaras moCvenebiTi sikeTe, moCvenebiTi
gulmxurvaleba moZmeTa siduxWiris mimarT, moCvenebiTi keTilganwyoba
qalaqis mesveurTa mimarT. SurismaZiebeli, sastiki qali da sakraluri,
Seuryvneli samosi am kontrastiT warmoCenili iyo milioneris
vizitis zneobrivi aspeqti, romelic meored mosvlis rangiT Seafasa
damdgmelma, gamoikveTa klaras xasiaTis sirTulec, epoqis winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTic. ambivalenturi movlena xatovanad da
gamiznulad gamoisaxa kostumis mxatvruli gadawyvetiT. am kostumiT
reJisorma TiTqos klaras auxdeneli ocnebac gamoxata mas xom
mTeli cxovreba natvrad eqca ivTan jvriswera! es uSvelebelkalTiani,
qaTqaTa kaba klaras fataluri vnebis simboloc iyo da micvalebul
mijnurTan samaradJamod damakavSirebeli niSanic.
rogorc vxedavT, ferTa simboluri miniSneba da misi amocnoba
udides mniSvnelobas iZens scenografiisa da kostumebis gadawyvetis
dros, rac, Tavis mxriv, aZlierebs niRbis mTlianobis SegrZnebas.
isic unda aRiniSnos, rom speqtaklis Seswavlis procesSi gasaTvaliswinebelia ara marto ferebis, siluetis, Targis, qsovilis
faqturis, samkaulebis, maqmanis, bewveulis da sxv. Sexameba, aramed
isic, rogor Caisaxeba kostumebis erToblioba sanaxaobis erTian
sistemaSi. ferTa simboluri mniSvneloba gansakuTrebul funqcias
iZens scenografiis gadawyvetis procesSi. Aaqedan gamomdinare, iqmneba
kidec msaxiobTa Cacmulobis mTliani sistemac, maTi saxierebac.
sanaxaobis mTlianoba Tanamedrove TeatrSi mxolod msaxiobTa
SesrulebiT rodi miiRweva. am procesSi saTeatro komponentTa
harmoniuli Tanaxmierebac igulisxmeba.. kostumi ara marto personaJis bunebis, misi Sinagani samyaros, msoflaRqmis, naTesauri Tu
cenzismieri kuTvnilebis aRmniSvneli mocemulobaa, aramed sanaxaobis
ukvdavi feris TanaarsebobiT Sqemnili sasceno samyaros nawilicaa
(im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca Txrobis fragmentuloba dadgmis principiT
aris kultivirebuli, msaxiobTa mokazmuloba am uTvalav ferTa
mimaniSnebelicaa, esaa misi Tviseba, xarisxs ki damdgmeli gundis
niWiereba da ostatoba gansazRvravs). ferTametyvelebis safuZvelic
SeiZleba iyos sanaxaobis vizualuri partituris farTo da saxieri

niRabi, Teatris vizualuri ena

193

panorama. is iqmenba dadgmis mxatvruli gadawyvetis princi piT da


emsaxureba dadgmis ideis (zeamocanis) gamoxatvas. misi ganxilva
SesaZlebelia individualurad, rogorc kerZo movlenis, magram
umTavresia, misi Seswavla mTliani gamosaxvis saSualebaTa konteqstSi,
xolo Sefasebis dros gasaTvaliswinebelia mayurebelTa darbazze
zemoqmedebis efeqtic.
amrigad, ferTametyvelebis gacnobiereba, ferTa simboluri
mniSvnelobis amocnoba metad faseulia speqtaklis SeswavlisaTvis,
sanaxaobis SefasebisaTvis.

194

mamuka biWaSvili

istoria mecnierebaTa
arqeologiis Suqze
daviT bagrationi ena,
istoria, mecniereba

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiis
fakultetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
sametyvelo moqmedebis
analitikuri Teoria
(1994); instrumentariebi firosmanis naratiuli diskursisaTvis
(1999); laibnicis metafizika da enis filosofia (2005); politikuri
Teoria (2006).
interesTa sfero:
enis filosofia, politikuri filosofia.

savele samuSaoebi da arqivebis organizacia, gaTxrebisas aRmoCenili eqsponatebis


saTuTi movla, damuSaveba, maTi Sesabamisi
interpretacia epoqis gansazRvra da
klasifikacia, mxolod nawilia im TavisTavad
mimzidveli saqmianobidan, romelsac warmovidgenT xolme, rodesac sityva Seexeba
arqeologias, rogorc istoriuli mecnierebis
nawils. Tuki mTel am saqmianobas davumatebT
siZvelis pativiscemas da sakuTari hi poTezis WeSmaritebis Ziebis dauokebel
wyurvils, met-naklebad gasagebi gaxdeba
subieqturi motivacia, romelic SeiZleba
hqonoda, vTqvaT, Slimans, romelmac moaxerxa
daujerebeli da troas zRaprad qceuli
miTi realuri istoriis kuTvnilebad eqcia.
arqeologia istoriuli da ufro zogadad,
humanitaruli mecnierebebidan erT-erT im
iSviaT gamonakliss warmoadgens, romelsac
faqtebTan mWidro urTierToba, empiriuli
mecnierebebis mwyobrSi Caayenebs da masze
gaavrcelebs am mecnirebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela upiratesobas Tu siZneles.
miuxedavad imisa, rom arqeologia, romelzedac
qvemoT gveqneba saubari aRwerili ti pisa
ar aris, igi mainc inarCunebs, siZveleebis
Ziebis, miviwyebulis gaxsenebis da xdomilebis
istoriuli mtverisagan ganTavisuflebis

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

195

saerTo Strixebs. razea ufro konkretulad saubari?


miSel fuko uTuod erT-erTi yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani figura
iyo maT Soris, vinc Tavi gamoiCina gasuli saukunis meore naxevris
filosofiasa da kulturis mecnierebaSi. fuko ZiriTadad ikvlevda
evropuli sazogadoebis marginalur struqturebs da marginalizaciis
mizezebs. man uaRresad saintereso Sromebi dagvitova ideebis
istoriis, penitencialuri sistemis, SeSlilobis da Sesabamisi
instituciebis istoriis Sesaxeb. magram amJamad fuko CvenTvis
ufro sainteresoa im wvliliT, romelic man Seitana mecnierebaTa
meTodologiaSi. franguli srtuqturalisturi tradiciidan
gamomdinare, fukos SromebSi sul ufro mzardi adgili daikava
meTodologiurma novaciebma. am mimarTulebiT gamoTqmuli axali
Sexedulebebi pirvelad gaJRerda avtoris gaxmaurebul SromaSi,
sityvebi da sagnebi. humatitarul mecnierebaTa arqeologia.
mogvianebiT, mkiTxvelma klinikis dabadebaSi ixila, Tu rogor
muSaobda fukos arqeologia konkretuli problemis kvlevisas.
kidev erTi naSromi, romelmac ara mxolod Seajama fukos
arqeologiuri Ziebani, aramed sagrZnoblad gaafarTova saZiebo areali,
gaxldaT mecnierebaTa arqeologia. cxadia, aq adgili ar aris
imisaTvis, rom warmovadginoT fukos meTodologiis detaluri
analizi. am meTodologiaze warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad savsebiT
sakmarisi iqneboda ufro zogadi aRwera imisa, rogorc iqceva
kvlevisas fuko da mivaniSnoT imaze, rom konkretuli problemis
kvlevisas, fukos mier warmoebuli analizisaTvis ti piuria ideebis
istoriis siRrmiseuli fenebidan ama Tu im miviwyebuli, mtvergadayrili avtoris dRis sinaTleze gamotana. amgvari aRmoCenis
Semdgomi samuSaoebi, romlebic gulisxmoben istoriuli epoqis,
enis, interpretaciis sakmaod rTuli problemebis saWiro
hermenevtikuli velis gavlas, isini ori mTavari miznis gadaWras
cdiloben. upirveles yovlisa, zedmiwevniT kargad unda gavecnoT
Cvens saarqivo masalas, Tavad avtors da mis nawarmoebs. aseTi
analizisas, Tuki siaxle Cvens gakvirvebas gamoiwvevs, gamoricxuli
ar aris garkveuli filosofiuri ganwyobebi, radgan gakvirveba xom
aristoteles mixedviT, filosofosobis winapirobaa. meore mizani,
ra Tqma unda, mocemuli istoriuli aRmoCeniT Tavad istoriuli
monakveTis gagebaa. saqme is gaxlavT, rom Cven gvaqvs istoriis
araerTi klasifikacia, romelTa monakveTebze (vTqvaT, aRorZinebaze,
an feodalizmze da a.S.) droTa ganmavlobaSi gviyalibdeba gaxevebuli
stereoti pebi. fukos arqeologiuri meTodis erT-erTi mTavari

196

mamuka biWaSvili

amocana aseTi stereoti pebis dekonstruqciaa, rasac igi didi


ostatobiT axorcielebda.
axla, swored rom droa movixsenioT Cveni interesis ZiriTadi
sagani, daviT bagrationis werilebi da Semoklebuli fisika.
masalebi gamosacemad moamzada, SeniSvnebi da gamokvleva daurTo
filosofiis institutis TanamSromelma, gulnara dedabriSvilma.
miuxedavad imisa, rom es gamocemebi ar yofila qarTul literaturul
sivrceSi daviT bagrationis originaluri Tvalsazrisis pirveli
gaJRereba (Semoklebuli fisikis erTi nawili jer kidev 1954
wels gamoica vaxtang parkaZis mier), Znelia gadaWarbebiT SevafasoT
am gamocemebis mniSvneloba. fukos arqeologiuri meTodis konteqstSi
SegveZlo gveTqva, rom am gamocemiT istoriis mtveri Camocilda
erT Zalze saintereso pirovnebas, romlis naweridan, rogorc utyuari
wyarodan, Cvenive qveynis warsuli Semogvyurebs. es masala mzadaa
Semdgomi interpretaciisaTvis miT ufro, Tu daviT bagrationis
filosofiuri Sexedulebebis erTi interpretacia Tavad gamomcemelma
SemogvTavaza (bagrationi 2002:3-20).
amrigad, daviT bagrationis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis saxiT
Cven saqme gvaqvs TavisTavad istoriasTan, radgan istoria warsuli
individebis da maTi saqmeebis mexsierebaa. swored es gaxlavT
istoriuli TxrobisaTvis erT-erTi umTavresi moTxovna. Tu
gavixsenebT istoriis mamis, herodotes sityvebs, romliTac iwyeba
misi Txzuleba, davrwmundebiT, rom savsebiT daculi gvaqvs istoriuli
kvlevisaTvis saWiro, Zalze arsebiTi postulati: herodote
halikarnaselis istoriis es gadmocema - wers is - miznad isaxavs
imas, rom droTa viTarebaSi ar iqnes daviwyebuli adamianTa saqebari
saqmianoba, arc is didi da saocari saqmeebi unda darCes ganudidebeli,
romlebic aRasrules rogorc elinebma, ise barbarosebma, ar unda
iqnes daviwyebuli yvela sxva da gansakuTrebiT ki is mizezi, risi
gulisTvisac ebrZodnen elinebi da barbarosebi erTmaneTs (herodote
1975:37).
istoriuli analizis meore mniSvnelovani sakiTxi istoriis
uwyvetobas Seexeba. akad. simon yauxCiSvili qarTlis cxovrebis
Semadgenlobaze msjelobisas wers Semdegs: am krebulis warmoSoba
Cven ase warmogvidgeba. rodesac daibada imis saWiroeba, rom hqonodaT
qarTveli eris Tavgadasavalis Semcveli wigni ... daZebnes calkeuli
epoqebisaTvis dawerili mimoxilvebi da saistorio Sromebi, SeaerTes
es ukanasknelni ise, rom moTxroba Tanmimdevruli yofiliyo da
gaukeTes saerTo redaqcia. ... ar aris saeWvo, rom ori sxvadasxva

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

197

istorikosi, leonti mroveli da juanSeri ver dawerdnen TavianT


saistorio Sromebs ise, rom maTi bolo da dasawyisi ase bunebrivad
gadabmoda erTmaneTs. cxadia, aq redaqtoris xeli unda vivaraudoT:
mas Seucvlia rogorc leontis Txzulebis bolo, ise juanSeris
Sromis dasawyisi. amgvarad, cxadia, rom qarTlis cxobrebaSi
Setanili Txzulebebi Zveli qarTveli istorikosebisa Cvenamde
moRweulia Secvlili saxiT; yovel SemTxvevaSi, am Sromebis dasasruli
da dasawyisi redaqtorTa mier ikveceboda da icvleboda(qarTlis
cxovreba 1955:7). rogorc vxedavT, ukve wminda enobriv doneze
istoria rogorc warsuli saqmeebis Txrobis erTiani, uwyveti
xazi saredaqcio moRvaweobis Sedegia da rogorc enobrivi aqtiobis
produqti, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, is warmoadgens ara bazisur enas,
aramed metaenas. gavixadoT saxelmZRvanelod enisa da yofierebis
mTlianobis Tezisi, romelsac Tanabrad uWerda mxars gasuli saukunis
ori didi filosofosi, haidegeri da vitgenSteini da vikiTxoT,
gvaqvs Tu ara analogiuri viTareba ukve bazisuri enis doneze?
yauxCiSvili, rogorc vnaxeT, uaryofiT pasuxs iZleva. igives
gveubneba fukoc. erTiani uwyveti qronologiis nacvlad, is
laparakobs movlenebis qaosze da xanmokle rigiTobebze, romlebic
Znelad Tu eqvemdebarebian erTian kanons. TiToeul aseT rigiTobas
sakuTari istoria gaaCnia. Tu aqamde cdilobdnen xdomilebaTa
wyveta analizis procesSi daeZliaT, axla is umniSvnelovanesi elementi
gaxda, romelmac unda gansazRvros procesebis sazRvrebi, gardatexis
wertilebi da a.S. (fuko 1996:12). magram gvaqvs ki aseTi bazisuri
momenti daviT bagrationis nawerebSi? gulisxmoben Tu ara isini
wyvetis fenomens aRniSnuli mniSvnelobiT?
am kiTxvaze dadebiTi pasuxis dasturad moviyvanT daviT bagrationis 1801 wlis 10 ianvris werilis fragments laSqariovisadmi:
Cemo mowyaleo xelmwifev, sergia lazariC!
giorgi avalovma da falavandovma eliazarma gamomicxades
saidumloT neba imis didebulebisa, romelmaca didis madlobiT
Seviwynare da sixaruliT neba davrTe. da ra es azrebi vscan, dReis
iqiT Cemi qveyana ruseTad aRmiarebia da Cemi Tavi monad imperatorisad
(bagrationi 2006:46).
am ganuzomeli sixarulis arsi ufro naTladaa gamoxatuli
daviT batoniSvilis general lazarevisadmi 1801 wlis 18 ianvris
rusul enaze daweril werilSi:
, , , , ,

mamuka biWaSvili

198

, ,
,
. (bagrationi 2006:51).
axali epoqa
amrigad, istoriuli wyveta dafiqsirebulia. sanacvlod iwyeba
axali epoqa. Sesabamisi transformaciebiT, rac kargad Cans
batoniSvilis orenovan werilebSi. Tu maTi mniSvnelovani nawili
gamarTuli rusuliTaa Sedgenili, samagierod qarTuli dauxvewavia,
barbarizmebiT savse da aranakleb bundovani, vidre qveynis momavali
(sanimuSod ix. werili.#150). mTlianobaSi iqmneba sakmaod mZime
suraTi imisa, Tu rogor iqca qarTveli ufliswuli, erT dros
daviT uZlevelis@ saxeliT rom awerda werils xels (2. w.#16),
ruseTis imperatoris keTilganwyobaze damokidebul kerZo
pirad(2.w.#105). aSkaraa, rom werilebSi gadaSlil daviT bagrationis
cxovrebas namdvilad ver vuwodebT bedniers. piriqiT, misi zogierTi
werili mkiTxvelisagan ufro TanagrZnobas moiTxovs: amisTana
SemTxvevas (saubaria daviTis ruseTSi gadasaxlebaze. m.b.) garda
ubedurebisa Cemisa veras davabraleb keTilmoqmedi suli maradis
ganavrcelebs keTilmoqmedebasa Tvissa yovel ubedurTa zeda. Tu
gekadrebaT ucxos qveyanaSi metis ubedurebiT SevideT es neba Senia.
radgan es sofeli warmavalia. Tu kargi ram minaxavs da gaivlia
avsaca vnaxav isic gaivlis ukanaskneli adli xuTi miwa imperatoris
sagzliTa. Cemi vedreba esaa qarTvelebisa da kac ver ars. nu iqmT
daviwyeba. qaRaldi ar mqonda laqi nu gamowyrebi (2.w.#85).
politikuri cxovrebis fragmenti . batoniSvilis ufro
adreuli nawerebidan jer ar Cans Rrma politikuri gardatexa
romelic qveyanas da mis marTvel elitas eloda. mamis gardacvalebis
Semdeg, ruseTis saimperatoro karma daviT bagrationi ramdenime
Tve saqarTvelos mmarTvelad daniSna. yofili ufliswulis es
ucnauri Tanamdeboba masSi araviTar eWvs ar aRZravs ruseTis
xelisuflebis mimarT. piriqiT, igi bedis kmayofili Cans da mzadaa
biZebis mier waqezebuli, amboxebis piras mdgari mosaxleobis
dasaSoSmineblad rusis jarTan erTad aqtiuri nabijebi gadadgas.
1800 wlis 2 dekembris werilSi, magaliTad, vkiTxulobT Semdegs:
Cemo sasurvelo Zmao bagrat! Tqveni wigni momivida da qarTvelaTac
mujalma moeweraT, magram amilaxvari gaiqca da iulonTan boloTs
movida. orasi kaci hyavT da sofel-sofel daeTrevian. Sen imaTgan

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

199

imedi gardaswyvite, aras gaxdebian ra da rom gekiTxa: ra vqnaT, Tu


garemovidneno, Tofi vesrolo Tu ara? rogorc leks ise esrole,
ar daTmo (2.w.#30). igive suliskveTebis matarebelia zemoTxsenebuli me-40 werilic: ... radgan es qveyana imperators Seswira
mamaCemma, axla Tqven unda izrunoT amis waxdenisaTvisac da
aSenebisaTvisac. wyalobas viTxov, ubrZanoT aq myof Renerals da es
bunti daacxros da damijeros xolme kidec, romelsac mxares
jaris dayenebaa saWiro, radgan eseni am adglebis umecarni arian da
Tu aq waxdes rame, Cemis pativiT me mivsce pasuxi .... axal pirobebSi
qveynis ufro qmediTi administrirebis mzaobaa gacxadebuli 62-e
werilSic: ... axla winamZRvarma sanatrelis batonis papis Cvenis
ganaCeni mogvitana da gujari da imaTis ZaliT SevityveT, rom
monastris ymani yofilan. axlav is oqmic unda gamoarTva da winamZRvars
avad mopyrobiT daumorCilo da mamis Cvenis mzema, Tu kidev isini
CemTan movidnen Senganac didad mewyineba da imaT sul naRvelas
vasxmevineb piridama.
imperatoris aseTma samsaxurma imedebi ar gaumarTla batoniSvils.
1801 wlis zafxulis misi werilebi mowmoben, rom is Camocilebulia
qveynis marTvelobisagan romelic oTx TaRliT medroves gadaeca.
viTarebis arasasurveli mimarTulebiT cvlilebam, ufliswuls
metnaklebad daanaxa saqarTvelos momavali politikuri mowyobis
perspeqtiva: ubedureba soflisagan didi xania Cveulebad Semosula
da viTom mec erTi gavubedurdi, magram am mTelma qveyanam Tavis
Soris damkvidrebulis eriT ra daaSaves da an ras Sescodnen, rom
amisTana ukanonos da uwesos ubedurebaSi miawies, rom oTx uwignoTa
uwuvrTelTa da uistorioTa gvamTagan es mrTeli samefo itanjebodes
da ase mouvlelad da mwuxared rCebodes? (2.w.#66). Tumca
ubedurebis gancda politikuri sifxizlis arasakmarisi garantori
aRmoCnda. daviT bagrationi ar yofila SorsmWvreteli politikosi.
misi werilebi 1801 wlis zafxulidan mTeli 1802 wlis ganmavlobaSi
iluziebiTaa nakvebi. is xan rus moxeleebs sTxovs imperatoris
winaSe Suamdgomlobas mefis titulis misaRebad (2.w.68), xanac
ruseTis xelisuflebis erTgulebas ificebs da aRiarebs, rom gulSi
aRar aqvs mefobis survili. amave dros ar aviwydeba arc mtradyofili
biZa, iuloni misi uflebis aRiarebiT bagrationTa saxlis gaZRolaze
da samefos aRdgenisaken mowodebiT (2.#71). 1803 wlis 11 Tebervlis
werilidan vgebulobT, rom amgvari politikuri qaosi Tavis logikur
dasasrulamde misula da daviT batoniSvili Sinagan saqmeTa ministrs
ruseTs gauwvevia. batoniSvili gamgzavrebis gadasavadeblad axla

200

mamuka biWaSvili

imasRa iTxovs, rom ... am yinvaSi ar waisvleba Cemgan, amitom, rom


gzazed avadmyofi ufro adre Seviqnebi da sikvdils mivecemi da
TqvenTvis ra sargebeli aris (2.w.#79). 1803 wlis 20 maisis
peterburgidan gamogzavnili werili metyvelebs, rom daviT
batoniSvilis cxovrebaSi axali periodi iwyeba.
rusuli periodi. batoniSvilis rusuli periodi sruliad
gansxvavebuli cxovrebis wesiT aRiniSneba. am mxriv gamovyofdiT
mis literaturul da komerciul saqmianobas, agreTve urTierTobas
rusul biurokratiasTan,
cnobilia, rom batoniSvilis filosofiuri xasiaTis Sromebs
ansilonis da volteris Txzulebebis Targmanis garda, ekuTvnis
kidev kategoriebi da Semoklebuli fisika. jer kidev 1796
wlis mefe ereklesadmi miweril werilSi daviT batoniSvili
saubrobs papisadmi mirTmeul, savaraudod, kategoriebis wignze,
romel ars gzai sibrZnisa, gina klitei mecnierebisa(2.w.#16).
ruseTSi myofma daviTma mocaleobis Jams Targmna evropuli
nawarmoebebi, ansilonisa da volteris Txzulebebi (2.w.#152).
gansakuTrebiT maRali azrisa iyo mTargmneli ansilonis Txzulebaze,
romlis gadamwersa da redaqtors sagangebod eZebda saqarTveloSi:
... igi ars maRali da uzTaesi gvari metafisikebrTa da estetikebrTa
gamokvlevaTa bunebisaTa da ukanasknel igi ars uxvi wyaro poeziisa
da Sveniersityvebisa, sadaca qarTvelni aSikni SairobaTni Semecnebiani
poeziasa da poemasa ara umaRlessa gadmocemasa yovelTa sxolaTa
Sina evropisaTa, Semdgomad mosmenisa filosofiisa da Svenier
sityvaobisa Seamecneben mowafeTa (2.w.#141).
Tu Ria esTetizms, swavla-mecnierebiT da poeziiT gatacebas
bagrationebis sagvareulo niSnad miviCnevT da am mxriv mxolod
imasRa davitovebT daviT batoniSvils Sesabamisi adgili mivuCinoT
winaprebis rigSi, sruliad moulodnelia misi komerciuli interesebi
da am mimarTulebiT gaweuli aqtioba. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa
is faqti, rom batoniSvili, romelic yovelTvis ar wyvetda mimoweras
samSobloSi darCenil megobrebTan, cdilobda maT komerciul
saqmianobaSi Cabmas. sataxto qalaqidan gamogzavnili werilebi
mowmobs, rom igi, molodinis sapirispirod, arc Tu cudad mowyobila.
imperator aleqsandres, romelsac sakmaod windaxedulad erCivna
cvalebadi ganwyobebis mqone batoniSvili TavisTan, samSoblodan
Sors yoloda, Cans piradad misi sawinaaRmdego araferi hqonia.
marTalia batoniSvils mamulebi CamoarTves saqarTveloSi, magram
samagierod jer kidev 1801 wlis 12 seqtembris manifesti ruseTis

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

201

saqarTveloSi jaris meTaurs, kronings avalebda saqarTvelos taxtis


memkvidre uzrunveleyo 6.000 vercxliT. ruseTSi gadasaxlebis
Semdeg, warTmeuli qarTuli mamulis sanacvlod, batoniSvilma axali
mamuli miiRo ruseTSi 2.000 suli ymiT (amasTan, TiToeuli yma
Sefasebuli iyo 150 Tumnad) (2.w.#111). garda amisa, imperatorma
cxovrebis da meurneobis mosawyobad mas 5 wliT 50.000 Tumnis
krediti gaatanina bankidan. mTeli es saxsrebi daviTma saxelmwifo
sakredito bankSi ganaTavsa saidanac wliurad 12.000-is Semosavali
hqonda. ufro Rirseuli cxovrebisaTvis, daviT batoniSvilma
imperators kidev ori Txovna aaxla da damatebiT jer pensiis
daniSvna moiTxova, xolo Semdeg sasaxleSi misasvlelad eki paJi.
yovelive es sulac ar niSnavs, rom batoniSvili mxolod
xelisuflebis xelisSemyure iyo. werilebis erTi rigidan Cans,
rom igi fxizlad adevnebda Tvals saqonelze bazris fasebis
monacvleobas (2. w.#142) da arc komerciul saqmianobas Takilobda:
Cemo sayvarelo megobaro, kniaz manuCar! - werda daviTi manuCar
TumaniSvils - ... am Zvirobis mizeziT aRmosavleTis broli daZvirda.
kargi didroani kenWebi qoloTisa da stefanwmindisa, agreTve daviT
garejas xom daxvalT; zosime beria, imas hkiTxeT saucxoo brolebia
iq yviTel-Savi da sxva ferebi da TeTris, manuCar, nuras dazogav,
asiode gamomigzavne. iqneba magiT, Tu aq gamodga kargi sovda gavakeToT.
me aq da Tqven mand. nuravis ubrZanebT. ...(2.w.#104) da kidev ...
Cemis codviTa da ubedurebiT kidev ziani momivida, Tavlafiani
ZaRli usjulo francielis jari rom Semovida am Tvis sams moskovSi,
iq saqoneli mqonda, veRara gavige ra imisa da var ase damagrebuli
(2.w.#127).
dabolos, aRvniSnavT batoniSvilis axlo urTierTobas ruseTis
saimperio biurokratiasTan. werilebidan kargad ar Cans Tu ra
posti hqonda mas senatSi (is laparakobs Cvens komitetze 2.w.#152),
magram faqtia, rom garda piradi saqmeebis mosagvarebeli momowerisa,
araerTi sabuTia SemorCenili, saidanac cxadi xdeba, rom viTar
sazogadod qarTvelTa wesia, igi arc megobrebs iviwyebs da yovelgvar
SesaZlo daxmarebas aRmouCens ucxo qveynis maRal politikur
wreebSi.
am mSvidi da arcTu SeWirvebuli cxovrebis pirobebSi Zalze
sariskod gamoiyureba batoniSvilis 1817 wlis 11 martis iseve,
rogorc zogierTi ufro adreuli
werili imperatorisadmi,
romelSic is daufaravad iTxovs saqarTvelos samefos aRdgenas
da uflebas dabrundes samSobloSi. sanacvlod, aRebulia valdebuleba

mamuka biWaSvili

202

saqarTvelom ruseTs yovelwliurad gadauxados 1 milioni maneTi


asignaciebiT, mudmivad Seinaxos misi 6.000 jariskaci da miiRos
sakuTari ZalebiT monawileoba yvela eqspediciaSi, romelsac ruseTi
ganaxorcielebs TurqeTis an iranis winaaRmdeg (2.w.#155). im politikosisagan, romelic napoleonis damarcxebis Semdeg evropis erTerT ugavlenianesi monarqi gaxda da romelic mis TanamedroveTa
msgavsad ucxo teritoriis daqvemdebarebas warmatebuli politikis
utyuar niSnad aRiqvamda, cxadia, aseTi wyalobebi mosalodneli
ar iyo.
rogor warmogvidgeba axali epoqis profili batoniSvilis
werilebidan? upirveles yovlisa, TvalsaCinoa nacionaluri masStabis
politikuri katastrofa, rac daviT bagrations, rogorc samefo
taxtis pretendents, imiT gauormagda, rom man ver gaagrZela
sagvareulo samefo xazi, ver SesZlo Seesrulebina nacionaluri
lideris funqcia. miuxedavad amisa, axal epoqaSi, politikuri sivrcis
ar arsebobis pirobebSi, Tavisi cxovrebis wesiT, batoniSvili Zalze
axlos dadga im modelTan, romelzedac naxevari saukunis Semdeg
ilia miuTiTebs qarTvel sazogadoebriobas (WavWavaZe 1955). epoqaSi,
romelSiac nacionaluri interesebisadmi gaCenil manmade ucnob
problemebs xmlis qnevis magier xalxebi ekonomikuri zrdiT da
ganaTleba-mecnierebis ganviTarebiT pasuxoben, daviT bagrationi
sruliad adeqvaturi iyo axal gamowvevebis mimarT.
bunebismetyveleba
daviT bagrationis Semoklebuli fisika ar warmoadgens
saxelmZRvanelos fizikaSi am sityvis dRevandeli mniSvnelobiT. igi moicavs ara mxolod fizikis mecnierebisaTvis
ganmsazRvreli sakiTxebis gadmocemas, aramed qimiis, biologiis,
farmacevtiis da sxva msgavsi Temebis gaSlas. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, bagrationis fisika ufro ZvelberZnuli mniSvnelobisaa da bunebismetyvelebas uaxlovdeba. am mosazrebasTan srul TanxmobaSia gansazRvreba, romelsac Cveni
avtori aZlevs gadmosacem sagans: fisika aris xelovneba,
gina swavla, romelica gviCvenebs TvisebaTa nivTTasa da
gangvicxadebs mizezTa bunebiTTa gancxadebaTasa (bagrationi
2002: 22).
fizikis saxelmZRvanelos Sedgenisas avtoris winaSe ori ZiriTadi
amocana idga, romelTagan erTi gulisxmobda moswavleTaTvis

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

203

Sesaswavli sakiTxebis Tanmimdevrul, gasagebad da sainteresod


gadmocema-gaSlas. daviT bargationis sasargeblod unda vTqvaT, rom
man am amocanas warmatebiT gaarTva Tavi.
Cven Segnebulad avaridebT Tavs daviT bagrationis fisikis
sxva komentatorebis Sefasebebs. amgvari analizi Cvens miznebs scildeba da gacilebiT ufro met dros moiTxovs. Cven SevecdebiT
fisikas SevxedoT upirveles yovlisa rogorc artefaqts da
SemovifarglebiT batoniSvilis mocemuli saxelmZRvanelos kompoziciis daxasiaTebiT, agreTve oriode, Cveni azriT, saintereso
sakiTxiT.
daviTis mier fizikis mecnierebis gansazRvrebas mosdevs codnis
am sferosaTvis ramdenime fundamenturi cnebis daxasiaTeba. upirveles
yovlisa, es Seexeba sxeulsa da mis Tvisebas, agreTve im saSualebebs,
romliTac isini Seimecnebian. nivTi poebuli sofelsa Sina da
qveSe Sevrdomi sagrZnobelTa, iwodebis sxeulad, xolo Tviseba
sxeulisa ars igi raisaca mis Soris damtkiceba Zalidebis
(bagrationi 2002:22). ZalTa Tvisebani ori gziT miiwvdomeba erTi
maTgani gamocdilebaa, xolo meore gasinjva. Tu am empiriuli codnis
avtoriseul gansazRvrebebs gavyvebiT, gasinjva Cveni dRevandeli
termonologiiT ufro dakvirvebas uaxlovdeba, xolo gamocdileba
ki eqsperiments. daviT bagrationi amis Taobaze wers Semdegs:
gasinjva aris ganxilva nivTTa bunebiTsa mdebareobasa maTsa
(bagrationi 2002:22). gasinjvis, anu dakvirvebis srulyofilad
ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia Cveni grZnobis organoebis simrTele,
xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi saWiro iaraRi, agreTve Sesabamisi
dro, adgili da yuradRebis koncentracia. rac Seexeba gamocdilebas,
anu eqsperiments, da gamocdilebanica arian ganxilvani nivTTana
sadaca esreTsa mdgoobasa Sina miiwTomis ZaliTa da xelovnebiTa
(bagrationi 2002:22).
nivTTa Tvisebebi orad iyofa, erTi, romelic yvelasaTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli (maT avtori sazogado Tvisebebs anu komuness
uwodebs) da Tvisebebi, romlebic mxolod zogierT nivTs axasiaTebs
(saTaviTo Tvisebebi, anu partikulares). sakiTxebis Semdgomi
gadmocema am dayofas miuyveba; jer CamoTvlilia da saTiTaod
ganxiluli zogadi maxasiaTeblebi, Tvisebebi, xolo meore nawilidan,
romelic moculobiT aSkarad didad sWarbobs pirvels, ganixileba
nivTTa kerZo Tvisebebi. ra Tqma unda, SeiZleboda fisikaSi gadmocemuli masalis sxvagvari dajgufebis warmodgenac. SegveZlo,
magaliTad gveTqva, rom pirvel nawilSi ganixileba meqanikis sakiTxebi,

204

mamuka biWaSvili

xolo meoregan ki sakiTxebi, romlebic qimiis da bolos, biologiis


sferoebs ufro miekuTvneba. ra Tqma unda, aseTi dayofac ar iqneboda
usafuZvlo, radgan gansxvaveba saganTa meqanikur da qimiur Seswavlas
Soris daviT batoniSvils savsebiT refleqsurada aqvs
dafiqsirebuli $12-Si, rodesac is msjelobs Serwymuli sxeulebis
or saxeobaze raodenobrivze da Tvisobrivze. gansxvaveba maT
Soris avtoris azriT - imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Tu pirvelis
daSla ar iwvevs arsebis cvlilebas, meore SemTxvevaSi aseTi cvlileba
gardauvalia. raodenobrivi daSla avtoris mixedviT, aris meqanikuri
daSla, xolo Tvisobrivi ki qimiuri (bagrationi 2002: 27). miuxedavad imisa, rom qimiis, biologiis, Tu anatomiis rigi sakiTxebi
daviT bagrationis mier SemoTavazebul ganxilvaSi TandaTanobiT,
TiTqmis SeumCnevlad gadadis erTmaneTSi, es sulas ar niSnavs am
mecnierebebis sazRvrebis gauTvaliswineblobas avtoris mier.
dasturad, garda aRniSnuli $12-sa, SegviZlia kidev mivuTiToT $3ze, sadac avtoris mier gatarebuli gansxvaveba ganfenilobis fizikur
da geometriul Seswavlebs Soris maRal spekulaciur dones aRwevs.
fisikis Sida struqturaSi SegveZlo dagvenaxa garkveuli
kvali sokratemdeli, Zveli fizikosebis tradiciisac, romlebic
bunebis kvlevas oTxi stiqiis analizs uqvemdebarebdnen. batoniSvilis
wignis meore nawilis Tematika, marTlac koncentrirebulia airebis,
siTxeebis da naTelis (cecxlis) modifikaciebis irgvliv, Tumca
amgvari interpretacia naklebad momgebiani gvgonia ara marto imitom,
rom meoTxe stiqias, miwas mxolod erTi paragrafi eTmoba, aramed
imitom, rom mas gacilebiT ufro Zlier argumentacia Wirdeba, vidre
es bagrationis wignze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia warmovadginoT.
miuxedavad imisa, rom fisikis wigni sakmaod ganyenebuli da
abstraqtuli gansazRvrebebiT iwyeba, is marTlac saswavlo
daniSnulebisaa da bunebis bevr iseT movlenas pasuxobs, romelic
SeiZleboda dainteresebuliyo Sesabamisi epoqis ymawvili. moTminebiT
da Zalze martivad alagebs avtori bunebis iseT movlenebis axsnas,
rogoricaa wvima, qari, elva, quxili, cisartyela, miwidan amoxeTqili
mJave da xceli wyalis mizezebi, dabadeba, sikvdili da a.S. masalis
Zaldautanebeli gadmocema am dros sulac ar hgavs zRaprebis
Txrobas. movlenebis cnebebis definiciebs, jer erTi saTanado
paragrafebadaa dalagebuli da garda amisa, sadac ki es SesaZlebelia,
gansazRvrebebs Tan sdevs Sesabamisi damtkicebac. damtkicebis
funqcia, rogorc wesi dakisrebuli aqvs konkretuli praqtikuli
SemTxvevis aRweras an raime warmosaxul eqsperiments. ai, erTi

istoria mecnierebaTa arqeologiis Suqze

205

patara magaliTi aseTi gansazRvrebisa Sesabamisi dasabuTebiT:


sizrqed sxeulisa wers avtori - igulisxmebis Tvisebai igi
sxeulisa, romlisa adgilsa veraodes dai pyrobs nivTi meorei, sadaca
pirveli mdebareobs: Tvisebai ese iwodebis sizrqed, xolo raica
Seadgens simtkicesa, amas iwodebis nivTierebad. axla vnaxoT
dasabuTebac: ukueTu lulasa Tofisasa aqvndes Tavi erTi gamoWedil
da meoresa STadva probka mWirmed romel saSual ver Zalidvas
haer ganvla, maSin vera raimeTa ZaliTa daiyvnebis Ziramdis da ese
daamtkicebs viTarmed haeri ars zrqeli sxeuli (bagrationi
2002:23). Tu es gadaWarbebul wiaRsvlad ar CagveTvleba pedagogiur
fsiqologiaSi, gvinda vivaraudoT, rom msgavsi dasabuTebebi
ymawvilebisTvis gacilebiT meti damajereblobisa, vidre SiSveli
Txroba an ganyenebuli argumentacia.
meore mniSvnelovani problema, romlis gadaWrac fisikaSi
daviT bagrations mouwia enobrivi da zogadkulturulia. mas qarTvel
mkiTxvelamde unda mietana imdroindeli bunebismetyvelebis
terminologia, rac ioli saqme ar gaxlavT. Tu vinme dakvirvebia,
ucxoeTidan Semosuli teqnikis Tanmxleb mravalenovan instruqciebs,
dResac ki maT Soris Zalze Wirs qarTuli axsna-ganmartebebis
daZebna. amis mizezi Cveni qveynisadmi upativcemulobaSi rodia.
simciris miuxedavd, Tuki vinmem gadawyvita qarTuli bazris aTviseba,
is, cxadia, dainteresebulic iqneba Tavisi saqonelis drouli da
momgebiani realizaciiT. problema, romelic aq realurad arsebobs
ufro enobrivia da gulisxmobs saWiro teqnikuri detalebis
aRmniSvnel Zalze mwir qarTul leqsikur marags. damatebiTi sabuTi
ara gvgonia daWirdes mas, visac hqonia bedniereba moesmina
avtomanqanebis Cveni tkbilmoubari xelosnebisaTvis. ucxoeTidan
xmarebaSi Semosul nivTebs Tu teqnikur saSualebebs, Cveulebriv
Tan ar moyveba Sesatyvisi leqsikonebi. am an, Tundac yofiTi siaxleebis
aRmniSvnel terminologias ama Tu im enaze moRvawe kompetenturi
adamianebi gamoimuSaveben da an igive ena gaiTavisebs ucxo sityvebs
im donemde, rom azrs dakargavs germanuli lozungis SesanarCuneblad inglisuri sloganis sawinaaRmdego kamaTi.
teqnikidan didi manZili rodia bunebismecnierebamde iseve, rogorc
piriqiT. bunebismetyvelebaSi cnobili mizezebis gamo, qarTvelebi
ver daikvexnidnen iseTive mravalsaukunovani gamocdilebiT, rogorc,
vTqvaT filosofiaSi. swored amitom iyris Tavs batoniSvilis
wignSi amdeni rusuli da evropuli termini. is laparakobs, magaliTad
butilkaze (bagrationi 2002:36;38;39) da tablicaze (bagra-

mamuka biWaSvili

206

tioni 2002:44), staqanze (bagrationi 2002:47) da pompaze


(bagrationi 2002:46). probkaze (bagrationi 2002:23), romelic
sxva unda iyos, radgan arsebobs xufi minisa(bagrationi 2002:.38).
hidrogenze, romelic axsnilia rogorc sinotivis dasabami
(bagrationi 2002:37) da hi persulfatze, romelic gogirdis
RviZlia (bagrationi 2002:38), opitze, romelic frCxilebSi
ganimarteba rogorc gamocdileba(bagrationi 2002:47).
erTmaneTisaganaa gansxvavebuli spiriti, otka da arayi
(bagrationi 2002:45). avtors daWirda ara mxolod enobrivi
novaciebi, aramed sagnobrivi axsna-ganmartebebic: platina aris metali
TeTri amerikisa, umjobesi simtkicisa gamo oqroisa (bagrationi
2002:24) an gasi ars nivTi msgavsi haerisa, romelsa aqvs mavnebeli
Tviseba da amiT ganesxvavebis haersa, romelsaca vsunTqavT Cven
(bagrationi 2002:25). migvaCnia, rom moyvanili magaliTebi savsebiT
sakmarisia saimisod, rom konkretuli warmodgena gvqondes problemaze,
romlis daZlevac mouwia daviT batoniSvils. faqtia, rom rogori
arasrulyofilic ar unda iyos enobrivi velis gafarToeba, igi
Zalze mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli eris gonebriv ganviTarebasTan da
am mxriv Znelia daviT bagrationis Rvawli gadaWarbebiT iqnas
Sefasebuli, radgan qarTul enaze Seqmnili fisikis adresati xom
qveynis momavali Taoba iyo.
literatura
bagrationi 2002: daviT bargationi. Semoklebuli fisika. Tbilisi,
2002.
bagrationi 2006: daviT bagrationi. werilebi. Tbilisi, 2006.
fuko 2004: miSel fuko. sityvebi da sagnebi. humatitarul
mecnierebaTa arqeologia. Tbilisi, 2004
fuko 11996:
996: . . ., -.
1996.
herodote 11975: herodote. istoria. t. I. Tsu gamomc., 1975.
qarTlis cxovreba 1955: qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. Tbilisi, 1955.
WavWavaZe 1955: ilia WavWavaZe. ra giTxraT, riT gagaxaroT. ix.
TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. t.V, Tb., 1955. saqarTvelos
ssr saxelmwifo gamomcemloba.

207

mirian ebanoiZe

,,Tanamedrove
literatura

filosofiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori.
akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis
sruli profesori filosofiaSi;
gelaTis sasuliero akademiis leqtori.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
diskursi da ena. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
fragmentebi diskursis
problemebze. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
diskursi. quTaisis saxelmwifo universitetis
gamomcemloba, quTaisi,
2006.
,,margaliti da sicariele (poeturi krebuli)
quTaisi, 2006
interesTa sfero:
literatura, semiotika,
filosofia.

diskursi garkveuli kanonzomierebebiT


mowesrigebuli metyvelebaa. am kanonzomierebebis Seswavla moiTxovs kavSirebis, gadabmis wesebis, Tanmimdevrulobebis aRmoCenas.
es Tanmimdevrulobebi ar unda iqnas ganxiluli diaqronulad, anu droSi. aq ,,manamde
da ,,Semdeg mxolod metaforebia. diskursi
kalendaris arsebobis pirobaa da ara
piriqiT.
ras niSnavs diskursiuli kanonzomierebis mixedviT ,,Tanamedrove literaturis
cneba, romelmac meoce saukuneSi gansakuTrebuli aqtualoba SeiZina drois modernistul percefciebSi, rogoria literaturis kavSiri drosTan, SeiZleba Tu ara,
literatura iyos Tanamedrove? sityva
,,Tanamedroves ara aqvs mxolod qronologiuri mniSvneloba. igi ideologiur xasiaTs
iZens, Tumca iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda
Teoriuli da refleqsuri azrovnebis sagani
es termini ar gamxdara. zogierTi mkvlevris
azriT, mxolod da mxolod retrospeqciuli
gziT SegviZlia gavigoT, ra aris Tanamedroveoba, ara imitom, rom Cven ufro win wavediT,
amjerad Cveni xeliT iqmneba istoria, an
sakuTari drois, adgilis upiratesobis
iluziebiT varT Sepyrobilni, aramed im
mizeziT, rom retrospeqcia saSualebas
mogvcems wavikiTxoT meoce saukunis avtorTa
nawarmoebebi im genetikuri Tanmimdevrobebis
gareSe, romelTac literaturis istoria
gvTavazobs drois ,,uwyinari koncefciis
Tanaxmad, rac aRiwereba ,,tradiciis,

208

mirian ebanoiZe

,,gavlenis, ,,siaxlis, ,,originalobis terminebiT. wignSi ,,codnis


arqeologia frangi filosofosi miSel fuko miznad isaxavs
gagvaTavisuflos xsenebuli konceptebisagan da gviCvenebs, rom
istorikosebs saqme aqvT gasxltomebTan, wyvetebTan, fragmentulobasTan. isini iwyeben napralebis amovsebas, wyvetebis
gamTlianebas, fragmentebis dakavSirebas, Tanmimdevrulobebis, mizezSedegobrivi kavSirebis, azris, miznis Setanas maTSi _ sakuTari
sxeulis analogiiT nawilebis gamoyofas, istoriisaTvis ,,saxis
micemas (fuko). am genetikur struqturaSi unda moeqces
mravlobiToba. literatura paradoqsuli fenomenia, romlis arsebobis
wesi sxva arsebulTagan gansxvavdeba, Tumca am gansxvavebas
literaturis istoria jiutad uaryofs, radgan amiT misi arseboba
dgeba eWvqveS. literatura sxvagvarad amyarebs kavSirs drosTan,
sxva obieqtebisagan gansxvavebiT, misi arseboba wakiTxvisa da
interpretaciis saSualebiT iZens yofnis SesaZleblobebs. obieqtis
statusi zedmetad didia misTvis, an zedmetad mcire. literaturis
istorikosebis azriT, meoce saukuneSi mas ufro meti moeTxoveba,
igi Tanamedrove unda gaxdes. rogorc rembo miiCnevs, mas ar hyavs
winaprebi safrangeTis istoriaSi. erTaderTi, rac poets moeTxoveba,
aris ,,siaxle _,,du nouveau, antonen arto ki miiCnevs, rom ,,dawerili
poezia mxolod wamierad flobs mniSvnelobas, Semdeg ki unda
ganadgurdes.(pol de mani 1971:213) Tanamedroveoba gagebulia
literaturis istorikosTa mier, rogorc gaTavisufleba
istoriisagan, erTgvar maradiul awmyoSi gadasvla, magram es Tavad
literaturis arsebobas ayenebs eWvqveS, radgan igi dawerilia da
mkvdari, Tuki artos kategoriebiT vimsjelebT. es ar aris cecxli,
aramed nakvalevi, romelsac es cecxli tovebs, ferfli, romelic
modernistuli proeqtis sasaflaod iqceva. bodleri uaryofiT
konteqstSi axsenebs sityva ,,stenografias, anu Canawers, rac
gameorebas ukavSirdeba, romelsac araferi aqvs saerTo moqmedebis
spontanurobasa da TanamedroveobasTan. frangi filosofosi Jak
derida aCvenebs, rom literatura gameorebaa da mas araferi aqvs
TanamedroveobasTan saerTo. derida SeniSnavs, rom arto Tavisi
moqmedebis TeatrSi ver axerxebs ganTavisufldes repeticiisagan,
rac misi sisastikis safuZvelia. awmyoSi arsebuli obieqtebisagan
gansxvavebiT, literatura aistoriulia. awmyo zurgs aqcevs
literaturas
da gvevlineba misi istoriulobis safuZvlad.
problema ase SeiZleba gamoixatos _ an unda gavTavisufldeT
literaturisagan, radgan is gameorebaa, yovelTvis gvabrunebs da

,,Tanamedrove literatura

209

gvakavSirebs warsulTan, an vicxovroT orive droSi, awmyoSi da


warsulSi, aviTvisoT nicSeseuli ,,daviwyebis xelovneba. ,,saWiroa
didi Zala, raTa icxovro da SeZlo daviwyeba, radgan erTi da igivea,
icxovro da iyo usamarTlo(nicSe). marTalia, modernizmis Teoriuli
safuZvlebis kvlevisas xSirad miuTiTeben mkvlevarebi nicSes
filosofiur Sexedulebebze, magram nicSes damokidebuleba warsulisa
da istoriisadmi bevrad ufro rTulia, vidre erTi SexedviT Cans
da SesaZloa, arc araferi iyos saerTo warsulis uaryofasa da
pozitiur, ,,daviwyebis teqnikas Soris, nicSeseuli uaryofa isev
,,hos niSnavs. misTvis awmyos problema warsulTanaa gadajaWvuli,
rac ,,maradiuli mobrunebis~ ideaSi gamoixata, es isev ,,literaturis
farglebSi gvtovebs, aqedan modis nicSes gadaWarbebuli, Seusabamo
Jestebi da metyveleba. is, rasac daviwyebisas uarvyofT, kvlav
agrZelebs arsebobas am uaryofiT. ,,warsulis uaryofa yovelTvis
Zalian saSiSi operaciaa, saSiSi Tavad cxovrebisaTvis, da is adamianebi
da epoqebi, romlebic am gziT emsaxurebian cxovrebas, anu ayeneben
warsuls sasamarTlos winaSe, angreven mas, Tavad arian saSiSi da
saxifaTo xalxebi da epoqebi, radganac Cven warmovadgenT ara marto
wina Taobebis, aramed maTi Secdomebisa da vnebebis da codvebis,
iseve, rogorc danaSaulis produqts da SeuZlebelia, mTlianad
gaTavisufleba am jaWvisagan. es iqneboda mcdeloba, Segveqmna CvenTvis
aposteriori iseTi warsuli, romlisganac visurvebdiT warmovSobiliyaviT, nacvlad im warsulisa, romlisganac sinamdvileSi
warmoviSviT, _ es mcdeloba yovelTvis saSiSia, radgan araa advili,
moZebno saWiro zRvari warsulis uaryofaSi, radganac meoreebi
umetes SemTxvevaSi sustebi arian pirvelebze(nicSe). nicSes ideali
TiTqos aistoriulobaa: ,,Cven vxedavT cxovels, romelic mTlianad
moklebulia istoriul grZnobas da moTavsebulia horizonts SigniT,
romlic erT wertilSia moqceuli, tkbeba ra sayovelTaod cnobili
bednierebiT, an yovel SemTxvevaSi cxovrobs ise, rom araferi icis
arc TvalTmaqcobis da arc tyuilis Sesaxeb, amitom, Cven unda
CavTvaloT, rom, araistoriulobis grZnobis SesaZlebloba ufro
mniSvnelovania da Tavdapirveli, radganac is aris fundamenti,
romelzedac, saerTod SesaZloa aSendes raRac swori, janmrTeli
da didi, raRac namdvilad adamianuri. (nicSe) miuxedavad mcdelobisa,
cxovreba warsulis mavne zegavlenisagan daicvas, nicSe grZnobs,
rom Tanamedroveoba da warsuli opozicias ar warmoadgens.
Tanamedroveoba swored is jaWvia, riTac warsulze varT mibmulni.
,,adamiani sakuTari Tavis gamo aris gaocebuli, imis gamo, rom ar

mirian ebanoiZe

210

SeuZlia iswavlos daviwyeba, rom is samudamod aris mijaWvuli


warsulze, da ra Sorsac da ra swrafadac ar unda gaiqces igi,
jaWvi garbis masTan erTad.(nicSe) es jaWvi aris diskursi, rogorc
gadabmis, dakavSirebis, Tanmimdevrulobebis Seqmnis meqanizmi, Tumca
igi ar aRiwereba gavlenis, mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirebis,
qronologiuri Tanmimdevrobebis gziT. es ufro omia herakliteseuli
gagebiT. aq momavali gansazRvravs warsuls, da ara piriqiT,Lamitom
araferia dasrulebuli da erTxel da samudamod gansazRvruli,
rogorc es literaturis istorikosebs surdaT. literatura
arsebobs swored TviTuaryofis gziT (literaturis, rogorc
,,nakvalevis uaryofis gziT, deridas terminologiiT), rac mas
awmyoSi yofnis saSualebas aZlevs, ufro swori iqneboda gveTqva _
TviTuaryofebis gziT, rac qmnis Tanmimdevrulobebs, anu xangrZliobebs,
anu moZraobas. literatura mudmivad gadis Tavisi Tavis miRma da
mudmivad ubrundeba mas. am Tanmimdevrulobebis, anu diskursis wyaro
swored omia literaturasa da araliteraturas Soris. misi aRwera
ukve arsebuli klasifikaciebiT, zedrouli cnebebiT, avtoris
avtoritetiT, saRi azris modusiT, realobaze miTiTebiT, drois
obieqturi Tu subieqturi dinebebiT SeuZlebelia, radgan omi
yvelafris safuZvelia, igi qmnis kavSirebs da gansxvavebas.
literatura
fuko 2004: fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi, ,,diogene . 2004
fuko 11969:
969: Foucault M. Archeology of knoledge. 1996
nicSe 11990:
990: . ..1.. 1990
pol de mani 1971: Paul de man. Blindness and insight. Esseys in the
rhetoric of contemporary criticism. N.Y. Oxford university press.1971

211

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

miTosuri simulaciebi
mSvenieri urCxuli

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis


SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis
asocirebuli profesori;
baTumis niko berZeniSvilis
institutis
ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`miTologiuri gadmocemebi aWaraSi (weraqveTas miTi, ukvdavebis
maZiebeli luymani)
(baT.2001); ,,aWaruli
samonadireo miTosi
(baT.2004); ,,sawyisTan
dabrunebis qarTuli
kosmogoniuri miTo-ritualuri modelebi
(2008).
mxatvruli proza:
,,HOMO TOTUS (2008).
interesTa sfero:
literatura, filosofia, semiotika, miTis
poetika, arqaul kulturaTa kvlevebi, kulturis
filosofia.

,,rom ara garegani gamovlinebebi, samyaro


iqneboda srulyofili danaSauli. sxvagvarad rom
iTqvas, danaSauli damnaSavis, msxverplis da motivis
gareSe. danaSauli, romelSic ar arsebobs samxili,
amitom simarTle dafarulia ukunisamde da
saidumlo rCeba saidumlod. magram realurad
danaSauli ar SeiZleba iyos srulyofili, radgan
samyaro TavisTavs xsnis gareganiT kvali
momdinare jer kidev misi ararsebobidan. es kvali
warmoadgens uwyvet kavSirs ararasTan, romlidanac
samyaro gvawodebs Tavis saidumlos. amiT
saSualebas gvaZlevs SevigrZnoT is, sakuTari Tavis
garegan gamovlinebebSi gamudmebuli dafarviT
Jan bodriari.
,,srulyofili danaSauli.

winaTqma
meoce saukunem TiTqos sabolood
daasamara RmerTi. magram RmerTis dasamareba
nicSes erTi SeZaxiliT, Tundac amiT mTeli
epoqis suli yofiliyo gamoxatuli, iseve
SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda, rogorc homerosisa da
hesiodes mier berZenebisTvis RmerTebis
Seqmna(romelTac hesiodemdec da homerosamdec
hyavdaT RmerTebi), herodote rom ase
daJinebiT miawerda am or genialur antikos
mwerals. arada yvelaferi sul piriqiT moxda:
homerosma da hesiodem, iseve rogorc danarCenma
antikosma mwerlebma berZnebs waarTves
RmerTebi, miTebi, romelTagan gamoSrites
RvTebrivi substancia da pirveladi miTosis
enigmuri sivrcidan literaturis profanul
realiebSi Serekes. amieridan Cven vxedavT
sasowarkveTil RmerTebs, romelTac win kidev

212

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

ufro didi imedgacrueba eliT. magram es adamianuri da ara RvTebrivi


ganaCenia: adamianma ,,ganWvrita RmerTi aseTad maSin, roca RmerTi
veRar ,,ganWvrita. RmerTi ki Zveleburad maradiuli da Seucnobeli
darCa, miT ufro axla, Tavis axal strategiaSi. J.bodriari ambobs:
RmerTis strategiaa gaqres sakuTar gamosaxulebaSi, ise rom ar
datovos sakuTari arsebobis aranairi kvali. winaswarmetyveleba
axda: Cven vcxovrobT samyaroSi, sadac umaRlesi winaswardaniSnuleba
aris niSani dafaros sinamdvile da amasTanave SeniRbos misi
gauCinareba(J.bodriari, ,,srulyofili danaSauli(bodriari 1999).
,,RmerTis strategia gaqres sakuTar gamosaxulebaSi, romelic
bodriarma postmodernistul samyaros miusadaga, jer kidev im
droidan iwyebs aqtualizebas, rac RmerTis amqveyniuri samyofeli
miTi imsxvreva. am namsxvrevebSi moyolili qreba sakuTar
gamosaxulebaSi da gamqrali, uCinari RmerTi zRaparSi ganagrZobs
arsebobas. zRapari, miuxedavad Tavisi jadosnuri da fantastikuri
sivrcisa ucxo garemo aRmoCndeba misTvis da amas orive mxare
igrZnobs. zRapari Tavis wiaRSi iseTive eWviT da SiSiT ganicdis
uCinari RmerTis simZimes, rogorc ganayofierebuli qal-RvTaeba
saswaulebrivad Casaxul embrions. zRapari orsulia RmerTiT,
orsulia RmerTis yvela niSniT da RmerTis yvela atributiT.
magram zRapari uZaliandeba sakuTar enigmur ,,orsulobas da mis
mosalodnel Sedegebs, radgan zRaparma jerjerobiT, dasawyisisTvis,
Tavisi jerac saxlidangausvleli gmiriviT, danamdvilebiT araferi
uwyis arc RmerTze, arc wuTisofelze. mas win elodeba yovelive:
gzajvaredinebi da aRmoCenebi. manam ki brmaa uxilavis saxilvelad,
Seucnoblis Sesacnobad. erTaderTi rasac zRapari windawin grZnobs
,,simZimea, romlis ,,zidvas mis Tavidan moSorebas amjobinebs. is
emsgavseba urCxulebriv kosmiur qalRmerTs, romelsac masze Zlieri
sakuTari naSieris ganadgureba ganuzraxavs. am wuTidan zRaparic
iwyebs strategiis SemuSavebas. is mizans advilad aRwevs, pirvelive
gamovlinebidan(Tavformulidan - ,,iyo da ara iyo) TiTqos uwyinari,
magram orazrovani da damabneveli xdeba. am orazrovnebasa da jadosnur
ekleqtikaSi ukve ikveTeba mTavari simulacia: ,,gasauCinareblis
gauCinarebis strategia. zRapars Tavisi RvTaebrivi embrionis
mkvleloba ganuzraxavs, magram man ar icis rom Tavad am RvTabrivi
embrionis karnaxiT moqmedebs; man ar icis, rom RmerTis sakralur
simulaciebSi Tavad aris simulirebuli. zRapris mier Cadenili
,,srulyofili danaSauli - RmerTis mkvleloba, Tavad RmerTis
strategias imeorebs: zRapari jer niRbavs RmerTs da Semdeg klavs

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

213

mas, rac RmerTis sikvdilsac niSnavs da imavdroulad, misi sikvdilis


gauqmebasac, radgan is vinc moikvleba ukve RmerTi aRar aris. amgvari
ormagi simulaciiT, RmerTTan mebrZoli zRapari, sinamdvileSi misi
TavSesafaria.
vis ebrZvis zRapari da vin SeniRba zRaparma?
is urCxulia, miTis namsxvrevebs gadmoyolili mSvenieri urCxuli,
romelic vidre gvelis tyavs ar gaixdis, aravin icis rom mSvenieria.
,,urCxuli mokvda! - gamudmebiT gvesmis zRaprebidan
prenicSeanuli SeZaxili, romlis eqoc, mTels Semdgom saukuneebs,
epoqebs gasdevs seriuli mkvlelobebis laitmotivad, rogorc
ritualuri, mravaljeradad ganmeorebadi aqti. am ritualur
mkvlelobas Tavisi mniSvnelobiT mxolod miTiur droSi, samyaros
kosmogenezSi momxdari mkvleloba(msxverplSewirva) Tu Seedreba.
prenicSeanuli SeZaxilis eqos uwyvetoba ki cxadyofs rom verc
miTi, verc zRapari am ,,SeZaxilis vercerT jerze ver klavs urCxuls,
Tumc ki bunebrivad akanonebs mis mudmiv devnas da legitimacias
aZlevs mis SesaZlo mkvlelobas.
urCxulis xiluli gza miTsa da zRaparze(rogorc xilvadi
yofierebis formebze) gadis. amitom SegviZlia am gzisTvis Tvalyuris
midevneba, magram ucnobi rCeba miTsa da zRapris gareT arsebuli
garemo, rogorc uxilavi, transcedenturi sivrce. am mizeziT CvenTvis
uxilavia(da ara ucnobi) urCxulis imanenturi sawyisi: Sinagani
buneba da garegnuli forma.
miTsa da zRaparSi sami sxvadasxva gza ganvlo urCxulma da
urCxulad darCa:
1. kosmogoniur miTosSi samyaros Sesaqme ganaxorciela da
esqatologiis precedentic Seqmna: es aris gza ,,kudismWamelobidan
,,qalismWamelobamde.
2. sociogoniur-totemur miTosSi ,,ucxo totemze qalze
iqorwina, riTac egzogamiur saqorwino urTierTobebs da pirvelad
sociumebs Caeyara safuZveli. sabolood egzogamiuri qorwineba
,,erTad mZovelTa miTosuri simulacia aRmoCnda.
3. jadosnur zRaparSi Casaxlebulma wyali da mzeTunaxavi
miitaca, ris Semdegac an mesianistur gmirs Seakla Tavi, an gvelis
tyavi gaixada da mSvenieri saxe gamoaCina.
am gzebis dasasruls urCxulma ugrZesi sxeuli morkala, kudi
pirSi Caido da miiZina.
,,Zili urCxulis gansakuTrebuli mdgomareobaa, ,,mZinare
urCxuli maradisobis xatia.

214

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

,,kudismWamelobidan ,,qalismWamelobamde
,,saSinelebiT garemoculma davinaxe uzarmazari gveli, wreSekruli, mis
SigniT ki _ Zalian patara wre.
da Tqva man, romelsac me Sevxvdi: ,,ici ki Sen, es ra aris?
wre miwaa, xolo gveli zRva, romliTac garemoculia miwa, anu mTeli
samyaro.
,,aleqsandria.
Suasaukuneebis laTinurenovani romani.

is rac filosofiasa da esTetikaSi mSvenieria, miTosisTvis


kosmosia(1). miTosi ki aris kosmosi anu mSvenieri urCxuli.
miTosi ,,kudismWameli urCxulia:

amgvarad gamoisaxeba miTosur da alqimiur ikonografiaSi


,,kudismWameli urCxuli. es kosmosis xatia: urCxuls//gvels
sakuTari kudi piriT uWiravs, wre aqvs Sekruli da samyaros
qaotur wylebs kosmosis kalapotiT SemosazRvravs, riTac kosmiur
wesrigs uzrunvelyofs.
magram kudic urCxulisaa da piric mas ekuTvnis, amitom masve
SeuZlia salteSekruli sxeulis wrfivad gaSla, dasabamiseuli
wylebis aSveba da ,,qaosis mobruneba.
amitom mSvenieri urCxuli, romelic aris mSvenieri urCxuli, ar
aris mSvenieri urCxuli.
is erTdroulad atarebs kosmosis da qaosis substanciebs,
rac sabolood mxolod erTi saerTo substanciaa. substratTa
ganlageba-wyoba gansazRvravs samyaros erTis mxriv, harmoniulkosmosur da meores mxriv, uwesrigo-qaosur mdgomareobas. samyaro
uxilavi jadoqris xelSi kargad moxelTebul asawyob saTamaSos
hgavs, romelsac xan aawyoben, xanac daSlian.
miTebsa da zRaprebSi ganZze mravalkecad Semoxveuli mZinari
gveleSapi, romelsac kudi piriT uWiravs, urCxulis eqstensiuri -

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

215

,,mZinari mdgomareobaa, romelic kosmiur wyobaSi stabilurobas


asaxavs. gveleSapis mciredi moZraobac ki kosmosisTvis saxifaTo
kataklizmebs iwvevs miwisZvrebs, warRvnebs da a.S. afrikuli
miTosis aido-hvedo, an skandinaviuri miTosis ,,kudismWameli urCxuli
ormugandi, romelsac kudi kbilebiT uWiravs da saltesaviT kravs
dedamiwas, riTac icavs mas okeanis warmxocveli wylebisgan, am
demiurgul kosmosur fazaSic mudmivad atarebs antikosmosur
intencias ,,qaosis mobrunebis pasiur, magram intensiur safrTxes.
miTosi gaJRenTilia am potenciuri safrTxis mudmivSiSiT; miTosi
gamudmebiT gvaxsenebs am safrTxis garduvalobas, migviTiTebs
romeliRac ganusazRvrel, magram gansazRvrulad arsebul ,,momaval
droze, im momaval droSi konkretulad arsebul droJamze(Jamianobaze), romelsac ,,samyaros aRsasrulis Jami hqvia.
maSin ormugandi piridan gauSvebs Tavis kuds da okeanis wylebi
warxocen dedamiwas. wrfivad gaSlili urCxuli qaosis xatia. is
aRar aris ,,mSvenieri urCxuli sakuTari salteSekruli sxeuliT
kosmosi rom eWira. am momentidan sakuTari kudis mWameli
(,,kudismWameli) urCxuli samyaros mWamelad (,,kosmosismWamelad)
gardaisaxa, radganac is wylebi, romelsac Tavisi sxeuliT iWerda,
sxva araferia, Tu ara, misive bneli wiaRis nivTieri, stiqiismieri
emanacia - xTonuri da zeciuri wylebis(okeaneebi, mdinareebi, wvimebi)
da xTonuri da zeciuri cecxlis(miwisqveSa vulkanebi, Weqa-quxili,
elva) erTdrouli amofrqveva.
samyaros kosmiur wyobas sakuTari sxeuliT ,,iWers ormugandis
gacilebiT arqauli winamorbedi da tyupiscali, afrikuli kosmogoniis ,,kudimWameli urCxuli aido-hvedo. igi ,,ciuri wylebis
baton-patroni ,,gvel-cisartyelas miTologiuri saxea. cis gvelcisartyelas miTosuri metafora ar SeiZleba ar gvagonebdes
bibliuri warRvnis finalur epizods, sadac cisartyela xelmeore
esqatologiis aRkveTis aRTqma da RvTiuri niSania.
,,kudismWameli urCxulis miTologema gulisxmobs Sesaqmisa
da warRvnis monacvleobis garduvalobas. ,,kudismWameli Tavs
uyris da aerTebs samyaroseul substratTa TiToeul, umcires
ingredientsac ki, dro da dro kravs da Slis maT mTlianobas. igi
samyaros or nawilad: cad da miwad hyofs da Tavadac am ori
polarobis gansaxovnebaa: urCxulis Tavi cas ekuTvnis, kudi ki
miwas da miwisqveSeTs. amgvari dualizmi ganamsgavsebs kidec maT
miTologiur saxeebs. miToss ori sawyisis gveli hyavs: mdedruli,
xTonuri miwisa da wylis gveli/gveleSapi miwisqveSa qaosis

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe

wylebis ganmgebeli; da mamruli sawyisis mfrinavi urCxuli - cis


gveli-cisartyela zeciuri wylebis batoni. am ori sawyisis
mTlianoba, rogorc kosmiuri wyobis pirveladi, dualuri modelis
universaluri xati gansaxovnebulia wreSekruli, ,,kudismWameli
urCxulis miTologiur saxeSi(2). ,,kudismWameli urCxuli
gaucalkevebeli(da ara gamTlianebuli) orsqesovani, germafrodituli
arsebaa. gveli zogadad iTvleboda kidec orsqesovan, yvela
TviTganayofierebadi da TviTmSobadi RvTaebis emblemad(3).swored
orsqesovneba-germafriditizms gviCvenebs urCxulis morkaluli da
piriT SeerTebuli sxeuli, sadac gvelis zeda nawili, Tavi, romelic
cas ganasaxovnebs - mamrobiTia, rac ukve maRalganviTarebuli
miTologiebis formirebul panTeizmSi ciuri RmerTebis mamrobiTobaSi
aisaxa; xolo, miwisa da miwisqveSa xTonuri RvTaebebis mdedrobiToba
gvelisatributiani qalRmerTebiT.
amitom ,,kudismWameli urCxuli kosmosi, sxva araferia
Tu ara ,,qalismWameli urCxuli.
,,qalismWameloba kosmiuri wesrigis umTavresi aqtia; samyaros
nawilebisgan Semdgari magiuri wre - kosmosi, _ ,,SeWma-Serwymis
gareSe ar ikvreba. es magiuri wre, romelic mamr casa da mdedr
miwas erTmaneTTan kravs, warmoadgens kidec miTiur paradigmul
droSi ganxorcielebul ,,sakralur qorwinebas(4), pirvel seqsualur
aqts, rogorc demiurguli ,,SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis utyuar
paradigmas. ,,qalismWameloba aris kidec mamris is Zlieri
seqsualuri agresia sawinaaRmdego sqesisadmi, romelic mTlianad
sublimirebulia kosmosis Sesaqmnelad. Sesabamisad, ,,qalismWameloba
gamoxatavs da niSnavs kidec seqsualur aqts empiriuli
mniSvnelobiTac. ,,qalismWamelobis kosmogoniuri metafora,
kosmogoniuri msoflaRqmis Camoyalibebamde(rac mogvianebiT, ufro
ganviTarebul miTologiebSi moxda) arqaul kulturebSi dominirebs
swored empiriul-pragmatul, anu biologiur doneze, sadac ,,Wamis
aqtis miTologemuri, metaforuli aspeqti gulisxmobs masTan
semantikurad mWidrod dakavSirebul warmodgenaTa damatebiT or
biologiur-metaforul kompleqss: ,,sqesobriv kavSirs da
,,sikvdils. am samkuTxedSi (Wama-sqesobrivi aqti-sikvdili)
,,sikvdili rogorc ,,msxverplSewirvis biologiuri modusi,
umniSvnelovanesi fenomenia SesaqmeSi(5). Tu ki kosmogenezis msoflio
modelebs gadavxedavT, yvelgan ,,msxverplSewirva(sxvadasxva da
urTierTmsgavsi formebiT) gvevlineba Sesaqmis aqtis ganxorcielebis
mTavar meqanizmad. kosmosis ,,nawilebis miReba mxolod cocxal

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arsebaTa //,,organizmTa (pirvelwinapari, pirvelkaci, demiurgi,


qalRmerTi) ganwvalvis(//daxleCa-daqucmacebis) Sedegad aris
SesaZlebeli. kosmogoniur sistemebSi, uklebliv yvelgan dominirebs
msxverplSewirvis ,,sikvdilis aqti, misi winare movlenebi ki ,,cisa da miwis, ,,mlaSe da mtknari zRvebis SeuRleba(Suamdinaruli,
egvi pturi, induri miTosi) - ,,seqsualuri aqti(//,,SeWma) xSirad
gadafarulia ,,brZolis aqtiT(induri, ugarituli, qarTuli miTosi).
roca miTosi mogviTxrobs ori arsebis qaosis gveleSapisa da
demiurgis brZolaze, wylisa da xmeleTis orTabrZolis es
kosmogoniuri interpretacia, imavdroulad, mdedri-gveleSapisa da
mamri-demiurgis seqsualur Widilsac gulisxmobs, romlis finalSic,
seqsualurad daZleuli qali-urCxuli ,,SeWmuli anu moklulia.
qarTul kosmogenezSi wylis gveleSapisa da xmeleTis xaris//xmeleTis
gveleSapis(demiurgis) brZolis siuJetis paralelurad, arsebobs
,,momakvdavi qalRmerTis miTologiuri cikli. am ciklis poeturi
teqstebiT gadmocemulia ,,pirvelqalTan(mdedri urCxuli)
damyarebuli seqsualuri kavSiri, rasac mosdevs kidec misi sikvdili
da kosmosis Sesaqme(TavdgiriZe 2008). kosmogenezSi ganxorcielebuli
paradigmuli msxverplSewirva umniSvnelovanesi aqtia kosmosis
istoriaSi, romelic mudmivad meordeba yovelgvar ,,mcire YTu
,,did samyaroseul movlenebSi, gansakuTrebiT gardamtex etapebze.
arqauli kulturebi yovelmxvriv adastureben msxverplSewirvis
garduvalobas, mis universalobas. msxverplSewirvis arsis Ziebisas
a.ienseni swored sawyis droSi ganxorcielebul pirvel paradigmul
aqtze saubrobs. misi azriT, miTiur droSi moxda raRac Zalian
mniSvnelovani aqti mkvleloba, romelmac udidesi gavlena moaxdina
adamianebze. miTosuri azrovneba ganuwyvetliv utrialebs imas, Tu
ra moxda ,,im droSi (canava 2005:44). miTiur droSi momxdari
,,raRac Zalian mniSvnelovani es aris pirvelarsebis ,,mkvleloba
da moklulis ,,SeWma aseve mniSvnelovani ritualur-magiuri
aqti. mxolod mkvleloba amaod gaRebuli msxverpli iqneboda, masTan
ziarebis gareSe. am warmodgenebs ukavSirdeba msxverplis(cxovelis/
RvTaebis) sxeulis daqucmaceba//daglejis(,,sparagmos) tradicia
da daglejili sxeulidan saRvTo-sakraluri nawilebis (guli, RviZli,
sisxli)gamocalkeveba da gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebis miniWeba. es
,,saRvTo kanibalizmi ucilobeli faqtia arqaul xalxebSi, sadac
,,Wamasa da ,,sqesobriv aqts Soris imdenad mWidro mentalurbiologiuri kavSiria, rom mraval enaSi es ori procesi aRiniSneba
erTi da igive sityviT. magaliTad, kei p-iorkis naxevarkunZulze,

218

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

iao-s enaSi ,,kuta kuta, atarebs ormag mniSvnelobas incestisa


da kanibalizmis, rogorc seqsualuri kavSirisa da Wamis hiperboluri
formebisa(levi-strosi 1994:194). amave warmodgenaTa semantikur
kompleqsSi eqceva sisxlis, rogorc ,,mkvlelobis niSnis kavSiri
seqsualur intenciebTan. m.eliades dakvirvebiT, sisxlis saidumlo
xSirad dakavSirebulia saWmlis saidumlosTan(eliade 2002:99).
am konteqstSi mniSvnelovan rols unda TamaSobdes qalwulis
defloraciis aqti, romlis procesSic fiziologiuri sisxldena/
/,,sisxlisRvra ,,mkvlelobis formad gvevlineba(amitom iyo ase
mniSvnelovani RvTaebaTaTvis mainc da mainc qalwulebis msxverplad
Sewirva.). amgvari miTosuri metonimiiT qalwulis pirveli daufleba,
romelsac mohyveba ,,sisxlisRvra(defloraciuli) qalwulis
mokvdinebis ekvivalenturia. anu biologiuradac aris fiqsirebuli
,,agresia (sisxlis saxiT) da seqsualuri ltolvis obieqtis
,,simulaciuri ganadgureba. sayuradReboa am arqauli fenomenebis
Tanamedrove mentalur-struqturuli gadaazreba. lakani aRniSnavs,
rom survilis dakmayofileba SesaZlebelia mxolod misi moxsniT
dangreviT an sasurveli obieqtis transformirebiT: magaliTad
imisaTvis rom davikmayofiloT SimSilis grZnoba, aucilebelia
,,gavanadguroT saWmeli. lakanisve cnobili gamoTqmiT, - ,,siyvaruli
gvevlineba TviTmkvlelobis formad (ilini 1998:66).
,,defloraciuli sisxlisRvra Tu sxva nebismieri genitaliuri
aqti arqaul kulturebSi mowmobs, rom mamakaci ,,mWamelia qali
ki ,,saWmeli, Tumc levi-strosis azriT, miTologiur planSi xSirad
xdeba am Tanmimdevrobis invertireba, Sebruneba, risi nimuSia ,,vagina
dentata, romelic mniSvnelovanwilad kodirebulia ,,Wamis aRmniSvnel
terminebSi(levi-strosi 1994:95). ,,mWamelobis invertirebisas
kosmogoniur-miTosur planSi qalis funqciis gaaqtiurebis
SemTxvevaSic mamakaci inarCunebs Tavis sawyis mdgomareobas. igi
isev ,,qalismWamelad rCeba, magram amave procesSi Tavadac ,,SeWmulia
,,kacismWameli qali-urCxulis mier. ,,mWamelobis ormagi kodireba
- mdedri da mamri ori urCxulis ,,kosmogoniur-seqsualuri wre
cota ufro mogvianebiT Cndeba miTologiur warmodgenebsa Tu
alqimiur ikonografiaSi ,,erTmaneTismWameli wreSekruli
urCxulebis saxiT. meore urCxuli pirvelis, anu auTenturi,
germafrodituli urCxulis sakuTari sawyisidanve dualur-diqotomiuri gamocalkevebiT miiReba. igi sakuTari mTlianobidan
gamoacalkevebs naTel da bnel, ciur da xTonur, mamrul da mdedrul

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

219

sawyisebs. es etapi meoreulia da gamoisaxeba erTmaneTis kudismWameli


ori urCxulis//gvelis gamosaxulebiT:

amgvari dualuri kosmogonia, azrovnebis pirvelad msoflmxedvelobriv formad gvevlineba. horizontalur-dualuri(zedaqveda) kosmiuri modeli arqaul kulturebSi yvelgan win uswrebs
vertikalur-triqotomiur(zeskneli-Suaskneli-qveskneli) models.
es uZvelesi kosmogoniuri dualizmi zogierT maRalganviTarebul
miTologiebsac SemorCaT(mag. xeTur kosmogonias).
am ori ,,urTierTmWameli urCxulidan erTi ciur meufebas
mamrul sawyis ganasaxovnebs. igi frTosani da gvirgvinosani
intronizirebuli urCxulia. skandinaviuri ormugandi niSnavs kidec
,,bumberaz kverTxs, rac lokaluri mniSvnelobiT ,,mefobis gamomxatvelia, xolo kverTxis kosmogoniuri miTologema masSi samyaros
RerZs moiazrebs. meore urCxuli ufrTo, miwiqveSa mcuravi, xTonuri
gvelia, Sesabamisad mdedruli sawyisis gamomxatveli. maTi erToba
cisa da miwis kavSiria, romelTa Soris wriuli sazRvris SigasivrceSi kosmosia ,,Camdgari Tavisi kosmiur-miTiuri wriulcikluri droiT. es dro ,,maradisobis niSnebiT aris aRbeWdili.
amitomac aris miTiuri drois movlenebi da sagnebi paradigmuli
pirvelmovlenebi da pirvelsagnebi.
urCxulis gamomsaxvelobiTi mdgomareoba wriuloba/wrfivoba,
yofierebis formasTan kosmosi/qaosi, erTad uCvenebs or Tvisobrivad sxvadasxva dros: ciklurs da wrfivs. cikluri miTiuri
dro kosmosis droa, xolo is rac ver moeqceva miTuri drois
farglebSi (wreSi), anu ,,SinaSi, is ,,gare, sxva droSi, wrfiv droSi
eqceva. amitom aris ,,wreSekruli, ,,kudismWameli urCxuli kosmiuri
harmoniisa da maradiulobis xati - ,,mSvenieri urCxuli, xolo
wrfivad gaSlili urCxuli ki - misi anti podi. swored am ori
modeliT aris konstruirebuli qaosisa da kosmosis brZolis
zoo-anTropomorfuli miTosuri siuJeti, romlis gauTvaliswineblad
paradigmuli siuJetis ormagi semantikuri kodireba - homologiuri
sawyisidan moulodneli heterogenuli gadaxveva gaugebari darCeboda.

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

220

,,kudismWameli urCxulis miTologemam Tavisi binaruli bunebiT


teqstobriv-siuJeturad ganviTarebis swored ormagi, urTierTsapirispiro gza SeiZina: ori qaosuri Zalis//ori gveleSapis brZola,
erTi siuJeturi xazis mixedviT kosmosis damkvidrebiT sruldeba,
xolo meore siuJeturi xazi, sruliad sapirispiro mimarTulebas
iRebs da es orTabrZola gardauvali esqatologizmis modusSi
gadahyavs. kosmogoniuri siuJetis ganviTarebis es ori gza farTod
aisaxa qarTul miTologiur teqstebSi, sadac ori gveleSapis brZola
zogjer ori xaris, an gveleSapis da xaris brZoliT aris
warmodgenili. siuJets sxvadasxvagvari dasasruli aqvs.KTqmulebaTa
erTi nawili Sesaqmiseulia, kosmosi imarjvebs qaosze da wylisagan
gaTavisuflebul teritoriaze sicocxle iRviZebs(kaxuri Tqmuleba);
KTqmulebaTa meore nawili esqatologiuria, mas meorenairad mcire
warRvnis ciklsac uwodeben da sruliad sapirispiros mogviTxrobs:
gamarjvebuli aqac xmeleTis xaria, magram momakvdavi gveleSapis
ukanaskneli ZalisxmeviT tba skdeba, gadmoivlis da mTel sofels
(mikrokosmosi) wyliT faravs (aWaruli Tqmulebebi vernebze);
dasturdeba mesame siuJeturi rkalic: xaris mier gveleSapis
damarcxeba xalxs ixsnis mosalodneli warRvnisagan(erwo-TianeTis,
duSeTisa da Silduri variantebi)(Tandilava 1996:85).
aseTia urCxulis kosmogoniuri gza, romlis dasasrulSic is
sxeuls morkalavs, kuds pirSi Caidebs da daiZinebs.
,,erTad mZovelTa miTosuri simulaciebi
,,uZveles droSi adamianebi da cxovelebi erTad Zovdnen balaxs.
erTxelac cxovelebma Tqves:
- adamianebi nu Zoven, Torem male saZovari aRar gveyofao.
maSin adamianebma TavianTi sakvebi miwaSi Cafles
da iqidan qeri, xorbali amovida.
amosvliT ki amovida, magram adamianebma ar icodnen,
rogor aeRoT es zRvad gamskdari mosavali.
kavkasiuri(noRauri)folklori.

iyo dro roca adamianebi da cxovelebi erTad Zovdnen balaxs.


es miTiur droSi xdeboda(6). miTiur droSi urCxulic adamianebTan
erTad Zovda balaxs. erTxelac ,,erTad mZovelni daSoriSordnen
da erTmaneTisgan waiRes adamianuri da cxoveluri saidumloebebi.
am zRvarze maleve aRmoaCines, rom erTmaneTi WirdebodaT. WirdebodaT
bunebis, samyaros SesaTviseblad. mixvdnen, rom bunebis gamocana erTad

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

221

unda amoexsnaT. maSin kvlavSemakavSirebeli gzebis Zieba daiwyes.


es problema gadaiWra iseTi socialuri fenomeniT rogoricaa
qorwineba. saqorwino urTierTobebi, romelic maT Soris adreve
arsebobda, amjerad gacilebiT progresuli gaxda. urTierTgaucxoebas
hqonda erTi umTavresi sasikeTo mxare: amieridan maT Soris Semdgari
saqorwino kavSirebi warmoadgenda or ,,ucxo totems Soris ganxorcielebul egzogamiur qorwinebas, romelic auqmebda winare
incestualizms. aseTi sqesobrivi kavSirebi muSaobda ,,genis kodis
srulyofisTvis da totemis/gvaris sicocxlis gaxangrZlivebisTvis.
TiToeuli mxare, biologiuri ,,genetikuri fondis garda, meore
mxares avsebda Tavisi totemis transcedenturi da empiriuli
gamocdilebiT.
miTosi, romelic inaxavs aseTi qorwinebebis ,,istoriebs, gvamcnobs am istoriebis fatalur finals cxovelze daqorwinebuli
qalis ucilobel daRupvas - ,,SeWmas. ,,qalismWamelobis saidumlo
gvaris, totemis tabuTi aris daculi. erTmaneTis xelaxali aRmoCenis
am etapidan ,,erTad mZovelebma ukiduresi miTosuri simulaciebiT
SeniRbes TavianTi arsebobisa da urTierTobis formebi, TavianTi
garegani gamosaxulebebi da iqcnen ,,totemur niSnebad. maT ase niSnebSi, simboloebsa da metaforebSi amofarebulebma ganagrZes
,,balaxis erTad Zova.
miTosi romelic apelirebs ,,erTad mZovelTa simulaciebze,
saSualebas gvaZlevs amovxsnaT es pirvelyofili ,,simulaciebi,
romelSic kodirebulia cxovelur-adamianuri egzogamiuri
qorwinebebis imanenturi Sinaarsi. igi srulad imeorebs ,,Wamisa
da ,,sikvdilis kosmogoniur miTologemas. arqaul kulturebSi,
rogorc kosmogoniur, ise sociogoniur doneze ,,Wama da ,,qorwineba
homologiuri fenomenebia, romlis arsSic Zevs sikvdili ,,msxverplSewirva, rogorc Sedegi. Sedegi universaluria: igi
emsaxureba ,,axal sicocxles(sociogoniaSi genis kods) da
kosmogenezs (kosmogoniaSi kosmosis kods).
am yvelaferSi aris kidev erTi, sayuradRebo niuansi, romelic
faqtobrivad gamWvirvales xdis totemis tabus: ,,qalismWameloba
msxverplSewirva, motivirebulia incestualizmiT. amave mizeziT
arqauli xalxebi totemis SeWmas da incests erTi da imave terminiT
aRniSnavdnen. amasve gveubneba kosmogoniuri miTologema, sadac Sesaqme
germafrodituli ,,kudismWameli urCxulis TviTganayofierebis parTenogenezis aqtze dgas: miTosuri metaforiT ,,sakuTari Tavis
mWameloba//,,kudismWameloba siyvarulisa da sqesobrivi kavSiris

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe

incestualur formad gvevlineba. am gagebiT, realuradac, empiriul


WrilSic xorcs isxams lakanis metaforuli gamonaTqvami, rom
,,siyvaruli TviTmkvlelobis formaa.
,,qalismWamelobis incestualuri motivi (incestualoba
realuri viTareba aRmoCndeba) saerTo fundamentur birTvs warmoadgens am ciklis miTologiur teqstebSi. damafiqrebelia, am
aspeqtSi miTis aseTi fundamenturi, struqturuli Careva: qalis
gvelTan qorwinebis miTosis mTeli deklamaciur-eqsplicituri muxti
swored am mTavari motivis SeniRbva-gadafarvas emsaxureba. iqmneba
formaluri warmodgena or ,,ucxo totems Soris ganxorcielebuli
saqorwino kavSiris egzogamiurobaze (riskenac aris mimarTuli
mTeli rigi simulaciebisa, rogorc mentalur, aseve struqturul
doneze). magram egzogamiuroba saboloo jamSi mxolod miTosuri
simulacia aRmoCndeba.
miTosuri simulaciebi pirveladi qorwinebebis incestualizmis SeniRbvas emsaxureba.
rogor simulirebs miTi? mivyveT movlenaTa ganviTarebas.
arqul miTebSi qalisa da gvelis qorwineba yovelTvis qalis
,,SeWmiT sruldeba, rac sxva araferia Tu ara, warmatebulad
ganxorcielebuli saqorwino rituali//seqsualuri aqti. es momenti
kargad Cans gvelisa da qalis qorwinebis ciklis erTi qarTuli
miTologiuri baladidan(aWaruli teqsti - ,,gveli xrilsa
miZvreboda), sadac gvelze daqorwinebuli qali, ojaxis TiToeul
wevrs saTiTaod atyobinebs Tavisi qmris urCxulebriv bunebas:
,,dRisiT kacaT geCveneba, RamiT gveleSapiao, razec pasuxad
TiToeulisgan erTsa da imaves iRebs: ,,col-qmrobisa siyvaruli
Cvenac gamogvicdiao. baladaSi sabolood ,,col-qmruli siyvaruli
qalis SeWmiT sruldeba, riTac teqstSi ,,seqsualuri aqtis, ,,Wamisa
da ,,sikvdilis miTosuri homologizmia gatarebuli.
qalsa da gvels, rogorc or ucxo totems cxovelursa da
adamianurs Soris ganxorcielebuli saqorwino kavSirebi Zveli
incestualuri paradigmis gauqmebis da axali egzogamiuri paradigmis
SemoRebis mcdelobaa. Tumc am etapze es mcdeloba mainc kraxiT
mTavrdeba, radgan aRmoCndeba rom ,,erTad mZovelTa kavSiri imaze
metad myari da gauTiSavia vidre es erTi SexedviT Cans. gvelze
daqorwinebuli qali garda Tavisi kvazianTropomorfuli garegnuli
niSnebisa, sxva mxriv arafriT gansxvavdeba meuRle-gvelisgan. gvelqali garkveuli miTosuri meqanizmiT axerxebs Tavisi zoomorfuli
sawyisis latentirebas. zoomorfuli sawyisis latentireba aris

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223

kidec is simulaciuri kodi, romliTac miTi warmatebiT axorcielebs


personaJis SeniRbvas. ,,latenturi gveli Cvens mier SemoRebuli
terminia anTropomorfuli qalis saxes amofarebuli dedali gvelis
aRsaniSnavad. ,,latenturi gveli qalisa da gvelis qorwinebis
miTosis centraluri personaJia. masTan qorwinebisas egzogamia
moCvenebiTia, iseve rogorc Tavad latenturi gveli aris moCvenebiTad
admianuri. gvel-kacis qorwineba latentur gvelTan ver iqneba
egzogamiuri, radgan latenturi gveli ar aris ,,ucxo totemuri
gvaris warmomadgeneli, aramed misive ojaxis(fratriis) wevria.
personaJi genetikurad ,,srulad zoomorfulia (orive mxridan,
matrilinearuli da patrilinearuli xaziT gvelia), xolo garegnuli
_ ,,sruli anTropomorfuloba arafers wyvets. amitom maTi SeuRleba
gvelis mokvlas, qalis devitalizacias da sabolood, ,,arSemdgar
sociums ganapirobebs, radgan sociumis warmoSoba arqaul
kulturebSi uSalod aris dakavSirebuli egzogamiur qorwinebebTan.
axali gvineis miTologiaSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli bilinuri
moTxrobebi ,,mamasaxlisi gvelisa da qalisa saqorwino urTierTobebze. gveli marsalai (,,marsalai gvelebis, rogorc
zebunebrivi arsebebis aRmniSvneli sazogado saxelia iqauri
adgilobrivi terminologiiT) motyuebiT, an iZulebiT axerxebs
qalis wayvanas da colad SerTvas, ris Semdegac qals mravali
gamocda-gansacdeli moelis. adgili aqvs gaqcevis mcdelobebs, gvelqmris mokvlas da a.S. gvel marsalaisTan qorwinebis gamo(miuxedavad
imisa, rom qorwineba naZaladevia)qals uaryofs da devnis sakuTari
koleqtivi, xolo gvel-qmris mokvlisTanave Tavadac iRupeba
(putilovi 1980:71). aseve gavrcelebuli siuJetis mixedviT, gveli
Zvreba qalis wiaRSi, rasac Sedegad mosdevs ganayofiereba-Casaxva
da Svilis Soba. koleqtivi axerxebs gvelis gatyuebas da mokvlas.
gvelis mokvlis Semdeg qalic iRupeba. qalis gvelTan qorwinebis
axalgvineur miTebSi v.putilovi xedavs arqaul warmodgenebs qalisa
da gvelis, adamianurisa da zoomorfulis organul kavSirze, romlis
Zaladobriv rRvevas mivyavarT sikvdilTan(putilovi 1980:59).
Semdgomi analizisas, v.putilovi kidev ufro akonkretebs gvelisa
da qalis naTesaur kavSirs, kerZod, marsalaize daqorwinebuli
qali, Tavad marsalais _ saiqioSi myofi bebia_marsalais STamomavlad
miaCnia(putilovi 1980:71).
qalisa da gvelis qorwinebis tragikuli dasasrulis, rogorc
genetikur-naTesauri kavSiris rRvevis putiloviseuli interpretacia
universaluria gvelTan qorwinebis miTosis yvelaze arqauli

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe

plastis amosaxsnelad. marsalaize daqorwinebuli bebia-marsalais


STamomavali qali, is dedali gvelia, romelsac Cven ,,latenturi
gveli davarqviT. miTosi cxadyofs amgvar saqorwino urTierTobebSi
,,normaluri egzogamiis moCvenebiTobasa da mis miRma ganxorcielebul
incestualur qmedebebs. miTSi yovelive iluziebisa da ,,gadafarvebis
kanonzomierebebs eqvemdebareba. gvelisa da qalis qorwineba, miRebuli
rogorc ,,normaluri egzogamia sruliad moulodnelad
incestualuri, xolo ,,ucxo totemi(gveli) latenturi ,,axlo
naTesavi aRmoCndeba. latenturi naTesaoba miTSi bolo wuTebamde
SeniRbulia da mxolod qalis daRupvis momentSi gacxaddeba. amdenad,
latenturoba teqstis struqturul meqanizmadac gvevlineba, romlis
uSualo funqcia miTSi ,,struqturuli cenzuris ganxorcielebaa.
miTSi personaJis latenturoba, rogorc miTosuri
simulacia da struqturuli meqanizmi, ,,miTis cenzuris
funqcias asrulebs.
termini ,,miTis cenzura Semogvaqvs fsiqoanalizSi z.froidis mier
damkvidrebuli ,,sizmris cenzuris analogiiT. termini ,,cenzura
z.froidma gamoiyena aracnobierad funqcionirebadi regulatoris
aRsaniSnavad, romlis mizania, cnobierebaSi gaataros mxolod Sesaferisi
midrekilebebi(ltolvebi) da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi isini SezRudos
da Seakavos. zogierT mdgomareobaSi, magaliTad Zilis dros, an Zlieri
daRlilobisas, cenzura sustdeba, romlis kvalobaze survilebi,
midrekilebebi arRveven cnobierebas da Semodian SeniRbuli formiT(miTis
fsiqoanalitikuri... 1998:474). amgvar SeniRbul saganTa da movlenaTa
saxeebi sizmarSi erT mTlian sistemas qmnian. simboloebi da metaforulsaxeobrivi azrovneba, razec aris faqtobrivad agebuli miTis
morfologiur-msoflmxedvelobrivi struqtura, yvelaze metad aaxloebs
miTs sizmarTan. miTsa da sizmars Soris arsebul axlo kavSirze
imTaviTve miuTiTebdnen fsiqoanalitikosebi(z.froidi, k.iungi, k.abrahami,
o.ranki da a.S.), roca TavianT gamokvlevebSi miTis fsiqoanalitikur
koncefcias ayalibebdnen.
aris erTi mniSvnelovani detali: ,,miTis cenzura ,,sizmris
cenzurisgan gansxvavebiT warmoadgens gacnobierebul(da ara aracnobier)
meqanizms. miTSi muSaobs ,,gacnobierebuli cenzura, romelic aseve
gacnobierebul moralur princi pebs efuZneba. am gagebiT ,,miTis cenzura
funqciurad imeorebs kantis ,,eTikur imperativs, romelic kantis
eTikur metafizikaSi warmoadgens ucilobel zneobriv brZanebas, gamudmebiT
rom axlavs gonebas da moralis safuZvlad iTvleba. am mxriv sainteresoa
arqaul xalxebSi promiskuitetis pirobebSi dadasturebuli
incestualuri kavSirebis akrZalvebis arseboba, romelsac instiqtebis
doneze ,,genis kodi amuSavebs. arqauli xalebis SemTxvevaSi ,,genis

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225

kods ,,moralis kodic SegviZlia vuwodoT, radgan rogorc


a.zolotarevma SeniSna, incests arqaul sazogadoebaSi hqonda ara
biologiuri, aramed wminda moraluri gageba, imdenad, ramdenadac maT
warmodgenac ar hqondaT sqesobriv urTierTobasa da ganayofierebagamravlebas Soris arsebul kavSirze(zolotarevi
1964:60). maTi
rwmeniT, qorwineba axlo naTesavebs Soris qalebSi iwvevda unayofobas.
ufro metic, amgvari incestualuri qorwinebebi bunebaSi ganapirobebda
katastrofebs: cxovelebi da mcenareebi wyveten gamravlebas, iSriteba
wyalsacavebi da a.S.(zolotarevi
1964:57). amdenad, ,,genis kodi,
romlis gamovlinebebi ucnobia pirvelyofili adamianisTvis, Canacvlebis
princi piT muSaobs nacnob(eTikur) gamovlinebaTa doneze: ,,genis kodi
amuSavebs ,,moralis kods.

miTSi moqmedebs uxilavi ,,cenzura, romelic axorcielebs normiT


dauSvebeli, akrZaluli qmedebebis ,,gadamalva_gadafarvas. am niadagze
Cans warmoSobili miTosis ,,latenturi personaJebi, romelTac
ara mxolod totemur-sociogoniur, aramed sxvadasxva miTosur
ciklebSic SevxvdebiT. swored ,,miTis cenzura gvevlineba im miTosurstruqturul meqanizmad, romlis saSualebiTac miTSi
qalis(latenturi gvelis) gvelTan qorwinebisas ,,incestualuri
codvis ,gadamalva-gadafarva xorcieldeba. Tumca sociogoniurkosmogoniuri miTosi romelic struqturul-mentaluri meqanizmiT
miTis msvlelobis xangrZliv intervalSi ,,miTis cenzuras amuSavebs,
sabolood mainc ar tovebs dausjelad ,,incestualur codvas.
,,miTis cenzura moqmedebas wyvets miTis finalSi. ,,cenzuris wyveta
da simulaciebis dasasruli teqstebSi markirebulia qalis daRupviT:
sociumi an Tavad qali(rogorc Zaladobis msxverpli) upirispirdeba
incestualuri qorwinebis iniciators, moZalade gvel-kacs, sdevnis
da klavs mas. miTis finali _ gvelis ganadgurebis Semdeg qalis
meqanikuri sikvdili, iseTive moulodnelia, rogorc miTis dasawyisSi
gvelisa da qalis qorwinebis incestualoba. swored gvel-kacsa da
latentur gvel-qals Soris arsebuli naTesauri, biologiurgenetikuri kavSiris wyveta, gvelTan erTad qalis daRupvasac
ganapirobebs. es arqauli modeli udevs safuZvlad im mravalricxovan
miTebs, sadac qalisa da gvelis qorwinebis, gvelis mokvlisa da
qalis daRupvis ambavia gadmocemuli.
qalisa da gvelis latenturi biologiur-naTesari kavSiris
markireba miTebSi ar aris reglamentirebuli finaluri epizodiT.
miTis finalSi gvelze daqorwinebuli qalis sikvdili, saboloo
Ria gacxadebaa mTeli miTis msvlelobisas ganxorcielebuli
naTesauri kavSiris gamomxatveli epizoduri `socialur-sakraluri

226

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

aqtebisa~. am ciklis TiToeuli epizodis Rrma dakvirvebas mivyavarT


aRniSnuli ,,biologiuri naTesaobis yovelmxriv aRiarebamde. magram
problemis arsi imaSic mdgomareobs, rom gansxvavebulia TiToeuli
,,aqtis gadafarvis meqanizmi da Sesabamisad, latenturobisa da
simulaciebis xarisxi.
am mimarTulebiT sainteresoa qalis gvelTan qorwinebis siuJetis
gavrcoba gogonas (latenturi gvelis) pirvelwinapari bebia-gvelis
monawileobiT, romelic xTonuri samyarodan, saiqio-suleTis qveynidan
rCeva-darigebebs aZlevs gansacdelSi Cavardnil STamomavals. xTonuri
samkvidros pirvelwinapari bebia-qalic latenturi formiT flobs
gvelur niSnebs, romlis saboloo gamovlena am personaJis daRupvis
momentSi xdeba(mag: axalgvineuri miTis mixedviT, marsalaebis
ganadgurebisas qalis bebiac iRupeba, raki isic, rogorc erT-erTi
marsalai, maT Soris imyofeba(putilovi 1980:71). am siuJetSi gogonamsxverpls bebia-msxverpli Caenacvleba, gogonas ki, gvel-qmris mokvlis
Semdeg, ritualuri ganwmendis gziT, gza exsneba sakuTar sociumSi
dasabruneblad. am SemTxvevaSic ,,miTis cenzura erT-erTi latenturi
personaJis daRupvamde moqmedebs, radgan meore latentur personaJs
,,incestualuri codvisagan ritualuri ganwmenda aTavisuflebs.
qarTul TqmulebebSi memkvidreze mzrunveli bebia-gvelis saxe
unda davinaxoT im fuZis gvelebSi, romlebic uSualod arian CarTulni
bavSvebis movla-patronobaSi. erT-erTi aseTi qarTluri Tqmulebis
mixedviT, ,,bavSvi akvniT mdgariyo da tiroda. asula gveli akvanSi
da kudi Caudvia pirSi da gauCumebia bavSvi. sxva gadmocemis mixedviT,
gveli bavSvebs ealerseba, lokavs da aZinebs (rexviaSvili 1963:214).
am ciklis siuJetis ganviTareba SviliSvili-gogonas gvel-kacTan
qorwinebamde ar midis. igi latenturi gvel-qalis geneziss: Casaxvis,
Sobisa da Cvilobis periodiT aris reglamentirebuli.
msgavsi Tqmulebebi farTod aris gavrcelebuli kavkasiaSi. fuZis
gvelis ciklis kavkasiuri Tqmulebebis struqturul analizss
adamiansa da ojaxis gvels Soris arsebul naTesauri kavSiris
aRiarebamde mivyavarT(sixaruliZe 2004:23).

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

227

maradisoba da urCxuli:

,,urCxulis mkvlelobis miTosuri simulaciebi


,,erTi materiidan meoreSi gadayvanisas uCinardeba realoba,
is xdeba sikvdilis alegoria, magram Tavad am msxvreviT is myardeba, gardaisaxeba
realobad realobisTvis,
obieqtis reprezentaciis nacvlad misi uaryofis eqstazi
da ritualuri ganadgureba: hi perrealoba.
J. bodr
iar
i. ,,simulaciebis hi perr
bodriar
iari.
perrealoba.
ealoba.
wignidan: ,,simboluri gacvla da sikvdili

paradoqsia, magram faqtia: uxsovari droidan yvela urCxulis


mokvlas cdilobs. demiurgebi, RmerTebi, miTiuri da zRapris gmirebi.
urCxuli ki yovelTvis cocxalia. providenciulia urCxulis devnis,
mkvlelobis da am mkvlelobis SeuZleblobis yvela intencia.
urCxulis paradigma emorCileba(sinamdvileSi is Tavad aris paradigma
da Tavad imorCilebs)sruliad gansxvavebul, miTisgan da zRaprisgan
ganyenebul romeliRac iseT did struqturas, rac SeuZlebelia
sxva ,,mcire struqturebSi moTavsTdes(7). aseTi ,,mcire
struqturebi miTi da zRaparia, romlis dros da sivrces urCxuli
i pyrobs, magram ganusazRvreli sididis gamo ver TavsTdeba da
tovebs.
urCxulis xiluli gza miTsa da zRaparze gadis. es gza, rogorc
droebiTi transmigraciuli samarSruto sivrce, miTisa da
zRaprisTvis niSneuli ,,faTerakebiT aris savse. miTi(pirveladi
miTi) zRaparTan SedarebiT, urCxulisTvis adaptirebadi garemoa
da vidre mas sakuTari naSierebi kosmosis saxeliT brZolas
gamoucxadebdnen, Tavs nacnob garemoSi grZnobs. sagulisxmoa, rom
urCxuli miTSi qmnadia warmoSobs sakuTar naSierebs, anu amkvidrebs
sakuTar paradigmul niSnebs. jadosnuri zRapris sivrce ki urCxulis
,,sasaklaoa. zRapari arcerTi wuTiT ar ayovnebs, urCxulis gamoCenisTanave sagangebod qmnis ,,gmirs, romlis erTaderTi da maradiuli
epiuri intencia urCxulis mkvlelobaa. urCxulis arseboba miTis
da zRapris arsebobis erTaderTi sazrisia. aris Tu ara urCxulis
arsebobis sazrisi miTisa da zRapris arsebobaSi? pasuxi
erTmniSvnelovnad uaryofiTia, radgan Cven ukve vTqviT, rom urCxulis
paradigma miTisgan da zRaprisgan ganyenebul romeliRac gacilebiT
did struqturas moicavs. axla ki unda avxsnaT ratom aris
urCxulis paradigma miTisa da zRapris paradigmaze didi.

228

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

urCxuli romelic aris maradiuli fenomeni - arsebuli


kosmosamde, kosmosTan erTad da kosmosis Semdeg(8), aseve aris am
movlenebTan dakavSirebuli temporaluri fenomenic(9): kosmosamde
da kosmosis Semdeg arsebuli maradisobis da kosmosTan erTad
Seqmnili drois(droSi SeWrili maradisobis) xati. urCxuli
maradisobidan iWreba miTsa da zRaparSi, rogorc medin, warmavali
yofierebis formebSi. urCxuls vxedavT maradisobaSic da samad
ganwilul droSic: maradisobaSi - jer kidev qaotur substanciaSi,
,,araraSi(urCxuli qaosis, araras zoomorfuli xatia); ,,namyoSi
qaosisa da kosmosis brZolaSi, kosmogenezis procesSi; mas
vxedavT ,,awmyoSi kosmosSi, rogorc kosmiuri wesrigis, kosmiuri
modelis garants(salteSekruli urCxuli) da urCxuls vxedavT
,,momavalSic, esqatologiis molodinSi - urCxulis sxeulis
kosmiuri wris gaSlas da ,,qaosis mobrunebis safrTxes mudmivad
atarebs miTosi.
urCxulis, miTis, zRapris da istoriis
urTierTmimarTebis problema uwinaresad temporaluri problemaa.
es mimarTebani da maT Soris warmoqmnili winaaRmdegobani
teqstobriv-siuJetur planSi(siuJetis poetikis doneze da ara
mxolod,) asaxulia miTsa da zRaparSi.
,,samyaro Seqmnilia ara droSi(in temfore), aramed drosTan
erTad(cum temfore). - es sityvebi netar avgustines ekuTvnis. netar
avgustinemde amas plotini ambobda Tavisi ,,eneadebis VII traqtatSi
-,,maradisobisa da droisaTvis. plotinamde ki eqvsi saukuniT
adre - platoni werda Tavis ,,timeosSi: ,,man(demiurgosma) ganizraxa
Seeqmna maradisobis erTgvari moZravi asli da, cis wesrigTan erTad,
uZravi da erTaderTi maradisobis xatad Seeqmna moZravi da
maradmedini xateba, romelic ricxvTa kanonis Tanaxmad miedineba da
romelsac dros vuwodebT Cven. radganac cis dabadebamde arc
dReebi iyo da arc Rameebi, arc Tveebi da wlebi, aramed maTi
dasabami ciuri wesrigis SeqmnasTan erTad iqna dasaxuli (bregvaZe
I 2006:71).
dro kosmosis SeqmnasTan erTad Seiqmna, maSasadame, igi iseve
medini da warmavalia, rogorc kosmosi, sicocxle. ,,dro
casTan(kosmosTan) erTad daibada, raTa, erTad dabadebulni erTadve
daSliliyvnen, Tuki odesme mouwevdaT daSla(platoni). dromde
da samyaromde arsebuli waruvali, mudmivi substancia maradisobaa,
romlis moxelTebas, rogorc sakuTari medinobis mudmivobaSi,
warmavlobis waruvalobaSi gadayvanis SesaZlebloblobas eswrafvis

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

229

dro da kosmosi. dro aqcidenturia, maradisoba ki substanciuri.


aqcidenturoba drois sneulebaa. dro sneulia Tavisi medinobiT,
romlis sworxazovani, warmavali gzis bolos mxolod aRsasruli
mosCans. drois gankurneba am medinobisgan mxolod maradisobas
SeuZlia. nikolai berdiaevi wers, rom ,,maradisoba, romelic aris
Tvisobrivi usasruloba, drois paradoqsis gadaWraa da drois
sneulebisagan gankurneba... maradisoba iWreba droSi da mis dinebas
gansazRvravs. rac maradiuli ar aris, arc maradisobisagan aris da
arc maradisobisTvisaa; namdvili Rirebuleba ar gaaCnia da unda
gaqres. momavals misTvis moaqvs sikvdili, droSi dasasruli, rac
upirispirdeba drois dasasruls. dro maradisobis gareSe
maradisobisgan gandgomaa; masTan erTad ki maradisobis momentia da
amitomac aqvs azri. esaa ormxrivi paradoqsi droisa, romlis
moazrebac drois kategoriaSi SeuZlebelia Sinagani winaaRmdegobis
gareSe(bregvaZe I 2006:87).
miTosi atarebs drois paradoqss da am paradoqsis gadaWris
Taviseul gzebs saxavs. drois paradoqsis gadaWras emsaxureba
urCxulis paradigma, amasve emsaxureba RmerTebisa da mefe-demiurgebis
sakralur ,,dro-JamTan dakavSirebuli miTologemebi. droisa da
kosmosis(//RmerTebis) erTdrouli warmoSobis idea antikur
filosofiamde gacilebiT adre, jer kidev miTosSia gacnobierebuli.
RmerTi odini daibada TiTqmis drosTan erTad, - ,,roca dro iyo
Zalian axalgazrda. odinma icis, rom misi samyaro berdeba da
,,male ,,mis droSi, misi samyaro daiSleba da Seerwymeba
pirvelarsebuli wylis stiqias. odonma aseve icis, rom sadRac,
Zalian Sors, samyaros aRsasrulis mwuxris bindbundSi, amoCindeba
Suqi axali droisa da daibadeba axali samyaro(piatigorski 1996:4).
es drois paradoqsia, romelic gveubneba:
drois aRsasruli miTosSi ar emTxveva drois aRsasruls.
,,erTi drois, rogorc yofierebis erTi formis dasasrulis
mijnaze bunebrivad warmoiSveba ,,axali dro, romlis dasasrulSi
kidev axali da ase usasrulod. drois cikluri monacvleobis
idea dasturdeba TiTqmis yvela uZveles tradiciaSi, Camoyalibebulia
cikluri, ,,mbrunavi drois filosofiuri koncefciebi; arqauli
miTosi ki misTvis niSneuli kosmiur-totemisturi niSnebiT aformebs
ciklur temporalobas. miTosSi dros gaaCnia ,,gagrZelebis - rac
atarebs maradisobis usasrulobis niSnebs, Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli
- ,,genetikuri sicocxlis, ,,biologiuri gamravlebis Tviseba
(10).

230

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

drois paradoqsi miTosSi gadaWrilia ,,biologiuri


fenomeniT.
miTosSi dro fiziomorfulia da mas gaaCnia parTenogenuri
TviTgamravlebis, ,,kosmiuri intiCiumis(11) enigmuri unari. ,,kosmiuri
intiCiumis rituali xorcieldeba droSi Tavad drois mier.
drois fenomeni miTosSi agreTve gadaWrilia drois
fenomeniT.
es miTis filosofiaa - miTebSi gamJRavnebuli maradisobis
droSi SemoWris niSnebis filosofia. miTi am mxrivac unikaluria,
mas unari Seswevs ,,obieqturi drois miRma ataros maradisobis
fragmentebi. miTiuri da istoriuli drois aqtivobis pirobebSi,
miTSi SeimCneva raRac drosTan miaxloebuli, magram droisagan gareT
mdgari - maradiuli myofobis niSnebi. is maradisobis ,,nasxletebia,
miTiuri da zRapruli drois yvelaze dafarul, yvelaze sakralur
SreSi Caleqili. miuxedavad enigmurobisa, maTSi maradisobis niSnebis
amocnoba advilad SeiZleba, is ar moiTxovs gonebis daZabvas, arc
sagangebo intuitiur Wvretas(Cven viciT, rom intuitiuradac SeiZleba
miTis da zRapris utyuari wakiTxva). maradisoba xSirad yovelgvari
SeniRbvis da miTosuri simulaciebis gareSe miTis zedapirze
amoativtivebs ,,ara-drois sakralur nasxletebs, rogorc
maradisobis miTologemebs da siuJetebad ganfens miTosSi. miTosi
da misi miTologema gveubneba aq dro gaCerda.
qarTuli miTosi inaxavs droidan gasvlis miTologemas, romelic
ramdenime miTosur ciklTan aris dakavSirebuli. Tamaris ,,maradiuli
zafxulis miTosi gveubneba, rom Tamars, roca taxti ialbuzis
mTaze edga, mis samefoSi maradiuli zafxuli idga. ar iyo sikvdili,
radgan dro ar gadioda. ase imitom iyo, rom Tamars - ,,dro-Jamis
Suqurvarskvlavi hyavda datyvevebuli; ,,dro-Jamis Suqurvarskvlavis
daWeras cdiloben dvalTa mTaze msxdomi mefenic. Tqmuleba gvubneba,
rom uZveles droSi, dvalTa mTaze mefeni isxdnen drodadro;
isini cdilobdnen erTi cidan mowyvetili varskvlavi
daeWiraT(robaqiZe 1991:260); ,,SeCerebuli drois - ,,oqros xanis
paradigma qarTul miTosSi dakavSirebulia svanur staruSinis mTis
mwvervalis miTosTan; agreTve, fSavis ,,mTawmindasTan(kiknaZe 1985:182);
aWaruli miTosis, kuSturis gamoqvabulTan(12). aWaraSi cnobilia
Tqmuleba kviris erT-erTi dRis - paraskevis dakargvaze. Tqmuleba
gveubneba, rom Zvelad Turme qarTvelebs daekargaT paraskevi.
dakarguli paraskevi gamoqvabulSi egulebodaT da iq eZebdnen, magram
ver poulobdnen. gamoqvabulSi paraskevis gamosayvanad Sesuli adamiani

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231

iqedan uTavod gamodioda, mas Tavs aWamda daTvi(13). am TqmulebaSic


dro personificirebulia, igi zoomorful saxeSi daTvSia
obieqtivizirebuli. paraskevi sulieri obieqtia, romelsac unari
Seswevs daikargos, gamoqvabulSi daimalos, adamianebi SeWamos da
a.S. ,,dakarguli paraskevi gamoxatavs SeCerebul dros. paraskevis
gaqroba mis dabrunebamde aCerebs dros paraskevis zRvarTan xuTSabaTTan. am miTSi xuTSabaTis dasasruli aris mijna, saidanac
dro wyvets medinobas da gadadis maradisobaSi.
es mcire miTologiuri eqskursic sakmarisia imis warmosadgenad
Tu rogor aCerebs miTi Tavis wiaRSi arsebul medin dros da
gadahyavs maradisobaSi. ufro zustad maradisoba Semohyavs miTiur
droSi. maradisoba miTSi moxvedrisTanave transfiguraciulad misTvis
aqamde ucnob miTiuri drois niSnebs iZens da Tavis mxriv miTsac
amdidrebs absolutumis ingredientebiT. maradisobas miTsa da
zRaparSi Tavisi ,,Sikriki hyavs, kargad SeniRbuli da daculi.
maradisobis ,,Sikriki TviTon maradisobaa. is TviTobaa, rogorc
absolutumi, rogorc demiurgosuli goni, rogorc RmerTis atributi
da ufro metic - Tavad RmerTis identuri(14). maradisobis
obieqtivirebuli xilvadi forma da niSani, romelic man sagangebod
miTisTvis da zRaprisTvis SeiZina polimorfuli urCxulia. urCxulis
garegnul formaSi Tavmoyrilia samyaroseul gamovlinebaTa sruli
speqtri izomorfuli niSnebis doneze. sruli imdenad ramdenadac,
masSi warmodgenilia miTosur msoflmxedvelobaSi damkvidrebuli
samyaroseuli fenomenebis - mimarTulebebis da ubnebis(mag.zesknelqvesknel-Suaskneli; miwa, wyali, cecxli, haeri. . .) yvela ZiriTadi
niSani. urCxulis izomorfuli miTosuri aglomeracia, romelSic
imTaviTve gansazRvrulia da mowesrigebulia samyaroseuli yvela
ZiriTadi mocemuloba, urCxulis temporalizmis eqstensiuri
maradisobis pirdapirproporciulia. urCxuli garegnuli formaniSnebiT sawyisSive stagnirebuli, ,,ucvleli fenomenia. is
,,umomavloa ,,bunebis uwyvetobis, ,,bunebis diskursSi, rogorc
amas miSel fuko ambobs urCxulis garegnul mocemulobaze. b.robinesis
azriT, urCxuli bunebis evoluciur procesSi ,,prototi pis bolo
ti pad gvevlineba(fuko 2004:204-206). Tumc Cveni dakvirvebiT,
urCxulis struqtura aranairad ar zis ,,bunebis diskurssa da
,,bunebis uwyvetobaSi. Sesabamisad, mas arc prototi pebi hyavs da
arc Tavad aris ,,prototi pis bolo ti pi. is arc miTosur
personaliaTa evoluciuri uwyvetobis princi ps eqvemdebareba.
miuxedavad TvalSisacemi identobisa, aq erTmaneTisgan unda gavmijnoT

232

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

sami sxvadasxva fenomeni: gveli, gveleSapi da urCxuli(//drakoni).


gveleSapi, rogorc miTologiuri personaJi realisturi gvelis
saxidan ganviTarda(es etimologiuradac dasturdeba: gvel-veSapi)
da is SesaZloa ganvixiloT kidec ,,bunebis diskursisa da ,,bunebis
uwyvetobis struqturaSi, magram
urCxuli ganyenebulad,
pirdapirarsebuli fenomenia, cxovelis, frinvelis, qvewarmavlis,
mcuravis niSnebiT. amdenad urCxuli ara mxolod ,,umomavloa, is
,,uwarsuloc aris. is erTsa da imave dros gvevlineba pirvelsaxed
da bolosaxed, anu - ,,prototi pebis bolo ti pis prototi pad.
urCxuls mxolod maradiuli ,,awmyo aqvs da maradiuli forma.
Sesabamisad, is yvela drosa da aradroSi(drois gareT) arsebobs
maradiulad.
maradiuli mxolod urCxulia. urCxuli Tavad
maradisobaa. maradisoba ,,urCxulis droa.
dro da maradisoba Tvisobrivad sxvadasxva temporaluri
fenomenebia. maradisoba Tvisobaa, mdgomareobaa, rogorc n.berdiaevi
ambobs - ,,Tvisobrivi usasruloba. dro ki moZraobis modusia,
romelic ganwilulia sxvadasxva monakveTebad da raodenobriv,
gazomvad fenomens warmoadgens. platonis mixedviT (romlis
Tvalsazrissac mTlianad iziarebs da aviTarebs misi sulieri
memkvidre plotini.) ,,maradisoba goniT sawvdomi sinamdvilis
erTaderTi temporaluri realoba, idealuri, uZravi da ucvleli
pirvelnimuSia, dro ki _ misi moZravi xati(bregvaZe I 2006:100).
,,uZraoba eqstensiuroba, rogorc Tvisobrivi mdgomareoba,
maradisobis mTeli paradigmis garegnulad gamoxatuli niSania. es
niSani garegnuladac ganamsgavsebs mas ,,moZravi - intensiuri
droisgan. swored am garegnul, niSneul planSi vlindeba miTisa da
zRaparis poetikaSi dapirispirebuloba urCxulTan, sadac
,,kudismWamel, ,,mZinar, umoZrao urCxulTan moZravi, moqmedi gmiri,
demiurgia Sepirispirebuli. amdenad, erT mxares dganan maradisoba
da misi cocxali temporaluri niSani - ,,mZinari urCxuli, xolo
sapirispiro mxares Tavs iyris drois, rogorc moqmedi da warmavali
fenomenebis kompleqsi: miTi, zRapari da istoria, maTi cocxali
temporaluri niSniT gmiri.
,,kudismWameli urCxuli ,,mZinari urCxulia. misi
mdgomareoba eqstensiuria: aseTia wyalTan axlos, ganZsa da xeze
mravalkecad Semoxveuli mZinari gveleSapi, romelsac kudi piriT
uWiravs. erTaderTi riskenac urCxuli iltvis ,,Zilia. mudmivZili
urCxulis imanenturi Tvisebaa, romlis gareSec urCxuli ver iqneba

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233

urCxuli. miTebsa da zRaprebSi gmiri ZaliT aRviZebs urCxuls.


Tumc gaRviZebulic isev Zilisken aris midrekili: gamudmebiT eZebs
myudro, mSvidobian, samarisebur adgils ZilisTvis. aseTi adgili
ki qvesknelis bneli jurRmulebia. urCxuls Zinavs qvesknelis
wylebTan (pirvelarsebuli wylebi), rac iwvevs ,,wylis mitacebis
imitacias, romelic sxva araferia Tu ara SiSi urCxulis uzarmazari,
Seucnobeli arsebis winaSe.
,,Zili urCxulis gansakuTrebuli mdgomareobaa. ,,mZinari
gveleSapis miTologema gveubneba, rom mZinari gveleSapi ar aris
saSiSi gveleSapi.
uvnebloba urCxuls xdis kidev ufro Seucnobels, radgan
is auqmebs SiSs, safrTxes, romlis arsebobac unda axldes
urCxulis SiSisaRmZvrel garegnul niSnebs.
urCxuli ki
swored Tavisi Seucnobeli, RmerTTan identificirebuli
maradisobis Tvisebis gamo aris warmosaxuli aseTi amazrzeni
garegnuli niSnebiT. masSi SiSisaRmZvrelia absolutumis
RvTabrivi substancia: RmerTis xilva uZveles tradiciebSi(aseve
bibliur winaswarmetyvelTa gamocdilebebSi) yovelTvis udides
gansacdelTan da SiSTan aris dakavSirebuli.
urCxuli ,,mZinaria, magram Cven vxvdebiT ,,mRviZar urCxulsac,
romelsac gmiri ebrZvis. urCxuls gmiri ,,aRviZebs. urCxulTan
erTad iRviZebs SiSi da mTeli is safrTxe, romelic urCxulis
arsebis miRma moiazreba. am wuTidan is moZravi intensiuri,
dinamiuri xdeba. statiuri maradisobis RerZi dinamiuri drois
sivrcisken (dro sivreSi) gadaixreba da maTi Sexebis mijnaze
warmoiqmneba drois sruliad axali sinTezuri Sre, romelic moZravi
droisa da uZravi maradisobis yvela niSan-TvisebiT iqneba aRWurvili.
am zRvarze warmoSobili temporaluri fenomeni atarebs maradisobis
miTosuri ,,Zilis eqstensiur aspeqts da imavdroulad, Tavis
eqstensiurobaSi(intensiur, dinamiur drosTan Sexebis ZaliT ,,xaxunis ZaliT) aRmoaCens ,,Zilis aqtiur, moZrav fenomens
sizmars. swored sizmris - ,,sizmris dro (drem time), aRmniSvneli
terminebiT gamoxatavdnen arqauli xalxebi gansakuTrebul sakralurparadigmul dros, miTiur epoqas: ,,alTira, ,,alCera, ,,juguri,
,,lalau, ,,ungudi da a.S. (meletinski 1976:174; levi-briuli
1937:269) _ am terminebis siuxve da sizuste sizmarTan
identificirebisas miuTiTebs arqaul xalxebSi kargad gacnobierebul
temporalur fenomenze, rac ukve eqspliciturad formdeba miTosur
teqstebSi. ,,sizmris dro miTis droa, romelic masSi SeWrili

234

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

maradisobis Zlieri zegavlenis qveS aqtivobs, swored amitom


,,sizmris temporaluri arsis miRma ganicdeba ,,dinamiuri
maradisoba- bilateraluri(ormxrivi da gverdiTi) temporaluri
realoba ,,aradro droSi. levi-strosis azriT, miTi yovelTvis
dakavSirebulia warsulis movlenebTan: ,,samyaros Sesaqmemde an
,,sawyis drosTan _ yovel SemTxvevaSi ,,ZvelisZvelTan. magram
miTis mniSvneloba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom drois gansazRvrul
momentSi adgilis mqone movlenebi arseboben aradroSi. miTi Tanabrad
xsnis rogorc warsuls, aseve axlandelsa da momavals. miTis
safuZvelSi mravalplanianoba Zevs. amitom miTiuri dro erTsa da
imave dros Seuqcevadi da Seqcevadia(levi-strosi 2001: 217-220).
amdenad, ganisazRvra urCxulis, rogorc temporaluri fenomenis
arsi, romlis fonzec bunebrivad ikveTeba ,,urCxulis mkvlelobis
maradiuli intenciis paradoqsuloba(es paradoqsuloba drois
paradoqsulobis fardia). urCxulis mkvlelobis paradoqsuloba
ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom ,,urCxulis mokvla misi ,,cocxlad
datovebis, droSi Catovebis erTaderTi gzaa. urCxuli am
,,mkvlelobiT nawevrdeba da uamrav identur urCxulad gadamravldeba.
amitom aris rom ,,mokluli urCxuli kvlavindeburad cocxalia
yovel axal miTsa da zRaparSi. urCxulis mkvleloba miTSi
ganxorcielebuli mTavari simulaciaa, romelic realobis SeniRbviT
axal realobas, zerealobas -,,hoperrealobas(15) qmnis.
miTsa da zRaparSi gacnobierebulia ,,simulaciis hiperrealoba
- ,,urCxulis mokvlis ambivalenturoba. es mkvleloba ,,urCxulis
kvals inaxavs. es kvali mxolod urCxulis TviTuaryofiT
warmoiqmneba. TviTuaryofa urCxuls sZens kvals _ formas,
romliTac misi temporaloba _ maradisoba ukve miTsa da
zRaparSic xdeba Tavsebadi. e. levinasis filosofiis Tanaxmad,
kvali aris is, rac aRniSnavs miRmier (iqiTa) yofierebebs, saidanac
modis is saxe, romelic Seesabameba absoluturad `armyofs~. mxolod
transcendentur samyaros, absolutur yofierebas SeuZlia datovos
kvali~ (levinasi 2004: 742).
urCxulis, rogorc `absoluturad armyofis~ kvaliT miTsa da
zRaparSi mocemulia transcendenturi absolutumis saxe, romelic
garda `kvalisa~ ar SeiZleba sxvagvarad iyos gamoxatuli. amdenad
`urCxulis mkvleloba~ morigi miTosuri simulaciaa, romelic
xorcieldeba erTaderTi _ `kvalis gaCenis~ mizniT. `kvalis
gaCena~ urCxulis miTidan da zRapridan gasvlas auqmebs,

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

235

rac maradisobis paradigmis `mcire struqturebSi~ Catovebas


da axali, temporaluri paradigmis gaCenas moaswavebs.
am axal paradigmas ,,urCxulis mkvlelobis droSi
uwyveti, maradiuli rituali uzrunvelyofs.
miTisa da zRapris warmavali drois urCxulis mardisobasTan
(romelic ,,araraa) SerwymiT samyaroseuli TviTganadgurebis, miTisa
da zRapris esqatologiuri intenciaa gamoxatuli.
gmiris vnebebi da zRapris simulaciebi

,,danaSaulis grZnoba, SiSi da sikvdili SesaZlebelia


Canacvldes danaSaulis, sasowarkveTis, Zaladobis, sikvdilis
wminda simboloebiT da es aris swored simulaciis eiforia,
mimarTuli mizezisa da Sedegis, dasawyisisa da dasasrulis
gauqmebisken, maTi dublirebis nacvlad.
ealoba.
J. bodr
iar
i. ,,simulaciebis hi perr
perrealoba.
bodriar
iari.
wignidan: ,,simboluri gacvla da sikvdili

,,mSvenier urCxulTan brZola zRapris, nawilobriv miTis


umTavresi mamoZravebeli ideaa. miTi ufro axlos dgas realobasTan,
Sesabamisad, masSi metia ,,samarTlianobac. miTosi kosmosis Sesaqmes
swiravs saukeTesos - ,,mSvenier msxverpls (miTosSi uaryofiTi
sawyisi antimsxverplia da mas ar iwiravs ,,dadebiTi Zala ).
miToss gamudmebiT axsovs, rom urCxuli ,,mSvenieri urCxulia.
arqaul miTebSi Semonaxulia Tavdapirveli miTosuri plasti,
romelSic urCxuli arc moZaladea da arc mimtacebeli, is yvela im
samyaroseuli gamovlinebis gamCen-Semqmneli, mfarvel-Semnaxveli da
materebelia, ris mitaceba-ganadgurebasac mas SemdgomSi
miaweren(ganviTarebuli miTologiebi da zRaprebi). miToss gamudmebiT
axsovs, rom urCxuli ,,kudismWameli urCxulia, romlis kosmogoniuri
miTologema gvamcnobs mSvenieri urCxulis Sesaqmiseul-demiurgul
intencias sakuTari salteSekruli sxeuliT Seakavos samyaros
warmxocveli wylebi. zRaprebSi wyalTan mravalkecad daxveuli
,,kudismWameli mZinari gveleSapi ZiriTadi kosmogoniuri miTologemaa da samyaros kosmiuri wyobis models asaxavs. kosmogoniuri
miTologemaa agreTve xeze, rogorc samyaros RerZze mravalkecad
Semoxveuli gveleSapi. am kosmogoniurma miTologemam zRaparSi
desakralizacia ganicada da wyalTan mravalkecad daxveuli mZinari
gveleSapi ,,samyaros warmxocveli wylebis Semkaveblidan
,,sasicocxlo wylebis mimtaceblad aqcia.

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe

zRapris gmiris kvazidemiurguli intencia ,,mSvenieri urCxulis


urCxulad qcevisaken aris mimarTuli. urCxulis mkvlelobis mTavari
azri - ,,ideologiurad SefuTul mkvlelobaSi Zevs. amiT imis
Tqma gvsurs, rom urCxulis mkvlelobis aqti uwinaresad
,,ideologiuradac unda iyos gamarTlebuli da motivirebuli.
amas moiTxovs zRapris da miTosis religiur-Teosofiuri
msoflmxedveloba. urCxuli yvela SemTxvevaSi moikvleba, mSvenieri
urCxuli yvela SemTxvevaSi iqceva ,,mSvenier msxverplad, oRondac
vidre kosmogoniaSi ,,kosmosis, zRaparSi ki - ,,sikeTis da
,,mSvenierebis saxeliT msxverplSewirvis ucilobeli aqti
aRsruldeba, saWiroa msxverplis ,,borotebad, ,,aramSvenierad
qceva(ukidures SemTxvevaSi aseTad gamocxadeba). zRapari, Tavisi
moraluri kodeqsiT klavs urCxuls, rogorc ,,sayovelTao borotebas,
miTi ki _ ,,msxverplSewirvis garduvalobiT.
urCxulis `boroteba~ Wirdeba zRapars da zRapris
gmirs gmirad qcevaSi.
gmiri, romelic urCxuls aRviZebs ,,strategiulia, am gziT is
,,aborotebs urCxuls.
urCxulis ritualuri mkvlelobis aqts win uswrebs urCxulis
ritualuri gaRviZebis aqti. misi ,,gamoRviZeba yovelTvis garegani,
xelovnuri zemoqmedebiT aris ganpirobebuli. gmiri arasodes elodeba
urCxulis bunebriv gaRviZebas, amitom Cven ar viciT, arc SeiZleba
vicodeT, rogoria ,,bunebrivad gaRviZebuli urCxuli. ar SegviZlia
vicodeT, ,,borotia, ,,saSiSia Tu ara aseTi urCxuli. TiTqos
urCxuls ,,mSvidobismyofelad yofnis SesaZlebloba gangeb
gamoacales. is sagangebod, mizanmimarTulad ,,gaaborotes.
urCxuli ar Zaladobs gmirze (da samyaroze), urCxuli
Tavs icavs ucxo garemoSi.
gmiri aRviZebs urCxuls da ebrZvis. gmiri qmnis urCxulis im
saxes, romelsac unda SeebrZolos: aramSvidobians, aramZinares, aqtiurs,
borots. urCxuli jer cxaddeba sayovelTao borotebad da Semdeg
isjeba sayovelTao saxeliT. es erTaderTi gzaa gmirisTvis
sayovelTao gmirad qcevisa, sxva SemTxvevaSi gmiris moRvaweoba erT
lokalur, egzistencialur mniSvnelobas SeiZenda. amitom urCxuli
kidev arTxel aris msxverpli. amjerad urCxuli gmiris vnebebis
msxverplia.
magram rodis da sad gaCnda gmiris vnebebi? vin qmnis gmiris
vnebebs? vin miuqsia urCxuls gmiri? iqneb gmiric msxverplia, brma

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237

iaraRi romeliRac ufro didi Zalis xelSi? aris Tu ara es Zala


urCxulze Zlieri da urCxulze marTali?
es Zala Tavad zRaparia, romelic uamravi sicruis da simulaciis
gzebze, bewvis xidebze daatarebs gmirsac da urCxulsac, Tumc
sabolood ver Zlevs maT, radgan Cven viciT rom urCxuli arsebobs
zRapris gareT, arsebobs ara-droSi, sadac zRapars xeli ar miuwvdeba.
zRapari presimulaciuri samyaroa. igi namdvili simulaciebisgan
imiT gansxvavdeba, rom dasawyisSive(zRapris Tavformula - ,,iyo da
ara iyo ra) gvafrTxilebs movlenaTa da saganTa simulirebis,
aranamdvilobis Sesaxeb. amgvari gamWoli eTikuri svliT akanonebs
kidec Tavis ,,sicrues, aZlevs mas namdvilobis legitimacias. magram
zRaparSic dgeba gardamtexi zRvari, es zRapris dasasrulis mijnaa,
sadac simulaciebic unda dasruldes da aRsruldes zRapris mTavari
moraluri kodeqsi Tu aRTqma: - ,,Wiri iqa/lxini aqa /qato iqa/
fqvili aqa.
zRapris finali zRapris codvas amxels. amxels
simulaciebs da urCxulis winaSe Cadenil ,,srulyofil
danaSauls.
sad aris zRapris keTili dasasruli? iq sadac urCxuls
klaven da gmiri imarjvebs, romelic mzeTunaxavze qorwindeba, Tu iq
aris zRapris WeSmariti sikeTe sadac gvelistyaviani Wabuki urcxulis
tyavs gaixdis, Tavis mSvenier saxes gamoaCens da mzeTunaxavze
iqorwinebs?
zRapari romelic gveleSapTan, rogorc sayovelTao
borotebasTan maradiuli brZolis paToss bolomde
inarCunebda, finalSi uneblied Tavis TavTan winaaRmdegobaSi
modis, roca gveleSaps gvelis tyavs gaxdis da mSvenieri
Wabukis saxes dagvanaxebs. magram swored sakuTari sicruis
mxilebis gziT zRapari Tavis Tavs aRmoaCens, i povis da daamarcxebs
namdvil urCxuls, romelic TviTonaa da ganjadovdeba. ganjadovdeba
mTeli am drois manZilze mSvenieri urCxulis devnaze yuradReba
gadatanili, motyuebuli gmiric is ,,miniurCxulia,(16) urCxulis
simulakraa, romelic zRaparma Seqmna mSvenieri urCxulis mosaklavad.
gmiric jildovdeba mzeTunaxaviT mis winaaRmdeg Cadenili borotebis
sanacvlod.
zRapris gmiri da mSvenieri urCxuli mzeTunaxavze(romelic
mefis asulia, riTac gacxadebulia intronizaciis kosmogoniuri
miTologema) erTdroulad qorwindebian. es qorwineba ,,urCxulis
droSi mimdinareobs, maradiulia da esqatologiuri(17).

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

238

Cven viciT, rom qali romelzec urCxuli iqorwinebs qaliurCxulia(latenturi gveli). isini saqorwino sarecelze
salteSekrulni, viTarca kosmiur tablas erTmaneTs ,,SesaWmelad
etanebian. ,,urTierTSeWmulni ki araraSi inTqmebian. ,,arara,
pirvelarsebuli substanciaa. is urCxulis ganzomilebaa maradisobaa
da grZeldeba ad infinitum.
komentarebi:
1. miTi princi pulad kosmogoniuria. mTeli misi Sinagani intencia
mimarTulia samyaroSi kosmosis, harmoniis dasamyareblad; Sesaqmis
Semdegac miTi ar wyvets Tavis kosmogoniur moRvaweobas da
sxvadasxva formiT ganagrZobs kosmosis SenarCunebisTvis zrunvas.
kosmosi anu harmonia samyoroseuli wesrigia. igi Seesabameba
mSvenierebis erT-erT filosofiur gansazRvrebas. antikur epoqaSi,
jer kidev plotinamde(romelsac ekuTvnis mSvenierebis klasikuri
gansazRvreba, rogorc diadisa da waruvalisa, odnav rom gamokrTis
materialuri movlenebidan)da mis Semdegac aqtualuri rCeboda
mSvenierebis, rogorc harmoniisa da wesrigis gageba, roca raRac
mTelis Semadgeneli nawilebi harmoniulad, SeTanxmebulad esadagebian
erTmaneTs. mSvenierebis amgvari gageba arsebobda piTagorianelTa
moZRvrebaSi. swored aq unda warmoSobiliyo idea maTematikuri
wesrigis rogorc fundamenturi principis Sesaxeb, romlsac efuZneba
movlenaTa mTeli mravalferovneba. piTagoras aRmoCenili maTematikuri
struqtura ricxobrivi Tanafardoba, harmoniis pirvelsawyisad,
wyarod iqca antikur samyaroSi(hazenbergi 2006:349350).
2. ,,kudismWameli urCxulis arqaul miTologemas vxedavT
dualuri gnosticizmis simboloSi - ,,uraborasSi (uraborasi berZnulidan - ,,kudi da berZnuli - ,,saWmeli.
sityvasityviT - ,,kudis(sakuTari)mWameli.), romliTac gamoxatulia
cikluri drois usasruloba. uraborasi maradisobisa da mTeli
alqimiuri procesebis simboloa. is aris TviTganayofierebadi da
SesaqmeSi TviTkmari. uraborasi zogjer gamoisaxeboda naxevrad
naTel da naxevrad bnel arsebad, riTac gamoxatuli iyo samyaros
dualuri dayofa, ori sawyisi, msgavsad Cinuri inisa da ianisa.
3. ganviTarebuli miTologiebis kosmogoniebSi, sadac kosmogenezis
zoomorful models anTrofomorfuli modeli enacvleba,
pirvelarsebuli germafrodituli urCxulis adgils aseve
orsqesovani ,,pirvelkaci iWers, rogorc es aris skandinaviur

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

239

miTosSi, pirvelkaci titani imiris saxiT, romlis sxeulis


nawilebisgan iqmneba samyaro. germafrodituli pirvelarsebis
miTologemas garkveulwilad unda asaxavdes bibliuri ,,evamdeli
adami, romelic Tavisi arsiT imTaviTve atarebs mdedrul(evas)
sawyiss.
4. ,,sakraluri qorwinebis Sesaxeb, ix. z.kiknaZe, Suamdinaruli
miTologia, Tb. 1979.
5. Wamis aqti uZvelesi adamianis warmodgenebSi uerTdeba sxva
warmodgenaTa wres: seqsualur aqts da sikvdils (freidenbergi
1997:52).
6. miTiur droSi adamianursa da cxovelurs Soris ar arsebobs
sadermakacio xazi, romelic mkveTrad gamijnavda am or, momavalSi
urTierTdapirispirebul mxares. rogorc levi-briuli miuTiTebs,
miTiur periodSi, adamianebsa da cxovelebs erTmaneTisgan erTi
nabiji aSorebT da miTebSi, TiTqmis yovelTvis es nabiji gadadgmulia.
cxovelebi iyvnen an adamianebi, an adamianuri SesaZleblobebiT aRvsilni,
rac maT xdida, ukidures SemTxvevaSi adamianebis msgavss(levi-briuli
1937:339).
7. urCxulis paradigmis universalobis - rogorc yvela sxva
paradigmis momcvelis Sesaxeb saubrobs gigi TevzaZe, Tavis werilSi
,,paradigma da urCxuli: ,,urCxuli ar eqceva paradigmaSi. piriqiT,
is iqcevs Tavis TavSi yvela paradigmas da gviCvenebs Tavis Tavs,
rogorc paradigmaze da maSasadame, paradigmulobaze ufro mets.
amitom zRapari, romlis funqciac urCxulis paradigmad yofnaa, ver
i pyrobs mas bolomde(TevzaZe 2008:23).
8. Cven aTvlis wertilad viRebT kosmoss, rogorc xilvad,
empiriulad sawvdom fenomens da ara rogorc movlenaTa centrs da
mTavar mamoZravebel RerZs. CvenTvis xilvad kosmosze dakvirveba
emsaxureba swored mTavari RerZis uxilavi, transcedenturi
usasrulobis met-naklebad moxelTebas.
9. temporaluri fenomenebi samyaroseuli struqturebisgan(arara,
qaosi, kosmosi) gaumijnavia.
10. es movlena uSualod ukavSirdeba miTisTvis niSneul samyaros
sayovelTao gasulierebis, bunebasTan partici pacis arqaul
msoflaRqmas - samyaros anTropomorfizms(//zoomorfizms), rac iwvevs
kosmosis arasulier gamovlinebebze sulier arsebaTa yvela
biologiuri Tvisebis gadatanas.
11. ,,intiCiumi (intichium) - totemizmSi dadasturebuli sakuTari
totemis magiuri gamravlebis rituali, samyaros sayovelTao zoo-

240

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

anTrofomorfizmis tendenciis ZaliT gavrceldeba kosmiur


movlenebzec. ,,kosmiuri intiCiumis rituali xorcieldeba droSi
Tavad drois mier, maSin rodesac totemizmSi aRniSnul rituals
,,gasamravlebeli totemis qveS gaerTianebuli adamianTa jgufebi
axorcieleben. Tumc es garegnuli, zedapiruli Sefaseba Cans da
totemizmis SemTxvevaSic igive viTarebasTan unda gvqondes saqme:
,,gasamravlebeli obieqti identificirebulia ,,gamamravlebel
subieqtTan, radgan totemuri gaerTianebis wevrebi mniSvnelovanwilad identificirebulni arian im totemur cxovelTan(/frinvelTan)
romlis qveSac arian gaerTianebulni (isini saxelebad atareben
totemis saxelebs, simboloebs, niSnebs, atributebs). aqedan totemuri
intiCiumi metaforulad(mxolod da mxolod metaforulad)
SegviZlia gaviazroT, rogorc ,,parTenogenuri TviTgamravlebis
rituali.
12. aWaris saxelmwifo muzeumis xelnawerTa fondi, #717, 1978
w.
13. Tqmuleba paraskevis dakargvis Sesaxeb ori Canaweris
(urTierTmsgavsi variantebi) saxiT aRmovaCineT aWaris saxelmwifo
muzeumis xelnawerTa fondSi: a)#384, 1948w. gv.67. Wvanis xeoba;
b)#372, 1948w. gv.62. xulos r-ni sof baraTaulisi.
14. plotini ,,maradisobas aigivebs ,,marad arsTan, amitom is
,,RmerTis identurad miaCnia: ,,RmerTi maradisobaSi gvivlens da
gvicxadebs Tavs, rogorc marad ucvleli, TviTigiveobrivi, waruvali
da aseTive sicocxliT mosili arsi(bregvaZe I 2006:77). maradisobis
RvTaebriv sawyiss aRiarebs netari avgustine, romlis mtkicebiT,
,,maradisoba ucvlelobisa da uZraobis, ufro zogadad ki RvTabrivi
substanciis da TviT RmerTis atributia(bregvaZe I 2006:77).
maradisobas ..RmerTis atributad acxadebs holandieli moazrovne
benediqte spinoza: ,,maradisoba atributia, romliTac Cven vwvdebiT
RmerTis usasrulo arsebobas(bregvaZe I 2006:80).
15. msgavs movlenebSi J.bodriari xedavs ,,simulaciebis
hi perrealobas. misi TqmiT, ,,erTi materiidan meoreSi gadayvanisas
uCinardeba realoba, is xdeba sikvdilis alegoria, magram Tavad am
msxvreviT is myardeba, gardaisaxeba realobad realobisTvis, obieqtis
reprezentaciis nacvlad misi uaryofis eqstazi da ritualuri
ganadgureba: hi perrealoba.(bodriari, simboluri... 2000:149).
simulaciebisa da hi perrealobis pirobebSi SeuZlebeli xdeba
sikvdili da dasasruli, SeuZlebeli xdeba gaqroba,
,,aRaraferi(RmerTic ki) ar qreba miRweuli Tavis dasasruls an

miTosuri simulaciebi mSvenieri urCxuli

241

sikvdils; gaqroba xdeba gamravlebiT, dainficirebiT, gadavsebiT da


gamWvirvalobiT; ganadgureba moCvenebiTobis epidemiiT, meorad,
moCvenebiT arsebobaSi gadasvliT. amieridan aRar aris gaqrobis
fataluri forma, aris mxolod nawilobrivi daSla, rogorc
mimobnevis forma(bodriari, borotebis.... 2000: 9).
16. v.propis gamokvlevebidan viciT, rom gveleSaps mxolod
gveleSapi amarcxebs. gvels mxolod gvelis Sobili klavs, radgan
mas aqvs gvelis Zala da gvelis buneba (propi 1946:255).
o.freidenbergi Zveli berZnuli romanis personaJebze saubrisas,
miuTiTebs im evoluciur-transfiguraciul miTologiur gzaze,
romelic cxovelurma personaJma ganvlo gmir-personaJad qcevamde:
,,cxovelebi Sedian e.w. berZnuli romanis cxovelTmebrZoleobis
epozodebSi; berZnuli romanis gmiri ukve cxoveli aRar aris, aramed
_ cxovelTan mebrZolia da Tavad cxovelSi Cven vxedavT gmiris
oreuls, romelsac is ebrZvis(freidenbergi 1997:204)
17. z.kiknaZis ,,zRapris esqatologiis koncefciaSi, zRapris
finali qorwili Tavisi sawyisiT esqatologiuria. ,,zRapris
dasasruli wuTisoflis dasasrulia; ,,es ar aris erTi rigiTi
wuTisofluri qorwili, romlis Semdegac axali Taobis dabadebas
moelian. . . . am qorwilis dRe uxvalioa, rogorc is merve dRe,
romelsac ara aqvs dasasruli.(kiknaZe 2001:265).
literatura
bodriari 1999: . , , 1999.
bodriari, simboluri... 2000: . ,
. 2000.
bodr
iar
i, bo
rotebis... 2000: . , ,
bodriar
iari,
borotebis...
M2000.
bregvaZe 2006: b.bregvaZe, dro da maradisoba, I, Tb. 2006.
eliade 2002: . .
, . 2002.
zolotarevi 1964: . .,
, ., 1964;
TavdgiriZe 2008: x.TavdgiriZe, ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis qarTuli
kosmogoniuri miTo-ritualuri modelebi, kreb. ,,qarTuli
folklori, 4(XX), Tb.2008.
Tandilava 1996: z.Tandilava, wylis kulti da qarTuli folklori,
baT. 1996.

242

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

TevzaZe 2008: g.TevzaZe, paradigma da urCxuli, kreb. ,,semiotika,


III, Tb.2008.
ilini 11998:
998: . ,
: . . 1998.
kiknaZe 2001: z.kiknaZe, zRapris esqatologia, wignSi: z.kiknaZe,
avTandilis anderZi, Tb.2001.
kiknaZe 1979: z.kiknaZe, Suamdinaruli miTologia, Tb.1979.
kiknaZe 1985: z.kiknaZe, qarTul miTologiur gadmocemaTa sistema,
Tb.1985.
levinasi 2004: . : , ., 2004.
levi-br
iuli 11937:
937: . - ,
levi-briuli
, . 1937.
levi-strosi 2001: . -, ,
.2001
levi-strosi 1994: . -, , .
1994.
miTis fsiqoanalitikuri... 1998: ,
, .1998.
meletinski 1976: . . , .1976.
piatigorski 1996: ., .
, .1996.
propi 11946:
946: . , ,
.1946.
putilovi 11980:
980: . ., , , ,
., 1980;
rexviaSvili 1963: n.rexviaSvili, salocavi ,,mziuri(giune), kreb.
saqarTvelos muzeumis moambe, XXIV-B, Tb.1963.
robaqiZe 1991: g.robaqiZe, saqarTvelos saTaveni, Jurn. literatura
da xelovneba, Tb., 1991,@# 2.
sixaruliZe 2004: qeTevan sixaruliZe, miwis RvTaebebi kavkasiaSi,
kreb.: qarTuli folklori, 2(XVII), Tb.2004.
freidenbergi 1997: . ., ,
.,1997.
canava 2005: r.canava, miToritualuri modelebi. simboloebi antikur
mwerlobaSi da qarTuli literaturul-eTnologiuri
paralelebi, Tb.2005.
haizenbergi 2006: v.haizenbergi, mecnierebis azri da mniSvneloba
zust mecnierebebSi, wignSi: b.bregvaZe, axali Targmanebi, II, Tb.2006.

243

zaza SaTiriSvili

rogor unda daiweros


Zveli qarTuli
literaturis istoria?
(sakiTxis dasmisTvis)

filosofiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, Cikagos universitetis miwveuli mecnieri.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
gakaltionis poetika da
ritorika (2004), narativis apologia (2005).
interesTa sfero:
literaturis Teoria da
literaturis istoria,
kritika.

dRemde qarTuli literaturis istoria


Semdegi sqemis mixedviT iwereboda: Zveli
literatura (V _ XVIII saukuneebi), axali
literatura (XIX saukune) da _ uaxlesi
(XX saukune). amgvaradve iswavleboda
qarTuli literatura ukanasknel dromde
skolasa (me-8/9 klasi _ Zveli literatura,
me-9/10 _ axali da me-10/11 _ uaxlesi) da
universitetSi.
mocemul sqemas aqvs rogorc Tavisi pozitiuri, ise _ negatiuri mxareebi. pozitiuri
isaa, rom aseTi klasifikacia kargad
gamoxatavs im kardinalur gardatexas, rac
qarTul literaturaSi XIX saukunis dasawyisSi moxda, xolo negatiuri isaa, rom
V _ XVIII saukuneebi erT mTlianobaSia
moqceuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom am mTlianobas
qveperiodizacia axasiaTebs, es mainc ver
asaxavs erT mniSvnelovan aspeqts. arada, es
aspeqti korneli kekeliZes, garkveulwilad,
moniSnuli aqvs: misi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis ortomeuli gayofilia
mniSvnelovani opoziciis mixedviT _ pirveli
tomi sasuliero literaturas eZRvneba,
xolo meore _ saeros.
amiT, TiTqos, aRiarebulia is faqti, rom
Zveli qarTuli literaturis Seswavlisas
istoriul dayofasTan erTad mniSvnelovania
_ ti pologiuric. magaliTad, daviT gura-

244

zaza SaTiriSvili

miSvili da anton I TiTqmis Tanamedroveni arian, magram erTis


adgili I tomSia, xolo meorisa _ II-Si. arada, wminda poetikuri
TvalsazrisiT, guramiSvili bevrad met siaxloves amJRavnebs Zvel
literaturasTan, vidre _ antoni, romelic me-18 saukunis rusulevropuli saganmanaTleblo sqemebiT sargeblobda (sami stilis
Teoriis CaTvliT, Tumca, es Teoria, Tavis mxriv, meore sofistikidan
mainc iwyeba) da romelic ufro arqaisti-modernizatori iyo, vidre
guramiSvilisnairi spontanuri himnografi.
kekeliZis sqemaSi kidev bevri problemuri momentia. kerZod,
saqme exeba saero literaturis amgvar Janrobriv sqematizacias:
eposi _ lirika _ drama. am dros, rogorc sxva adgilas Cven ukve
aRvniSneT, TviTon XV _ XVIII saukuneebis literaturam amgvari
dayofis Sesaxeb araferi icis da Tavisi sakuTari klasifikacia
aqvs, romelsac kekeliZe TiTqmis ar iTvaliswinebs.
arsebobs kidev erTi rTuli momenti: aleqsandre WavWavaZe, romlis
ramdenime mniSvnelovani teqsti, Janrobrivi TvalsazrisiT, swored
Zveli literaturis sferoSi Tavsdeba, mTlianad gatanilia kekeliZis
ortomeulis farglebs gareT, rogor ti puri romantikosi. arada,
XVIII saukunis bolo da XIX saukunis 20/30-iani wlebi swored
imiT gamoirCeva, rom aq saocari aRreva da difuziaa rogorc Zveli
sasuliero, ise Zveli saero da axali klasikur-romantikuli
Janrebisa. magaliTad, igive guramiSvili, romelic erTi mxriv, Tavisi
Tematuri toposebiT did siaxloves amJRavnebs Zvel sasuliero
literaturasTan, garkveuli azriT, am poetis unikaluri Janruli
intuiciidan gamomdinare, bevrad ufro modernuli avtoria, vidre
_ romantikosi baraTaSvili.
maSasadame, rodesac Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis
weras viwyebT, kargad unda gavisigrZeganoT, rom XIX saukunis pirveli
30-wleulis gaazrebis gareSe SeiZleba bevri seriozuli Secdoma
mogvivides.
meorec, ar SeiZleba arc wminda istoriuli da arc wminda
ti pologiuri sqemebis gamoyeneba. am SemTxvevaSi, Cven kekeliZiseuli
midgoma unda gaviziaroT, oRond saWiroa misi meTodologiuri
revizia da Semdgomi konceptualuri refleqsia, magaliTad, Janris
sakiTxze.
mesame _ aucileblad unda daviwyoT refleqsia imis Sesaxeb, Tu
ras niSnavs literaturis koncepti. ufro zustad, unda
ganvsazRvroT, Tu ras niSnavda literatura Cveni ZvelebisTvis
_ samRvdeloTaTvis da saeroTaTvis. amitomac, sruliad aucileb-

rogor unda daiweros Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria?

245

lad mimaCnia sulxan-saba orbelianis Janrobrivi klasifikaciis


gaTvaliswineba da misi nawilobrivi gaziarebac ki, rac, cxadia, ar
gamoricxavs (piriqiT), mTel rigs dazustebebsas.
literaturis konceptTan dakavSirebiT minda SegaxsenoT erTi
polemikis Sesaxeb, romlic XX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi gaimarTa,
magram, romelic, samwuxarod, maleve Sewyda. maSin Temur doiaSvilma
da levan bregaZem sakmaod Tamamad dasves amgvari SekiTxva: SeiZleba
Tu ara, rom agiografias vuwodoT literatura sakuTrivi gagebiT?
Tuki aravin CaTvlis, rom am sakiTxis ganaxlebiT me aleqsndrekaxa lomaias wisqvilze vasxam wyals, minda SevniSno Semdegi: doiaSvili
da bregaZe erTdroulad marTlebic iyvnen da arc iyvnen marTlebi.
me mesmis, rom Cemi pasuxi cnobil ebraul igavs waagavs, magram minda
davazusto.
saqme isaa, rom evropul tradiciaSi literaturas garkveul
periodamde gansazRvravs mimezisis cneba. mimezisi aristoteles
poetikis centraluri kategoriaa. is qarTulad iTargmneba rogorc
mibaZva, magram, sinamdvileSi, is fiqciurobis gagebas Seicavs. Tu
asea, maSin agiografia, sakuTrivi gagebiT, araa literatura, radgan,
erTi mxriv, is istoriul xdomilebaze mogviTxrobs, xolo meore
mxriv, Tu aq mibaZva mainc xdeba, es qristes mibaZvaa, rasac zerealobis
aspeqti Semoaqvs.
magram, meore mxriv, rogorc Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi udidesi
literaturaTmcodne Jerar Jeneti SeniSnavs, literatura mxolod
fiqciurobas ar niSnavs, is stilis gagebasac moicavs. Tu asea, maSin
ninos cxovreba, grigol xanZTelis cxovreba an SuSanikis wameba
literaturis kuTvnilebaa brwyinvale enis (anu stilis) gamo, xolo
raJdenis wameba _ ara.
magram swored es kolizia kargad gviCvenebs ramdenime mniSvnelovan
gansxvavebas, rac arsebobs qarTul literaturasa da evropul
literaturas (literaturebs) Soris.
pirveli gansxvaveba zedapirze devs: evropul kulturaSi,
magaliTisaTvis, agiografiuli teqstebi laTinur enaze iqmneboda.
aqedan gamomdinare, roca adgilobriv enebze literatura warmoiSva
da Semdeg am literaturis (literaturaTa) skolaSi Seswavla
gaxda saWiro (es ki gacilebiT gvian, XIX saukuneSi moxda), aq
sakiTxic ki ar dasmula franguli, germanuli, Tu italiuri
agiografiis Sesaxeb, radganac Sesabamisi teqstebi laTinurad iyo
dawerili.

246

zaza SaTiriSvili

magram aq Tavs Segvaxsenebs meore, ufro fundamenturi, aspeqtic.


rogorc cnobilia, arsebobs laTinuri saSualo saukuneebis
literatura, romelsac XX saukunis udidesma filologma ernst
robert kurciusma Tavisi cnobili opus magnum miuZRvna
saxelwodebiT _ laTinuri saSualo saukuneebi da evropuli
literatura (1948 w.). am gansacvifrebel gamokvlevaSi kurciusi
Zalian naTlad gviCvenebs, rom evropuli adgilobrivi literaturebis
warmoSobaSi laTinur literaturas udidesi wvlili miuZRvis.
ufro metic, naCvenebia, rom evropuli literaturis uwyvetobas
antikurobidan axal dromde swored laTinuri saSualo saukuneebi
ganapirobebs. es niSnavs Semdegs: miuxedavad imisa, rom agiografiuli
Tu himnografuli teqstebi, erTi mxriv, da leqsebi Tu poemebi,
meore mxriv, erTsa da imave enaze _ kerZod, laTinurad iqmneba, _
mkiTxvel auditorias Zalian kargad aqvs gaazrebuli, ra gansxvavebaa
literaturasa da, magaliTad, agiografias Soris. saqme isaa, rom
laTinuri saSualo saukuneebisaTvis literaturis klasikuri _
berZnul-romauli _ gaazreba gadamwyvetia _ saSualo saukuneebis
laTini avtorebi mTlianad eyrdnobian aristotelur-horaciusiseul
poetikasa da Janrul klasifikacias.
swored es tradicia ar dgas saSualo saukuneebis qarTulenovani
sityvierebis ukan. amitomac, roca rusTvelis poemas XVI _ XVIII
saukuneebis qarTveli avtorebi tradiciis dasawyisad miiCnven
(meleqseT-dasabami SoTa), isini sruliad marTlebi arian. saqme
isaa, rom literaturis koncepti qarTul enobriv sivcreSi iranuli
literaturidan Semodis, radganac iranuli literaturidan Semodis
saliteraturo Janrebisa da poetikis gageba.
aq, ra Tqma unda, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom iranul literaturaSi
literaturuli refleqsia da praqtika arabuli literaturis
gavleniT iwyeba, xolo Tavad arabulSi literaturis konceptualizacia berZnuli kulturis, kerZod, aristoteles poetikis zegavleniT
moxda.
swored esaa qarTuli literaturis mTavari paradoqsi: Zveli
qarTuli religiuri kanoni da Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo
kanoni heterogenuli warmoSobisaa. swored es umTavresi
garemoeba unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rodesac qarTuli literaturis
istoriisa da, kerZod, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis
weras viwyebT. amitomacaa dRemde dawerili qarTuli literaturis
nebismieri istoria, romelic saSualo saukuneebis qarTuli
sityvierebasac mimoixilavs, sazogado meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT,

rogor unda daiweros Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria?

247

an araadekvaturi (magaliTad, donald reifildis naSromi), an _


nawilobriv adekvaturi (magaliTad, aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis
fuZemdebluri gamokvleva). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, XVI-XVIII
saukuneebis qarTul enobriv sinamdvileSi religiuri kanoni
_ qristianulia, xolo saliteraturo _ islamuri (arabuliranuli)
iranuli). enobrivi TvlsazrisiTac, aseve sayuradRebo situaciaa:
religiuri sityvierebis ena berZnulsa da Semdeg slavur/rusulzea
orientirebuli, xolo saliteraturo _ iranulsa da, nawilobriv,
Turqulze.
am garemoebas erT sayuradRebo literaturul faqtTan mivyavarT:
roca Teimuraz I _ Tavisi mniSvnelobiT, ra Tqma unda, rusTavelis
Semdeg am periodis meore avtori _ iranuli poeziis adaptacias
asrulebs qarTul enaze, is nizamidan momdinare alegoriul poemebs
_ leilmejnunians, Samifarvanians da sxv. _ kvecavs, agdebs
alegoriul eqsegezasa da mistikur konteqsts am siuJetebs mTlianad
aclis. aseve iqcevaa nodar ciciSvilic baramgurianis SemTxvevaSi.
arada, nizami Tavisi poemis prologSi pirdapir acxadebs, rom misi
nawarmoebi esaa zardaxSa, romelsac ori Ziri aqvs es meore
Ziri sufisturi alegoriaa _ anu qal-vaJis siyvarulis miRma
sufistisa da alahis mistikuri urTierTmimarTeba imaleba.
saintereso isaa, rom XVI_XVIII saukunis qarTveli avtorebi
daaxloebiT iseve iqcevian, rogorc XX saukuneSi _ sabWoTa cenzura,
romelic jal-edin rumis igavebs misi mesnevidan da laTinuri
saSualo saukuneebis teqsts _ gesta romanorums _ Sesabamisi
alegoriuli eqsegezis (ganmartebebis) gareSe aqveynebda. ra Tqma
unda, es iyo, Cveni Zveli avtorebis SemTxvevaSi, qristianuli
TviTcenzura _ iTargmneboda poemis siuJeti am siuJetis mistikuri
recepciis gareSe, misi qristianuli gadaazreba ver xdeboda, radganac
Teimurazis Tanamedrove berZnulenovan qristianul literaturaSi
ar moi poveboda alegoriuli eqsegezis misabaZi magaliTi _ modeli,
xolo grigol noselisa Tu sxva adreuli avtorebis teqstebze,
sadac qristianuli alegoriuli eqsegezis Cinebuli magaliTebia,
samwuxarod, sxvadasxva garemoebaTa gamo Cvens avtorebs xeli ukve
aRar miuwvdebodaT.
aq, ra Tqma unda, arc droa da arc adgili, raTa alegoriuli
eqsegezis warmoSobisa da funqciis Sesaxeb visaubroT, magram sruliad
aucilebelia, aRvniSnoT Semdegi: literaturis funqciisa da
daniSnulebis Sesaxeb kamaTi ukve antikurobaSi wamoiSva. miaCndaT,
rom hesiode gvaswavlis, xolo homerosi, am gadasaxedidan,

248

zaza SaTiriSvili

problemuri avtori iyo. platonma radikalurad daayena sakiTxi,


roca aRniSna, rom homerosi umarTebulo ambebs gviyveba RmerTebis
Sesaxeb. gviandelma platonikosebma (romelTac neoplatonikosebsac
uwodeben) problema Semdegnairad gadawyites _ maT Tqves, rom
homerosis poemebi alegoriulia, homerosis narativis ukan
filosofiuri alegoria amoikiTxes da amiT platoni da homerosi
SeaTanxmes.
swored ase gadawyvites mualakebis poeziis sakiTxi arabebma
da alegoriuli eqsegezis meSveobiT adreuli arabuli poezia
islamur konteqstSi moaTavses. es gza fundamenturi aRmoCnda _
poezia islamur religiur kanonSi moTavsda swored imis gamo, rom
mas aRmoaCnda alegoriul-moralisturi datvirTva.
kamaTi vefxistyaosnis Sesaxeb, romelic kargad ikiTxeba vaxtang
VI-is TargmanebaSi, swored am Temas eZRvneboda: amitomac, rogorc
sxva adgilas ukve aRvniSneT, vaxtangma vefxistyaosani waikiTxa ara
rogorc alegoriuli narativi (ambavi), aramed rogorc moralisturi
_ sacolqmro narativi, sadac drodadro ismis avtoris _ gandgomili
beris _ SoTa rusTvelis alegoriuli diskursi _ alegoriuli
xma.
vaxtangis am wakiTxvis ukan realuri hermenevtikuli problema
idga, romelic poemis prologSive Cans: Sairoba saRvTocaa da
saeroc. namdvili Sairoba pirvel (zena) mijnurobas unda
eZRvnebodes. arada, rusTveli ambobs, rom misi poema meore (dabal)
mijnurobas eZRvneba (vTqvi xelobani qvenani..). maSin gamodis, rom
rusTveli ar aris pirveli _ WeSmariti _ moSaire. swored am
problemis gadaWras Seecada vaxtangi. amdenad, vaxtangiseuli eqsegeza
savsebiT adekvaturia. is bevrad ufro adekvaturia, vidre XIX-XX
saukuneebis rusTvelologiis didi nawili.
Tuki nizamis poemebi, nizamisave ganmartebiT, esaa _ zardaxSa,
romelsac ori Ziri aqvs, vefxistyaosani esaa zardaxSa, romlis
gasaRebi dakargulia. rogorc korneli kekeliZem araCveulebrivad
aRniSna, Cven sami ram ar viciT am poemis Sesaxeb _ ar viciT, vin
dawera, rodis daiwera da sad daiwera vefxistyaosani. anu Cven ar
viciT am poemis uaxloesi konteqsti. aqedan erTaderTi daskvna
gamomdinareobs: poemis uaxloesi konteqsti esaa XVI _ XVIII
saukuneebis poezia (da literatura).
SevajamoT: XVI _ XVIII saukuneebis qarTuli literatura,
romlis centri vefxistyaosania, regionuli literaturaa, romelic
iranuli zonuri literaturis gavlenis qveS imyofeba. xolo Tavad

rogor unda daiweros Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria?

249

iranuli literatura arabuli _ Tauri _ literaturis zonuri


gadamtania. me am SemTxvevaSi viyeneb malauri literaturis aRiarebuli
specialistis londonis universitetis profesoris v. braginskis
istoriul-poetikur models. qarTuli literaturis specifika
isaa, rom mas XIX saukunemde qristianuli religiuri kanonisa
da islamuri (arabul-iranuli) literaturuli kanonis
Sexameba gansazRvravs
gansazRvravs. vaxtangi swored imitom aRniSnavs, rom
es ambavi sparseTSi ar ariso, rom surs poemis qristianuli
interpretacia, risTvisac eqsegezis sakmaod daxvewil da, garkveuli
azriT, moulodnel xerxs mimarTavs.
is, rac XVIII saukuneSi qristianul-isalmuri kolizia iyo
(amgvaradve unda wavikiTxoT timoTe gabaSvilis risxviani inveqtiva
vefxistyaosnis winaaRmdeg _ rogorc yofiTi islamizaciis
winaaRmdeg galaSqreba), XIX saukunis meore nexevarSi gadaazrebul
iqna qarTuli nacionalizmisa da qarTul-sparsuli literaturuli
mimarTebis konteqstSi, rac sxva saubris Temaa.
magram sanamde es moxdeba, kidev erTi avtori unda ganvixiloT,
romlsac sruliad gansakuTrebuli adgili unda mivakuTvnoT qarTuli
literaturis istoriaSi. mas isedac aqvs es gansakuTrebuli adgili,
magram, istoriul-literaturuli poziciidan, es figura sruliad
unikalurad gamoiyureba. cxadia, me daviT guramiSvils vgulisxmob.
daviT guramiSvili XVI _ XVIII saukuneebis erTaderTi poetia,
romelic sakuTari wignisa da sakuTari Tavis genealogiis uzustes
koordinatebs iZleva _ is Tanmimdevrulad iazrebs qarTlis ambebs
bibliur konteqstSi, bagrationebis genealogias _ aseve, bibliur
daviT mefesTan dakavSirebuli gadmocemis fonze; amave dros, is
iZleva sakuTari aristokratiuli warmoSobis koordinatebs da
sakuTari Tavis, rogor poetis, genealogias.
magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani isaa, rom guramiSvili mTeli
qarTuli literaturis sistemur eqsegezasa da klasifikacias
iZleva
iZleva. man mogvca saliteraturo kanonis xati, romelic samefo
darbazis analogiuria da sadac mefis taxtze rusTveli zis (aqve
SevniSnavT, rom swored aqedan iwyeba mefe-poetis is xati, romelsac
ase farTod gamoiyenebs gansxvavebul konteqstSi galaktioni); manve
Tanmimdevruli alegoriuli eqsegezis meSveobiT waikiTxa rusTaveli
_ vinc dargo igvaT-xe da sakuTari Tavi gaiazra rogorc
STamomavali _ anu sakuTari Semoqmedeba, aseve, alegoriulad waikiTxa.
da, rac mTavaria, guramiSvilma mTlianad gadazila erTmaneTSi
saero da sasuliero Janruli sistemebi _ saero prosodiaSi

250

zaza SaTiriSvili

Teologiuri Sinaarsi CaRvara, xolo Sairis metriT daweril


leqsebs iambiko uwoda. am Tanmimdevruli da totaluri sistematizaciiT guramiSvili absoluturi novatori da modernisti
aRmoCnda. Zalian mniSvnelovania isic, rom mas sruliad hermetul
konteqstSi _ mkiTxveli auditoriis gareSe _ uwevda muSaoba,
ramac ganapiroba is, rom guramiSvilma Tavis poetur strategiad
Tanmimdevruli alegoriuli eqsegeza airCia da kievuri barokos
haerSi moxelTeba moaxerxa (man xom, garkveuli azriT, sabednierodac
ki, bolomde ver iswavla verc rusuli ena da verc _ adgilobrivi
dialeqti). genialuri zubovkis ukan, ra Tqma unda, bibliuri
qeba qebaTa imaleba, rogorc modeli, oRond adgilobrivi _ kievuri
_ kaTolikuri barokos konteqstSi gamovlili.
yovelive amis gamo guramiSvili, miuxedavad sruliad
Suasaukuneobrivi toposebisa, cdeba Zveli qarTuli literaturis
Janrul sistemasa da poetikas da axali poetikis zRvarze imyofeba
rogorc novatori-arqaisti (Tuki genialuri tinianovis cnobil
klasifikacias gavixsenebT). misi oreuli nikoloz baraTaSvilia,
romelic fsalmunebis enaSi ukve sruliad romantikul melanqolias
aTavsebda, rogorc _ arqaisti-novatori.
da bolos, guramiSvilTan, garkveuli azriT, xdeba
islamuri konteqstis neitralizeba, ris gamoc pirvelad
da ukanasknelad Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi
saliteraturo kanoni religiur kanons alegoriuli eqsegezis
wyalobiT bunebrivad exameba
exameba. amiT guramiSvilma, faqtobrivad,
igive ram moimoqmeda, rac gviandelma platonikosebma homerosis
mimarT Caidines, xolo saSualo saukuneebis qristianma sqolastebma
_ vergiliusis mimarT, romelic qristes winaswarmetyvelad aqcies.
am yvelaferSi, cxadia, iyo logika da literaturuli tradiciis
flobis unari. sagulisxmoa, rom guramiSvilma es Sexameba swored
maSin SeZlo, roca qarTuli literaturis saSualo saukuneobrivi
periodi (Zveli qarTuli literatura) ukve TiTqmis dasrulebuli
iyo.
amitomac, vinc momavalSi dawers Zveli qarTuli literaturis
istorias, man aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinos guramiSvilis
gamocdileba, misi unikaluri Janruli intuicia da jerovnad daafasos
am genialuri poetis hermenevtikuli alRo.

251

ABSTRACTS

Rusudan Asatiani, Tinatin Janelidze


Functional Analysis of Conjunctions Showing an Informational Contrast
in Georgian
Linguistic structuring of reality based on the notions same-different proceeds
through oppositions. An opposition means that there are at least two items one
of which is marked and another is unmarked. Structuring of information, its
packaging, also proceeds through the foregrounding of such contrastive
constituents: one part of information stands out against a background of the other
part of information. As a result different formal models of various types of topics
and focuses arise.
The paper examines the role of conjunctions in the process of structuring of
contrastive topics and/or focuses. On the basis of functional-semantic analysis of
conjunctions seven binary differential semantic features are suggested: +/[Contrast], +/-[Opposition], +/-[Correction], +/- [Expectation], +/-[Wish], +/[At least one], +/-[Strong underlining]. The various combinations of the features
express main functions of the conjunctions, which are relevant for the formal
representations of contrastive topics and/or focuses.

Tsira Barbakadze
Fascinating Function of Language and Fog Semiotics
The metaphore tends to be the most important event in the world cognitive
process. Due to paradigm of new knowledge the methapore is considered as a
humans essential mental mechanism determining the persons relation with reality.
According to this point of view we are concerned about metaphorical
comprehension representative items of natural concepts dealing with language
conscious stuctures in the Georgian poetry discourse.
Fog appears to be one of the most activated semantems among natural
concepts representing certain high grade of metaphorisation in the poetry discourse.
Fog forms very special poetics considering the emotional meanings as well
as metaphorical and symbolical systems in Georgian poetry. While demonstrating

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negative and dominant positive emotions, fog is a concern to be a symbol of


The world sadness suffering poets with illness.
Fog, challenging the illegibility, is associated as the mystery, that is supposed
to be a divine sign.

Ketevan Bezarashvili
The Concept of Beauty in Byzantine, Old Georgian Aesthetics and
Rustavelis Poem
In Byzantine rhetorical theory many concepts were inherited from their
Classical counterpart. Their interrelation was well studied in scholarly literature.
However, it has been always difficult to identify the new peculiarities of Byzantine
theory of rhetoric for a simple reason: Byzantine theory inherited the concepts of
Hellenistic theories, but expressed the new understanding of these concepts in
traditional terms of the Classical theories of rhetoric (as well as Patristic theology
introduced the new, theological meaning of philosophical terminology adopted
by them from Classical Greek authors).
The study of the problem makes it obvious that the Byzantine rhetorical
theory is not a mere imitation of Classical theories, but develops the new aspects
of the traditional concepts. That is to say, these are the two aspects of the concept
of mimesis (a new, Christian perception along with Classical), also the aspects of
style (new notion of ecclesiastical style), beauty, etc.
Michael Psellos also issued a new concept of theological beauty. This idea is
expressed in Patristic literature, too, and means transcendental beauty. This new
aspect of the concept of beauty was different from the outward, sensible (i.e.
aesthetical) meaning of it used in Classical theories mainly as the beauty of literary
form and art.
In the treatises of Michael Psellos as well as in the colophons of Ephrem
Mtsire the two aspects of the concepts of mimesis, style and beauty differ from
each other and at the same time they co-exist. It is exactly the co-existence of
opposite notions that is called by Michael Psellos combining incompatible things;
this is the main peculiarity of Byzantine aesthetics that makes it different from its
Classical counterpart.
The two aspects of the concept of beauty are also interesting in Rustavelis
poem. The term beauty expresses two types here - natural/material and spiritual/
of heavenly origin. The notions mentioned in introduction of the poem have dual
qualities; for example, the visual beauty of beloved person is material, while the

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beauty of love as difficult conceptual notion is divine and spiritual. Studying the
divine, theological meaning of Rustavelis some phrases, e.g., contemplation of
beauty/beauty of vision (mentioned in Avtandils testament) makes clear that the
aesthetical thought of Rustaveli has two aspects as well as it is in Byzantine and
Old Georgian counterparts. The concept of beauty (along with other concepts,
which is not possible now to analyze widely and only shortly is mentioned here),
receives new, divine Christian aspect along with traditional, physical understanding.
Regarding these data Rustavelis work is also good expression of Byzantine
thought and based on patristic authors. The attitude of Rustavelis poem with the
peculiarities of Oriental Islamic aesthetics that was so active in the researches of
past period must be studied once again comparing with Byzantine theoretical
ideas. The latter is presented here separately, while comparison of both methods
and studying them together is precious for main conclusions in future.

Mamuka Bichashvili
Author and His Work. Problem of Identity
An article deals with problem of relationship between author and his work.
Semiotics of Roland Barthes interprets this problem as became actual only after
New Time, when in European philosophy conception of subjectivity was
elaborated in detail. Literary criticism of New Time broadly accepted a point of
view under which the understanding of work of art was possible only after high
knowledge of its author, his life and emotions. Barthes conception gives different
approach and insists on full identity of author and his work. The article tries to
show, that something like Barthes just mentioned idea, 17 century Georgian poet
David Guramishvili had in mind in his Davitiany.

Konstantine Bregadze
Philosophy of History in Romanticism in Novalis Hymns to the Night
for the Hermeneutics of Hymn 5

In his poetic cycle Hymns to the Night (Hymnen an die Nacht),


and more precisely in Hymn 5, the German Romantic poet and philosopher Novalis
(Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772-1801) presented his own version of the

254

philosophy of history. According to Novalis, the history of human kind includes


three stages:
1. Existential monism: the childhood age of the humankind, i.e. mythicalparadisal existence (the age of sensitivity). In Hymn 5, this infantile-paradisal age
is symbolically represented by ancient mythological Greece. This is fictional,
poetic-imaginary, symbolic Hellas. The ancient Greece pictured in the Hymn is
not a historical country but a mental concept fostered by spiritual perception.
2. Existential dualism: The non-historical, mythic phase of humankind is
followed by the age of adulthood, i.e. the historical age (the age of mind). Following
the period of infantile-nave existence, when a man was close to God and reckoned
himself among the constituting elements of the Creation, when he was inherent
with the nature, the historical age starts the process of individualization of
humankind, the period when man is guided by his mind, which marks his
emancipation he distances himself from God, from nature and establishes himself
within empirical reality. Consequently, he becomes mortal. In this case, freedom
and individualization are achieved through the abolishment of non-free immortality.
At this stage, humankind faces a certain dilemma, dualism on the one hand,
there is immortal, everlasting but non-free existence with God, while on the other
hand there is free but transient and terminable being. In Hymn 5, transition of
humankind from the mythic age to the historical one, mans departure from God
and his individualization is conveyed through the symbolic image of death. Human
transition to a new ontological stage is also implied in the phrase Dry Number
and rhigid Measure (drre Zahl und strenge Mass), which stands for ratio,
and the attributes of analythical mind.
3. Existential synthesis: The Golden Age of humankind, the age of
Heavenly Jerusalem, which is established in the empirical, terminable reality through
the Birth of Logos, Son of God, through the mystery of Resurrection (the spiritual
age). The third stage of the spiritual history of humankind is the age of abolishing
the existential dualism which humans face. This is fulfilled by Jesus Christ, and the
whole humankind with Him, through defeating old Death (der alte Tod),
which in the Hymns appears as the symbol of transience, the existential confinement
of humankind: through overpowering transience and terminability humankind
retrieves the paradisal existence.

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Nino Daraselia
The Interjection from the Standpoint of Frame Semantics
The paper examines English, Georgian and Russian interjections from the
standpoint of frame semantics. The study has proved that because of its cognitive
and discoursal features the interjection can be considered a linguistic unit which
serves as an ostensive stimulus during a communicative act. It stimulates the
addressees long-term memory activating a certain frame or a set of frames. The
latter form the inferential basis for discourse interpretation and consequently limit
the number of possible interpretations and ease the comprehension process.

Manana Kvachantaridze
The Concept of Two Brothers. Psycho-social Aspects of
Intertextuality
The concept of two brothers traditionally takes the special place in the
common text of culture and is distinguished with the plenty of echoes among the
literary texts. On a Gibbet by Ilia Chavchavadze and A Vindictiveness by
Guram Gegeshidze offer the different solution of humans psycho-social problem.
Ilia emphasizes the social aspect of confrontation between a person and a society,
and Guram Gegeshidze emphasizes the psychological aspect.
Guram Gegeshizde answers the question stated in the final of Ilias story and
indicates that the right solution is in the persons moral choice.

Ada Nemsadze
Symbol of Lemon in Otar Chiladzes Novels
Otar Chiladzes symbolic world is distinguished in the Georgian literature of
XX century. Many things used in his novels can be interpreted symbolically. For
example, deer, coke, snow, lemon, sea, theatre, donkey, forest, etc. And now
lets focus upon the symbol of lemon.
The Novel Everyone Who Finds Me provides for a lemon planted in the
box brought by Babutsa to the Makabels which dies in two weeks. Here the
lemon implies only a positive origin . And its death indicates on incompatibility of
two mutually exclusive origins - the Good and the Evil.

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His Novel The Iron Theatre provides for a wider symbolic path. Here the
author depicts one of the main characters, Nato, symbolically as a lemon.
This encryption is doubled in March Cock where a lemon is represented
by the Teacher Vanos daughter and as absolute goodness. It does not die in a
negative space, it grows more and more and becomes strong and that is Otar
Chiladzes interpretation of eternity and immortality of the Good.
One of the key problems in Otar Chiladzes artistic system is to find personal,
social and psycho-social identity. The essence of the lemon symbol is in direct
relation therewith. When the lemon dies, there is a crisis of psycho-social identity,
and where the lemon blossoms there we meet identification.

Nana Trapaidze
Poetics of Laughter in Modert Fictional Concept
Considering recent cultural and historical circumstances, classical paradigms
of Georgian literary thinking undergo changes. We face the necessity to read
classical fiction again.. Parody, irony, grotesque, carnival laughter serve as cultural
chain together with being classic, therefore deconstruct it at the same time on the
basis of reading and considering traditions again and again.

Shota Bostanashvili, Davit Bostanashvili


Presentation of nash/eni

eni pronounced: [n/[ni]


By presenting the neologism nash/eni (naS
naS/eni
- hybrid of two Georgian words: 1. naSeni [n[ni] - something built; 2. ena
[[n] - language) we hint at the specific nature of semiotics of architecture.
[n/[ni] represents something, that is material - the Built - and at the
same time is a language, a sign; being both and none at the same time, something
other; a signifier with two intangible signifieds.
[n/[ni] confirms its being between presence and absence, inter esse;
that it is interesting; its simultaneous polysemantics/dissemination. With this
regard we could mention Platos concept of Chora, with Jacques Derridas
comment, that Chora belongs neither to Eidos, nor Mimesis [Derrida, On the
Name: p. 145]. Also, J. Derridas and P. Eisenmans book titled Chora L
Works is a linguistic play between Chora and choral, choir (quire).

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In the presented essay it is the language itself that works; language about the
language that already took hold of the Built (history, theory and poetics of
architecture).
The thesis introduces metapoetics of architecture - rewriting the history
of architecture where the stylistically and historically difference come close together
thematically (Mass, Wall, Coloumn, Stair, Frame, Blob / surface / veil). The
text includes the manifest (1995) of Poetics of Architecture.
While discussing semiotics of [n/[ni] two fields theorized by Mikheil
Epstein are introduced: 1. semionics - science about the formation of new signs
and 2. semiergon (from Greek: semeion - sign and ergon - work) the practice
of sign production.
The architectural discourse overwhelmed by new signs of advertising and
marketing would be an example of semiergon.
During the recent decades architectural language is transforming radically.
At the same time we can observe the confounding of languages in architecture.
To think - means to re-create the language [Epstein: p. 655].
The presented essay is not only about the creation of language, but also an
example of such practice.

Izabella Petriashvili
Global and Local Codes in Advertising
As is known, advertising forms an essential part of modern culture; it is not
only an important business tool, but a relevant means of communication, a
distinctive type of discourse in the globalized world. However, sometimes
advertisements for products that are used worldwide fail to be efficient; some
advertisement slogans do not travel well. Hence creating a global code for
successful advertisement writing is essential.
How to write an effective advertisement this is one of the main issues the
advertisement writing technique faces in the post-soviet Georgia. The paper
presents a comparative study of Georgian and English advertisements. The data
has been analyzed structurally, semantically and pragmatically. The article deals
with the study of Georgian advertisement catchphrases and slogans, mainly for
pharmaceutical products and bank services, to compare them with existing studies
of English advertisements by different linguists in order to state some common
linguo-pragmatic features which will make it possible to identify global and local
codes in advertising.

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The article focuses on the analysis of the grammatical structure as a verbal


representation of the advertising language, and the role of some non-verbal
features, such as colours, image and symbol in the interpretation of the message
of advertisements. It argues that the experience accumulated by the English
language (which serves as a lingua franca) should be shared, and the English
advertising technique should be taken as a model for the global advertising code,
though some culture specific peculiarities should also be considered.

Gia Jokhadze
The History of the Body: Georgian Version
The history of medicine, perhaps more than that of any other discipline or
skilled occupation, illuminates broad social and cultural patterns of the period.
To a medieval mind, the distinction between natural and supernatural was
not always very clear. This shows in the perception of the causes of ailments, and
the obscure treatments thought to help sick patients. The Catholic Church played
a large role in development as well as management of medieval medicine. It
contained it within bounds of one religion, disallowing most pagan healing practices.
On the basis of the text of the Georgian anonymous historian of 14th century
we try to prove that the situation in Georgia completely corresponds with a situation
of Europe of the same period with medical and the ideological points of view.

Tamar Berekashvili
Essay on Marginality and Ennui
Modern art and peculiarities of its evolution show the relevance of some
concepts, which historically were taken into account insufficiently or were not
considered at all while analysing creative process.
Up-to-date marginality as well as ennui have been considered negative
phenomena, but probably just these items are often the main conditions for creation
of new paradigms in art and philosophy.

259

Mirian Ebanoidze
Exploring Classics in the Age of the Dominance of the Non-Classical
Fucault globally rejects the language of reason, which itself is the language
of order( rationality) and he wrote the archaeology of silence_ ,,words without
language, but Derrira remarks, nothing within this language, and no one, among
those who speak it, can escape the historical quilt . it is historical in a classical
sense_Fucaults verdict unceasingly repeats the crime. Order is denounced within
order. Placing Foucault in Cartesian and Huserlis tradition by Derrida can only
be regarded as an ironical gesture. This kind of placing requires an effort, though
the non-Cartesian one. Considering Foucaults work as classic might be more
firmly grounded. According to Eliot, to be a classic means to create objective
correlative. Visualization, realized alongside with discourse, enables us to refer
to Foucaults classicism in terms of visibility.
When we talk about postmodernism, all books are appropriated to one
model, any text can be reduced to one page and Baudrillard is boring. Foucault
is more labyrinth-like, i. e. classic.
He deviates from classical venues and thats why he is labyrinth-like, on the
contrary, this is classical, but ,, Virgil was not aware of the fact that he was
creating a classic work.
Maturity is a mark of classic, what is reached in Fucaults works.

Tamar Lomidze
Metaphor and Metonymy
The aim of the paper is to determine specific peculiarities of tropes
metaphor and metonymy and, on the other hand, of metaphorical and metonymical
modes of thinking. On the basis of Saussurian dichotomy speech/language
the experience of a new classification of tropes and rethorical figures is realized.

260

Salome Omiadze
The Notion of Concept in Linguoculturology
The understanding of a linguocultural concept (hereafter concept) does
not coincide with the classic definition of a notion, which implies the unity of the
essential features of an object. According to the modern culturological and
linguoculturological approach to the concept, it is primarily regarded as a notion
of spiritual value, which once again proves the regular change of the paradigm of
humanities, when the systemic-structural paradigm is replaced by the
anthropocentric paradigm. The axiological colouring accompanying the concept
leads to experiencing it as well. It is not only interpreted but experienced too
the emotional attitude of sympathy and antipathy is manifested towards it.
A concept may be represented by a number of linguistic synonyms, thematic
fields, proverbs, folkloric and literary plots, etc. In all cases it refers to more than
one lexical unit, the entire lexical-semantic paradigm and not one of the members
of the paradigm.
N.Arutinova offers the linguistic feature of the definition of a concept,
according to which, concepts are notions of the philosophy of life, everyday
analogies of weltanschauung terms, which are consolidated in the vocabulary of
the natural language and provide the stability and continuity of the spiritual culture
of an ethnos.
Of the definitional features of a concept one can mention inner fragmentation,
semiotic compactness, communicational relevance, the quality of being
experienced, etymological memory, abstractiveness, as well as the multilevel
and multilayer character. Some of these features may be facultative. The essential
point is that, conceptual, figurative and value components are identifiable in the
semantics of a concept, which together cover the entire, communicationally
significant intrasystem, pragmatic or etymological information.
Concepts form the conceptosphere - the unity of linguocultural knowledge
and notions, on the basis of which the world outlook of a native speaker of the
language is built. For example, in the conceptosphere of the Georgian Orthodox
consciousness, where the mentality and spiritual experience of our people are
reflected, the following concepts are found: amaoeba (vanity), boroteba
(evil), d a m d a b l e b a (humiliation), z i a r e b a (communion),
Tanalmoba (compassion), sasoeba (hope), miteveba (forgiveness),
cxoneba (salvation), jvarcma (the Crucifixion), etc. each of which
contains a sacral idea.
The richness of concepts shows the richness of the language.

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Mirian Ebanoidze
,,Modern Literature
Literature is a paradoxical phenomenon. The rule of its existence differs
from other things; however, this difference is constantly being rejected by the
history of literature because this difference threatens its very existence. Discourse
is a universal conditions of ordered speech(some argues, that condition of things
and existence). Literature establishes connections with time in a different way;
unlike other objects, it acquires the possibility to exist by means of reading and
interpretation; the status of the object is either too much or too little for it.
According to the historians, it must comply with more demands in the 20th
century: It must become modern. to take care on language and discourse, literature
in 20 th century avoids from phenomena of articulation and expression. Language
refers only to itself. Therefore we have ,,the death of author. Enstead of
representation, mimesis, articulation and symbolization, which makes literature
dependent to the extra circumstances, the literature tries to speak without
interpretations. It is malarmean idealistic literature, to stay on surface, without
seeking of depths, truth and hidden side, but writing is always connected to
power. It seems as isomorphism, which makes writing to take his place among
other social practices. Power is created by writing too.By the point of some
critics, literature makes free from power.
Historians of literature understand modernity/contemporeinity as an escape
from history and transition to eternal now, but this makes the very existence of
literature doubtful as it is written and dead.

Mamuka Bichashvili
History on the Light of Archeology of Science
David Bagrationi. His Language, History and Science
In the article author considers 18-19 century Georgian Prince David
Bagrationis life under his writings, Short Physics and Letters. David Bagrationi
lived long time in st. Petersburg and was known as a follower of Voltair and
atheist. Author does not examine such opinions, as well as questions of
philosophical and religious orientations according to David Bagrationi. He uses
Foucaults Archaeological Method for deeper understanding of Batrationi literary

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heritage. Author takes his writings as the facts of art, that are very important
sources for the view of new epoch profile of Georgia.

Khatuna Tavdgiridze
Mythical Simulations
Beautiful Dragon
Thing which is beautiful in philosophy and aesthetics is the space in myth,but
myth is the space,that is a beautiful dragon ataileater Dragon.
It went through three different roads ,but it remained the same;
1. It carried out the universe origin in the cosmology myth and it made the
precedent of Eschatology as well.this is the way from taileater to womaneater.
2. In social totem myth it married a strange totem -a woman by which it
founded exogamous marriage relationships and the very first society. Finally,
exogamous marriage turned out to be together grazersmythical simulation.
3. Settled down in magic fairy tale it abducted a picture of beauty and
water; afterwards Either he was killed in the fight against the hero or it took off
its snake skin and it showed its beautiful face. At the end of these roads the
dragon made its body circular, put its tail into the mouth and fell asleep. Sleeping
is dragon`s particular position. Sleeping dragon is the face of eternity. The
dragon is a temporary phenomenon of a myth and a fairy tale.