You are on page 1of 242

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti

humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakulteti

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

I SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2007


1

UDK 8122

saredaqcio kolegia mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe nomris redaqtori nino abakelia pasuxismgebeli mdivani Tamar lomiZe nomris recenzentebi: izabela qobalava Tamar berekaSvili

Jurnal `semiotikis~ saredaqcio kolegia finansuri mxardaWerisaTvis guliTad madlobas moaxsenebs biznesmens, romelmac ar isurva vinaobis gamJRavneba.

misamarTi: saqarTvelo 0179 Tbilisi i. WavWavaZis gamz. 32 semiotikis kvlevis centri E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge garekanis dizaini: daviT maWavariani

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba 2007

ISSN 1512-2409

Sinaarsi
S e s a v a l i axal universitetSi kvlevis axali mimarTulebaa d i s k u s i a niSnisa da simbolos urTierTmimarTebisaTvis Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe nino abakelia cira barbaqaZe s e m i o t i k a nino abakelia sicocxlis ciklTan dakavSirebuli sakraluri xis simbolika qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi cira barbaqaZe poeziis semiotika Tamar berekaSvili zogierTi Tanamedrove politikuri metaforis Sesaxeb Tamar lomiZe riTma _ sintagma Tu sistema? Suqia afridoniZe opoziciebis sistemis safexurebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis enaSi (qarTuli enis magaliTze) nodar ladaria xmisa da bgeris simbolikisTvis dante aligieris `RvTaebriv komediaSi~ nino doborjginiZe `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~ qristianuli aRmosavleTis saxotbo poeziis konteqstSi

11 13 15 19

23

41

52

61

71

80

92
3

grigol joxaZe semiotikuri midgoma da istoria eTer soselia semantikuri primitivebi da ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli rusudan canava erTi epizodis sami interpretacia `odiseaSi~ (xis cxenis ambavi) marina qavTaraZe stili, rogorc niSanTa sistema postmodernistul xelovnebaSi irakli mWedliSvili abelur da kaenur tradiciaTa dro-sivrciTi simbolizmi mixeil qurdiani sami semiotikuri etiudi `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb T a r g m a n e b i roman iakobsoni gramatikis poezia da poeziis gramatika (Targmna Tamar lomiZem) iuri lotmani simbolo kulturis sistemaSi (Targmna nino abakeliam) nikita sirotkini avangardizmis gamokvlevis meTodologia anu avangardizmis semiotikuri mimarTeba sinamdvilisadmi (Targmna Tamar berikaSvilma) nina aruTinova simbolo (Targmna Tamar yuraSvilma)

101

114

122

132

142

164

182

205

219

235

CONTENTS
PREFACE A New Trend of Research at the New University DISPUTE On Sign and Symbol Interrelationship Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Nino Abakelia Tsira Barbakadze SEMIOTICS Nino Abakelia Sacred tree symbolism in the life cycle of Georgian mythico-ritual system Tsira Barbakadze Semiotics of Poetry Tamar Berekashvili Concerning some modern metaphors Tamar Lomidze Rhyme Syntagm or System? Shukia Apridonidze On the Gradual Development of Opposition Systems in Georgian Nodar Ladaria On the Symbolism of Voice and Sound in Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy Nino Doborjginidze Praise and Glory of Georgian Language in the Context of Eastern Christian Holy Poetry 7

11 13 15 19

40

51

60

70

79

91

100

Grigol Jokhadze History and semiotics (Perception of time as a semiotics problem) Ether Soselia Semantic primes and the universal model of colour categorization Rusudan Tsanava Three Interpretations for One Episode in the Odyssey (The story of the Trojan horse) Marina Kavtaradze Stile as a system of signs Irakli Mchedlishvili Temporal and Spatial Symbolism of Abelian and Cainian Cultural Traditions

112

121

130

141

163

Mikheil Kurdiani Three Semiotical Etudes Of The Knight in the Panthers Skin 181 T RAN S LAT I O N S R. Jakobson Grammar of Poetry and Poetry of Grammar (Translated by Tamar Lomidze) Iu. Lotman Symbol in the System of Culture (Translated by Nino Abakelia) N. Sirotkin Methodology of Avant-garde research (Translated by Tamar Berekashvili) N. Arutjunova Symbol (Translated by Tamar Kurashvili)

182

205

219

235

S e s a v a l i

axal universitetSi kvlevis axali mimarTulebaa

kv ce semiotikis kvlevis centri

axalma universitetma farTod gauRo kari ara mxolod sruliad axali ti pis saswavlo process, aramed kvlevebsac. mxolod universitetis mmarTvelobis aseTma formam mogvca saSualeba, Camogveyalibebina semiotikis kvlevis centri. semiotika, rogorc mecniereba (SeiZleba iTqvas, erTgvari metamecniereba) XX saukunis dasawyisSi gamoCnda. misi Seqmnis idea erTdroulad ramdenime swavluls gauCnda. semiotikis fuZemdeblad pirsi iTvleba, romlis ideebi SemdgomSi morisma ganaviTara, xolo sosiurma Camoayaliba semiologiis safuZvlebi `zogadi lingvistikis kursSi~. XX saukuneSi semiotika ganviTarda sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. amerikul semiotikaSi Seswavlis obieqti iyo sxvadaxxva araverbaluri simboluri sistemebi, evropa ki gahyva sosiuris tradicias da semiotika ZiriTadad ganaviTares lingvistebma: ielmslevma, karcevskim, iakobsonma; literaturaTmcodneebma: propma, tinianovma, eixenbaumma... ufro mogvianebiT, struqturuli meTodebi socialuri da kulturuli movlenebis analizisas gamoiyenes frangma da italielma struqturalistebma: bartma, greimasma, levi_strosma, umberto ekom... ratom gaxda saWiro semiotikis Camoyalibeba? semiotikis Seswavlis sagania niSani da niSanTa sistemebi. rodesac konkretuli mecniereba aRwers niSans (lingvisti, fsiqologi, logikosi, kibernetikosi, literaturaTmcodne...), aseT SemTxvevaSi, mecnierebi Semoifarglebian niSnis gansazRvris dros konkretuli mecnierebis masaliT, ris gamoc niSnis gansazRvra arazusti da arasakmarisia. semiotikis kvlevis mizania sxvadasxva mecnierebis gaerTianebiT gamoimuSaos niSnis SedarebiT zusti gansazRvra da daadginos is kanonebi, romlebiTac niSnebi imarTebian. lotmani
7

yovelgvari semiotikuri sistemis aRweris mTavar amocanad sistemis gareT arsebul samyarosTan am sistemis mimarTebis sakiTxis garkvevas miiCnevs. `ena sakuTar samyaros qmnis. Cndeba kiTxva, Tu enis mier Seqmnili samyaro ramdenad adekvaturia enis miRma arsebuli samyaros mimarT~(lotmani). ilia WavWavaZis universitetis semiotikis kvlevis centrSi gaerTiandnen sxvadasxva dargis profesorebi: bela qobalava da cira barbaqaZe(enaTnecniereba), Tamar lomiZe da qeTevan bezaraSvili (literaturaTmcodneoba), Tamar berekaSvili (filosofia), nino abakelia (eTnologia). semiotikis kvlevis centri dafuZnda 2006 wlis 6 noembers da mas Semdeg intensiurad muSaobs. gamosacemad mzaddeba jgufis wevrebis mier qarTulad Targmnili rCeuli semiotikuri naSromebis I wigni, igegmeba semiotikuri narkvevebis gamosvla, mzaddeba samagistro da sadoqtoro programebi, `semiotika, rogorc saswavlo disciplina universitetSi, Tanamedroveobis niSaniao~, _ wers erTi ucxoeli profesori. centris muSaobaSi monawileoben agreTve doqtorantebi da mecnierebi sxvadasxva umaRlesi da samecniero-kvleviTi dawesebulebidan. semiotikis kvlevis jgufis wevrebma warmoadgines kvlevis proeqtebi, romlis ganxorcielebasac am etapze gegmaven. bela qobalava (enaTmecnieri) _ yru-munjTa niSnuri ena warmoadgens specifikur semiotikur sistemas da yuradRebas iqcevs sxvadasxva TvalsazrisiT. kvleva gulisxmobs etapobriv Seswavlas. 1. yru-munjTa ninSnuri ena aris adamianuri ena da igi, rogorc aseTi, pirvelyovlisa, ganxiluli unda iqnas ara izolirebulad, aramed meore adamianur enasTan - verbalur, bgeriT enasTan kavSirSi. SedarebiTi Seswavla gamoavlens maT Soris saerTosa da gansxvavebuls. amiT daadgens adamianuri enis zogad da specifikur niSnebs, aseve maT Soris gansxvavebis safuZvlebs. 2. aRniSnuli enebis, rogorc specifikuri semiotikebis, zogadi Taviseburebani Seudardeba sxva semiotikur sistemebs da dadgindeba is saerTo, romelsac adamianuri enebi avlenen maTTan dapirispirebiT. 3. aRniSnul kvlevas Sexeba aqvs iseT mniSvnelovan problemasTan, rogoricaa enisa da azrovnebis urTierTmimarTebis problema. poeziis semiotika, cira barbaqaZe (enaTmecnieri) _ semiotikis erTi mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa. poeturi diskursi gansakuTrebuli semiotikuri sistemaa. samyaroSi yvelaferi SeiZleba
8

ganvixiloT rogorc niSani, xolo poeziaSi nebismieri niSani ufro rTuli bunebisaa. semiotika aris is sarkmeli, romlidanac poeziis kvlevis axali peizaJebi iSleba, saganTa axali wyobis `wakiTxva~ ki teqstis mxatvrulobis kanonebs aRmogvaCeninebs. poetur diskursSi yvela detals Rrma semiotika aqvs _ bgeras, sityvas, riTmas, metrs, ritms, strofs, mTlianad leqss... poetisaTvis Tovli, qari, mze.... mxolod bunebis movlenebi ar aris, sruliad sxva semantikiT itvirTeba. saintereso Sedegebs mogvcems universaluri poeturi konceptebis kvleva rogorc qarTuli enis, aseve sxva enebis poeturi teqstebis masalaze. Tamar berekaSvili (filosofosi) _ masobrivi kulturis semiotikuri analizi axali ar aris. aseTi kvlevebi saTaves iRebs jer kidev frankfurtis skolisa da frangi struqturalistebis warmomadgenlebTan. masobrivi kulturis struqturalizmisa da semiotikuri meTodebiT kvlevis magaliTs warmoadgens umberto ekos naSromi, romelSic is aanalizebs flemingis romanebs jeims bondze da akeTebs metad mniSvnelovan daskvnebs. is ayalibebs opoziciebis serias, romelTac efuZneba flemingis romanebi. garda amisa, gamohyavs sruliad gansazRvruli struqtura, romelsac aucileblobiT emorCileba TiToeuli romani. am TvalsazrisiT Zalian sainteresod meCveneba Tanamedrove popularuli nawarmoebebis gaanalizeba, romlebmac didi warmateba moi poves saqarTveloSi da romlebic samarTlianad miekuTvneba masobriv kulturas, Tundac magaliTad, hari poteri an tolkienis beWdebis mbrZanebeli. semiotikuri meTodiT SeiZleba moxdes Tanamedrove popularuli satelevizio gadacemebis kvlevac. mecnierebi mudam amodiodnen im mosazrebidan, rom enasa da samyaros Soris arsebobs uSualo kavSiri. dRes arsebobs gansxvavebuli da ufro moqnili modelebi, romlebic xsnian am urTierTmimarTebebs da erT-erTi midgoma, romelic metad saintereso Sedegebis miRebis imeds iZleva, swored semiotikuri kvlevaa. nino abakelia (eTnologi) _ semiotikis kvlevis centrSi Cemi interesis sferos warmoadgens folklori da miTo-ritualuri sistemebi, rogorc semiotikuri kvlevis masala.

arqauli da Tanamedrove religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebis struqturul-semiotikuri kvleva, vfiqrob, saintereso Sedegebs mogvcems. Sesabamisad, mainteresebs miTi, rogorc narativi, da misi semiotikuri interpretacia. agreTve, religiuri rituali, rogorc niSanTa sistema; verbaluri da araverbaluri folklori (TamaSi, rogorc araverbaluri folklori) da sxva. Tamar lomiZe (literaturaTmcodne) semiotikis kvlevis centrSi gegmavs semiotikis Teoriasa da istoriaSi muSaobas, sxvadasxva mimdinareobebisa da skolebis Seswavlas da erTiani semiotikuri koncefciis Camoyalibebas qarTuli masalis safuZvelze miRebuli daskvnebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tamar yuraSvili _ pirveli doqtoranti semiotikis mimarTulebiT: rodesac doqtoranturaSi Cabareba gadavwyvite, zustad vicodi, rom semiotikis mimarTulebiT mindoda kvlevis gagrZeleba (umberto ekos naSromebma gamiRviZa es interesi ), magram ar megona, rom axali universiteti ukve mzad damxvdeboda imisaTvis, rom Cemi interesi ganxorcielebuliyo. im droisTvis is-is iyo yalibdeboda kvlevis jgufi, dRes ki, am jgufis sruluflebiani wevri, bednieri var, rom im mecnierebis gverdiT miwevs muSaoba, romlebic am jgufSi arian.

samyaro _ es aris ena, farTo gagebiT, xolo kultura ganixileba, rogorc enaTa konglomerati. Yyvelas da yvelafers Tavisi ena aqvs: kinos, Teatrs, literaturas, mxatvrobas, Jestebs da mimikas, cxovelebs, frinvelebs da mwerebs, erT enaze molaparake adamianebsac ki... siyvarulis da siZulvilis enac gansxvavebulia... imisaTvis, rom urTierTgageba Sedges, ena (farTo gagebiT ) unda viswavloT... kiTxvaze: riT inarCunebs semiotika momxibvlelobas? erTi mizezia, rom semiotika cxovrebas ufro `gasagebs~ xdis...

cira barbaqaZe ilia WavWavaZis universitetis gazeTi: `Ligamus~, #4, 2007 weli ~,

10

d i s k u s i a
semiotikis kvlevis jgufi iwyebs diskusias Temaze: niSnisa da simbolos urTierTmimarTebisaTvis mecnierebs SeuZliaT gamogvexmauron da CaerTon diskusiaSi Jurnal `semiotikis~ momdevno nomris furclebze.

be Tamar berekaSvi li (kiTxvebi da varaudebi)

semiotika Cven gvatyobinebs iseT rames, rac ukve viciT, magram iseT enaze, romelsac verasodes gavigebT. P pedi vendi
niSnis yvelaze martivi gansazRvreba aseTia: niSans SeiZleba warmoadgendes sityvebi, gamosaxulebebi, bgerebi, Jestebi, obieqtebi da am obieqtebis rTuli urTierTkavSirebi, romlebic qmnian ritualis Sinaarss, normebi da sazogadoebrivi warmodgenebi. yovelive es warmoqmnis qmnian mniSvnelobaTa sistemebs. aseTia rolan bartis Sexeduleba. sinamdvileSi, semiotikaSi momuSave yvela did mecniers niSnis sakuTari gansazRvreba aqvs. Aam mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, niSnis yvela gansazRvreba miekuTvneba niSnisadmi ori midgomidan erT_erTs. pirveli maTgania pirsis, xolo meore _ sosiuris midgoma. pirsisTvis `niSani warmoadgens raRacas, rac aRniSnavs raimes vinmesTvis raime mimarTebiT an moculobiT arsebobas vinmesTvis raRacisTvis~. is miiCnevda, rom `nebismieri azri warmoadgens niSans~. sosiurma warmoadgina niSnis ormagi, orkomponentiani modeli. Mman gansazRvra niSani, rogorc iseTi warmonaqmni, romelic Sedgeba `aRmniSvnelisagan~ (forma, romelsac iRebs niSani) da `aRsaniSnisagan~ (koncepti, romelsac is gadmoscems).
11

dReisaTvis semiotika swavlobs niSnebs ara gancalkevebulad, aramed _ rogorc niSnobriv sistemebs. Ggamocdilebis gamovlinebis struqturebi sxvadasxva Janrisa da saSualebebis meSveobiT xels uwyobs gamoxatvis gansazRvrul formebs da krZalavs sxvebs. es saSualebebi, Janrebi, gamoxatvis xerxebis gansxvavebulobis gamo benvenistma daaskvna, rom semiotikuri sistemis pirveli princi pi amgvaria: semiotikuri sistemebi ar aris sinonomuri. sxvadasxva Semadgeneli nawilebiT Cven ver vityviT erTsa da imaves. es niSnavs imasac, rom erTgvari gansazRvruli mediatoris gamoyenebisas unda velodoT gansazRvrul mizans, anu mizani ki ar gansazRvravs saSualebebs, aramed esa Tu is saSualeba gvaiZulebs koreqtireba gavukeToT mizans da SevusabamoT is mas. amitom ama Tu im teqstis interpretirebisas saSualebebi iseTive informatiulia, rogorc mizani, Sinaarsi, struqtura. gansazRvruli saSualebebis gamoyeneba iqceva miznis nawilad. niSani abstraqtulad ar arsebobs. misi funqcionirebisTvis aucilebelia ori mxare da es ori mxare SeTanxmebuli unda iyos niSnis mniSvnelobis Taobaze. Mmagram amiT ar amoiwureba niSnis arsebobis piroba. semiotikaSi laparakoben iseT cnebebze, rogorebicaa: `semiotikuri ekologia~, `semiosfero~, `Setyobinebis specifikuri kulturuli konteqsti~ da sxva. `semiotikuri ekologia~ niSnavs im pirobebs, atmosferos, viTarebas, romlis drosac xdeba niSnis gadacema da miReba. rac Seexeba `semiosferos~, es termini lotmanma daamkvidra da is, misi sityvebiT, `exeba kulturis mTel semiotikur sivrces~. semiosfero SeiZleba monawileobdes sxvadasxva doneze _ calkeuli erovnebis an lingvisturi kulturis donezec da iseTi didi erTeulebis donezec, rogoricaa `dasavleTi~. v. voloSinovi werda, rom niSnis mniSvneloba mdgomareobs ara mis mimarTebaSi sxva niSnebisadmi enobrivi sistemis SigniT, aramed ufro metad misi gamoyenebis socialur konteqstSi. rac Seexeba simbolos, masze zogjer saubroben, rogorc niSanze, magram Tu niSans xSirad erTi mniSvneloba aqvs da niSanTa sistemis mravalmniSvnelovneba vnebs niSnis funqcionirebas, simbolo mravalniSnaa da rac ufro mravali mniSvneloba aqvs mas, is miT ufro Sinaarsiania. simbolos interpretaciaa martooden SesaZlebeli. Tu simbolo miuTiTebs sxva obieqtze, yovelTvis erTsa da imaveze, simbolo aseTi calsaxa ar aris. igi alegoriisagan imiT gansxvavdeba,

12

rom simbolos arsis gaSifvra martivi gansazRvrebiT SeuZlebelia; simbolo ganuyofelia gamosaxulebis struqturisagan. simbolos struqtura mimarTulia iqiTken, rom nebismieri kerZo movlenis meSveobiT Seiqmnas samyaros mTliani xati. simbolos ganmarteba codnis dialoguri formaa: simbolos arsi arsebobs mxolod adamianTa urTierTobaSi. rodesac saubaria xelovnebaSi semiotikis gamoyenebaze, am SemTxvevaSi xSirad iyeneben niSani_simbolos cnebas da ikonur niSnebs. niSani_simbolo _ esaa pirobiTi niSani, romelSic aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris ar aris msgavseba an mosazRvreoba. aseTia sityvebi bunebriv enaSi. ikonuri niSani iseTi niSania, romelSic aRmniSvnel obieqts aqvs igive Tviseba, rac Tavad niSans da efuZneba aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis faqtobriv msgavsebas (fotografia, modeli, varskvlaviani cis ruqa...). ikonur niSnebSi gamoiyofa diagrama da xati. semiotikis TvalsazrisiT, mxatvruli xati _ ikonuri niSania, romlis designats warmoadgens Rirebuleba. TiToeuli simbolo xatia, magram yvela xats ver vuwodebT simbolos. mxatvruli nawarmoebis formisa da Sinaarsis nebismieri elementi SeiZleba iyos simbolo: metafora, Sedareba, metonimia, mxatvruli dro da sivrce, peizaJi, gmiris saxe. magaliTad, nikoloz baraTaSvilTan simboluria cisferi, iseve, rogorc bundovani peizaJi romantikosebTan. da bolos, simboloebi mudmivi qmnadobis procesSia. maTi Sinaarsi da mniSvneloba ar aris mocemuli erTxel da samudamod... cnobili Zveli simboloebi axlebur Rirebulebas da interpretacias iZenen; magaliTisaTvis davasaxeleb svastikas da Tundac qarTuli revoluciis wiTel vards. da, mudam gvaxsovdes, rom adamiani, xelovneba da kultura, savse niSnebiT, xatebiTa da simboloebiT, gacilebiT rTulia da usasrulo.

lo Tamar lomiZe enobrivi niSnisa da simbolos urTiermimarTebis problemiT dainteresebuli iyo mravali moazrovne, dawyebuli antikuri drois filosofosebiT. Tanamedrove epoqaSi es problema inarCunebs Tavis aqtualobas.

13

cnobilia, rom enobrivi niSani Tavis denotats konvenciurad ukavSirdeba. igulisxmeba, rom yoveli niSnis denotati cnobilia garkveuli enobrivi koleqtivisTvis. simboloSi niSani icvlis denotats (a.f. losevi aRniSnavda, rom niSani simbolos Canasaxobrivi formaa), anu erTsa da imave aRmniSvnels niSnis simbolizebisas ukavSirdeba ori sxvadasxva `sagani~. es omonimias waagavs, magram simbolizebis meqanizmi sxvagvaria: omonimur gamoTqmebSi erTi da imave enobrivi niSniT aRiniSneba mTeli enobrivi koleqtivisTvis cnobili denotatebi, simbolos denotati ki cnobilia mxolod am koleqtivis garkveuli jgufisaTvis, an, saerTod, ganusazRvrelia, transcendenturi. semiotikis mamamTavris, ferdinand de sosiuris azriT, simboloSi SeimCneva aRmniSvnelisa da denotatis bunebrivi kavSiris rudimenti. magaliTad, samarTlianobis simbolos saswors TviTneburad ver SevcvliT, vTqvaT, etliT. amitom SeiZleba iTqvas, rom denotatisa da aRmniSvnelis kavSiri simboloSi, erTgvarad, motivirebulia an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, gacilebiT ufro mWidroa, vidre enobriv niSanSi. Sesabamisad, ar SeiZleba simbolos gamoxatva sinonimuri niSniT. magaliTad, `cisfers~ simbolizmis poetikaSi ver Seenacvleba verc erTi sxva sityva. religiur simbolikaSic dauSvebelia sinonimia iseTi simboloebi, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, jvari, kravi da sxv., am gagebiT, unikaluri simboloebia. imis mizezi, rom simbolos aRmniSvnel sityvas ar SeiZleba hqondes sinonimi, TvalsaCinoa: sinonimia sityvis mniSvnelobis warmoqmnis safuZvelia, mniSvneloba ki swored isaa, rac erTmaneTTan akavSirebs niSansa da denotats. da vinaidan simboloSi denotati, rogorc wesi, ucnobia, bundovani an ganusazRvreli, SeuZlebelia misi aRniSvna sinonimuri gamoTqmebis meSveobiT. sainteresoa, rom sxvadasxva pirobebSi simbolo aRiqmeba an rogorc paradigmis erT-erTi wevri, an rogorc sintagma. magaliTad, alqimiur simboloTa denotatebi cnobili iyo TviT alqimikosebisTvis da es simboloebi (magaliTad, `lomi~, `drakoni~) aRiqmeboda rogorc sintagmebi, xolo isini, visTvisac ucnobi iyo maTi mniSvneloba, aRiqvamdnen am simboloebs metaforuli `xatis~ (paradigmis erT-erTi wevris) saxiT. s.s. averincevis SeniSvniT, `alegoriisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis gaSifvra `ucxosac SeuZlia, simboloSi SeigrZnoba SemakavSirebeli idumalebis siTbo. klasikuri antikurobisa da Sua saukuneebis
14

epoqebSi xeldasxmulTa rolSi gvevlinebodnen mTeli xalxebi da kulturul-konfesiuri erTobebi, xolo burJuaziul epoqaSi simbolo funqcionirebda elituri garemos farglebSi, raTa mis adeptebs ecnoT erTmaneTi `gulgril brboSi~.

ab nino abakelia simbolo im terminTa jgufs ganekuTvneba, romelTa gansamartavad tomebi iwereba. CemTvis, rogorc kulturuli anTropologisTvis, simbolo imdenadaa saintereso, ramdenadac masTan adamiani, rogorc Homo symbolicus da misi aqtivoba (romelic yovelTvis simbolizms gulisxmobs) aris dakavSirebuli. kulturis mravalmxriv gamovlenas, sxvadsaxva simboloSi (ena, miTi, saganTa samyaro, sakvebi, samosi da a.S.) gaaCnia mniSvnelobaTa erTiani da saerTo struqtura, risi meSveobiTac sruliad gansxvavebul konfiguraciaTa jaWvi iqmneba. mag.: WurWeli (an misi nawili) landSaftis elementi adamianis sxeulis nawili socialuri struqturis erTeuli, weliwadis dro da a.S. (amis magaliTad SeiZleba gamodges adamianis yuri, doqis yuri, yure da sxv...) sxvadasxva planisa da sxvadasxva substanciis movlenaTa amgvarma saocarma erTianobam arqaul msoflaRqmaSi mkvlevrebs saSualeba misca elaparakaT imaze, rom arqauli kultura warmoadgens erTian semiotikur sistemas, romlis yoveli elementi sxva elements udardeba da isini yvela erTad `monawileoben erTian yovlismomcvel `metaforaSi~. simbolurisa da praqtikulis erTianobam, romelic admianis mier Seqmnilsa da gamoyenebul sagnebs gaaCnia, mecnierebs ubiZga saganTa niSnobrivi statusis formulirebisken. semiotikosebi garemomcvel samyaros Cveulebriv yofen faqtebis samyarod da niSnebis samyarod (lotmani), magram sxva SexedulebiT (mag.: a. baiburinis SexedulebiT), amgvari dayofa sakmaod pirobiTia, radgan yovelTvis moiZebneba obieqtebi, romelTac Sualeduri mdgomareoba ukaviaT. maT ricxvs `materialuri kulturis~ elementebi miekuTvneba. isini romelime semiotikur sistemaSi Sesvlisas (mag.: rogoric SeiZleba iyos rituali) funqcionireben, rogorc niSnebi, xolo sistemidan gamovardnis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc _ sagnebi. sxvagvarad, aseTi movlenebi poteciurad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnen sagnebadac da niSnebadac. imis mixedviT, Tu romeli Tvisebebi aqtualizdeba
15

`sagnoba~ Tu `niSnoba~, isini iReben ama Tu im semiotikur statuss, anu adamianis mier xelovnurad Seqmnil semiotikur skalaze ikaveben adgils. aqedan gamomdinare, saganTa semiotikuri statusi niSnobisa Tu sagnobis~ da, Sesabamisad, _ `simbolurisa~ Tu `utilitarulis~ konkretul Tanafardobas asaxavs. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom adamianis sagnobriv samyaroSi saganTa niSnuri Tvisebebi meryeobs minimaluri gamoxatulebidan maqsimaluramde. semiotikur RirebulebaTa skalaze zeda nawils mudmivad semiotikuri sagnebi ikaveben (mag.; niRbebi, amuletebi, mosarTavebi da a.S.). faqtobrivad, isini `sagnebs~ ki ara `niSnebs~ warmoadgenen, ramdenadac maTi `sagnoba~, utilitaroba nulisken miiswrafis. skalis qveda nawilSi mudmivad dabali semiotikuri statusis sagnebi lagdeba (a. baiburini). ramdenadac sagnebi droSi, sivrceSi da kulturul konteqstSi funqcionireben, imdenad erTi da igive sagnis semiotikuri stastusi SesaZloa arsebiTad Seicvalos droSi, sxvadasxvagvarad funqcionirebdes sxvadasxva eTnikuri warmonaqmnisTvis da icvlebodes situaciis mixedviT. zemoT motanili Sexedulebebi, vfiqrob, exmianeba (yovel SeTxvevaSi, isini CemSi aseT asociacias iwveven) m. eliades mier ufro adre SemuSavebul meTodologias religiuri simbolizmis kvlevis Sesaxeb. romlis mixedviT, yovel religiur qmedebasa da yovel sakulto obieqts meta-empirikuli mizani gaaCnia. mag., xes, romelic sakulto obieqtad iqceva, Tayvans scemen ara rogorc xes, rogorc aseTs, aramed, rogorc ierofanias, anu sakraluris Cenas masSi. (romelic gamoyofs mas sxva danarCeni xeebisgan da aqcevs sakralur xed). yovel religiur qmedebas, rogorc ki is religiuri xdeba, ecvleba mniSvneloba, xdeba `simboluri~, ramdenadac igi mianiSnebs zebunebriv Rirebulebebsa da formebze. igive ideebi impliciturad gamosWvivis g. Citaias naSromidanac `sakurcxilze~, romelic xalxuri avejis funqcionirebas exeba. naSromSi, faqtobrivad, naCvenebia, rom aRniSnuli sagani yofaSi funqciaTa konis Semcvelia: praqtikulis, religiuris, socialuris, esTeturis, regionaluri kuTvnilebis da sxva. Cveulebriv, rodesac saganze, rogorc teqstzea saubari, igulisxmeba mTeli is informacia, romelic TviTon sagnidan modis an ufro zustad is, rac SeiZleba `wakiTxul iqnas~ TiToeul maTganze Cveulebriv situaciaSi.

16

yoveldRiur situaciaSi ki sakurcxili (sakarcxuli _ raWaleCxumSi), skami-savarZeli _ svanis yoveldriur yofa-cxovrebis atributia. Tumca, aqve davamatebdiT, misi maRali semiotikuri statusi imTaviTve Cans mis ramdenime maxasiaTebelSi: dekorSi, romelic esTeturis CarCoebs scdeba da uZvelesi kosmogoniis anareklSi; mis reglamentirebul xmarebaSi: igi mxolod ojaxis ufrosis mier gamoiyeneba; da mis adgilSi kerasTan, romelic mogviano gamokvlevebis mixedviT, dakavSirebulia tradiciul sacxovrebelSi sivrcis simbolur organizaciasTan (v.Ciqovani). sakurcxili, Cveulebriv, dgas kerasTan (anu sociumis centrSi), romelTanac mamasaxlisis meTaurobiT ikribeba ojaxis sabWo da wydeba ojaxuri yofa-cxovrebis sakiTxebi da sxv. socialurTan mimarTebaSi sakurcxili gansazRvrul ufleba-movaleobaTa garkveuli atributia (maxvSis uflebis atributi da emblemaa). aRniSnuli sagani, informacias mis dammzadebelzec (adgilobriv mosaxleobazec) iZleva da Sesabamisad, teqnologiisa da teqnikuri xerxebis ganviTarebis donezec. aRsaniSnavia sakurcxilis sxvagvari gamoyenebac. mag.: eklesiaSi is Sesawiravis erT-erTi nairsaxeobaa da sxva. amgvarad, sakurcxilis zemoxsenebuli zogierTi funqcia garkveuli wesrigiT lagdeba: Cveulebriv garemoSic ki igi maRali semiotikuri statusis matarebelia; aqve Cans misi praqtikuli funqciac, Cans ojaxis ufrosTan kavSiri, winaparTa kultTan kavSiri esTeturi funqcia, regionaluri kuTvnilebis da sxva. sagnis amgvarad wakiTxvisas (e.i. `teqstis wakiTxva~ igulisxmeba) informaciis mxolod zeda fena aiReba. saganTa siRrmuli mniSvneloba ritualSi da ritualizirebul situaciebSi vlindeba. Sesabamisad, yofaSi teqstis rolSi gamosuli sagani, ritualSi simbolod iqceva. sakurcxilis isedac maRali semiotikuri statusi gansakuTrebiT izrdeba erT-erTi Zveli ritualis (e.w. `sulis gadabrZanebis~ rituals vgulisxmob) Sesrulebisas, romelic winaparTa kultTan, weliwadis droTa monacvleobasTan da maT simbolikasTan aris dakavSirbuli da sxva. da mainc, ra mniSvneloba aqavs simbolo-sagnebs ritualSi? upirveles yovlisa, rogorc es miTis funqcionirebis SemTxvevaSi SeimCneva, maTi meSveobiT xorcieldeba `sakuTarisa~ da `sxvisis~ simbolizacia.

17

specialuri literauridan cnobilia, rom principSi, nebismieri kulturuli simbolo (e. i. xelovnurad Seqmnili sagani) miekuTvneba adamianTa samyaros da aRniSnavs am samyaros. yovel tradiciaSi dasturdeba sagnebis garkveuli kompleqti, romelic ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba, vidre sxvebi da ganasaxiereben `sakuTaris~ ideas. maT ricxvs ki miekuTvneba is sagnebic, romlebic sakuTari samyaros centrSi Tavsdeba: saxlSi, kerasTan, sacxovreblis marjvena mxares, an sxva sakralur adgilas. rac Seexeba im sagnebs, romlebic `sxvebs~ (Sesabamisad `sxva~ samyaros) miekuTvneba, Tavsdeba adamianis mier aTvisebuli sivrcis periferiaze... ritualSi saganTa meore yvelaze cnobili funqcia _ ori samyaros gaerTianebaa. saganTa mediatorebad gamoyeneba, fiqroben, rom unda emyarebodes cnobil orgvarobas: erTi mxriv, yoveli sagani ekuTvnis bunebas (ramdenadac masala, risganac isini arian damzadebuli iqidanaa aRebuli); meore mxriv, maTze garkveuli operaciis Catarebis Semdeg, igi bunebrividan xelovnurSi gadadis. adamianis mier damuSavebuli, igi am niSniT erTveba kulturaSi. b. malinovski). rogorc r. genoni, terneri, eliade da sxvebi aRniSnavdnen, maqsimaluri mediatoruli SesaZleblobebiT xasiaTsebian niSanTa universaluri kopleqsebi; jvari, samyaros xis nairsaxeobebi, taZari da sxv., romelnic umoklesi manZiliT arian daSorebuli `sxva~ sferodan da gaaCniaT modelirebis umaRlesi funqcia. amrigad, ritualSi CarTuli maRali semiotikuri statusis mqone sagani/simbolo, romelTanac garkveuli saxis miTebia dakavSurebuli, im kulturul kompleqss qmnis, romliTac socialuri jgufis erTianoba ganicdeba; igi SemoisazRvreba `sakuTaris~ identifikaciiT, upirispirdeba `sxvas~, riTac sakuTari kulturis eTnikur specifikas icavs. kulturis stili da zemoxsenebul ideaTa kombinaciebi, romelic Taobidan Taobas gadaecema da ganumeorebelia, qmnis eTnikur Taviseburebas da Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs sakacobrio kulturaSi.

18

ba cira barbaqaZe

`niSnis istoria _ es misi M `gacnobierebis~ istoriaa.~ rolan barti


semiotika axali drois mecnierebaa,A romelic Seiswavlis sxvadasxva niSnuri sistemebis Seqmnis, agebisa da funqcionirebis kanonebs. igi Tavisi kvlevis obieqts poulobs yvelgan: enaSi, maTematikaSi, literaturaSi, arqiteqturaSi, qvecnobier procesebSi, miTSi, ritualSi, cxovelTa da mcenareTa samyaroSi da sxvagan. fuko wers imis Sesaxeb, rom Tanamedrove (postmodernistul) epoqaSi formirdeba azrovnebis axali stili, axali kultura. niSandoblivia, rom barti semiotikas ganixilavs Tanamedrove filosofiaSi postmodernistuli proeqtis realizaciis saSualebad. saemiotikis ZiriTadi termini _ n i S a n i, sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva avtorTan gansxvavebulad ganisazRvreboda. aristotelesTan niSani aRniSnavs ara marto niSans, aramed _ simptomsac, xolo sityvebi azris pirobiT niSnebad aris miCneuli. pirsis mixedviT, niSani sxva araferia, Tu ara universaluri Suamavali adamianur gonebasa da samyaros Soris. aRsaniSnTan damokidebulebis mixedviT, pirsi gamoyofda: ikonur niSnebs, indeqsur niSnebs da simbolur niSnebs. pirsis semiotika ganaviTara morisma. man semiotikis erT_erTi mTavari termini `semiozisi~ ganmarta, rogorc `procesi, romelSic raRac funqcionirebs, rogorc niSani~. morisma gamoyo semiozisis sami ganzomileba: s e m a n t i k a, romelic ikvlevs niSnis damokidebulebas Tavis obieqtTan; s i n t a q t i k a _ niSnebis erTmaneTTan damokidebulebas Seiswavlis da p r a g m t i k a, romelic ikvlevs damokidebulebas niSansa da mis momxmarebels Soris. sosiuri ganixilavda niSans, rogorc bilateralurs (ormxrivi), rogorc aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis erTobas, romelsac ara aqvs TavisTavad mniSvneloba da mxolod sistemis sxva elementebiT ganisazRvreba. sosiurs mizanSewonilad ar miaCnda niSnis sinonimad simbolos gamoyeneba, radgan niSani pirobiTia, xolo simbolo ar SeiZleba yofiliyo bolomde pirobiTi. benvenistma SemdgomSi daazusta, rom pirobiTia niSnis damokidebuleba realobasTan da ara niSnis

19

komponentebs Soris damokidebuleba. niSnebi qmnian enas, romelic gamodis yvela sxva sistemis interpretatorad (benvenisti). karcevskim ganaviTara niSnis idea da Semoitana asimetriuli dualizmis gageba (aRmniSvneli da aRsaniSni mxolod wamierad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs). sxvadasxva skolisa da avtoris mier niSnisa da simbolos gansxvavebulma, xolo, zog SemTxvevaSi, sinonimurma gansazRvrebebma am terminebis aRreva gamoiwvia. pirsma niSnis gansakuTrebuli saxe aRniSna simboloTi da terminad gamoiyena. am faqtma gamoiwvia uxerxuli omonimia. ramdenadac zogierT evropul tradiciaSi Sesabamisi sityva aRiniSneboda saerTo mniSvnelobiT _ niSani. franguli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT, malmbergma SemogvTavaza ganvasxvaoT semiotika, romelic Seiswavlis araenobriv niSnebs, mecnierebisagan, romelic enis simboloebs Seiswavlis. kasireri `simbolur formebs~ miakuTvnebda enas, miTs da xelovnebas da simbolurs da semiotikurs sinonimebad miiCnevda. msgavsi terminebis mniSvneloba rusulSi daefuZna dasavlur enebs, xolo mogvianebiT, rusuli simbolizmis mier Semotanil terminebs. zogierTi mecnieris mosazrebiT, niSani da simbolo ubralod, sinonimebia. niSnis saintereso interpretacia warmoadgina rolan bartma, romlis mixedviTac, nebismieri niSani gulisxmobs sami ti pis damokidebulebas. upirvelesad, Sinagani damokidebuleba, romelic akavSirebs aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns da ori garegani damokidebuleba: pirveli virtualuria, igi miakuTvnebs niSans sxva niSanTa gansazRvrul sistemas, meore damokidebuleba aqtualuria, is aerTianebs niSans gamonaTqvamis sxva niSnebTan. am damokidebulebebis mixedviT, igi gamoyofs niSnis sam ganzomilebas: simbolurs, paradigmatuls da sintagmaturs. bartis azriT, terminTa aRrevas iwvevs is faqti, rom TiToeuli mkvlevari, TiToeuli skola cdilobs Tavisi analizi daafuZnos niSnis mxolod erT romelime ganzomilebaze da terminebis amosavalic es damokidebulebaa. niSnisa da simbolos sxvadasxva gansazRvrebebis Sejerebis safuZvelze Cven unda vaRiaroT semiotikis terminTa ierarqiaSi niSani rogorc ZiTiTadi termini, romlis mniSvneloba gacilebiT niSani, ufro farToa, vidre simbolosi. simbolo niSnis saxea, romelsac
20

Tavisi maxasiaTeblebi aqvs da mxolod zog SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos niSnis sinonimi. mesame aTaswleulSi mecniereba Tavisi ganviTarebis axal safexurze gadadis. Seicvala samyaro da is informaciuli veli, romelic am samyaros akravs. Sesabamisad, xdeba mecnierebis gadawyoba axal meTodologiebze, romlebic ukeT axsnian samyaros da adamians. swored aseTi mecnierebaa semiotika. semiologebi leqsikonebs `mniSvnelobaTa sasaflaos~ uwodeben. semiotikas ar ainteresebs sityvis myari (saleqsikono) mniSvneloba. igi orientirebulia ara imdenad niSnis denotatiur, ramdenadac konotaciur mniSvnelobaze, anu im mniSvnelobaze, romelsac sityva iZens teqstSi (konteqstSi). semiozisis procesi praqtikulad usasruloa, radgan gansxvavebulia is konteqstebi, romlebSic niSani funqcionirebs. umberto ekos azriT, niSnis arsi ixsneba SemousazRvrav semiozisSi, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom mniSvneloba arasdros ar qmnis Caketil sistemas, ramdenadac niSanTa samyaro komunikaciis procesSi mudmiv moZraobaSia. semiotikuri gagebiT, niSani, amave dros, aris simptomi (medicinaSi simptomi ganimarteba, rogorc raime daavadebis damaxasiaTebeli niSani), ramdenadac misi axsna aris garkveul azrze miniSneba, anu, semiotikuri niSani niSani_miniSnebaa erTsa da imave dros. amgvari gageba devs yvelaze ufro primitiul niSnebSi. magaliTad, mwvane feri gadasasvlelze ara mxolod mwvane feria, aramed miniSnebamoZraoba nebadarTulia! arsebobs ufro rTuli agebulebis niSnebi, roca mkvlevari Tavad axdens kodebis meSveobiT axsnas, amgvari interpretaciebi yovelTvis riskTan aris dakavSirebuli, radgan arsebobs subieqturi gaazrebebis didi albaToba. dReisaTvis semiotika warmoadgens sakmaod ganviTarebul Teorias, romlis meTodebi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavaanalizoT adamianis Semoqmedebis sruliad gansxvavebuli sferoebi. arsebobs literaturis semiotika (barti, derida, rusuli formalisturi skola...), politikuri semiotika (barti, jgufi `tel kel~...), masobrivi komunikaciebis semiotika (greimasi...), xelovnebis semiotika (kristeva, eko, lotmani...), kinosemiotika (metci, pazolini), Teatris semiotika (pavi), zoosemiotika (sebeoki), fsiqoanalitikuri da pedagogiuri semiotika (lakani, piaJe...)...

21

semiotikis TvalTaxedviT, samyaro SeiZleba warmovidginoT rogorc iseTi niSanTa sistema, romelic Tavis TavSi uamrav gansxvavebul qvesistemas moicavs, Tanac am mikrosistemebis `ena~ sruliad gansxvavebulia erTmaneTisagan. SeiZleba Tu ara, arsebobdes gansxvavebul sistemaTa `saerTo ena~? riT gansxvavdeba da ra aqvs saerTo erTi sistemis niSans meore sistemis niSanTan? ratom mouyara Tavi semiotikam yvela gansxvavebul niSans? arsebobs Tu ara universaluri niSnebi? ra princi piT unda aigos axali `babilonis godoli~ ise, rom ar daingres? ras niSnavs bartis sityvebi: `niSnis istoria _ misi gacnobierebis istoriaa~? es aris mecnierebis damokidebuleba niSnis mimarT misi yvelaze zedapiruli Seswavlidan siRrmiseuli Seswavlisken. rogorc davinaxeT, barti sam Sres gamoyofs niSanSi, SesaZloa, momavalSi mecnierebma sxva ganzomilebebic aRmoaCinon. Tu adamiansac ganvixilavT, rogorc niSan_simbolos, misi Secnoba_amocnobis procesic xom mravalganzomilebiania da arasodes bolomde amoxsnili. saintereso paradoqsia, rom mecnieri swavlobs adamians (anu sakuTar Tavs), rogorc niSan_simbolos.

22

s e m i o t i k a
ab nino abakelia

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ., . 1991. simbolo da rituali qarTul kulturaSi, Tb., 1997. interesTa sfero: kulturuli anTropologia, semiotika, uZveles kulturaTa kvlevebi, miTologia da religiebis istoria, analizuri fsiqologia, literaturis istoria, musika, xelovnebis istoria.

sicocxlis ciklTan dakavSirebuli sakraluri xis simbolika qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi xe, erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli kosmologiuri simbolo, mravalferovnad da gansxvavebulad vlindeba rogorc sxvadasxva, aseve erTsa da imave kulturaSi. cnobilia magaliTebi, romlis mixedviT kosmiuri xe vlindeba, rogorc samyaros xateba (imago mundi), samyaros RerZi (axis mundi), romelsac zeca eyrdnoba da romelic aerTianebs sam kosmiur zonas _ zecas, miwas, qvesknels; igi imave dros komunikaciis saSualebacaa dedamiwasa da zecas Soris; sxva variantebi xazs usvamen samyaros perioduli regeneraciis funqcias da kosmiuri xis samyaros centris rols, an mis SemoqmedebiT potencias1. samyaros kosmiuri RerZis da centris idea Zalian Zvelia (IV an III aTaswleuli Cvens eramde2) da farTod gavrcelebulia mTel msoflioSi. specialistebs igi dahyavT
1

M. Eliade, Patterns in comparative religion, New York, 1958: Myths, rites, symbols: A Mircea Eliade reader, New York, Evanston, San Francisco, London, 1975, vols.I, II; n.abakelia, kosmologiuri simboloebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi, mse, Tb., 1987, gv. 237-244 iqve literatura. 2 R.Cook, The tree of Life, Londen, 1974. 23

sam ZiriTad saxesxvaobamde. esenia: xe, boZi3 da mTa4). sakraluri xis simbolos variantebi saqarTveloSi mravalia. yoveli ti pi, an am simbolos nairsaxeoba garkveuli intensivobiTa da sicxadiT avlens sakraluri xis simbolizmis sxvadasxva aspeqts. qarTvelTa (iseve rogorc mravali xalxis) miTo-poetur cnobierebaSi adamianis sicocxlis cikli xSirad xis simbolikis garkveul aspeqtTan aris dakavSirebuli. am kavSiris erT-erTi gamovlena iyo jer kidev gasul saukuneSi dadasturebuli wesCveuleba, romelic exeboda adamianis dabadebisas axalSobilis saxelze xis dargvis wess. bavSvis saxelze darguli xe umeteswilad kaklis xe iyo (Tumca SesaZlebeli iyo sxva jiSis xeebic. mag.: kopiti da sxv.). am xis gazrda gaxareba gavrcelebuli rwmena-warmodgenebiT uSualod iyo dakavSirebuli bavSvis bed-iRbalTan5. axalSobilis saxelze xis dargvas win specialuri rituali uswrebda, romelic ufro srulad dasavleT saqarTveloSi iyo SemorCenili (TiTqmis XX saukunis I-eli naxevris CaTvliT) da cnobilia nerCis locvis saxelwodebiT. am saxelwodebis paralelurad arsebobs azrobrivi TvalsazrisiT misi identuri termini fuZe, romelic Tavis mxriv gulisxmobs, rogorc safuZvels, aseve mogvareebsac6. nerCi bolo gamokvlevebiT7 iTvleba adgilis dedis e. i. kosmizirebuli dedis adgilobriv gamovlenad; mis kompetenciaSi Sedioda mSobiare qalisa da axalSobilisTvis bed-iRblis miniWeba. igi warmodgenili iyo, rogorc miwis qalRvTaeba) nerCi pateni //fuZis qalbatoni8. qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg igi RvTismSoblis kultma Caanacvla, romelTan erTadac igi ganagrZobs arsebobas masTan Serwymuli saxiT da, aseve, mis gverdze damoukideblad (Tumca degradirebuli saxiT). mSoblebi, romlebic sakuTar Svilis janmrTelobasa da keTildReobaze pasuxismgebelni iyvnen nerCis winaSe, misi Sobidan ramdenime
boZis, ufro zustad, dedaboZis adgili qarTvelTa uZveles kosmogoniur SexedulebebSi monografiulad Seswalilia i. surgulaZis mier. sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ix. misi _ qarTuli ornamentis simbolika, Tb., 1985. 4 R.Cook, dasax., naSromi, 1974; z.kiknaZe, Suamdinaruli miTologia, Tb., 1979; m. beriaSvili, mTa rogorc miTosuri wesrigis damyarebis fenomeni da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos brinjaos xanis goris tipis Sesabamisi Zeglebi, kreb.: gareji, Tb., 1988. 5 yvelaze cnobil evropul magaliTs msgavs rwmena-warmodgenebze SesaZloa warmoadgendes goeTes babuas mier Svilebis saxelze msxlis xis dargvis faqti. 6 fuZis / safuZvlisa da gvaris mimarTebaze zogadad ix. v. iTonoiSvili, qarTvel mTielTa saojaxo urTierTobis istoriidan, Tb., 1960. 7 ., , ., 1991.n.abakelia, teluriuli da xTonuri Teofaniebi qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi, kavkasiur-axloaRmosavluri krebuli, X, Tb., 2001 gv.168-188. 8 ufro dawvrilebiT am sakiTxebze ix.: . , . ., 1987. . 37-64
3

24

xnis gavlis Semdeg saxlSi tradiciulad iwvevdnen bebia-qals da im qalebs (ZiriTadad mogvareebs, romelTa ricxvi cxras Seadgenda), romlebic mSobiarobas eswrebodnen. CvenTvis saintereso ritualSi bebia-qali aiRebda nigvzis xis sam kakals da miagorebda miwis iatakze im adgilamde, sadac bavSvi iwva. amis Semdeg, bavSvs Semoavlebdnen Tavze qaTams (biWis SemTxvevaSi mamals, gogonas SemTxevevaSi _ dedals) da daklavnen (anu Sewiravdnen nerCis saxelze). amis Semdeg, mas Sewvavdnen da iwyeboda mzadeba nadimisTvis, romelic nerCis saxelze keTdeboda. masze mamakacebi ar daiSvebodnen. nigvzis ritualur sam kakals Semdeg miwaSi Cargavdnen. adgilobrivi ganmartebiT, es wes-Cveuleba gamiznuli iyo momavalSi bavSvis simrTelisa da dacvis uzrunvelyofisTvis. Tu bavSvi xidan gadmovardeboda, es nerCis risxvas miewereboda, romlisTvisac samsxverplo ritualis Sesruleba daviwyebodaT. Tu Carguli kaklebi gaixarebdnen (erTi mainc) es karg niSnad iTvleboda. xis gaxmoba misi patronis sikvdilis momaswavebeli iyo. amgvari magaliTebi dasturdeba rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarveloSic. garda amisa, dasavleT saqarTveloSi (gansakuTrebiT raWasa da leCxumSi, Tumca terminis SesaZlo megruli warmomavloba (xvama megr. locva) amgvari rwmenebis ufro farTo arealze mianiSnebdes) bolo dromde SemorCenili iyo salocavi, e.w. saxvamlobo kakali ezoSi9, romlis salocavi rituali qristianul kalendarTanaa misadagebuli da savele eTnografiuli masalis mixedviT emTxveva suliwmindis mofenis dRes (sulTmofenobas). aRniSnuli moZravi dResaswaulisTvis yvela asrulebda tradiciul locvas nigvzis xis qveS.10 saxlSi daaabrunebdnen tablas da kaklis xis qveS gavidodnen. saxvamlobo kaklis xeebi e.w. (saxvamlobo kaklebi umravles SemTxvevaSi Sewiruli iyo xvela-saxadisTvis11. salocavi xe, SesaZloa yofiliyo sxva jiSis xec mag.: TuTa12. yvelasTvis
kaklis xe SeiZleba iyos calkeuli ojaxis, gvaris, ubnis, soflis, Temis (mag. rogoricaa saxvamlobo kakali mTa xvamlis Tavze. da sxv.). 10 ufro dawvrilebiT ix. m. makalaTia. wylis kultis gadmonaSTebi leCxumSi, mse, Tb., 1985. 11 analogiuri masala xvela-saxadis saxelze Sewiruli xeebis Sesaxeb dasturdeba qarTlis yofaSic. ix. T. oCiauri. 1947-49 ww. qarTlis eqspediciis eTnografiuli masala. 12 mag. imave leCxumSi dasturdeba gvarebi, romelTac saxadebisTvis Sewiruli hqondaT uqmeebi. mag. s. surmuSSi giorgobianebs hqondaT salocavi xe _ TuTa, romelzec mTeli gvari loculobda. am gvars Sewiruli hqonda barbaloba. qristianuli dReoba barbaloba, rogorc cnobilia, Sobis marxvaSi modis, romelsac mosaxleoba mkacrad icavs. mTxrobelTa gadmocemiT, am dRes mxolod giorgobianebis ojaxSi ikvleboda qaTami, goWi. aRniSnuli gvari Tavs iyrida konsekrirebul adgilas, salocav TuTis xesTan da locvis Semdeg nadimobda. mTel sofelSi barbalobas marto es gvari ixsnilebda, radgan Sewiruli (ufro zustad aRTqmuli) maTgan iyo. ix. n abakelia, 1984 wlis leCxumis eTnografiuli eqspediis masala.
9

25

savaldebulo saxvamlobo rituali sruldeboda saxvamlobo kaklis xis qveS. loculobda ojaxis ufrosi qali, romelic aanTebda erT sanTels, am dRisTvis specialurad daklul da Semwvar wiwilas Semoavlebda Tavze kaklis xis qveS miyvanil bavSvebs da dalocavda maT. tablas (am SemTxvevaSi _ nigvzian purs) da wiwilas mlocveli iqve SeWamda13. saxvamlobo kaklis qveS Sesasrulebel rituals da ritualur Sesawiravs (mag.: nigvzis sarTavian purs, kaklis naWuWs Tavisi SigTavsiT - RvinoTi) saangelozo ewodeboda. amgvarad, dasavleT saqarTveloSi dasturdeba sakraluri xe, romelic sxvadasxva sneulebis, gansakuTrebiT xvelis Tavidan asacileblad aris gankuTvnili da saqarTveloSi batonebis saxeliT cnobili saxadebis14 mSvidobiT gastumrebisTvis aris gamiznuli. saxadebi saqarTveloSi sulier arsebebad hyavdaT warmodgenili, romelnic Tavisi adgilsamyofelidan dro da dro evlinebodnen xalxs15. magram mainc saidan modiodnen TviTon batonebi? maTi adgilsamyofelis aRdgena SesaZlebelia miniSnebebiT, romelic xalxur mexsierebaSi SemorCenila. zogierTi rwmena-warmodgeniT, maTi samyofeli RvTis karzea//zecaSia, zogi warmodgena maT miwasTan akavSirebs, sxva warmodgena _ zRvispira maRal kldeze gaSlil walkotTan16. maT adgilsamyofelis mimaniSnebelia batonebis gacilebis an gadalocvis ritualic. romlis drosac batonebisTvis TavSemovlebuli (e. i. Sewiruli) xonCa ideboda gzajvaredinze an mihqondaT uRran tyeSi. magram ramdenad SesaZlebelia am urTiergamomricxveli masalis winaaRmdegobaTa daZleva? vfiqrob, amis SesaZleblobas sivrcis arqauli klasifikacia iZleva.
n.abakelia, leCxumis 1984 wlis eTnografiuli eqspediciis masala. batonebi, xalxuri ganmartebiT, 7 sneulebas aerTianebs: yvavils, wiTelas, qunTruSas, Cutyvavilas, yivanaxvelas, ybayuras, wiTuras. arsebobs iseTi Sexedulebac, rom batonebi avadmyofobad ar miaCndaT. batonebis UuSualo gamomwvevi RmerTisgan gamogzavnili angelozebia. swored amitom, saxadebs angelozebs, baton angelozebs batonebs uwodeben. n.mindaZe, religiuri sinkretizmi qarTul xalxur medicinaSi, qarTveluri memkvidreoba, V, 2001.gv. 156-157. iqve literatura. 15 n. mindaZe, dasax. naSromi, iqve.. 16 am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa avadmyofTan Sesasrulebuli TavSemovlis arqauli bunebis rituali, rolis drosac avadmyofis deda, bebia, mamida an specialurad mowveuli mebodiSe SiSvlebi cekvavdnen. qarlTsa da kaxeTSi avadmyofis deda da bebia mkerds gaiSiSvlebda _ ZuZuebs miwaze gaaTrevda da forTxviT samjer Semouvlida avadmyofis sawols sityvebiT: dedamiwav, gvapatie, Cveni daudevroba gvapatieo, Cemi Svili kargad mimyofeo ix. n. mindaZe, dasax. naSr. gv.160; T. RuduSauri, XIX saukunis meore naxevris germanuli wyaroebi qarTveli xalxis sulieri kulturis Sesaxeb, Tb., 2005.
13 14

26

batonebis gadalocvis ritualSi zRvari / zRude Sina da gare samyaroebs Soris gansakuTrebul semiotikur mniSvnelobas iZens. zemoT naxsenebi batonebis adgilsamyofeli _ maRali klde masze gaSlili walkotiT zRvispirze kosmologiuri simbolizmiTaa datvirTuli. upirveles yovlisa, igi samyaros centris ideasTan17 aris dakavSirebuli, romelzec gadis samyaros RerZi da romelic vertikalSi sam kosmiur zonas aerTianebs. es sami kosmiuri zonis gadakveTis adgilia. amitom, vfiqrob, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom gadalocvis rituali swored gzajvaredinTan gvxvdeba, romelic sakraluri sivrceebis gadakveTis kidev erTi simboloa. k. g. iungis mixedviT, gzajvaredini _ dedis simboloa, adgilia, sadac gzebi gadaikveTeba da erTi meoreSi gadadis, riTac dapirispirebaTa gaerTianebis simbolizacia xdeba TvalsaCino. deda obieqti da gansaxierebaa yovlgvari gaerTianebisa. Zveli xalxisTvis gzajvaredinebi iTvleboda RvTaebrivi gacxadebis ormag simbolod, radgan sami elementis gaerTianeba yovelTvis gulisxmobda sami princi pis arsebobas. am mizezis gamo, gzajvaredinTan samsaxa hekate aris dakavSirebuli. garda amisa, gzajvaredini arCevanis simboloa, magram aseve dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis adgilia. gzajvaredini droisa da sivrcis Sexvedris, magiuri da saxifaTo adgilia, es bedTan Sexvedris adgilia. gzajvaredini, rogorc zRvruli wertili sivrceSi, aseve, gulisxmobs erTi mdgomareobidan meoreSi, sicocxlidan sikvdilSi gadasvlas18. (aseT liminalur zonebSi xSirad aris gamorCeuli xe raime saxis saswaulCeniT (aq SeiZleba iyos Teofaniac da kratofaniac), ris gamoc igi konsekrirebuli xdeba. aseTi unda yofiliyo mexnakravi kaklis xe, romlis fesvebSi yivanaxvelian bavSvebs aZvrendnen gamosajanmrTeleblad19. (gavixsenoT, rom miTologizaciis obieqtebad iqcevian ara marto mcenareebi, aramed maTi fesvebi, totebi, foTlebi, yvavilebi, nayofi, Tesli). tyes, romelic, aseve, batonebis gadalocvis ritualSi figurirebs, Tu sakraluris princi piT ganvixilavT, rogorc ucnob,
samyaros centri Tavisi mravalferovani gamovlinebebiT Seswavlili aqvs m.eliades. ix. misi patterns in comparative religion,, NY, 1958.es sibolika uSreti da ulevia da yovel kulturaSi igi sxvadasxvagvarad vlindeba. 18 K. G. Jung,.Symbols of transformation, NY.,1956. ix. sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, q. alaverdaSvili,, gzajvaredinTan dakavSirebuli simbolika qarTul rwmenawarmodgenebSi, krebulSi: qristianoba saqarTveloSi, (istoriul-eTnologiuri gamokvlevebi, Tb., 2000. 19 yivanaxveliani bavSvebis mexnakravi kaklis xis fesvebSi gaZvrenis faqtze ix. n. mindaZe, dasax. naSr. gv.162 da iqve literatura.
17

27

saSiS, auTvisebel adgils dasaxlebuls, sxvadasxvagvari saxifaTo arsebebiT igi upirispirdeba Sina, nacnob, aTvisebul, uxifaTo da sxva sivrces, romelic qarTul (kerZod dasavlur-qarTul) miToritualur kompleqsSi RvTaeba galeniSi orTas sauflos Seesabameba, romelic nadirTa da micvalebulTa samyaros ganagebs. galeniSi orTa saxelwodebaSi epiTeti galeniSi mimaniSnebelia RvTaeba orTas samyofelze, romelic sivrculi TvalsazrisiT gaigeba, rogorc saxlis, ezos, sociumis gareT myofi da samyaros saerTo suraTSi ukavia ara tradiciuli adgili vertikalur RerZze, aramed ganTavsebulia horizontalur WrilSic (is ramdenadac garea _ yovlismomcvelia da aerTianebs rogorc horizontalur, aseve vertikalur RerZebsac). masSi Sedis tyeebi, kldeebi, ucnobi adgilebi Tavisi binadrebiTa da patronebiT. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, gasakviri ar aris, rom adgilobrivi rwmena-warmodgenebiT RvTaeba galeniSi orTa warmoidgineboda xan rogorc gareuli nadiris mfarveli, romelsac SeeZlo saqonlze, rogorc nadiris miseva, aseve misi gadarCenac maTgan; rogorc gardacvlilTa sauflos mbrZanebels, mas SeeZlo adamianebisTvis da saqonlisTvis mavne sulebis miseva da / an maTgan dacva. galeniSi orTa, rogorc misi epiTeti galeniSi veluris konotaciiT migvaniSnebs, Tavisi bunebiTa da arsiT upirispirdeba sociums, mowesrigebul, adamianTa samyaros da zeciur samyaros20. miTo-ritualuri stumroba batoni angelozebisa, swored am gare samyarodan xorcieldeba SinaSi. amgvarad batonebis samyofeli erTdroulad SeiZleba gamoixatos zeciTac, tyiTac, miwisqveSeTiTac, zRviTac da gzajvarediniTac, ramdenadac isini erTsa da imave gare sknelSi erTiandebian, romelic Tavis mxriv, Sinas upirispirdeba. rogorc v. bardaveliZe aRniSnavda, avadmyofis saxli iTvleboda batonebis droebiT samyofelad. amitom axlobelTa erT-erT sazrunavs maTTvis iseTi garemos Seqmna warmoadgenda, romelic Sesatyvisi iqneboda RvTaebrivi ojaxis adgilsamyofelisa. Tavis mxriv, avadmyofic da mis garSemo myofnic droebiT batonebis samyofelSi iyvnen21. batonebis gulis mosagebad da maTTvis Sesabamisi garemos Sesaqmnelad e.w batonebis mamida an mebodiSe (anu batonebis
20 21

., , .,1991. ., , ., 1957. .82

28

msaxuri, romelic batonebisTvis dadgenil wesebs asrulebda da uvlida avadmyofs22), saxlSi specialurad amzdebda da rTavda batonebisTvis misarTmev xes, romelic avadmyofTan mihqonda. batonebisTvis misarTmevi xe warmoadgenda TuTis xis tots mravali ganStoebiT, romelsac garSemo wiTlad SeRebili qaRaldi hqonda Semoxveuli. mis totebze foCebiviT ekida mravali wvrilad daWrili qaRaldis zoli, wiTeli, yviTeli, vardisferi da cisferi abreSumis naWrebi, rgolebi, kalaTebi, mercxali, guguli, Txa, Cirebi. xis zeda totebze Camocmuli iyo wiTeli vaSlebi da wiTeli kvercxebi, xolo danarCen totebze batonebis saTamaSo burTebi. feradi abreSumis babTebiT xeze mibmuli iyo baRis xexilis (vaSlis, msxlis, alublis, gargaris, atmis da kvrinCxis) ayvavebuli totebi. es xe sicocxlis xis erTerT nairsaxeobadaa miCneuli23. batonebis gacilebis ritualis Sesrulbis dros batonebis xe, batonebisTvis gankuTvnil xonCasTan erTad, Sinadan gareSi _ tyeSi, gzajvaredinze mihqondaT. amiT ritualuri xe galeniSis/ gares saufloSi mis kuTvnil adgils, sakralur centrs simboluri ritualis SesrulebiT ubrundeboda. sakralur centrSi (gzajvaredinze, tyis SuagulSi da sxv.) dabrunebuli batonebisTvis gankuTvnili ZRvenis xelis xleba ar SeiZleboda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, ukve tabus damrRvevs eyreboda infeqciuri daavadeba.24 adamianis sicocxlis sxva fazebTan dakavSirebul sakralur xeebs saqorwilo ritualebSi gavrcelebuli maSxala an CiraRdani warmoadgendnen, romelic qorwilebSi mefe-dedoflis sadRegrZelos warmoTqmis Semdeg SemohqondaT saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi. CiraRdani (an zogan maSxala) xisagan damzadebuli mravaltotiani xis formis sagania, romelzec Camokidebulia xili, CurCxelebi, yvavilebi, puris comisgan gamomcxvari cxovelTa da adamianTa figurebi, aseve, mTlianad moxarSuli qaTami, romelsac Tavze bumbuli aqvs datovebuli. aRniSnuli saqorwilo ritualuri simboloebi specialistebs sicocxlis xis simboloTa ricxvSi SehyavT25. CiraRdani Tavisi morTulobiT maSinaTve saaxalwlo sufris
22 batonebis mamida an mebodiSe an avadmyofis axlobeli iyo an soflis macxovrebeli, romelic arCeuli iyo batonebis msaxurad gamocxadebis, sizmris da sxv. .meSveobiT. 23 .. .. . 86. 24 unda aRiniSnos, rom gzajvaredinze xonCis gatana xandaxan mosaxleobis mier gaiazreba, rogorc avadmyofobis sxvisTvis gadalocva (negatiuri aspeqti wesCveulebis ganmartebisa), rodesac saxifaToOzonaSi misuli Tavis beds xvdeboda. 25 v. iTonoSvili, dasax. naSromi, Tb., 1960. n. abakelia, vegetaciuri kodi qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi, naSromi simbolo da rituali qarTul kulturaSi, Tb., 1997; T.RuduSauri, dasax. naSromi, Tb., 2005.

29

aucilebeli ritualuri obieqtis, CiCilakis asociacias iwvevs. i.surgulaZem Tavis droze yuradReba gaamaxvila CiraRdanze Tavze bumbulSerCenil qaTmis Camokidebis wesze; misi azriT, is imeorebs CiCilakze gaputuli SaSvis Camokidebis Cveulebas, romelsac aseve frTebsa da boloebze utovebdnen bumbuls. mkvlevaris azriT, orive SemTxvevaSi ritualurma saganma da moqmedebam Seinaxa miTSi daculi RvTaebrivi xis saxe, romelzec frinvelebi sxedan26 . nayofierebis, ayvavebis, simdidris, siuxvis, axali cxovrebis simboloebiT morTuli nefionT tabla samoTxis ideis da mis mimarT nostalgiis gamomxatvelia. saerTod, iudeur-qristianuli fsiqikuri cxovrebis gamosavlenad samoTxis kultis Seswavlas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. am TvalsazrisiT, saqarTveloSi _ erTerT pirvel qristianul qveyanaSi _ marTalia, fragmentuli saxiT, magram mainc daculia samoTxis TavisTavad unikaluri xatebebi27. CiCilaki, axali wlis mudmivi bednieri simbolo, erT-erT (magram ara erTaderT) inspiracias warmoadgens. igi mzaddeboda axali wlis wina dRes tyeSi sagangebod am SemTxvevisTvis moZebnili Txilis totisgan (Txilis tots upiratesoba eZleoda, rogorc nayofierebis gamomxatvel simbolos). mas amzadebda Sinauri mekvle (umeteswilad, ojaxis ufrosi mamakaci). saxlSi motanil Txilis tots cecxlze gaaxurebdnen da iwyebdnen mis gaTlas ise, rom xviara burbuSelebi gamosuliyo, CiCilaks Tavze gadajvaredinebuli joxebi ukeTdeboda horizontalurad; masze horizontaluradve magrdeboda vazis totebisgan dawnuli kalpi / gvergvi (gvirgvini), romelic morTuli iyo suros maradmwvane foTlebiT da veluri Txilis xvixviliT (amonayari) (anu nayofierebis adgilobrivi simboloebiT n.a.). amis Semdeg CiCilaks Camoacmevdnen comisgan gakeTebul vaSlisxela burTulebs, romlebsac yvinCilebi ewodeboda, xolo darCenili ori joxis boloze, broweulsa da vaSls (an sxva raime xils). garda amisa, CiCilakze hkidebdnen gaputul SaSvs, romelsac bumbulebi mxolod kudzeRa SerCenoda, tkbileulobas, zogjer samkaulebs, ferad-ferad babTebs da sxv.28( zog variantSi ikideboda siris kudi. siri Citia. aq igi manifestirebulia Tavisi erTi nawiliT _ kudiT).

i. surgulaZe, qarTuli xalxuri ornamentis simbolika, Tb., 1985. n. abakelia, simbolo da rituali qarTul kulturaSi, Tb., 1997. 28 .., .. . sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ix.n.RambaSiZe, axali wlis dReobaTa cikli aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi (erwo-TianeTi), Tb., 2004.
26 27

30

yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi sakraluri xe sxvadasxva informaciis momcemia, sxvadasxva rames avlens. axali wlis CiCilaks ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs: rig SemTxvevaSi, is aris sakraluri xe, romelic nayofierebisa da keTildReobis momtania da amitom mekvles (ritualuri stumris) xonCis aucilebeli atributia, romlis kvali keTili da bednieri unda iyos.29 mekvlem keTili angelozis kvali unda datovos, razec cnobili sityvieri formulac migviTiTebs mis mier zRurblis gadalaxvis dros: Semovdgi fexi, gwyalobdeT RmerTi, fexi Cemi, kvali angelozisa. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom angelozi aq aucileblad ciuri ierarqiis erT garkveul warmomadgenels ki ar ganasaxierebs, aramed ufro keTil ZalTa krebiTi saxeli unda iyos, romlebic modian gare samyarodan SinaSi, romelsac saaqaos zRvris (am SemTxvevaSi karebis zRurblis) gadmolaxvisas xorci esxmeba mekvles simboloSi. rogorc cnobilia, zogadad ritualis Sesrulebisas icvleba ara marto gare samyaros aRqma da xorcieldeba miTologizacia sivrcisa, aramed kardinalurad icvleba kavSirebi da mimarTebebi TviT adamianebs Soris. icvleba ritualis monawileTa organizacia. icvleba statusi mTavari rolis Semsruleblebisa. Tu yoveldRiurobaSi dominirebs mimarTebebi da mdgomareoba SinaurebSi, ritualSi mimarTebebi viTardeba `Sinaurebsa (mimRebi) da gareSeTa Soris (amasTan ritualSi es ukanasknelni aRiqmebian, rogorc mosulni sxva samyarodan da xSirad RvTis gamogzavnilebs ganasaxiereben; sxva SemTxvevaSi isini winaparTa sulebad aRiqmebian)30. qarTul miTo-ritualur tradiciaSi ganasxvaveben Sinaur mekvles gareSesagan. Tumca amgvari dayofa, unda aRiniSnos, wminda formaluri xasiaTisaa, radgan ojaxis wevri, rogorc ki igi airCeva Sinaurebis mier mekvlis rolis Semsruleblad, maSinve Sinaurebidan ucxoTa, gareSeTa jgufSi gadainacvlebs. saxlis, ezos da sxv. gareT gasvla da Ramis gaTeneba saxlis gareT (Ramis gaTeneba salocavSi, sxvenze, romelime sameurneo nagebobaSi da sxv.) mas maSinve aqcevs adresantad, e.i. personaJad, romelic saxlSi modis garedan (da rogorc aseTi ucxoa TavisianebisTvis). mas saxlSi moaqvs bedniereba, baraqa, keTildReoba, adamianTa da saqonlis gamravlebada sxv.
sityva kvalis da mekvles etimologiaze da mis funqciur datvirTvaze ix. n. bregaZe, saqarTvelo _ miwaTmoqmedebis damoukidebeli kera, Tb., 2004. n.RambaSiZe, dasax. naSromi, 2004. 30 . , , ., 1993.
29

31

da mainc vis ganasaxierebs zogadad axali wlis mekvle? garedan mosuli romeli personaJi xdeba xiluli? an romeli religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi obieqtivizirdeba. qarTuli xalxuri rwmenawarmodgenebis mixedviT, aseTi SeiZleba yofiliyo TviTon RmerTi, wm. giorgi, da/an wm. basili. magram yvelaze xSirad, rogorc es karTan gamarTuli dialogidan Cans, mekvlesa da diasaxliss Soris mekvle wm. basils ganasaxierebda (SesaZloa es ganpirobebuli iyo imiTac, rom 1 ianvari wm. basili didis xsovnis dRe aris qristianuli kalendriT31). amrigad, mekvle, romelic ganasaxierebda wm. basils (vasilas) Semodioda saxlSi CiCilakiT (mravaltotiani xiliT morTuli xiT )xelSi, romelsac xSirad basilas wversac eZaxdnen. CiCilaki aseve SeiZleba mzesac Sedardes32 Tuki mas sxva rakursiT SevxedavT. bokeli am SemTxevaSi ganasaxierebs mnaTobs, xolo burbuSelebi _ misgan gamomaval sxivebs. CiCilaki Tavisi celestiuri markerebiT _ frinvelebiT (yvinCilebiT, SaSviT, siriT) ara zogadad mianiSnebs zecaze, aramed, aseve, mzezec _ sinaTlisa da siTbos centrzec. gavixsenoT, rom mraval tradiciaSi mzis xateba dakavSirebulia xesTan da rogorc r. genoni aRniSnavs, igi gaiazreba, rogorc samyaros xis nayofi. es nayofi Sordeba (gamoeyofa) xes ciklis dasawyisSi da kvlav ubrundeba mas sabolood. ase rom, am SemTxvevaSi xe namdvilad mzis sadgoms warmoadgens. (Sesadareblad genons mohyavs Cinuri ieroglifi, romelic gamoxatavda mzis Casvlas, gamoxatavs mas dRis bolos, Tu rogor eSveba xeze33). qarTul enaSi dasturdeba Zalian saintereso termini mzebudoba 34 , maCvenebeli mzis astronomiuli mdgomareobisa. magram es termini ara marto astronomiuli codnis TvalsazrisiTaa saintereso, aramed rwmenawarmodgenebiTac, romelTa mixedviT, mzis saxls bude warmoadgens, sadac is CabrZandeba. bude, TavisTavad, xis arsebobas gulisxmobs, romelzedac mzes Tavisi sadgomi aqvs budis saxiT. es warmodgena ori urTierTSemavsebeli elementisgan _ xisa da masze dabrZanebuli
basil didis Sesaxeb ufro dawvrilebiT ix. n. abakelia, q.alaverdaSvili, n.RambaSiZe, qarTul xalxur dReobaTa kalendari, Tb., 1991. n. RambaSiZe, dasax. naSromi, iqve literatura. 32 v. bardaveliZem naSromSi `qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan~ (RvTaeba babar-babar), Tb.1941. pirvelad daakavSira CiCilaki mzesTan da mzis qalRvTaebasTan. 33 . . C , ., 2002.356-357. 34 an terminze yuradReba mimaqcevina q. alaverdaSvilma, risTvisac madloba minda gadavuxado.
31

32

mzisgan Sedgeba, rac ori urTierTSemavsebeli modalobis gamomxatvelia. rac Seexeba CiCilakis burbuSelebs, isini SeiZleba ganxilul iqnan, rogorc talRovani sxivebi (zogadi simbolikiT siTbos ganasaxiereben), da rogorc elva (cecxli) da wvima, romelic anayofierebs miwas. talRisebr xazs, zogadad, aseve wylis mniSvnelobac aqvs (mag.: gavixsenoT wylis aRmniSvneli egvi pturi ieroglifi, an nilosis RmerTi hapi, romlis sxeuli talRovani xazebiTaa dafaruli da sxv. sainteresoa, rom mzis RmerTebi da wylis RmerTebi Zvel samyaroSi talRovani xazebiT gamoisaxebodnen..). CiCilaks, romelic imavdroulad RerZs ganasaxierebs, amasTanave, cecxlovani da sinaTlis buneba gaaCnia. CiCilaki Tavisi mziuri konotaciiT ganasaxierebs agreTve sinaTlis/naTlis xes. qarTul da gansakuTrebiT dasavlur qarTul realiaSi bolo dromde SemorCenili iyo xis monawileoba dakrZalvisa da glovis ritualSi. mag., samegreloSi gasvenebis dRes micvalebuls ezoSi daasvenebdnen. Wirisufalic tiriliTa da moTqmiT Semouvlida micvalebuls. am qmedebiT micvalebulis garSemo ikvreboda sakraluri wre micvalebuliT centrSi. amave dros micvalebulisTvis icodnen ezoSi xis moTxra, gansakuTrebiT, rodesac ojaxis ufrosi mamakaci gardaicvleboda, romlisTvisac amoTxridnen vazian xes, ufros qalze ki TuTis xes35. es Semdegnairad xdeboda: ezoSi amoarCevdnen Sesaferis xes, Semdeg yvela miscvivdeboda mas, moTxridnen fesvebianad, micvalebuls samjer Semoutarebdnen cxenTan erTad da orives sasaflaoze gaiyoliebdnen. amoTxril xes saflavze dargavdnen. cxens ki, wesis mixedviT. saflavSi Caayolebdnen. es ukanaskneli cnoba XVII saukunis italieli misioneris arqanjelo lambertis mier aris damowmebuli, romlis xsovna TiTqmis bolo dromde iyo SemorCenili samegreloSi.36 wlis Tavze iwvevdnen naTesav-mokeTeebs, klavdnen saklavs da imarTeboda didi qelexi. gardacvlilis niSnis tanisamoss CaliT an bambiT gatenidnen da Cacmul-daxurul niSans, rogorc cocxal adamians, dasvamdnen taxtze. mis garSemo Wirisuflebi dasxdebodnen
s. makalaTia, samegrelos istoria da eTnografia, Tb., 1941 es wesi TiTqmis bolo dromde dasturdeba samegreloSi. mag. m. jinorias mama am wesiT gaasvenes s.sortaSi (senakis raioni) 1973 wels, rac Cven velze 1998 wels davafiqsireT. 36 n. abakelia, cxenis simbolikisaTvis kolxur miTo-ritualur sistemaSi, kavkasiuraxloaRmosavluri krebuli, XI,Tb., 2004.
35

33

da mas moTqmiT daitirebdnen (kvlav iqmneboda sakraluri wre Tavisi centri-niSniT). Savad Semosil micvalebulis cxens saxlis boZze an xeze miabamdnen da iwyeboda Seyraze momsvlelTa daxvedramiReba. samgloviaro ritualSi CarTuli, xesTan/boZTan dabmuli cxeni (romelic am SemTxvevaSi kosmologiur simbolo-niSans warmoadgenda) axdenda sivrcis konsekracias, xolo konsekrebul sivrceSi xe/boZi samyaros sivrcul modelSi gansazRvravda vertikalur proeqcias da aerTianebda sxvadasxva samyaros. `Seyraze kidev erTi saintereso simbolo-niSani Cndeba _ kelaptari (kilantari), romelsac micvalebulis gamzrdelebi37 amzadebdnen da mohqondaT wlisTavze an ormocze. eTnografiuli aRweris mixedviT38, kelaptars akeTebdnen grZeli alvis xisgan (muxis garda, sxva xec SeiZleboda). is rac SeiZleba grZeli unda yofiliyo. am xes Semoaxvevdnen Savi da TeTri feris (cisa da qveSeTis ferebi) gasanTlul mitkals da zed mis wverze daakravdnen xisagan gamoTlil ixvismagvari frinvelis qandakebas. kelaptars garSemo anTebuli sanTlebi hqonda gakeTebuli39. kelaptars ezoSi dadgamdnen da erT adgilze daamagrebdnen. anTebuli kelaptari frinveliT Tavze naTlis xis adgilobriv variantad gvesaxeba. s. makalaTias cnobiT40, gamzrdelebsa da ZiZebs aRniSnul dRes Savad Semosili buRebic (surdili xojefic) mohyavdaT. yofila iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac gamzrdelebsa da mis sagvareulos mordilis Seyraze ormocamde xari mouyvaniaT41. xarebs rqebze anTebuli sanTlebi ekeTa (aq Semodis kargad cnobili xis totebisa da cxovelis rqis mimarTebis sakiTxi, rac gvafiqrebinebs, rom Sesawiri cxovelis rqebze anTebuli sanTlebi kelaptarze anTebuli sanTlebis izofunqciuri variantia), xolo Tav-kiserze dakidebuli wablis ramdenime asxmac igiveze unda migvaniSnebdes. xarebs ezoSive
afxazuri masaliT kelapTaris afx. a-kilantaris da misi saxesxvaobebis Sesaxeb, ix. n. anTelava, miTebi, ritualebi, simboloebi (enciklopedia), Tb., 2006. 38 aRweriloba mocemulia s.makalaTias naSromSi: samegrelos istoria da eTnografia, 1941. 39 s. makalaTia, dasax. naSr., 1941. 40 s. makalaTia, dasax. naSr., 1941. 41 Sewirul saqonelze, romelic aucileblad unda moxvedriliyo saiqioSi da am wesis socialur-ekonomikuri mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb ix. i.surgulaZe, sakraluri da zneobrivi (suleTze arsebuli warmodgenebis mixedviT), kreb.; miTosi, kulti, rituali saqarTveloSi, Tb., 2003.
37

34

gauSvebdnen, romelTac xalxi wabls Semoaclida. xarebi ikvleboda da Seyra dRes xalxs umaspinZldebodnen, Tu gardacvlili qali iyo, mas Seyraze Zroxas dauklavdnen. gardacvlilis saxelze saqonlis dakvliT xdeboda samzeodan suleTSi/samoTxeSi saqonlis sulis gadayvana42. niSnis datirebis Semdeg dasavleT saqarTveloSi (iseve, rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi) mamakacis gardacvalebis wlisTavze imarTeboda doRi/marula, cxenmxedarTa srbola, romelSic monawileobas iRebda yvela, visac surda micvalebulis pativiscema. doRSi msajulad irCevdnen erT sapatio da marTal pirovnebas, romelic gansazRvravda sadoRe adgilis manZils, daaxloebiT aTTxuTmet kilometramde. cxenosnebi daniSnul adgilas midiodnen da Semdeg iqidan gamoaWenebdnen cxenebs. mag., Tu micvalebuli iyo sof. jvaridan da misi jinji xati iyo jvarSi, Semdeg ki gadmosaxlebuli iyo s. xumuSkurSi, cxenebs gamoaWenebdnen jvaridan xumuSkuramde. gamarjvebulebs eZleodaT sasyideli, saCuqari fuliT, saqonliT, aZlevdnen tanisamoss da sxv. asaCuqrebdnen meeqvse cxenosnamde43. cxenmxedarTa srbolis mniSvnelobas garkveulwilad naTeli SeiZleba moefinos dasavlur-qarTuli da aRmosavlurqarTuli masalis Sejerebis gziT. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi44 wlisTavze (an, sxva versiiT, dakrZalvis dRes) gamarTul doRSi, adgilobrivi rwmenebis mixedviT, igulisxmeba gardacvlilis sulis monawileobac, razec doRSi e.w. sulis cxenis monawileoba miuTiTebda (Sdr. cxenmxedris Secvlas cxeniT). mxedrebi sulis cxeniT win, romlis sadave gardacvlilis dedas an mis das eWira, marcxnidan marjvniv samjer Semouvlidnen talavars da gaaWenebdnen. marSruti nebismieri ar iyo. doRSi monawile mxedrebi, Tu mamakaci iyo gardacvlili, jer dedis ZmebSi da TavianT mogvareebSi wavidodnen. Tu qali iyo gardacvlili, jer mamis saxlSi (mamis mogvareebSi), Semdeg dedis ZmebSi da Semdeg qmreulebSi midiodnen, rac savsebiT Seesabameba rwmena-warmodgenebs mgebrebis (naTesavebi, romlebic egebebian saiqioSi gardacvlils) Sesaxeb saiqioSi.45 aqve gavixsenoT, rom samgloviaro sufraze, micvalebulis Sesandobarisa dalevisa da Wiris patronis dalocvis
i.surgulaZe, dasax. naSromi, ix. gv.292. n.abakelia, dasax. naSromi, 1997, iqve literatura. 44 al. oCiauri, micvalebulis kulti roSkasa da ukanaxadus TemebSi, masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, Tb., 1940, t.3. 45 n. abakelia, dasax. naSromi, 1977.
42 43

35

Semdeg xevsureTSi, fSavsa da TuSeTSi aucileblad Sesvamdnen mgebrebis Sesandobars. samegreloSi zemoT xsenebul marSrutSi jinji xatis (fuZis xatis) CarTva da gardacvlilis cxenis monawileoba, aseve, imaze migvaniSnebs, rom marSruti aqac SemTxveviTi ar unda yofiliyo. Cveni gamokvlevis Tanaxmad, zemoT motanili rituali zRurblis gadalaxvis rituali unda yofiliyo da maCvenebeli imisa, rom gardacvlil suls ara marto mgebrebi (anu gardacvlil axlobelTa sulebi) miacilebden, aramed cocxlebic. marula wlisTavze (an dakrZalvis dRes) faqtobrivad, warmoadgens axal gardacvlili sulis saiqioSi mogzaurobis marSrutis ilustracias saaqaoSi46. ritualuri forma wamyvani da mniSvnelovani xdeba. rituali imeorebs rwmena-warmodgenebSi (miTSi) dacul marSruts, xolo cocxlebis mier gardacvlilTa amgvari gacileba uzrunvelyofda am ukanasknelTa sulis mSvid damkvidrebas saiqioSi, winaparTa sazogadoebaSi.47 marulas Semdeg samegreloSi imarTeboda meore saxis Sejibri yabaxi. amisaTvis ezoSi airCevdnen yvelaze maRal xes da masze miamagrebdnen grZel joxs, romelsac Tavi hqonda gaCexili da niSnis amosaRebad Sig Cadebuli iyo TefSi an ficari, zogan ki joxze micvalebulis qisasac Camohkidebdnen. es xe formalurad da Sinaarsobrivad axdens sakraluri sivrcis organizacias. yabaxis simaRle iyo 1-15 metri. yabaxis manZili TokiT iyo Semofargluli da meTofeebi am Tokis garSemo gamwkrivdebodnen, ise, rom gul-mkerdi Tokze hqonodaT mibjenili da iwyebdnen niSanSi srolas. vinc niSans moaxvedrebda, mas eZleoda saCuqari fuliT, saqonliT an raime nivTiT. Semdeg meTofeni esrodnen kelaptris frinvels da vinc mas Camoagdebda, aCuqebdnen 15-30 maneTs. saRamo Jams micvalebulis erTi vinme sayvareli adamiani Sejdeboda Savad (ufro adre, wiTlad da lurjad) Semosil cxenze da TarCias gaakeTebda, iwyeboda TareSi. ramdenadac sityva TareSs Zarcvis konotaciac gaaCnia, mas gamoedevnebodnen sxvebi da cdilobden cxenisTvis Savebi SemoexiaT. Savebis SemofleTiT da zemoT aRwerli SejibrebebiT glova mTavrdeboda. micvalebulis cxens mis axlobels aCuqebdnen an gauSvebdnen velad, Tavisuflad. es ukanaskneli galeniSisTvis msxverplSewirvis nairsaxeobad iTvleboda.
46 47

n. abakelia, dasax. naSromi, 1997. n. abakelia, dasax. naSr. 1997, 2001.

36

rac Seexeba saflavze dargul xes da masTan mdgar an Sewirul cxens, igi samyaros xisa da cxenis cnobil xatebas imeorebs. saflavSi Cayolebul Tu Sewirul cxens aRniSnul konkretul SemTxvevaSi ver eyoleboda RvTaeba-adresati, ramdenadac is aq gardacvlilisTvis Tanamgzavri, fsiqopompi da gadaadgilebis saSualebaa. magram cxeni marto aRniSnul konteqstSi ar gvxvdeba. cxeni ara marto samyaros xesTanaa dakavSirebuli, aramed, Cveni azriT, rig SemTxvevaSi TviTonac samyaros xes ganasaxierebs. amis TvalsaCino ilustracias gvianantikuri xanis erT-erT Wvirul balTaze48 gamosaxuli irmisrqebiani cxeni warmoadgens. cxeni aq gaigivebulia xesTan, razec xis totebis identuri irmis rqebi migvaniSnebs. cxenis Tavze irmis rqebis, irmis gvirgvinis dadgma ormag informacias Seicavs. erTis mxriv, igi ganasaxierebs xes, romelTanac msxverplSewirva unda Sesruldes da aseve TviTon msxverplsac. Sesawiri cxovelis rqebis oqroTi moWedvis wesi (romelic mraval Zvel xalxSi, xolo dasavleT saqarTveloSi wm. giorgis Semodgomid dResaswaulzec aris Tavis droze dadasturebuli) an misi kidev sxvagvarad markireba gvirgvinis dadgmis tolfasi unda iyos. adamianis Tu cxovelis Tavze msxverplSewirvis dros gvirgvinis dadgma ki mravali religiuri sistemisTvis (ZvelisTvis Tu axlisTvis) aris damaxasiaTebeli. samsxverplo cxeni xesTan an xe-cxeni (rogorc es aRniSnul balTazea) markirebas axdens sivrcis da sakraluri simbolizmis enaze samyaros centrisa da misi RerZis droSi gamZle princips warmoadgens, romelzedac gadaadgileba aris SesaZlebeli. (Sdr. maradiuli /warmavali) cxenis msxverplSewirvasa da danawevrebas unda asaxavdes megrul zRaparSi daculi motivi. kerZod adamianTa saswaulebrivi aRmoceneba, gaCena danawevrebuli cxenis dafluli nawilebisagan.49 aq msxverplSewirvasTan gvaqvs saqme, romlis drosac centralur moments msxverplis mokvla da danawevreba (erTi
m. xidaSelis azriT, romelmac ara erTi naSromi miuZRvna Wviruli balTebis Seswavlas, udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs balTebze gamosaxul semantikur mwkrivs, romelSic Sedian iremi, frinveli, gveli, Tevzi, rac saqarTveloSi arsebobas jer kidev adresamiwaTmoqmedo kulturebis wiaRSi iwyebs. am periodSi adamianma moaxerxa iseTi umniSvnelovanesi kategoriebis gaazreba, rogoric iyo dro da sivrce, Seqmna samyaros agebulebis vertikaluri modeli da adamianebiT dasaxlebuli qveyana mis centrSi moaTavsa. aq gadioda is RerZi, romelic uzrunvelyofda vertikalur xazze organizebul samyaros nawilebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas. ix. m.xidaSeli, brinjaos qarTuli Wvirulgamosaxulebiani balTebi, kreb. ena da kultura, 3, 2002, gv. 87; ix. agreTve z. TorTlaZe. brinjaos Wviruli balTebis semantikuri analizisTvis. ena da kultura, 4. Tb., 2004. 49 . ., . , . 18. , 1894, ,.3, .43.
48

37

cxovrebis mraval nawilad dayofa da axal TaobaSi, axal sicocxleSi integrireba, gaerTianeba) warmoadgens. danawevrebuli msxverpli kosmogoniuri arqeti puli aqtis reaqtualizacias axdens, samyaros xelaxal Seqmnas gulisxmobs50. mcenareul doneze mas Seesabameba marcvali, romelic daTesvamde winaswar unda daifSvnas, danawevrdes, sanam mravalSi regenirirdeba. ufro metic, fsiqologebi51 marcvlis dafqvas fqvilad imave procesebis asaxvad Tvlian bunebaSi. zogjer, rogorc cnobilia, fqvils adamianis formis puris saxes aZlevdnen (gavixsenoT axali wlis anTropomorfuli ritualuri purebi _ e.w. `basilebi~), romelic unda SeWmuliyo da am gziT gardaqceuliyo adamianur energiad. arsebobs wyalTan cxenis kavSiris Sesaxeb fragmentuli miniSnebebic kolxur realiaSi. mag., guriaSi (aseve, samegreloSic _ n.a. ) arsebobda warmodgenebi cxenze, romelic Tavdapirvelad wyalSi cxovrobda52. sainteresoa topografiuli saxelwodebebic, romlebSic cxeni figurirebs. cxenis sxvadasxva sknelTan kavSiri qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebSic dasturdeba, romelTa mixedviT, cxeni zRvasTan, casTan da xmeleTTan dakavSirebuli cxovelia53. kosmosis sxvadasxva donis, sxvadasxva samyaroebis Sexvedris, gadakveTis adgils da transcendentur sivrces saflavi warmoadgenda, romelic profanuli sivrcisagan gansxvavebulia Tavisi struqturiT54. cxeni ki am samyaroebsa da sxvadasxva stiqiaSi mistikuri gadaadgilebis saSualebaa. saflavze darguli xe da masTan mdgomi cxeni, iseve rogorc cxeni irmis rqebiT Wvirul balTaze niSania raRac umaRlesi realobisa. masSi farTo kosmologiuri azri devs, romelic kosmosis yvela donis gadakveTas aRniSnavs, da Sesabamisad, erTdroulad samyaros centris da RerZis aRmniSvnelia, anu saflavs, rogorc kosmizirebul sivrces, Tavisi centri aqvs gardacvlilis saxiT da RerZi xis saxiT (an cxeni irmis rqebiT), romelic am ukanasknelis izomorfuli variantia.55
M.Eliade, Patterns in comparative religon, New York,1958. T. Chatwynd, A dictionary of symbols, London ,1986. 52 . , , , . 18, , 1893, .47. 53 T. oqroSiZe, raSi qarTuli zRaprisa, mnaTobi, 1968, #2. cxenis simbolikaze ix. n. abakelis, dasax. naSr. 54 M. Eliade, Myths, rites, symbols, A Mircea Eliade Reader, N.Y. 1975.Vol.2. 55 sxva miTo-ritualur kompleqsebze, romlebSic cxeni figurirebs ix. n. abakelia, dasax. naSr., 2004; q. ramiSvili. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis mcire plastikis Zeglebi. Tb., 2007.
51 50

38

xesTan/boZTan dabmuli cxeni (romelsac maRali semiotikuri xarisxi eniWeba ritualis gamo da amitom simbolur enaze igi samyaros xes ganasaxierebs) ara marto ubralod aris dakavSirebuli arbor mundi-sTan, aramed ufro metic, igi TviTon warmoadgens samyaros xes. amis TvalsaCino magaliTs dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRmoCenili gviani klasikuri xanis brinjaos erT-erTi Wviruli balTa warmoadgens, romelzec irmis rqebiani cxenia gamosaxuli. cxenis dagvirgvineba irmis rqebiT ormagi informaciis matarebelia. erTis mxriv igi arbor mundi-s anu samyaros xes ganasaxierebs, romelTanac, rogorc etyoba, msxverplSewirva unda ganxorcielebuliyo, xolo, meores mxriv, igi TviTon aris samsxverplo cxoveli. gvxvdeba sxva miTo-ritualuri kompleqsic: RmerTebis didi deda RvTaeba da misi cxenmxedrebi. cxenmxedris aRniSnuli mimarTeba Zveli kolxebis religiuri cxovrebis erT-erT uZvelesi safexuris amsaxvelia, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, wyvili RvTaebebis dioskurebis kulti ukavSirdeba. sxva SemTxvevaSi cxeni dasavlur-qarTul kolxur tradiciaSi vlindeba, rogorc simbolo da wyaro axali cxovrebisa da nayofierebisa. rogorc es zemoT xsenebul megrul zRaparSia: Sewiruli cxenis danawevrebuli nawilebidan iSveba adamianebis axali Taoba. aRniSnul msxverplSewirvis aqtSi erTi cxovelis (mo)kvla da misi mraval nawilad danawevreba centralur moments unda warmoadgendes. aq danawevrebuli msxverpli, simbolur enaze, kosmogoniuri aqtis reaqtualizacias axdens. amgvarad, cxeni, rogorc religiuri simbolo, erT SemTxvevaSi vlindeba, rogorc imago mundi, sxva SemTxvevaSi, rogorc axis mundi an arbor mundida Sesabamisad, rogorc samyaros sayrdeni. faqtobrivad, igi sxvadasxva realobas avlens, romlebic dakavSireba erTmaneTTan savsebiT SesaZlebelia da romelic erTiandeba erT, dasavlur-qarTul, kolxur miTo-ritualur sistemaSi. amgvarad, sicocxlis ciklis ritualebSi gamovlenilia sakraluri xis sxvadasxva variantebi: xe, romelic irgveba adamianis dabadebisas da dakavSirebulia bed-iRblis qal-RvTaebasTan _ e.w. fuZis mfarvel qalRvTaebasTan. mas qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg RvTismSobeli enacvleba. xe, romelic dakavSirebulia adamianis janmrTelobasTan da romelTanac aseve qalRvTaebis saxe vlindeba qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdegis wm. barbares kults erwymis. samoTxis xe, romelic saqorwilo ritualSi gvxvdeba.
39

naTlis xe CiCilakis saxiT saaxalwlo ritualSi, romelsac nayofiereba da keTildReoba moaqvs ojaxisTvis da asocirdeba wm. basilTan. xe, romelic adamianis gardacvalebisas amoiTxreba da irgveba saflavze da Sedis religiur kompleqsSi: saflavi-xe-Sewiruli cxeni, romelic TavisTavad umaRlesi realobis niSania. masSi farTo kosmologiuri azri devs da, Sesabamisad, samyaros centrisa da samyaros RerZis aRmniSvnelia, rac niSnavs, rom saflavs, rogorc kosmizirebul sivrces Tavisi centri aqvs gardacvlilis saxiT da RerZi xis (an cxen-irmis) saxiT. gamovlenil iqna naTlis xis simbolo saaxalwlo, saqorwilo da glovis ritualebSi. am urTierTgamomricxav simboloebs aerTianebs RerZuli simbolika, romelic yvela samyaros _ amiersac da imiersac erTnairad msWvalavs da anaTebs. Nino Abakelia

Sacred tree symbolism in the life cycle of Georgian mythico-ritual system


As is known ancient mythological idea of the threefold structure of the cosmos is often expressed in the image of a tree. According to this idea, the Tree of Life, or Cosmic Tree, penetrates the three zones of Heaven, Earth and Underworld, its branches penetrating the celestial world and its roots penetrating into the abyss. The image of the cosmic Tree or Tree of Life belongs to a coherent body of myths, rites, images and symbols which together make up what Mircea Eliade has called the symbolism of the centre. This article deals with some different variants of the sacred tree, revealed in the life cycle rituals of Georgians: The tree planted at the birth of a child, which is associated with the Goddess of Destiny, who is the Patron Goddess of maternity and kin as well, who after the spread of Christianity was substituted by the Mother of God; The tree which is associated with the health of people (and especially of children), to which the image of Mother goddess is associated, after the spread of Christianity - the image of St. Barbara; The sacred tree types at weddings, symbolizing the Tree of Eden. The sacred tree at the New Year festival which reveals the symbolism of the Tree of Light, to which the image of St. Basil is associated; The trees pulled out at funerals and planted on the graves, which together with other ritual symbols form the religious complex: grave-tree-sacrificed animal, etc. Thus through the symbol of sacred tree inexplicable side of the life of Georgians and at the same time the sacramental dimension of human existence are revealed.
40

ba ci ra barbaqaZe

poeziis semiotika
`ena gzebis labirinTia. erTi mxridan modixar da agneb gzas; meore mxridan modixar imave adgilas da _ ukve veRar agneb~. ludvig vitgenStaini filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika, folkloruli ritorika, Tanamedrove politikuri diskursis ritorikuli Taviseburebani, qarTuli sakanonmdeblo stili... interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, stilistika.

poezia sulis xarisxia, xolo poeti _ mediumi, romelic grZnobaTa samyaros ritmebs saganTa enaze Targmnis da RvTaebrivi hangebiT elaparakeba adamians. zemoqmedeba sworedac rom Zaldautanebelia, iseTi, pol valeri rom aRwers: `... yvela icnobs am Tavisebur TrTolvas, romelic im mdgomareobas gvagonebs, roca garkveul garemoebaTa wyalobiT, Cven vgrZnobT, rom aRgznebulni, monusxulni, mojadoebulni varT. es mdgomareoba araviTar konkretul obieqtze ar aris damokidebuli. is bunebrivad da TviTneburad iRebs dasabams Cveni Sinagani, fizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri ganwyobilebisa da Cveni SemZvreli garemoebebis Tanaxmierebisagan. (pol valeri, 1994, 171). amitom aris, rom STagonebuli msmeneli(mkiTxveli) sityvas ver poulobs im gancdis gamosaTqmelad, romelsac WeSmariti xelovneba gvris. poetis mier Seqmnili realoba ise i pyrobs adamians, rom misi cnobiereba pulsirebs im ganzomilebaSi, romelSic poeti leqsis Seqmnisas imyofeboda da saidanac sityvebiTa da
41

sityvaTa uCveulo kavSirebiT da kanonebiT moitana raRac sxva, yoveldRiuri cxovrebisagan gansxvavebuli ritmebi. poeziis kvleva gulisxmobs `sityviT marTuli mgrZnobelobis mTeli sferos kvlevas, es kvleva SeiZleba alalbedze, xelis faTuriT ganxorcieldes. Cveulebriv, asec xdeba, magram gamoricxuli ar aris, rom mis ganxorcielebas, erTxelac iqneba, Tavisi meTodi daeZebnos~ (pol valeri, 1994, 170), xolo Tu kristevas daveTanxmebiT, rodesac is semanalizze(semiotikuri koncefcia, romelic kristevam daamuSava, rogorc sosiuris semiologiis alternativa da rogorc fsiqoanalitikuri ideebis `Targmnis~ forma lingvistikis da semiotikis enaze, kristevas ar ainteresebs `mniSvneloba~, romelic sistemaSi aqvs niSans, semanalizs Tvlis igi erTgvar riskad da eqsperimentad, raTa gamoavlinos sxvadaxva diskursSi niSnis mniSvnelobebi) saubrobs, miuTiTebs, rom: kvlevis obieqtisaTvis ixsneba axali sivrce, ekrani, romelzec proecirdeba teqstis dafaruli siRrmiseuli struqtura. teqsti ar aris lingvisturi fenomeni, is warmoadgens enis Semoqmedebis produqts. semanalizi uars ambobs struqturis aRweris aucileblobaze da, samagierod, teqstis fenomenis kvlevas tovebs Rias nebismieri mniSvnelobisaTvis. SeiZleba Tu ara, semiotika gaxdes is sarkmeli, romelSic poeziis kvleva axal peizaJebs warmoSobs da saganTa imgvar wyobas SemogvTavazebs, romelTa `wakiTxva~ teqstis mxatvrulobis kanonebs aRmogvaCeninebs?...amaze pasuxi mogvianebiT gveqneba... samyaroSi yvelaferi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc niSani, xolo poeziaSi nebismieri niSani_gansakuTrebuli niSania, imis CaTvliT, rom Tavad poeti_mediumi, sakuTari pirovnebisagan damoukideblad, aris simbolo, romelic Zalian xSirad Tavisi Tavisagan gaucnobierebel movlenebze gvelaparakeba. amitom ambobs poeti: muza mewvia, STagonebuli var da a.S... maleviCi poetis Sesaxeb wers: `is, rogorc forma, aris saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac laparakobs RmerTi an eSmaki... poetis xiluli forma aris iseTive niSani, rogorc bgera, noti... da mxolod...~ (maleviCi, 525). poeturi teqsti erTianad zemoqmedebs mkiTxvelze da Zalian xSirad zustad ver ambobs mkvlevari, konkretulad ra moqmedebs da ratom? ra Tqma unda, saxeebi da metafora, magram xom arsebobs usaxeebo poeziac, aseT SemTxvevaSi iakobsoni ityvis, rom gramatikasac aqvs Tavisi poezia da arsebobs gramatikis tropulobac. am niSniT ganixilavs igi puSkinis cnobil leqss `me Tqven miyvardiT...~ iqneb

42

arc Rirdes poeturi teqstis amgvari danawevreba, magram sadme xom unda iyos gasaRebi? poeziis SemTxvevaSi yvela detals Tavisi Rrma semiotika aqvs _ bgeras, sityvas, riTmas, ritms, metrs, frazas... leqsi iseve pulsirebs, rogorc adamianis guli da is an Zlieria, an susti, an ritmuli, an ariTmiuli... pulsaciis sixSirec, Tavis mxriv, sxvagan gvagzavnis, sxva dro_sivrcisken, an sulac_udroobisken da maradiulobisken da sabolood, ramdeni ram unda avxsnaT imisaTvis, rom davadginoT is kanonzomiereba, romelic namdvili poeziis niSani iqneba. cocxali ena mudmiv qmnadobaSia, arasdros ar aris dasrulebuli procesi, miT umetes, es iTqmis poetur enaze, romelic qmnis gansakuTrebul semiotikur sistemas, romlis anbani da wakiTxvis meTodebi sruliad gansxvavebulia Cveulebrivi, praqtikuli enisagan.

`Si da `ga po di `Sin~ da `gareT~ poetur diskursSi


poetisaTvis mze yovelTvis mze ar aris, mTvare_mTvare da varskvlavebi_varskvlavebi... maleviCi sityva_yofierebis Semoqmedeba_CvenSi ganagrZobs cxovrebas, rogorc metafora. andrei beli

`didi ambebi xdeboda gareT erTi amindi cvlida meores...~ _ gareT, wers oTar WilaZe (xazgasma Cemia_c.b.), es striqonebi `Sinagan adamians~ ekuTvnis, romelic TiTqos aviTarebs (an adasturebs) baxtinis Temas: `adamiani sarkesTan~. `gareT~ yovelTvis raRac xdeba, iseve, rogorc `SigniT~, sagnebi da movlenebi poetisaTvis iqcevian gancdaTa metaforizaciis obieqtebad, simbolizdebian da simboloTa Sinaarss isev mxolod poetis Semoqmedebidan Tu avxsniT. samyaro gadaewyoba Semoqmedis kalmiT da ena iqceva sulis moZraobad, romelic Tavisebur kardiogramas qmnis. mkvlevris funqcia sulis am kardiogramis sworad gaSifvraa. zogjer poetur teqstSi zedapirzea gasaRebi, xolo zogjer_teqstSi ufro Rrma mogzaurobaa saWiro imisaTvis, rom raRac axsna. terenti granelis poezia gaxda gasaRebi erTi Zalian saintereso movlenisa, romelic yovelgvari lirikisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.
43

ras gulisxmobs poeti, roca is bunebis movlenebs aRwers? romeli da rogori gancdebi metaforizdeba qarSi, wvimaSi, TovlSi...? poeti paralelurad aRwers leqsSi `Sina~ (anu ra xdeba poetis sulSi) da `gare~ (ra xdeba bunebaSi) movlenebs da amiT TiTqos pirvelyofil saxeldebas axorcielebs da da suls aerTebs xorcTan (anu sityvasTan). sabolood xom sityva sulis moZraobis gamomxatvelia, miTumetes, poeturi sityva. `dReTa simZime Cems suls aCnia da vxedav foTlebs, qarSi dafenils.~ dReebiT damZimebuli poeti qarSi dafenil foTlebTan igivdeba. asea umravlesad terentis SemoqmedebaSi, Sinagani sulieri gancda bunebaSi ixsneba da saintereso is aris, rom `Sina~ da ~gare~ monacvleobiT mihyveba striqonebs. `damagvianda, morCa, ar moval, Cans gulis landi da raRac meti. ha, Semodgomis yru saRamoa, daRamda nela, wvims ganuwyvetliv...~ an: `guli miwuxs da sulia vrceli, qarisagan iRupeba toti.~ anda: `me ra vqna, sikvdils Tu ver avcdebi, qarma xes toti gadauzniqa.~ isec xdeba, rom poeti kargavs adamianis formas da ukve bunebaSi ki ar eZebs gancdaTa analogias, aramed Tavad xdeba bunebis nawili: `modis zamTari, Tovli da yinva, Tovlis da yinvis cisferi wveTi, sneuli saxe_sikvdilis win var, sikvdilis win var me, rogorc gedi. davdivar RamiT da me var Tovli, da me var nisli, da me var wvima, da suls cecxlisken mivyavar TrTolviT, ise var, rogorc viyavi winaT~
44

terenti graneli isev Tavad adaturebs Sinagani gancdebis da bunebis movlenebis analogias: `aqac gaismis qaris godeba, qaria sulSi~(xazgasma Cemia_c.b.). da roca igi wers, rom: gareT, qaria sulSi~ `vucdi sxva aminds...~, bunebrivia, is ar gulisxmobs meteorologiur cvlilebas, xolo roca Sinagani ganwyoba Seecvleba, bunebac gadaewyoba da bunebis movlenebi erT SemTxvevaSi rom sevda_wuxilis gamomxatveli iyo, sixarulsa da aRfrTovanebasac daitevs. Sinagani adamiani mTavaria aseT SemTxvevaSi, xolo saxeldeba _ pirobiTi. Tumca garkveuli kanonzomiereba mainc iqmneba. terenti, bunebis movlenebs Tu SevadarebT, mainc `qaris poetia~ da ufro metad mwuxarebis, sevdis da tkivilis matarebeli. `axlac qarSi var, Tavs ver vuSvele~; `didi xania, rom vcxovrob qarSi~; `Cemi cxovreba qariSxalia~; `vici, qariSxals ver davewevi...~; `dRes Cemi bedi qariSxals misdevs...~ da sxva. terenti granelis poeziaSi gamovlenili bunebisa da Sinagani adamianis analogiebi SeiZleba dagvexmaros sxva poetTa wakiTxvisas, romelTa SemoqmedebaSi ase zedapirze gamotanili ar aris bunebisa da sulis kavSiri, magram udavod igulisxmeba.

e-s se me- semiotika ena samyaros modelia. TiToeuli adamianis metyveleba kimikromodeli. haidegerma adamiani ase gansazRvra: `me var is, rasac vlaparakob.~ ufro adre rusTavelma es azri ase Camoayaliba: `kokasa Sigan raca sdgas, igive warmosdindebiso.~ ena cxovrobs adamianSi. es azri paradoqsuladac SeiZleba gamoiTqvas: adamiani enaSi cxovrobs! barti malarmes gavleniT ityvis, rom `laparakobs ara avtori, aramed ena, rogorc aseTi.~ `egocentruli
45

sityvebi gvTavazoben imgvar models, romelSic metyvelebis centrSi imyofeba Tavad molaparake~(ivanovi, 1999, 560). egocentruli sityvebis, Sifterebis semantikisa da, Sesabamisad, maTi komunikaciuri statusis dadgena moiTxovs am sityvaTa religiuri, filosofiuri, fsiqologiuri da literaturuli aspeqtebis gaTvaliswinebas. m e da S e n Sifterebs ara aqvT erTxel da samudamod Camoyalibebuli semantika. Cven mxolod maTi gramatikuli mniSvnelobebi viciT zustad. pirveli piria moubari ubnobis momentSi da meore piri, visac es moubari mimarTavs. gamonaTqvami, romelic Seicavs me enis imgvar moduss miekuTvneba, me-s, romelsac Carlz morisma uwoda p r a g m a t i k u l i da romelic enas ganixilavs molaparakesTan erTad(benvenisti, 1974, 286). ra Tqma unda, molaparakes `marto ver davtovebT~, radgan igi TavisTavad gulisxmobs meore pirs, visac mosaubre mimarTavs. mimarTvis obieqti SeiZleba iyos realuri da SesaZloa iyos warmosaxviTi, magram yovelTvis arsebobs, Tundac abstraqtulad. SesaZloa, adamiani Tavis meore me esaubrebodes, am SemTxvevaSi me-s meore me iqceva meore pirad Sen Sen-ad. baxtinma filosofiur-anTropologiuri midgomis safuZvelze rom Seiswavla es sakiTxi, daaskvna: es movlena azrovnebis dialogur stilTan aris dakavSirebulio. yovelgvari metyveleba-zepiri Tu werilobiTi, ra Tqma unda, azrovnebiT procesebTanaa dakavSirebuli da amdenad, Tu vikvlevT ena-metyvelebas, vikvlevT metyvelebis stilsac.E semantikaEsainteresod me da Sen Sifterebis religiuri semantikaE warmoCnda bibliis teqstSi, sadac pirveli piris nacvalsaxeliTmeme aRiniSneba ufali, xolo meore piriT-adamiani. RmerTi esaubreba adamians, enis umartivesi sityvebiT yalibdeba RvTaebrivi azri. me nacvalsaxelis ontologiuri safuZveli, Cveni azriT, kargad ixsneba ioanes saxarebis VIII TavSi, sadac ioane ambobs: `me var sinaTle am qveynierebisa: mama da Ze.~ RmerTi elaparakeba adamians xan-pirdapir, xanac-iesos meSveobiT. ieso qristes sityvac uflis sityvaa, roca igi mociqulebs miavlens, etyvis: `vinaidan Tqven ki ar ilaparakebT, aramed Tqveni mamis suli ilaparakebs TqvenSi.~ufali laparakobs iesoSi, ieso-mociqulebSi, Sesabamisad, ufali laparakobs mociqulebSi. `vinc Tqven gRebulobT, me mRebulobs, xolo vinc me mRebulobs, Cems momvlinebels Rebulobs.~ me-s filosofiuri semantika SeiZleba ganisazRvros misi me transcendenturobiT. adamiani Seicnobs Tavis Tavs mxolod II piris meSveobiT. `me varsebob, ramdenadac me Cems Tavs gavcem~(sartri,
46

2000, 386). am azrs isev rusTavelis sityvebiT gavamyarebdi: `rasaca gascem, Senia.~ sakuTari Tavis gacnobiereba mxolod dapirispirebisas aris SesaZlebeli. me vambob me-s mxolod vinmesTan urTierTobisas, romelic iqneba Sen. bulgakovi wignSi `saxelTa filosofia~ me ~ me-s `enis Zirs~ uwodebs, xolo Sen nacvalsaxels gansazRvravs, rogorc meore me mes. filosofosis azriT, nacvalsaxelSi me `ar aris araviTari idea, araviTari sityva, is mxolod adasturebs yofierebas. is aris ontologiuri Jesti, romelSic vlindeba `sityvis ontologiuri realoba (bulgakovi, 1999, 49). sainteresoa martin buberis mosazreba, igi piris nacvalsaxelebs-me da Sen Sen-uwodebs ZiriTad sityvebs ramdenadac es sityvebs, me sityvebi aRniSnaven ara raRac sagnebs, aramed-damokidebulebas, mimarTebas. me da Sen Sifterebi ayalibeben agreTve egocentrul da dialogur konteqstebs. ramdenadac me egoa, (Tumca es ego gansxvavebuli TvisebebiT SeiZleba warmogvidges sxvadasxva diskursSi), xolo meore piri pirvelTan erTad ukve dialogs gulisxmobs. Tumca SesaZloa, es dialogi fiqtiuri iyos. Zalze mravalferovani SinaarsebiT itvirTeba me da Sen Sifterebi poeziis enaSi. poetur metyvelebaSi m e ZiriTadad sulieri mea. xSirad poetis lirikul egos Semohyavs II piri, romelsac miawers sakuTar azrebs da sulier mdgomareobas da qmnis opozicias: me-Sen romelic me-Sen, kontrastulobis gamo saintereso poetikas qmnis. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT mdidaria tariel Wanturias Semoqmedeba: `Sen dRemudam iTvli fuls! Sen me dRemudam viTvli pulss! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rac me miyvars-is Sen gZuls, rac Sen giyvars-is me mZuls! Sen mxolod erTs-uvli xorcs, me mxolod erTs-vuvli suls!~ (gv.277) `Sen visac eli, me iqneb ar var... , me visac veZeb, Sen iqneb ar xar...~ (gv.440) `cudi var, Sen mainc Semaqe, kargi xar? me kargze gimRereb. me moval, me moval uTuod, Sen saxli datove karRia.~ (gv.125)
47

`maSin Sen wnavdi Cems TmebSi iebs, maSin me vklavdi Sens wvivze koRos, maSin me yvela meZaxda `biWos~, maSin Sen yvela geZaxda `gogos~. (gv.124) `Sen xom uZlebdi sakuTar tkivils, Sen me ki, Zvirfaso, Senic mtkioda.~ (S. niSnianiZe, gv.36) `Sen xar mindia, ar xar meSurne, Sen me isic vici, visac edrebi.~ (j. Carkviani, gv.206) `Sen Cemi wili xar saqarTvelo, Sen me Seni wvivis var sakvarTuli.~ (gv.264) `salams getyvi salamze, me yovelTvis-mtyuani, Sen-yovelTvis marTali.~ (gv.271) Sen `Sen vaSli samoTxisa, Sen me ki-vaSlis naTali.~ (gv.271) `Sen hyvaodi, viTa vardi, Sen me getrfodi, viT bulbuli!~ (akaki, gv.189) mec poeti xSirad identificirdeba saqarTvelosTan, mis gmirebTan, mis warsulTan da momavalTan. is atarebs sakuTar TavSi arqeti pebs. `dRisiT-Tmogvis mecixovne, RamiT-fanaskerteli var! xval rom qva var sagoravi, zeg armazis kedeli var! visma sisxlmac, wveT-wveTobiT is mwvervali aaTava: lomi-cotne, lomi-daviT da bokveri-paata var! me-viyavi! mememe-viqnebi, me-maradis vmeordebi.~ (t. Wanturia, gv.128) me
48

ar SeiZleba aq ar gagvaxsendes: `marad da yvelgan, saqarTvelov, me var SenTana, me varo Seni Tanamdevi, ukvdavi suli, SenTa SvilT , sisxliT guli srulad gardamebana, am gulSi me maqvs Seni awmyo, Seni-warsuli.~ igive semantikaa jansuR Carkvianis Semdeg striqonebSi: `eg satevari me vapriale, fxas vusinjavdi me am xelebiT, droSebi caSi me vafriale, poetis leqsiT me gamxnevebdiT.~ (gv.94) m e uflis nawilia, Semoqmedi, romelmac Seqmna samyaro: `me me-moazrovne patara matli, me var monawile samyaros Seqmnis~ (S. niSnianiZe, gv.457) `me Cavuyene Sens lamaz qedebs, me lomis zozini, vefxvis sizante, Sens cas pirvelad me Semovbededavixure da gamovizamTre.~ (j. Carkviani, gv.76) poeziasa da prozaSi personaJis samyaros individualobis gadmocema SesaZlebelia Sinagani metyvelebiT, romelic Tavad adamians miemarTeba; am gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi molaparake da msmeneli emTxveva erTmaneTs. samagierod, icvleba metyvelebis forma. adamianis Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinare, metyvelebaSi ikargeba gramatikuli mniSvnelobebi. vigotski Sinagani metyvelebis warmoSobis sakiTxs rom ikvlevda, gamoTqva mosazreba _ Sinagani metyvelebis egocentruli metyvelebidan warmoSobis Sesaxeb. bavSvebi rodesac erTmaneTs esaubrebian, TiToeuli laparakobs Tavisas, TiTqos isini `xmamaRla fiqroben~, magram maT amisTvis sWirdebaT meore. rogorc piaJem daadgina, garkveul asakSi egocentruli metyveleba qreba. vigotskis Tanaxmad, am dros yalibdeba Sinagani metyveleba (vigotski, 1982, 105). poeziaSi zogjer poetis ramdenime me xmiandeba. xolo zogjer II piri-Sen agreTve me nawilia. magaliTad, galaktioni wers: me-s Sen `vican, galaktion, SenSi akteoniSen gsjis yovelive, rogorc siyvaruli.~
49

murman lebaniZe ki ase mimarTavs Tavis Tavs: Sen `Sen ki wer Sensas, Sen Seni gaxsovs,yels ar moiRer axlis saTqmelad, wer, rac gaRrCobda da dResac gaRrCobs, da suls aCnia ZaRlis nakbenad!~ warmodgenil konteqstebSi II pirs Tavisuflad SeiZleba Caenacvlos I piri. magram, rogorc Cans, garkveuli ierarqia mainc arsebobs. am SemTxvevaSi I piri, romelic sakuTar Tavs, rogorc meore pirs, mimarTavs, ierarqiulad ufro maRla dgas, radgdn igi gansjis, aanalizebs, alagebs. swored amitom sruli identifikacia gamoricxulia. viaCeslav ivanovi adamianis miswrafebas ufali Sen Semoiyvanos Tavis me me-Si, Tvlis seriozul pirobad imisa, rom Tanamedrove sulma igrZnos makrokosmosisa da mikrokosmosis harmonia da adamianis mikrokosmosi gaixsnas RvTaebriv makrokosmosSi(ivanovi, 1979, 268). lotmanis azriT ki, me struqtura kulturis erT-erTi me-s ZiriTadi maCvenebelia(lotmani, 2004, 127). daskvnisaTvis: me-s semantika sxvadasxva poetTan gansxvavebulia sixSiriT da azrobrivi struqturiT. me-s semantika ganisazRvreba teqstSi misi gamoyenebis xasiaTiT. me-s Sinaarsi ganisazRvreba mravali faqtoriT, maT Soris _ poetis msoflmxedvelobiT (gansxvavebulia me-s Sinaarsi simbolistebTan, sxvadasxva literaturuli dajgufebis warmomadgenlebTan). me-s semantikuri struqturis dadgena agvixsnis epoqis suls, gamoavlens calkeul poetTa individualobebs, sainteresod gveCveneba misi Seswavla literaturuli mimdinareobebis, epoqebis, kulturebis mixedviT. damowmebuli literatura: benvenisti, 1974, 286 , , ; bulgakovi, 1999, 49 . . , , .1-2, ; vigotski, 1982, 105 . . , , ; ivanovi, 1979, 268 . , , . 3, ;
50

ivanovi, 1999, 560 . , , .1, ; lotmani, 2004, 127 . . , , -; maleviCi, 2006, 525 , ; pol valeri, 1994, 170 _ pol valeri, sulis krizisi, (Targmna baCana bregvaZem); sartri, 2000, 386 - , , ;

Tsira Barbakadze

Semiotics of Poetry
Discourse of poetry is very special semiotical system. Anything should be considered as a sign in the world however any sign of poetry is more complexed. Semiotics is the way, that leads to new landscapes of poetry. Scanning of things with new approach discovers the rules of the artistic text. Each detail has got expanded semiotics in the poetry discourse scope sound, word, rime, metre, rhythm, strophe, the whole rhyme The snow, the wind, the sun are not only the natural events for the poet, it is loaded by another type of semiotics. Interesting results are achieved researching of the universal poetry concepts due to Georgian and other language materials. Terenty Granelys poetry exposes identification authors inner and outer world and metaphorization of the natural events. Researching I semantics according to the modern poetry has demonstrated such principle as: The semantics of I varies due to mental structure and frequency with different poets. I semantics in a text is determined by the usage according to the poets vision. The conception of I is different with symbolists and various representatives of literary groups. Identification of the I structure explains the epoch spirit, indicates poets individuality. We find exciting to study it due to literary schools, epoches and cultures.

51

be Tamar berekaSvi li

zogierTi Tanamedrove politikuri metaforis Sesaxeb Tu jer kidev meoce saukunis 70-80ian wlebSi politikuri da socialuri cvlilebebi SedarebiT nela da SeumCnevlad mimdinareobda, ukve 90-ian wlebSi msoflio Tavbrudamxvevi transformaciebis mowme da monawile gaxda. es cvlilebebi, upirveles yovlisa, warmoCnda enaSi da im paradigmebsa Tu metaforebSi, romlebic gavrcelda da sayovelTao xasiaTi miiRo. Cvens werilSi visaubrebT iseT enobriv da, sazogadod, kulturul movlenaze, rogoricaa metafora. metafora warmoadgens dasaxelebis gadatanas erTi obieqtidan (sagnidan, pirovnebidan, movlenidan) meore obieqtze (saganze, pirovnebaze, movlenaze), romelic, garkveuli gagebiT, misi msgavsia. amave dros, rig SemTxvevebSi metafora azrovnebis mza Stampad iqceva, magram esTetikurad mimzidvel Stampad. erTgvari azriT, es mxatvrulad warmodgenili stereoti picaa. aristotele metaforas, am uCveulo da gadataniTi mniSvnelobis mqone sityvas (an saxels), rogorc mraval naSromSi ganbneuli msjeloba mowmobs, ZiriTadad, mainc negatiurad afasebda. misi SedarebiT dadebiTi damokidebuleba mxolod erTgan _ poetikaSi _ vlindeba: gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT sityvaTa gamoyenebis codna

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifoUuniversitetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `Tanamedrove Rirebulebebi da idealebi~, `postmodernizmi Tanamedroveobis konteqstSi (kulturis filosofia) da sxva. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ramdenime statia socialur da politikur filosofiaSic _ `demokratizacia (g. JorJolianTan da m. musxeliSvilTan erTad), `Tanamedrove socialuri viTareba saqarTveloSi (rusul enaze xarkovis universitetis masalebSi) da sxva. interesTa sfero: semiotika, kulturis filosofia.

52

yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovania, radgan am unaris oden sxvisgan gadmoReba SeuZlebelia, es niWierebis niSan-Tvisebaa _ marTlac, msgavsebis SemCnevis unari kargad gadatanisaTvis aucilebelia. aristotelesTan metaforuli mtkiceba-uaryofa erTdroulad xdeba, xolo sityva TiTqos swored am Tan aris da Tan arc aris funqciis matarebelia. metaforis raobis gaazrebisas siZneles an gaurkvevlobas sityva msgavsebis aracalsaxa mniSvneloba warmoSobs. marTlac, ras gulisxmobs an moicavs msgavseba _ analogias, Sedarebas, msgavsebis an igiveobs mignebas Tu ikonurobas? metaforis TeoriaSi am sakiTxis kvlevas erT-erTi centraluri adgili ukavia, magram winamdebare statiis mizans es namdvilad ar warmoadgens. ase Tu ise, poetikis~ daskvniT nawilSi aristotele proporciasTan Tu logikasTan yovelgvari kavSiris gareSe amtkicebs, rom Yyvelaze mniSvnelovania iyo gawafuli metaforebSi. Mmagram amis gadaReba sxvisgan SeuZlebelia: es niWis niSania, imitom rom kargi metaforebis Seqmna msgavsebis SeniSvnis tolfasia. pol rikioris TqmiT, metafora es semantikurad gaformebuli gansxvavebaa gamoxatvis wina, pirdapir mniSvnelobasa da axal, proeqtirebad metaforul mniSvnelobas Soris. ZiriTad protests iwvevs mdgradi kavSiri msgavsebasa da Senacvlebas Soris metaforis istoriis Seswavlisas. zogierTis azriT, metafora _ Sekvecili Sedarebaa. a. veJbickas SexedulebiT, es niSnavs imas, rom ar arsebobs semantikuri gansxvaveba metaforasa da Sedarebas Soris, amgvari Sexeduleba ki umarTebuloa. veJbickas mixedviT, metafora da Sedareba gansxvavdeba siRrmiseuli struqturebiT. metaforas ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs, magaliTad, SemecnebiTi, esTetikuri da sxva, magram politikur konteqstSi Zalze mniSvnelovania misi mani pulirebis unari, romelsac is iZens dominirebad diskursSi. Aamgvarad, politikur sferoSi metafora gvevlineba rogorc warmodgenebis formirebis saSualeba.Mmas SefasebiTi funqciac aqvs. metafora SeiZleba iyos enobrivi da mxatvruli. gamoyofen agreTve ritorikul metaforebs. esenia: mxatvruli Stampebi, kliSeebi, romelTa ganeitraleba xdeba enaSi. sinamdvileSi es igive enobrivi metaforebia, romlebic jer kidev ar aris gayinuli. swored aseTi metaforebia gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebeli politikuri sferosTvis. n. d. aruTinovas Tanaxmad, metaforebi gansxvavdeba eqspresiulSefasebiTi funqciis, anu zemoqmedebis xarisxisa da gadacemis unaris mixedviT.
53

arsebobs metaforis nominanturi, xatovani, sabaziso da a.S. modelebi. nominanturia metafora, rodesac misi meSveobiT xdeba erTi klasis obieqtTa aRmniSvneli sityvis gamoyeneba meore klasis obieqtTa mimarT. is Tavisi bunebiT konceptualuria, taqsonomiuri (magaliTad, maimuni, viri, buldozeri, wurbela - adamianze.) xatovani metafora qmnis dinamiur, mTlian xats. mis safuZvelSia kategorialuri Senacvleba (magaliTad, Cveni reformebi Seuqcevadia, an komunizmis mze Caesvena). sabaziso modeli, romelic e. makkormaks ekuTvnis, mTeli gamonaTqvamis safuZvelSi Zevs, anu es aris globaluri metafora, romelsac mTeli teqsti eqvemdebareba da Tavad es teqsti SeiZleba iqces am metaforad. (magaliad, ,, gadavagdoT SevardnaZe politikur sanagveze). warmodgenil werilSi Cven ganvixilavT ramdenime metaforas, romlebic dominirebda an dominirebs qarTul politikur cxovrebaSi bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi. pirveli maTgania: ,,Cven oboli eri varT. erTi SexedviTac Cans, rom es xatovani metaforaa.Aam xatovanebis Semqmneli sityva ,,oboli aq gamodis iseTi sityvis zedsarTavad, romlisTvisac is TiTqosda ar aris adekvaturi - `eri~. Tu gavixsenebT im dros, rodesac es gamonaTqvami Camoyalibda (misi avtoria e. SevardnaZe), gasagebi xdeba misi Sinaarsi. es is droa, rodesac sabWoTa kavSiris dangrevis Semdeg saqarTvelom moi pova damoukidebloba, magram aRmoCnda sruliad daucveli im realobis winaSe, romelic meore dResve daatyda Tavs teritoriebis dakargva, ekonomikis degradacia, socialuri krizisi, samoqalaqo omi, siRaribe, devnilebi da a. S. am viTarebaSi politikuri da socialuri viTareba metad aramyari da saSiSi iyo. mosalodneli iyo xalxis aRSfoTeba, mtrulad ganwyobili mezoblebis mxridan Seviwroeba da Tavdasxmac ki. aucilebeli iyo erTgvari TviTSegneba, moTmineba, Sinagani potencialis amoqmedeba mSvidobis SesanarCuneblad. bevri adamiani aseT pirobebSi SeiZleba nebismier provokacias wamogeboda im imediT, rom megobrobis egidiT socialur da ekonomikur xsnas SesTavazebdnen. swored am dros Seqmnili es metafora qmnida xats iseTi erisa, romelsac ara aqvs siTamamis, metismeti TviTgamoxatvis, aqtiurobis, pretenziulobis ufleba. is, rac SeiZleba wynarad,

54

mSvidad da, rac mTavaria, morCilad unda Segueboda viTarebas, moecada da moeTmina. rodemde? sityva ,,oboli am vadas usasrulos xdis. Tu realisturad vimsjelebT, yvela eri obolia. gana vin hyavs ,,mSoblad ruseTs an Tundac SeerTebul Statebs? magram ruseTic da SeerTebuli Statebic didi erebia, Zlieri da mdidari. pataraa somxeTi, magram arsebobs somxebis didi diaspora sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, amitom maT, somxebs, aqvT imedisa da erTgvari iniciativis, aqtiurobis ufleba, qarTvelebs ki _ ara. am ,,obols kvaldakval _ asociaciurad da realuradac _ Tan axlda ,,qvriv-obloba, upatronoba da upasuxismgebloba, simwire da siRaribe. da, bolos, siwynare, simSvide, dumili, Segueba im ubedurebebTan, romlebic savsebiT bunebrivia, roca upatrono da oboli xar. am fonze Zarcvac, korufciac, moxveWac da tyuilic gamarTlebulia obolma unda moaxerxos gadarCena, Tavis Senaxva, amitom mas yvelaferi epatieba. meore metafora, romelic ueWvelad yuradRebas imsaxurebs, es aris ,,komunizmis kraxi. aRsaniSnavia, rom es metafora ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed mTel postsabWoTa sivrceSi funqcionirebs. upirveles yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia, rom komunizmi im azriT, ra azriTac is Semoitana marqsma, msoflioSi arc arsebobda. arsebobda marqsizmisgan nasesxebi saxeSecvlili ideologia, amitom Tavad komunizmi ukve metonimiaa da niSnavda ara komunizms rogorc aseTs, aramed ufro im avtorTa msoflmxedvelobas, romlebmac sabWouri ideologia Camoayalibes. kraxi gulisxmobs ideur kraxs, politikur kraxs, rac sinamdvileSi ar momxdara. nebismieri midgoma, romelic cdilobda aexsna am kraxis Semdgomi movlenebi, swored rom marqsistulleninisturi Teoriidan amodioda. aba sxvanairad riT SeiZleba aixsnas yvela is mcdeloba, riTac cdilobdnen ganemartaT damoukideblobis Semdgomi Zarcva, qonebis uxeSi da Zalismieri mitaceba. yovelives amarTlebdnen eg. w. primitiuli kapitalizmiT, ,,veluri kapitalizmiT, romelic, marqsis mixedviT, kapitalizmis sawyis fazas warmoadgens. privatizacia miiCneoda ZiriTad RonisZiebad, rac meqanikurad sabazro ekonomikasa da demokratias daamkvidrebs. yovelive, rac marTlac ,,vulgarul materializms warmoadgens ,,komunizmis kraxs liton sityvebad aqcevda. amave mogonili metaforebis rigSia iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa ,,gardamavali periodi, ,,axalgazrda demokratia, ,,wiTeli inteligencia.

55

meore mxriv, aristoteles kvaldakval SeiZleba vamtkicoT, rom metaforuli gamonaTqvami komunizmis kraxi erTdroulad mcdaricaa da samarTlianic. rogorc davinaxeT, am gamonaTqvamis orive komponenti moCvenebiTia, aSkarad ararsebuli, magram, amasTan, is krZalavs erT dros egzom moaruli sityvis, komunizmis pozitiur xsenebas da mis sasargeblod nebismier msjelobas imTaviTve sicrued aqcevs. Semdegi Zalian mniSvnelovani metafora ,,vardebis revoluciis momdevno periods miekuTvneba. vardebis revolucia Tavad metaforaa, magram man Seqmna axali politikuri metafora - paradigma _ matarebeli. ,,matarebeli nominanturi metaforaa. revolucia TavisTavad moiTxovda mTeli diskursis Secvlas da, pirvel rigSi, iseTi xatisa, rogoricaa ,,oboli eris xati. sainteresoa, rom am xatis Secvla ukve wina wlebSi igrZnoboda. gavixsenoT ,,ucnobis ,,vagoni mihqris, Tumca es vagoni meqanikurad mihqroda. am vagonSi nebsiT Tu uneblied yvela ijda. revoluciam Secvala metafora matarebeli. axla es matarebeli, romelic naTeli da bednieri momavlisken mieqaneba, ar aris yvela adamianis matarebeli. masSi unda moaswro Cajdoma. da marto moswrebac ar aris sakmarisi, masSi mosaxvedrad gansazRvruli mxedvelobaa saWiro, garkveuli adamianebis, rogoric am matareblis lokomotivis, mxardaWeraa aucilebeli. amasTan, Tu odnav mainc Segecvala xedva da matareblis swor mimarTulebaSi eWvi Seitane, nebismier momentSi SeiZleba Camogsvan. matarebeli ar Cerdeba. is win midis ise, rom sulac ar enaRvleba isini, vinc baqanze darCa an daagvianda. metic, vinc am matarebelSi SesaRwevad ar iswrafvis anu ar aRiarebs progresis am erTaderT saSualebas, Carecxvis Rirsia, ramdenadac maT braldeba yvela ubedureba, rac aqamde momxdara. matarebelSi, bunebrivia, xvdebian adamianebi, romlebic axlisken miiswrafvian, romelTac naklebi aqvT dasatovebeli, romlebic mzad arian yvelaferi Secvalon da axali, auTvisebeli sinamdvile ixilon. aseTebi ki, ZiriTadad, axalgazrdebi arian. meore mxriv, is mizani, saiTkenac es matarebeli mihqris, cnobilia. es aris dasavluri samyaro, dasavluri reJimi, liberaluri demokratia. amitom am matarebelSi moxvedrili ,,axali sazogadoeba, erTgvarad, mzad unda iyos am axal samyaroSi sacxovreblad, is unda flobdes mis enas da misi cxovrebis wesebs, unda axleburad iyos ganaTlebuli.

56

da, bolos, vidre mizans mivaRwevdeT, Cven erT SezRudul, rkiniT SemosazRvrul sivrceSi vimyofebiT, sadac aucilebelia garkveuli wesrigis dacva da mkacri kontroli, aucilebelia ,,mtkice xeli samarTavad da sistematuri wmenda, raTa susti, moumzadebeli, SemTxveviT moxvedrili ar darCes. sainteresoa isic, rom Tumca matarebeli midis, masSi moxvedra mainc SeiZleba TiTqosda is RirseulebisTvis brundeba xolme da gzaSi Camogdebul uRirs mgzavrebs axali wevrebiT cvlis. aRsaniSnavia, rom ,,matarebelTan dakavSirebuli sxva atributebic saxezea, kerZod, yovelives ,,pirvelad qmna. ,,pirvelad aSenda, ,,pirvelad moxda, ,,pirvelad miviReT, da, agreTve, ,,saukeTeso, ,,didebuli, ,,msoflioSi samagaliTo movlenebi. garda amisa, radganac matarebeli Zvelis mitovebas, uaryofas ganasaxierebs, amitom is, rac axalia da rac matarebelSi msxdomebs exebaT, sxva, ufro maRali, absoluturi anu srulyofili, Zvelisgan ganwmendili mocemulobaa. sityva absoluturi sayovelTaod saxmar zedsarTavad iqca. moyvanili magaliTebidan Cans, rom metafora asrulebs kauzalobis funqcias, asec gansazRvraven mas g. kingi, r. keoxani da s. verba. Tumca aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom es ase yovelTvis ar aris. Tavad problemas Teoriuli xasiaTi aqvs: ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli, rom metaforam Secvalos politika? Dda kidev, xom ar xdeba ise, rom cvlilebebi metaforaSi da politikuri cvlilebebi warmoadgens raRac sxva, ,,ufro Rrma mizezis Sedegs? magaliTad, ekonomikuri progresis an socialuri stratifikaciisas? aq ar SeiZleba ar gavixsenoT eg. w. oretapuri komunikaciis modeli (o. krilovi), romlis Tanaxmad, masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebidan ideebi vrceldeba ,,Sexedulebis liderebze da Semdeg, maTi meSveobiT auditoriaze. politikur sferoSi situaciuri lideris rols asruleben politikuri figurebi. metaforas SeuZlia politikuri procesis axsna da amas is axerxebs Tavisi iseTi unaris wyalobiT, rogoricaa socialuri identurobis signalis mocema. metafora damaxasiaTebelia politikuri sferosTvis ara marto rogorc princi puli mimarTebis an raRac qmedebebis mxatvruli gaformeba, aramed xSiria metaforulad politikosebis daxasiaTebac, magaliTad, daRlili viri an wurbela. saqarTvelos politikuri diskursisTvis damaxasiaTebelia sxeulebrivi da nivTobrivi niSnebi. mimarTeba am niSnisadmi mniSvnelovania politikuri figuris analizisTvis.
57

unda aRiniSnos, rom nominanturi metafora ufro damaxasiaTebelia qarTuli politikuri sivrcisTvis, vidre rusuli, an evropuli sinamdvilisTvis. amiT srulebiTac ar gvsurs imis Tqma, rom iq aseTi metaforebi ar gvxvdeba. evropasa da, nawilobriv, ruseTSic, politikuri diskursi Camoyalibebulia. rogorc mxardamWer, ise opoziciur Sefasebebs aqvT Tavisi eTiketi, gaformebis normebi, winadadebis Camoyalibebis standartebi, amitom naklebsavaraudoa, aqtiur politikaSi moqmedma adamianma an Tanamdebobis pirma kolegas gvelis wiwili an wurbela uwodos. qarTuli azrovnebisTvis, sazogadod, damaxasiaTebelia metaforuli xatebis Seqmna. es kargad Cans Tundac ferTa warmoqmnis wesSi. qarTul ferTa udidesi wili metaforulia wablisferi, cisferi, narinjisferi, oqrosferi, nacrisferi, iisferi, xoxbisyelisferi da sxva. aseTi ferebi yvela enaSia, magram _ gacilebiT naklebad, da feris sawarmoeblad sityvawarmoqmnis sxva wesebic gamoiyeneba, magaliTad ramdenime sityvis gaerTianeba (-) an zedsarTavebis damateba (bleu claire ; bleu fonc). Tu davubrundebiT politikur sferoSi gavrcelebul daxasiaTebas, aqac TvalsaCinoa igive wesi. marTalia, uxvad gvxvdeba sxvadasxva epiTeti, xatovani daxasiaTeba, magram xSiria metaforis gamoyeneba, ufro xSiria da specifikuri, vidre _ sxva enobriv sivrceSi. amasTan, am metaforebs, rogorc wesi, uaryofiTi da ironiuli datvirTva aqvT. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom prezidentis daxasiaTebisas uxeSi metaforuli niSnebi ar gvxvdeba. mis mimarT, ZiriTadad, Cveulebriv zedsarTavebs iyeneben axalgazrda, energiuli, Tamami, maRali, mxiaruli da sxva. TviT Salva naTelaSvilic ki, romelsac Zalian uyvars metafora, amjobinebs zedsarTavi saxeli gamoiyenos giJi, ugunuri da a.S da iSviaTad Tu iyenebs metaforul Sedarebas prezidentis mimarT. marto erTxel Seadara man prezidentis tribuna tutanxamonis akldamas da erTxel Sadrevan pirveli uwoda. samagierod, yvela sxva politikosi metaforebiTaa Semkuli: ganaTlebis mesaflave, beRlis virTxa, cxvris qurqSi gaxveuli mgeli, fqvilis princesa, tutsi, sorosis bartyi, daxlidari, sazizRari meqanizmis WanWiki, wurbela, Jvanias kudi, qalbatoni niskartiani ymawvilebis mudmivi TanxlebiT, blanJes bediT daTuTquli, im duqnis ministri, romlis daxlzec gamotanilia saqarTvelo, daRlili viri da sxva.

58

metafora icvleba da gansakuTrebiT icvleba misi gamoyenebis sixSire. nebismieri bunebrivi enis semantika Seicavs mravalferovan metaforul modelebs. rac Seexeba politikas, empiriuli kavSiri metaforis cvlilebasa da politikur cvlilebebs Soris TiTqosda ar mianiSnebs, Tu romelia am or cvlilebas Soris kauzaluri, magram zogierTi mecnieri, (r. d. andersoni) miiCnevs, rom metaforuli cvlileba win uswrebs politikur cvlilebebs, rasac ewinaaRmdegeba Cvens mier moyvanili magaliTebi da analizi. Tumca, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom dasaSvebia da savsebiT SesaZlebeli, rom metaforuli cvlileba win uswrebdes politikurs; rig SemTxvevebSi metaforuli paradigma sagangebod SeiZleba Seiqmnas ,,SexedulebaTa liderebis mier momaval cvlilebebze sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaqmnelad. amis bevri magaliTi arsebobs. moviyvanT erT-erT maTgans. sabWoTa avtoritaruli reJimis dros avtoritaruli diskursis metaforebma daamkvidres sociluri identifikaciis modeli, romelic ti piuria arademokratiuli formis mmarTvelobisTvis. sabWoTa xelmZRvanelebi TavisTavs da TavianT qmedebebs aRwerdnen rogorc maRals, diads, rac gulisxmobda imas, rom isini, vinc maTze dablaa, visac isini xelmZRvaneloben, arian mwiri da umniSvnelo. sagulisxmoa am mxriv fidel kastros sityvebi: ,,Tqven SegiZliaT iqonioT sxva azri, magram maSin Tqveni adgili cixeSia. amiT partiisadmi mikuTvnebuloba dadebiT socialur identurobas sZenda adamians, yvela sxva ki, Tundac upartio, uaryofiTi identurobis matarebeli iyo, ramac gamoiwvia upartio masebis diskriminaciis motivireba isini xom dabal fenas miekuTvnebian! am diskursis Serbileba gamoixata axal metaforaSi socializmi adamianuri saxiT. rogorc ki Sewyda msgavsi signalebis gagzavna da Seicvala diskursi, SesaZlebeli gaxda koleqtiuri monawileoba dialogSi, rac TandaTanobiT avtoritaruli xelisuflebis SecvliT dasrulda. amgvarad, rogorc metaforebs, ise politikas SeuZliaT sistematiuri cvlileba. metaforis cvlileba yovelTvis dakavSirebulia politikur cvlilebebTan, rogoric ar unda iyos maTi kauzaloba. Tu erTmaneTs SevadarebT metaforebs, romlebic gamoiyeneba ama Tu im reJimSi da, meore mxriv, am metaforaTa avtorebs, savsebiT SeiZleba warmodgena SeviqmnaT reJimis avtoritarulobasa Tu demokratiulobaze. am TvalsazrisiT, aSkaraa gansxvaveba saqarTvelos ukanaskneli drois politikur wyobebs Sorisac.
59

winamdebare naSromi srulebiT ar isaxavda miznad politikur analizs. Cven mxolod vcadeT gagverkvia metaforis Tavisebureba, misi mniSvneloba da roli politikur sferoSi da, sakuTriv, qarTul politikaSi.
literatura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. . . . T , . , 1990 Paul Ricoeur. La metaphore vive, Ed. du Seuil 1975 . , . . , ., , 1990 . . . . , .3.4, 2004 . . . ., , 2006 , , 1131 28. , , VIII, 431b 30 . . _ , . , 1990 aristotele, poetika, 1959. 5

Tamara Berekashvili

Concerning some modern metaphors


The article -Concerning some modern metaphors- deals with the relationships between political changes and political metaphors, as well as with their peculiar, causal associations. Some political metaphors are brought for illustration and the conditions of their origin and existence are analyzed.

60

lo Tamar lomiZe

riTma sintagma Tu sistema? ukve TiTqmis naxevari saukunea, rac r. iakobsonis naSromi `enis ori aspeqti da afaziuri darRvevebis ori ti pi~ literaturaTmcodneobaSi sayovelTao aRiarebiT sargeblobs. man cxadhyo, rom SesaZlebelia filologiuri kvlevebis axali mimarTulebiT warmarTva neirofsiqologiisa da, kerZod, afaziologiis monacemebis gaTvaliswinebis meSveobiT. amasTan, iakobsonis ideebma (romlebic mecnieris sxva naSromebSic aisaxa) ver hpova Semdgomi ganviTareba filologiaSi, Tumca maT warmatebiT iyeneben neirofsiqologebi (ix. mag., 1; 5; 6; 9; 13). literaturaTmcodneebi, Cveulebriv, ifarglebian mxolod dadebiTi Sefasebebisa an kritikuli SeniSvnebis gamoTqmiT iakobsoniseuli debulebebis mimarT. erTaderTi Sedegi, romelic mohyva am statiis gamoqveynebas, iyo interesis gamZafreba metaforisa da metonimiis mimarT, romelTa bunebis kvlevisas gamoiyeneboda logikis, zogadi fsiqologiis (magram ara afaziologiis) da sxva mecnierebaTa mier SemuSavebuli meTodebi. Sesabamisad, `literaturismcodneobaSi darCa, - ironiulad SeniSnavs J.Jeneti, _ figuraTa uzado wyvili, romelic garduvalad Tavs iwonebs... Cveni dRevandeli ritorikis sapatio adgilas metafora da metonimia~ (7, 20). es
61

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: `qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~. interesTa sfero: semiotika, leqsmcodneoba, literaturis istoria da Teoria, mxatvruli Semoqmedebis fsiqologia.

`tropologiuri reduqcia~, Jenetis azriT, ganxorcielda `ukve rusuli formalizmis praqtikaSi~ (7, gv. 20.). Jenetis kritikuli SeniSvnebi samarTliania im filologiuri naSromebis mimarT, romlebSic, iakobsonis ideebis zedapiruli aTvisebis Sedegad, ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanil iqna mxolod am ori zemoxsenebuli tropis arsis ganxilvaze. meore mxriv, kvlevis is mimarTuleba, romelic ganuxorcielebeli darCa, yoveli `tropologiuri figuris~ specifikis gamovlenis saSualebas mogvcemda. sagulisxmoa, rom Jeneti sayvedurobs iakobsons agreTve `sinekdoqes calmxriv reduqcias metonimiisadmi~ (7, gv. 22). unda aRiniSnos, rom am tendenciis garkveul safuZvlad gvevlineba rogorc metonimiisa da sinekdoqes analitikuri arsi, aseve sakmaod gavrcelebuli tradicia, romlis mixedviT, sinekdoqe metonimiis kerZo saxeobad ganixileba. rac ufro arsebiTia, iakobsonis naSromebSi ganxorcielebuli `tropologiuri reduqciis~ mizezia mecnieris Rrma interesi azrovnebis zogadi kanonzomierebebisadmi, romelTa Sesaswavladac man mimarTa neirofsiqologias. saxeldobr, am mecnierebis mixedviT, `aRqmis paradigmatul, sinTezur da, meore mxriv, sintagmatur, analitikur ti pebs uzrunvelyofen Tavis tvinis gansxvavebuli sistemebi~ (11, gv. 18). `marcxena naxevarsferoSi informaciis gadamuSaveba... diskretuli, Tanmimdevruli xasiaTisaa, xolo marjvena naxevarsfero muSaobs erTianobis, erTdroulobis, sinTezurobis princi piT~ (17, gv. 128). TviT marcxena, `metyvel~ naxevarsferoSi gamoiyofa sagangebo zonebi, romelTa Soris ganawilebulia sintagmaturi da paradigmatuli enobrivi operaciebi. kerZod, tvinis qerqis ukana zonebis funqciebs Seadgens paradigmatuli enobrivi operaciebis uzrunvelyofa, xolo Sublis wili ganagebs sintagmatur sametyvelo operaciebs. SeiZleba mogveCvenos (iakobsonis naSromebis saxiT arsebuli precedentis miuxedavad), rom literaturaTmcodneobiT naSromSi arakoreqtulia Tavis tvinis zonebis arsebiT funqciaTa miTiTeba, magram unda gaviTvaliswinoT lingvistikis gamocdileba. misi metad perspeqtiuli dargebi fsiqolingvistika da neirolingvistika amdidreben, erTi mxriv, lingvistikas, meore mxriv ki neirofsiqologias saintereso mignebebiT. `Tanamedrove lingvistikis miRwevebi gascda sakuTriv enis struqturis Seswavlis farglebs da daukavSira enaTmecniereba momijnave biologiur disci plinebs. swored lingvistebma (da ara fsiqologebma) daiwyes msjeloba
62

enis biologiuri wanamZRvrebis Seswavlis Warb aqtualobaze, risTvisac aucilebelia biologebisa da lingvistebis TanamSromloba~ (6, gv.7). Tanamedrove pirobebSi, rodesac mecnierebaTa integraciis procesi sayovelTao xasiaTs Rebulobs, es gamocdileba uTuod gasaziarebelia. aqve unda mivuTiToT, rom fsiqologiisa da, kerZod, afaziologiis monacemebze dayrdnobiT Seiqmna viaC.vs. ivanovis sayuradRebo filologiuri gamokvlevebi. am monacemebs iTvaliswinebda s.m.eizenSteinic, romlis Teoriulma naSromebma bolo xanebSi farTo popularoba moi pova, maT Soris literaturaTmcodneTa Sorisac. sagulisxmoa isic, rom m.m.baxtinis klasikur gamokvlevas qronotopis Sesaxeb safuZvlad daedo fiziolog uxtomskis ideebi. afaziologia Seiswavlis Tavis tvinis dazianebaTa Sedegad warmoSobil metyvelebiT darRvevebs. ramdenad gamarTlebulia am mecnierebis debulebaTa moxmoba mxatvruli moRvaweobis analizisas? ra Tqma unda, Semoqmedebasa da afaziur darRvevaTa Soris analogiuri tendenciebis dafiqsireba ar niSnavs uSualo paralelis gavlebas Semoqmedis fsiqikur mdgomareobasa da nevrologiur daavadebebs Soris. ubralod, `yoveli adamianis individualuri Taviseburebebis variabeluroba normaSi ganpirobebulia qerqis formaciebis araTanabari ganviTarebiT, agreTve, - qerqis calkeuli formaciebis ganviTarebis upiratesi xarisxiT~ (6, gv. 211), rac ganapirobebs ama Tu im SemoqmedisTvis damaxasiaTebeli aRqmisa da azrovnebis variabelurobas, anu misi fsiqologiis individualur Taviseburebebs. * * * Cveni gamokvleva miznad isaxavs poeturi metyvelebis arsebiTi elementebis sintagmaturi an paradigmatuli planebisadmi mikuTvnebis marTlzomierebis dadgenas. Sesabamisad, pirvel rigSi warmoWreba poeturi teqstis umniSvnelovanesi komponentis riTmis arsis garkvevis problema. leqsmcodneobaSi riTmis kvleva erTgvari calmxrivobiT xasiaTdeba. riTmaTa leqsikonebi ifarglebian mxolod riTmaTa saxeobebis statistikuri aRricxviT, rac sakmarisi araa am fenomenis yovelmxrivi SeswavlisaTvis. amitom riTmis mravali aspeqti gaurkveveli rCeba. upirveles yovlisa, dasadgenia, metyvelebis romel plans ganekuTvneba riTma sintagmatikas Tu paradigmatikas. r. bartis azriT, `bgeriT doneze, ese igi, aRmniSvnelTa doneze, riTmaTa
63

erToblioba warmoqmnis asociaciur sferos; maSasadame, arsebobs riTmuli paradigmebi. es niSnavs, rom gariTmuli gamonaTqvamebi am paradigmaTa mimarT warmoadgens sintagmadqceuli sistemis fragments~ (2, gv. 56). amitom, r. bartis SexedulebiT, `am ori planis napirebi TiTqmis gadafaraven urTierTs, rac arRvevs normalur mimarTebas sistemasa da sintagmas Soris~ (2, gv. 55). riTma, mecnieris azriT, gvevlineba Taviseburi `struqturuli skandalis~ saxiT, radgan erTdroulad warmoadgens sistemas (paradigmatikis plani) da sintagmas. davazustebT, rom sosiuri, romlis debulebebsac emyareboda iakobinsoni, xazgasmiT aRniSnavda paradigmis (sistemis) Semadgeneli erTeulebis im Tvisebas, rom isini SekavSirebuli arian garkveul kodSi da mexsierebaSi warmoqmnian jgufebs, romelTa SigniTac Tavs iCens sxvadasxvagvari mimarTebebi (14, gv. 155). rac Seexeba sintagmas, `misi erTeulebi SeuRlebulia kodSic da SetyobinebaSic an mxolod mocemul SetyobinebaSi~ (17, gv. 114). aqedan gamomdinare, riTmuli paradigmebis arseboba poetis mexsierebaSi ar niSnavs, rom riTmaSi sintagmatikisa da paradigmatikis planebi urTierTs gadafaravs. riTma efuZneba kombinaciur princi ps sariTmo erTeulebis fonologiuri msgavsebis, an am msgavsebis umniSvnelod gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSic, radgan misi wevrebi aucileblad monawileoben metyvelebaSi sintagmaturi mimdevrobis saxiT, maSin, rodesac seleqciisas (paradigmatuli operaciebisas) metyvelebaSi monawileobs (an ar monawileobs) paradigmis mxolod erT-erTi wevri. sxva saqmea, rom TviT sintagmis esa Tu is saxesxvaoba zogjer uaxlovdeba ara paradigmatul plans (radgan sintagma yovelTvis inarCunebs Tavis arss), aramed azrovnebis paradigmatul (anu metaforul iakobsonis terminologiiT) RerZs. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac metyvelebiTi mwkrivis mezobeli wevrebi ukavSirdebian urTierTs msgavsebis mixedviTac. amasTan, aq dauSvebelia msjeloba `sintagmadqceuli sistemis~ Sesaxeb. ubralod, sintagma meryeobs azrovnebis paradigmatulsa da sintagmatur planebs Soris. amgvard, iakobsoniseuli termini `azrovnebis metaforuli da metonimiuri RerZebi~ (anu azrovnebis paradigmatuli da sintagmaturi planebi) ufro farTo Sinaarsis mqone cnebis saxiT warmogvidgeba, vidre sakuTriv enasa da metyvelebaSi gamoxatuli Sesabamisi planebia. esaa erT-erTi arsebiTi siaxle, romelic iakobsonma Semoitana lingvistikasa da lingvistur poetikaSi. am cnebis saSualebiT SeiZleba ganimartos sintagmis arsis
64

araerTmniSvnelovneba (is, rom sintagma zogjer paradigmis Tvisebebs avlens), rac sosiuris gaocebas iwvevda (14, gv. 157). maSasadame, riTma esaa sintagma, romelic ixreba xan azrovnebis metaforuli, paradigmatuli RerZisken (misi Semadgeneli erTeulebis fonologiuri msgavsebisas), xan ki azrovnebis metonimiuri, sintagmaturi RerZisken (am erTeulebis fonologiuri gansxvavebis SemTxvevaSi). amasTan, riTma rCeba sintagmad, rogorc metyvelebiTi jaWvis nawili, magram ar miekuTvneba erT romelime saazrovno poluss. swored amitom riTmis kvleva afaziologiis monacemTa safuZvelze ramdenadme gansxvavebuli gzebiT unda warimarTos, vidre amas gvikarnaxebs metaforisa da metonimiis iakobsoniseuli analizi. metafora erTmniSvnelovnad ganekuTvneba metyvelebisa da azrovnebis paradigmatul plans, xolo metonimia metyvelebisa da azrovnebis sintagmatur plans. riTma ki sintagmatikis planSi gamoxatuli binaruli struqturisa (umartives SemTxvevaSi, romelsac amjerad ganvixilavT) da misi Semadgeneli erTeulebis urTierTTanafardobis meryeobis gamo, Tvisebrivad gansxvavebul movlenad warmogvidgeba da specifikur analizs saWiroebs. kidev erTi arsebiTi garemoeba, romelsac, Cveulebriv, iviwyeben riTmisa da, saerTod, poeturi metyvelebis Seswavlisas, isaa, rom poeturi metyveleba, rogorc ar unda gansxvavdebodes is yofiTi metyvelebisagan, mainc metyvelebis erT-erTi saxeobaa, Tumca specifikuri niSnebiT xasiaTdeba. metyvelebisa da azrovnebis bunebis garkvevisas ki sagulisxmoa, rom `... sityvieri azrovneba warmoadgens metyvelebis gadatanas Sida planSi, ... azrovneba aris paeqrobis gadatana Sida planSi; zustad aseve, sityvis fsiqikur funqcias ver ganvmartavT, Tu saamisod ar movixmobT ufro vrcel sistemas, vidre adamiania. Tu gvsurs davakvirdeT, rogor funqcionirebs sityva adamianis qcevaSi, maSin unda ganvixiloT, rogor funqcionirebda is adamianTa socialur qcevaSi~ (4, gv. 12). marTlac, sityvis, metyvelebis upirvelesi da ZiriTadi funqciaa socialuri funqcia. am faqts, Cveulebriv, angariSs ar uweven literaturuli qmnilebebis analizisas, romelTac warmoadgenen, rogorc mxolod da mxolod individualuri moRvaweobis nayofs, TiTqos Semoqmedi CarTuli ar iyos socialuri urTierTobebis realur sistemaSi. sityvierad gaformebuli yovelgvari azrovneba (maT Soris poeturi Semoqmedebac) warmoadgens `paeqrobis gadatanas Sida planSi~. Sesabamisad, Tundac metyveleba da azrovneba izolaciis pirobebSi mimdinareobdes, is yovelTvis gulisxmobs potenciur
65

Tanamosaubres. zemonaTqvami gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria kulturuli fenomenebis mimarT, radgan `yovelive kulturuli socialurs warmoadgens~ (4, gv. 145). riTmis binaruli struqtura (is, rom riTma Sedgeba ori erTeulisgan mainc) migvaniSnebs, rom riTma unda gaviazroT ara rogorc bgeriTi kompleqsebis Tanaxmiereba (Tundac minus niSniT), aramed rogorc antagonisturi (bgeriT an semantikur aspeqtSi) bgeriTi kompleqsebis erToblioba (sxvagvarad nivelirdeba TviT binaruli urTierTdapirispirebis, `paeqrobis~ faqti). aSkaraa, rom esa Tu is sityva gansxvavebulad aRiqmeba imisda mixedviT, Tu romeli adgili ganekuTvneba mas sariTmo wyvilSi pirveli Tu meore. pirveli sariTmo sityva Tavisufalia momdevno sityvebis zegavlenisagan (rogorc taepis bolo sityva). amitom masze zemoqmedebs `saleqso rigis mijnis semantikuri winwamowevis kanoni~ (16, gv. 67). semantikuri aspeqtis gamZafreba gansazRvravs amgvari sityvis bgeriTi Semadgenlobis aRqmis simultanurobas, daunawevreblobas. am dros mosalodnelia riTmuli paradigmebis amotivtiveba mexsierebaSi, magram sariTmo wyvilis meore wevris aRqmamde is (pirveli sityva) ganuyofeli mTlianobis saxiT warmogvidgeba. swored sariTmo wyvilis meore wevris meSveobiT xorcieldeba sakuTriv gariTmva, anu is analitikuri operacia, romlis daniSnulebaa sariTmo sityvebis saerTo da gansxvavebuli fonologiuri elementebis gamoyofa. riTmis es Tvisebebi aaSkaravebs, rom masSi monawileobs rogorc sinTezi, aseve analizi (anu, Sesabamisad, paradigmatika da sintagmatika). sayuradReboa, rom riTmaTa saxesxvaobebs Seesabameba afaziur darRvevaTa gansxvavebuli tipebi, romlebic lokalizebulia Tavis tvinis marcxena naxevarsferos imave zonebSi, sadac xorcieldeba sintagmaturi da paradigmatuli enobrivi operaciebi. kerZod, tavtologiur an omonimur riTmas, sadac sariTmo wyvilis meore wevri, faqtobrivad, ver axorcielebs Tavis funqciebs, Seesabameba metyvelebis eqolaliuri darRvevebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi warmoiSoba e.w. dinamikuri afazia, rodesac `darRveulia enobriv elementTa urTierTdakavSirebis procesi, .... pacientebis metyvelebis `uCveuloba~ ukavSirdeba swored elementTa kombinirebis rgols~ (12, gv. 62). SekiTxvaze avadmyofi pasuxobs imave SekiTxviT, e.i. imeorebs SekiTxvaSi gamoyenebul sityvebs. daavadebis saerTo niSania `gabmuli intonaciur-gamomsaxvelobiTi metyvelebis uxeSi darRveva~ (8, gv.18). irRveva drois aRqma, romelic suqcesiuri, analitikuri
66

procesia. poetur metyvelebaSi am rigis movlenebs, omonimuri da tavtologiuri riTmebis garda, miekuTvneba zusti riTmac, romelic ukanaskneli metruli maxviliT ganpirobebuli `naWrevis~ momdevno mTlianobis saxiT aRiqmeba da calkeul, fonologiurad identur `sityvaTa~ saxiT warmogvidgeba. arazust riTmas afaziologiaSi Seesabameba marcxena naxevarsferos kefa-Txemis wilis dazianebisas warmoqmnili e.w. amnestikuri afaziiT ganpirobebuli `parafaziebi~ - `saWiro sityvis Senacvleba imgvari sityviT, romlebic mxolod uaxlovdeba am sityvas azrobrivi, morfologiuri an Tundac fonetikuri niSniT~ (10, gv. 169). amasTan, sityvebi gamijnulia mniSvnelovani grZliobis pauzebiT, `romelTa gamoxatuleba pirdapirproporciulia gamonaTqvamis damoukideblobis xarisxisa~ (6, gv. 162). darRveulia sivrcis aRqma, kerZod, marcxena-marjvena orientireba. bunebrivia, parafaziebi migviTiTebs sintagmatikis planis upiratesi gamovlenis Sesaxeb. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, riTmis saxeobis mixedviT SeiZleba vimsjeloT poetur teqstebSi droiTi an sivrculi aRqmis gamoxatvis Sesaxeb, imisda mixedviT, Tu afaziis romel saxeobas Seesabameba konkretul teqstSi gamoyenebuli gariTmvis sistema. es faqti Zalze mniSvnelovania, radgan poetur teqstebSi droiTi da sivrcobrivi kategoriebi Znelad eqvemdebareba formalizebas. amnestikuri afaziisTvis damaxasiaTebeli is Tviseba, rom gabmuli metyveleba am daavadebisas wyvetas ganicdis, azrovnebis sintagmaturi RerZis gamoxatulebaa da mas garkveuli paralelebi daeZebneba poeturi metyvelebis struqturaSi. TviT normalur metyvelebaSic sityvebi gamijnulia Taviseburi napralebiT: `sityva metyvelebiTi jaWvis is nawilia, romelic or naprals Sorisaa moTavsebuli. sxvagvarad, sityva unda ganvsazRvroT ara TavisTavad, aramed im napralebis meSveobiT, romlebic miuTiTeben mis dasawyissa da daboloebaze~ (15,37). gabmul metyvelebaSi amgvari napralebis gamovlena Znelia, Tumca maTi arseboba eWvmiutanelia. poetur metyvelebaSi sityvaTSorisi napralebi iseve SeumCnevelia, rogorc yofiT metyvelebaSi. ufro metic: savaraudoa, rom ritmisa da taepis SemamWidrovebeli sxva faqtorebis zegavleniT poeturi teqstis sityvaTaSorisi napralebi mcirdeba da metyvelebis nakadi kontinualuri xdeba. amasTan, poetur metyvelebaSi Tavs iCens axali, taepTaSorisi napralebi, romlebic fiqsirdeba ara marto grafikulad, aramed
67

intonaciuradac (pauza). es napralebi sxva araferia, Tu ara metyvelebiTi jaWvis wyveta, romelic TavisTavad umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria da zemoqmedebs saleqso enis elementebis, kerZod sariTmo sityvebis semantikaze. taepis mijnaze arsebuli naprali arasrulia, araabsoluturi, radgan taepebi SekavSirebulia azrobrivad da ritmis meSveobiT. Tu taepSi gadmocemulia dasrulebuli azri, maSin sintaqsuri pauza da taepTaSorisi naprali urTierTs daemTxveva da naprali Rrmavdeba. Tu sintaqsuri da taepTaSorisi sazRvrebi ar emTxveva urTierTs, maSin taepTaSorisi naprali mcirdeba. cxadia, taepTaSorisi napralebi SefardebiTi ganzomilebisaa, romlis Sefaseba SesaZlebelia mxolod maTi urTierTTanafardobis dadgenis meSveobiT. amnestikuri afaziisas metyvelebis wrfivi mimdinareobis wyveta am movlenasa da taepTa gammijvnel napralebs Soris garkveuli paralelis gavlebis safuZvels iZleva. sityvaTa nakadis wyveta niSnavs metyvelebis gadanacvlebas azrovnebis sintagmaturi RerZisaken. poeturi teqstis wyveta (taepTaSorisi napralebis zegavleniT) ganapirobebs imas, rom amgvari teqsti warmoadgens diskretuli erTeulebisgan (taepebisgan) Sedgenil sintagmatur mimdevrobas. sainteresoa, rom a.r. luria imowmebs magaliTs amnestikuri afaziiT daavadebuli erT-erTi pacientisa, romelic Seudga Tavisi avadmyofobis istoriis weras da saamisod gamoiyena gadmocemis erTaderTi xerxi, romelic mis gankargulebaSi iyo mimarTa galeqsil anu ritmizebul prozas. teqsti mxolod grafikulad iyo gaformebuli prozis saxiT da moicavda poeturi metyvelebis yvela elements, maT Soris riTmasac (9, gv. 158-160). winamdebare naSromSi mokled SevexeT im Zalze aqtualur sakiTxs, romelTa gadawyvetis gareSe poetikis, rogorc mecnierebis ganviTareba SeuZlebelia is darCeba aRweriTi xasiaTis disciplinad. literaturismcodneebma unda gamoiyenon afaziologiaSi arsebuli mdidari masala, romelic xels Seuwyobs filologiur kvlevebs da axleburi kuTxiT warmoaCens mraval problemur sakiTxs. am ori mecnierebis urTierTdaaxloebis Sedegad SesaZlebeli gaxdeba codnis jer kidev ucnobi sferoebis moZieba.

68

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. .. . ., 1975. 2. . kreb. : . ., 1975. 3. .. . ., 1968. 4. .. . .. , . . 6 , . 3. ., 1983. 5. .. . ., 1985. 6. .. . ., 1986. 7. . (), . 2, ., 1998. 8. .. . ., 1979. 9. .. . iqve. 10. .. . ., 1973. 11. .. . ., 1975. 12. .. . . .. 1982. 13. . . ., 1975. 14. . , . ., 1988. 15. . . ., 1988. 16. .. . ., 1924. 17. .. . ., 1985. 18. .. kreb. . ., 1990.

69

Tamar Lomidze

Rhyme Syntagm or System?


The article deals with the question of the poetic conception of Roman Jakobson. Because of superficial understanding of Jakobsons ideas reproaches used to be expressed in connection with tropological reduction in his works. The reason of so-called reduction is the scientists profound interest in common regularities of human thinking only. In particular, Saussures opposition languagespeech Jakobson added the higher level to metaphorical (paradigmatical) or metonymical (syntagmatical) poles of thinking and perception. In our article, in particular, some aspects of nature of rhyme are investigated on the basis of Jakobsons conception. Which plan does the rhyme belong to? Is it syntagm or system? Apparently, rhyme is syntagm (when discussing it on the level of the opposition of language and speech), but it is bended to paradigmatical pole of thinking and perception (when its components are similar) or to syntagmatical pole of thinking and perception (when its components differ). It is worth noticing that different types of rhyme correspond to different types of aphasic disturbances. Especially, tautological or omonymical rhyme corresponds to dynamic aphasia, when it is breached the process of correlation of language elements, and the inexact rhyme corresponds to disturbances, caused by amnestic apasia, when the necessary word is replaced by the other word, which differs from the first by it semantic, morphological or phonetic signs.

70

af Suqia afridoniZe

opoziciebis sistemis safexurebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis enaSi (qarTuli enis magaliTze) enis sxvadasxva doneze (morfologia, sintaqsi, leqsika-semantika) SeiniSneba garkveuli cvlilebebi, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi momxdara opoziciaTa sistemebSi da romelTa mixedviTac SeiZleba vimsjeloT am sistemebis safexurebriv ganviTarebaze. qarTul enaSi dadasturebuli zogierTi faqti gamokveTs am cvlilebaTa kanonzomier xasiaTs da, amdenad, aRZravs interess zogadi enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiTac. 1. weliwadis droTa aRmniSvneli Tandebuliani saxelebi Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi yuradRebas ipyrobs weliwadis droTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi, rodesac isini winadadebaSi drois garemoebis funqcias asruleben da miugeben kiTxvebze: rodis? ra dros? am SemTxvevaSi aRniSnul saxelebs daerTvis Si ze -Si an -ze Tandebulebi, magram ara nebismierad, aramed garkveuli kanonzomieri ganawilebiT, ris Sedegadac viRebT amgvar Sexamebebs:

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis profesori, evropel kavkasiologTa sazogadoebis (SCE) wevri. ZiriTadi naSromebi: sityvaTganlageba axal qarTulSi (monografia), damxmare saxelmZRvanelo: `Cveni ena qarTuli~, interesTa sfero: saliteraturo enis normalizaciis sakiTxebi, leqsikologiafrazeologia, stilistika, onomastika, sintaqsi.

wakiTxulia v. Tofurias xsovnisadmi miZRvnil samecniero sesiaze iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis sax. universitetSi 2007 wlis 8 ianvars. 71

zamTar-Si zafxul-Si Si, Si, Si Si magram: ze ze gazafxul-ze Semodgoma-ze ze, ze. rogorc vxedavT, saxelebsa da Tandebulebs Soris Sidasintaqsuri kavSiri simetriulia: TiToeuli Tandebuli or-orjer gvxvdeba, amasTan, jvaredini principiT: polarulad dapirispirebuli sezonebis aRmniSvneli saxelebi (zamTari, zafxuli) -Si Tandebuls zamTari, gazafdairTavs, xolo Sualeduri sezonebis aRmniSvneli saxelebi (gazafxuli, xuli Semodgoma) _ -ze Tandebuls. ze qarTulis monaTesave zanursa da svanur enebSi saTanado saxelTan uTandebulo micemiTi ixmareba, iseve rogorc Zvel qarTulSi. mag., megrulSi: zoTonji-s / zoTon-s (= zamTarSi), gabzarxul-s (= gazafxulze), bzarxul-s (= zafxulSi), damorCil-s (= Semodgomaze). uneburad aRiZvris interesi analogiuri erTeulebis mimarT sxva enebSi. rusulSi erTferovani suraTia: drois garemoebad gamoyenebuli oTxive saxeli moqmedebiT brunvaSia (uTandebulod): , , , . germanikul enebSi _ inglisursa da germanulSi _ ixmareba -Si Si Tandebulis Sesabamisi windebuli oTxsave saxelTan: inglisurSi: in winter, in spring, in summer, in autumn. germanulSi: im Winter, im Frhling, im Sommer, im Herbst. analogiuri viTarebaa romanul enebSi, kerZod, espanursa da italiurSi enebSi (saTanado saxelebs -Si ekvivalenturi windebuli Si-s Si _ Sesabamisad, an da in /di erTvis). mxolod frangulSia odnavi gansxvaveba: oden gazafxulTan gamoiyeneba -ze Tandebulis Sesatyvisi ze au (au printemps), rasac fonetikuri mizeziT xsnian (mxolod gazafxulis aRmniSvneli sityva iwyeba TanxmovniT, danarCenebi ki xmovniT iwyeba da dairTaven -Si adekvatur en windebuls (en Si-s Si hiver, en t, en autumn). Zveli enebidan laTinurSi am funqcias asrulebs ablativi, romelsac oTxive saxeli iziarebs drois gamoxatvisas, xolo Zvel berZnulsa da Zvel somxurSi (axalSic) aseve saziaro dativi gamodis aRniSnuli funqciiT. aseTive suraTia zogierT aRmosavlur enaSi, romlebSic yvelgan gamoiyeneba an -Si Tandebulis Sesatyvisi windebulebi (arabuli, Si sparsuli), anda adgilobiTi brunvis erTi da igive elementebi (Turquli). sainteresoa, rom es Sualeduri, gardamavali weliwadis droebi TurqulSi ase aRiniSneba: gazafxulis aRmniSvneli saxeli sityvasityviT `pirvel (damdeg) zafxuls~ niSnavs, xolo Semodgoma
72

_ `zafxulis bolos (miwuruls)~ da, maSasadame, ise Cans, rom orientacia aRebulia am qveyanaSi albaT yvelaze xangrZliv wlis droze _ zafxulze zafxulze. riT SeiZleba aixsnas qarTulSi wlis droTa diferencirebuli aRniSvna drois garemoebis gamoxatvisas? Tu am sityvaTa agebulebas davakvirdebiT, vnaxavT, rom opoziciuri Tandebuliani formebi erTmaneTisagan sigrZiT zamTari gansxvavdeba: ufro mokle da martivi saxelebi (zamTari da zafxuli) Si zafxuli -Si Tandebuliania, xolo grZeli, nawarmoebi saxelebi (gazafxuli da Semodgoma _ -ze Tandebuliani. amasTan, zamTari Semodgoma) gazafxuli ze da zafxuli (orive za- elementiT iwyeba, rasac svanuriT xsnian: za zafxul-isagan za (=weliwadi), xolo gazafxuli nawarmoebia zafxulga zmniswinis meSveobiT (Sdr. zmna ga-zafxul-d-a), Semodgoma gaki masdaris formaa, romelic nawarmoebia rTuli (Se+mo- zmniswiniT Se+mo-) Se+mo(Sdr. raWuli forma, romelSic zmnuri Ziri gaSlili saxiTaa Semo-deg-i). warmodgenili: Semo-deg-i aq unda gavixsenoT, rom qarTulSi gvaqvs pirveli rigis saxelTagan Sedgenili kompoziti zamTar-zafxul romlis saerTo zamTar-zafxul, mniSvnelobaa mudam, yovelTvis. aseTi simboluri aRniSvna arc sxva enebisTvisaa ucxo. Sors rom ar wavideT, ix. rusuli gamoTqmebi: (= yovelTvis), , ! (ase amboben xolme didi xnis unaxaobis aRsaniSnavad). unda vivaraudoT, rom am ori saxelisagan warmoqmnili opozicia _ faqtobriv, orwevra opozicia _ droSi win uswrebda oTxwevras. es iyo pirveladi wyvili , romlis komponentebi polusur (temperaturul) dapirispirebas (sicive _ sicxe) qmnida, rac Taviseburi antonimiis Seqmnis sawindrad gvevlineba. Sesabamisad, danarCeni ori saxeli Sualeduria da gardamavali (aki wlis es droebi ufro rbili temperaturisaa_ Tbili da grili). aSkaraa, rom maTi warmoSoba meoreuli procesia: amas cxadyofs rogorc maTi struqtura, ise sintagmatika. gardasvlas, gardamavlobas qarTulSi -ze preverbi ze ufro Seefereba. (Sdr. mTaze /mdinareze /quCaze gadasvla /gadaxtoma da a.S.; gadataniTad: gadasvla axal Temaze/sakiTxze...). maSasadame, gamoikveTa ori, gansxvavebuli periodis opozicia: erTi mxriT, ufro adreuli, mokle sityvebi _ zamTari da zafxuli zafxuli, romlebsac saziaro Sexamebis unari aRmoaCndaT, da, meore mxriT, ufro grZeli (preverbebiT nawarmoebi) da gviandeli, zmnuri elementebiT garTulebuli leqsemebi _ gazafxuli da Semodgoma (aseve saziaro sintagmatikiT). niSandoblivia am ukanasknelis warmoebaSi a
73

masdaris monawileoba: msgavsi formebi msgavssave sintaqss gviCvenebs sxva analogiur SemTxvevebSic (mag., yovel/erT Semotrialebaze, kakunze...). aRniSnuli Tandebulebis aseTive ganawileba gvaqvs sivrciseul leqsemebs Sorisac, sadac TandebuldarTuli yoveli apelativis semantikas eZleva gadamwyveti mniSvneloba (vcxovrob / mivdivar ama da am quCaze, prospeqtze, moedanze, magram: SesaxvevSi, CixSi da a.S. (kalandaZe 1987, 32-34). amgvari diferencirebuli ganawileba -Si da -ze Tandebulebisa Si ze erTi semantikuri velis farglebSi mxolod im daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva, rom -Si konstruqciani wyvili pirveladi Si warmoSobisa unda iyos da am semantikuri velis sityvebs Soris ze -ze konstruqciani gardamavali wyvili Semdgom, gviandel safexurad gvevlineba. 2. qveynis mxareTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi zemoT ganvixileT drois cnebaTa gamomxatvel saxelebze darTul TandebulTa ganawilebis sakiTxi. axla vnaxoT sivrciseul cnebaTa, kerZod, qveynis mxareTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi: aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi, CrdiloeTi da samxreTi. rogorc vxedavT, oTxive es arsebiTi saxeli erTi da imave eT elementiT, derivaciuli -eT sufiqsiT aris nawarmoebi. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom aRniSnulma saxelebma Secvala aRmosavali, dasavali, manamde arsebuli terminebi _ Sesabamisad: aRmosavali dasavali Crdilo da bRuari (Ciqobava 1953, 70; abulaZe 1973), daskvna erTaderTi SeiZleba iyos: geografiuli saxelebis -eT sufiqsiT eT gaformebuli yvela es saxeluri forma, rogorc unificirebuli formebi, gviandeli, meoreuli warmonaqmnia. ase rom, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maT terminologiuri mniSvneloba aqvT. SevadaroT qveynis mxareTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi indoevropul enaTa saTanado moinacemebs. rusulSi arc erTi am oTx saxelTagan ar aris nawarmoebi raime specialuri an specifikuri elementiT: , , , , Tumca am saxelTgan nawarmoebi zedsarTavebi erTi da imave adieqtiuri sufiqsiT iwarmoeba: , , , .

74

germanikul enebSi SeiniSneba garkveuli kanonzomiereba, romelic eyrdnoba, pirobiTad rom vTqvaT, jvaredin princi ps: CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis aRmniSvnel saxelebSi erTi daboloeba gvxvdeba, xolo aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis aRmniSvnelSi _ meore. kerZod, germanulsa da inglisurSi `aRmosavleTisa~ da `dasavleTis~ ekvivalenturi saxelebi st kompleqsze Tavdeba (germ. Ost _ West, ingl. East _ West), xolo `CrdiloeTisa~ da `samxreTis~ aRmniSvneli saxelebi germanulSi d Tanxmovanze Tavdeba (Nord _ Sd), inglisurSi ki _ th-ze (North _ South). imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom ori opoziciuri vertikalurhorizontaluri wyvilidan vertikaluri istoriulad win uswrebda horizontalurs (igulisxmeT polusebis gansazRvris pirveladoba), sivrciseuli cnebebis gamomxatveli es wyvili termini qveynis mxareTa aRmniSvneli saxelebis safexurebrivi ganviTarebis karg nimuSs iZleva1. 3. deiqsisi CvenebiT nacvalsaxel-zmnisarTebSi orwevra opoziciis pirveladobaze msjeloba badebs CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelTa mier warmoqmnil opoziciasTan analogiis gancdas. dRes qarTulSi gvaqvs CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa samwevrovani sistema: isini miuTiTeben siaxloves I pirTan (es), II pirTan (eg da III eg) es), eg pirTan (is sainteresoa, rom evropul enaTagan aseTi samwevrovani is). is es eg is sistema mxolod espanursa aqvs: este (es ese (eg aquel (is TurqulSi es), eg), is). CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi aseve mWidro kavSirSia piris nacvalsaxelebTan _ pirvelni imeoreben am ukanasknelTa TanxmovniT nawils, III pirTan siaxlovis miTiTebis funqcia ki maT saerTo aqvT (Sdr.: I p. ben _ bu, II p. _ III p. o). en u, aSkaraa, rom am sam nacvalsaxels Soris struqturulad erTmaneTs SeiZleba daupirispirdes mxolod ori wyvili komponenti: es da is (saerTo TanxmovnebiT), anda: es da eg (saerTo xmovnebiT). vinaidan CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa pirveladi funqciaa miTiTeba, rac, cxadia, pirvel yovlisa, deiqturi xmovnebis meSveobiT (Tanxmovnuri ZiriT) xorcieldeba, opoziciis pirvel safexurad unda miviCnioT
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi isic, rom inglisurSi st kompleqsi xSirad miiReba ssis momdevnod mJReri (e)d Tanxmovnis asimilaciuri gayruebis Sedegad (mag., passed `ga(n)vlili~ > past `warsuli~), e.i. Teoriuli varaudi opoziciuri sistemebis relatiuri qronologiis Taobaze am SemTxvevaSi wminda fonetikuri sabuTiTac dasturdeba, xolo ori `jvaredini opoziciuri sistemis _ gaerTmniSvnelianeba-unificirebis faqti horizontaluri wyvilis meoreulobis damatebiT arguments warmoadgens. 75
1

dapirispireba III pirisa misgan gansxvavebul I da II pirebTan. aseTi dapirispireba SeeZlo gamoexata mxolod es _ is opozicias, romelTagan es (< ese miuTiTebda erToblivad I da II pirebTan ese) siaxloves, xolo is (< isi _ III pirTan siaxloves (meliqiSvili isi) 1980, 48-58; CarTolani 1985, 143). mogvianebiT, enis ganviTarebasTan erTad, moxda Semdgomi diferencireba da sami piris gamoyofa: es nacvalsaxels mTlianad daekisra I pirTan siaxlovis gamoxatva, is nacvalsaxelma daitova Tavisi (III pirTan siaxlovis gamoxatvis) funqcia, xolo darCenil II pirTan siaxlovis misaTiTeblad ukve arsebuli arsenalidan gamoyenebul iqna eg nacvalsaxeli, romelsac I pirTan maaxloebel es-Tan msgavsi Tu saerTo da, Tanac, specifikuri elementi unda es hqonoda. aseTi elementi ki aRmoCnda e xmovani, romelic I da II pirisaTvis saerToa da, Tanac, am saerTo e elementiT oriveni (es es da eg upirispirdebian III pirTan siaxlovis maCvenebels _ is eg) nacvalsaxels. sainteresoa isic, rom aRniSnul ee-xmovnian nacvalsaxelTa (es, es, am, eg brunebisas e xmovans irib brunvebSi yvelgan a enacvleba (am, eg) mag), mag xolo i-xmovnian nacvalsaxelTa brunebisas xmovani ucvlelia, icvleba mxolod Tanxmovani (is _ im), anu: I da II pirebTan siaxlovis is im) maCvenebel nacvalsaxelTa xmovnebi (e > a variantulia, III pirTan e a) siaxlovisa ki _ invariantuli (i). i msgavs suraTs avlens Sesabamisi deiqturxmovnebiani zmnisarTebi: pirveladi opozicia gvaqvs aq _ iq zmnisarTebSi, gviandel safexurze ki Cndeba mand zmnisarTi, romelic gansxvavebul Zirs ki gviCvenebs, magram aq zmnisarTTan saziaro aqvs a xmovani. unda SevniSnoT, rom dialeqtur metyvelebaSi mand da aq zmnisarTebis kontaminaciiT viRebT maq formas (aqedan iwarmoeba adieqtivic: maqauri maqauri). variantuloba-invariantulobis TvalsazrisiT saanalizo mand) iq) zmnisarTebis xmovnebi orsave SemTxvevaSi a (< aq, mand da i (<iq iq mand-is meoreuloba invariantulia, Tumca Ziris Sedgenilobis mxriv mand eWvs ar iwvevs. 4. sinonimTa warmoeba martivi sityvis kompoziciis gziT Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sityvawarmoebaSi SeiniSneba garkveuli saxis kompozicia, rodesac martivi saxeli iCens kompozitis formis sinonims amosavali saxelis monawileobiT. sanimuSod aq mogvyavs ori magaliTi:
76

1) kaci da mamakaci. arsebiTi saxeli kaci erTdroulad monawileobs rogorc sinonimur, ise antonimur paradigmatul rigSi. mogvyavs zogierTi cnobili faqti am paradigmatikidan. rogorc cnobilia, kacs garkveul konteqstebSi, farTo adamiani, mniSvnelobiT, sinonimurad ukavSirdeba adamiani xolo antonimurad qali. (sqesis mixedviT) _ qali bunebrivi dapirispirebis ti pobriv nimuSad Semdegi frazac ikmarebs: yvela iq iyo _ kaci da/Tu qali didi da/Tu patara. qali, mogvianebiT sityva kacma gaiCina sinonimi garTulebis gziT: kacma kacma prepoziciuri mama komponentis darTviT awarmova rTuli saxeli mamakaci romelic Tanamedrove metyvelebaSi qalmamakaci, qal-Tan dasapirispireblad upiratesad enacvleba kac-s. mag., gaxmaurebuli franguli filmis saTauri gadmoaqarTules rogorc qali da qali mamakaci (da ara: qali da kaci). magram aseTi warmoeba amosavali kaci kacis ubralo da uSualo garTulebis Sedegi ar yofila: savaraudoa, rom kompoziti mamakaci analogiiT, amasTan, SemovliTi gziT warmoiqmna mxolod mas Semdeg, rac qalis aRsaniSnavad martiv sityva kacs daupirispirda kompoziti dedakaci, romelSic deda komponenti kacis (= adamianis) prepoziciur msazRvrelad mogvevlina. aseTi kompozitis Seqmnam `aamuSava~ (imave analogiis princi piT) opozicia deda _ mama da am wyvilis meore calic moamzada axali kompozitis sawarmoeblad. am konteqstSi arc isaa dasaviwyebeli, rom cxovelTa garkveul saxeobaTaTvis maTi sqesis aRsaniSnavad prepoziciur msazRvrelebad ixmareba (gansakuTrebiT frinvelTaTvis) opoziciuri wyvili: dedali da mamali (Zusa da xvadis an furisa da xaris analogiurad, mag.: xvadis, Zusa dedali xoxobi, mamali indauri...). 2) batoni _ vaJbatoni. zustad igive princi pi daedo safuZvlad baton baton-isagan vaJ vaJbatonis warmoebas. cnobilia, rom sityva batoni misi xmarebis adreul safexurze (metadre mimarTvis formebSi) gaudiferencireblad gamoiyeneboda kacisTvisac da qalisTvisac (c. kalaZe 1984, 324-25). Semdgom, roca evropul enaTa zegavleniT qalTa mimarT saWiro Seiqna qal- komponentis prepoziciuri darTva, aman aamoZrava sxva opoziciuri wyvili _ qali da vaJi. gavixsenoT satrfialo xalxuri qalvaJiani poeziis Janri qalvaJiani (aki orTografiuli leqsikonis qalvaJiani sarekomendacio saxelebic swored asea dayofili: jer qalis
77

saxelebi, saxelebi). saxelebi Semdeg _ vaJis saxelebi egeve opoziciaa gamoyenebuli SvilTa sqesis aRmniSvneli kompozitebis warmoebis drosac: qaliSvili vaJiSvili amis analogiiT aRniSnuli wyvilis meore qaliSvili, vaJiSvili. calic (vaJi Cadga axali kompozitis warmoebis samsaxurSi, ris vaJi) vaJi Sedegadac Seiqmna rTuli sityva vaJbatoni Tumca aqve isic unda vaJbatoni, SevniSnoT, rom, gansxvavebiT qalbatonisagan romelic ixmareba qalbatonisagan, rogorc neitraluri, ise ironiuli mniSvnelobiT, vaJbatoni mxolod ironiuli niuansiT aris Seferili. maSasadame, orsave ganxilul SemTxvevaSi kompozituri sinonimi miRebulia SemovliTi gziT _ amosavali saxelis antonimizaciis gziT, ase: kaci dedakaci mamakaci; batoni qalbatoni vaJbatoni. * * * zemoganxilul opoziciur leqsikur Tu gramatikul qvesistemebSi diferencirebuli modelebis arseboba mowmobs, erTi mxriv, maTs safexurebriv ganviTarebas (3-wevra opozicia ZiriTadad 2wevra opoziciis momdevno safexuria, mag., CvenebiTs nacvalsaxelebsa da zmnisarTebSi; safexurebrivi Cans -Si /-ze TandebulTa ganawilebac Si ze wlis droTa aRmniSvnel saxelebSi). meore mxriv, vxedavT, rom sityvaTa sxvadasxva paradigmatul rigebs Soris mWidro Sinagani kavSiri arsebobs, rac gansakuTrebiT naTlad Cans, roca erTi da igive sityva monawileobs sxvadasxva paradigmatul rigSi (sinonimia da antonimia). erT-erTi maTganSi momxdari cvlilebebi droTa ganmavlobaSi jaWvuri reaqciiT iwvevs cvlilebebs meore rigSi. mTavari ki is aris, rom ena, Sinagani logikurobisa da metnaklebi mowesrigebulobis miuxedavad, maTematikur wesebs rodi mihyveba: igi ufro mgrZnobiarea tradiciebisa da ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonebis mimarT, da is cvlilebebi, romlebsac igi ganicdis, xdeba analogiebisa da asociaciebis safuZvelze erTi semantikuri velis farglebSi. literatura: 1. abulaZe 1973 _ i. abulaZe Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., abulaZe, abulaZe, 1973. kalandaZe, kalandaZe, 2 . kalandaZe 1987_ v. kalandaZe TandebulTa xmarebis sakiTxebi _ (-ze da -Si TandebulTa monacvleobis Sesaxeb). _ Tanamedrove ze Si qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, biuleteni #3, gv. 31-49.
78

3. kalaZe 1984 _ c. kalaZe saxel-mamissaxelobiTi mimarTvis kalaZe, kalaZe, Sesaxeb qarTulSi. _kr.qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebi, VI, mecniereba, Tb., 1984, gv. 309-329. 4. meliqiSvili 1980_ d. meliqiSvili piris nacvalsaxelTa meliqiSvili, meliqiSvili, fuZis agebulebasTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi sakiTxi. _kr.narkvevebi iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa morfologiidan,mecniereba, Tb., 1980, gv. 48-58. 5. CarTolani 1985 _ n. CarTolani CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa CarTolani, CarTolani, sistemebi qarTulSi sxva qarTvelur enebTan SedarebiT, mecniereba, Tb., 1985. 6. Ciqobava 1953 _ arn. Ciqobava etimologia Zveli qarTuli Ciqobava, Ciqobava, terminebisa bRuari, samxari. _ ike, t. V, Tb., 1953, gv. 65-71.

Shukia Apridonidze

On the Gradual Development of Opposition Systems in Georgian

The article discusses the typology of the gradual development of opposition systems in Georgian in the process of unification. Some of the temporal and spacial concepts, expressed by special nouns (denoting, e.g. the four seasons of year, and their syntagmatics with postpositions -shi/-ze (-in /on), and the cardinal points, etc.), and, finally, the development of the opposition of deictic particles of the demonstrative pronouns are discussed as well.

79

la n odar ladar ia

xmisa da bgeris simbolikisTvis


aRmosavlur saeklesio mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis profesori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: Davide IV Cantico Penitenziale. Saggio di Analisi storico-liturgica, Edizioni PIO, Roma 1996. Concetto di santit nella spiritualit georgiana, Biblioteca sanctorum, Citt Nuova, Roma 1997. dante aligieris elitebi. erTi Tvalsazrisi RvTaebrivi komediis Sinagani motivaciis Sesaxeb, ena da kultura # 4, Tbilisi 2005. interesTa sfero: evropuli Sua saukuneebis kultura, XIII-XV saukuneebis italiuri literatura.

dante aligieris RvTaebriv komediaSi Suasaukuneobrivi gadmocemis Tanaxmad, klunis sasuliero ordenis erT-erTi reformatori, pirveli jvarosnuli laSqrobis STamagonebeli, XI saukunis uTvalsaCinoesi religiuri moRvawe wm. bernar klervoeli erTxel mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi miuyveboda cxeniT Jenevis tbis napirs, magram imdenad iyo Cafluli Sinagan WvretaSi, rom tba ver SeniSna. grZnobadi, nivTieri samyarosagan aseTi gaucxoebis unari, ra Tqma unda, gansakuTrebuli siwmindis, sxva sityvebiT, maRali sulieri organizaciis maCvenebeli iyo. SegrZnebebis msgavsi gamorTva qristianuli asketuri teqnikis erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli meTodi da moTxovnaa. XII saukunis Teologis, ailred de rievos traqtatSi sulisaTvis, vkiTxulobT:
Te ipsum insipice cogitantem. Ecce in tenebris positus, et clausisti oculos, aures obturasti, nihil flagrat naribus, nihil sapit palato, nihil tactus operatur.1 daakvirdi sakuTar Tavs, roca fiqrob. aha, bnelSi imyofebi, Tvalebi daxuWe, yurebi daicavi, arafers ynosavs nestoebi, arafers igemebs sasa, araferi aRZravs Sexebis grZnobas.

Ailred of Rielvaux, De anima, ed. C. H. Talbot, in Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Suppl. I., London 1952, p. 77. 80

grZnobaTa gamorTva, ra Tqma unda, RmerTTan miaxloebis, RmerTis wvdomis e. w. apofatikur gzas ukavSirdeba, romlis ukiduresad gamartivebuli gadmocema amgvarad SeiZleba: yovelive Seqmnili da grZnobadi cvalebadi da warmavalia, riTac radikalurad gansxvavdeba RmerTisgan, amitom saWiroa yovelive warmavalis uaryofa da gamoricxva mxolod asea SesaZlebeli RvTis Secnoba. meore gza, e. w. katafatikuri, amis sawinaaRmdegoa: am SemTxvevaSi centralur adgils iWers idea, rom yovelive Seqmnili Tavis TavSi atarebs Semoqmedis nebas, ese igi, mis bunebasTanaa naziarebi. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia RvTis Secnoba grZnobadi sagnebis samyaroze dakvirvebiT. am meTodis asketur aspeqts ki is uzrunvelyofs, rom nebismieri sagani TavisTavad ki ar unda iqnes ganxiluli, aramed mxolod rogorc miniSneba an xati mis miRma mdgomi maradiuli WeSmaritebisa. ra Tqma unda, amgvarma miniSnebebma SeiZleba Seadginos sakmaod grZeli mimdevrobebi, sadac yoveli wina rgoli Semdgomze miuTiTebs. RvTis Semecnebis am ori meTodidan arc erTs ar gaaCnia upirobo upiratesoba. saRvTo werilis avtoritetic orive maTgans erTnairad mtkice sayrdens aZlevs: Tu ieso qristes igavebi da saswaulebi katafatikur gzas Seesabameba, misi pirdapiri imperativebi aSkarad gamokveTil apofatikur tendencias gamoxatavs. ra Tqma unda, aq ver SevexebiT am ori gzis istoriul da Teologiur daxasiaTebas, magram aucileblad migvaCnia, mivaniSnoT erT SesaZleblobaze: RvTis Semecnebis ori gza sakmaod calsaxad ukavSirdeba komunikaciis or cnobil models, romelTagan erTerTi gulisxmobs, rom uwyeba ubrundeba adresants (anu komunikacia xorcieldeba sqemiT me me), meore ki aRniSnavs uwyebis gadasvlas adresatze (sqema me sxva).2 gasagebia, rom komunikaciis pirveli modeli ukavSirdeba apofatikur gzas, meore katafatikurs. Tumca aris kidev erTi mniSvnelovani garemoeba: Tu komunikaciis pirvel modelSi (me me) uwyeba mogzaurobs mxolod da mxolod droSi, meore modeli (me sxva) moiTxovs iseTi saSualebebis gamoyenebas, romlebic uzrunvelyofen uwyebis sivrceSi gadaadgilebas. swored aseT saSualebad gvevlineba xma. calke gamokvlevis sagania, rogor vlindeba dantes RvTaebriv komediaSi komunikaciis ori xsenebuli modeli. am sakiTxis gada2

am midgomis dawvrilebiTi ganxilva ix. ., ., . ., // . ., , , 2000, . 163-177. 81

wyveta mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli sazrisTa im simravlesTan, romelsac atarebs poemis teqstSi mocemuli piris nacvalsaxeli me. winaswar SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom gmirisa da avtoris pirovnebis rTuli da mravalplaniani urTierToba xoriceldeba erTi dapirispirebis fonze. es dapirispireba aris mxedvelobasa da smenas Soris. TviTon poemas xSirad uwodebdnen xilvas (visione) da am dasaxelebaSi wina planze gamodis avtoris sulieri biografia, misi gza codvidan monaniebamde da sinanulis gavliT RvTis Semecnebamde. aq vxedavT, rom avtori TviTon kiTxulobs sakuTari cxovrebis uwyebas da misi wakiTxvis saSualebiT win miiwevs sulieri srulyofisken. RvTaebrivi komedia, gagebuli rogorc xilva, asaxavs RvTis Semecnebis apofatikur gzas da aq aSkarad ikveTeba komunikaciis modeli me me. magram dante aligieris bevri aqvs saTqmeli sxvisTvisac: swored amas mianiSnebs poemis pirvelsave striqonebSi gamoCenili antiTeza: me Cven:
Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura (Inf. I, 1-2). [Cveni cxovrebis naxevargzaze (me) aRmovCndi bnel tyeSi]

cxadia, Cveni cxovreba azrobrivad Zalian datvirTuli gamoTqmaa, magram amjerad misi mxolod erT-erTi azri gvainteresebs: dante aligieri Tavidanve aTavsebs sakuTar Tavs kacobriobis SuagulSi (ara centrSi, aramed SuagulSi gamoTqma nel mezzo aRniSnavs ara marto raimes topografiul centrSi yofnas, aramed movlenebSi maqsimalur CarTulobas, adamianebTan mWidro siaxloves, maTTan Tanaziarobas). amgvari me, romelic imTaviTve Cven Soris imyofeba, martooden xilvebiT ver miaRwevs WeSmaritebis flobas: man aucileblad unda gagvagonos Tavisi xma. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom xma aq SeiZleba gagebul iqnes rogorc enis sinonimi, magram es ase ar aris. ena universaluri matarebelia: is aucilebelia komunikaciis orive modelis gansaxorcieleblad, amitom erTgvarad indeferentulia am modelebs Soris gansxvavebis mimarT. maSin roca xmis, rogorc enisagan damoukidebeli agentis monawileoba, romlis gareSe SesaZlebelia pirveli modeli, aucileblad iqceva mxolod sxvebTan urTierTobaSi. dasturad SeiZleba moviyvanoT wm. franCesko asizelis magaliTi metad niSandoblivi da Cvens TematikasTan arsebiTad dakavSirebuli kerZod, misi yvavilebis XIII Tavi, sadac moTxrobilia, rogor yviris saRvTo eqstazSi aRtacebuli wmindani:
82

E vassene santo Francesco dietro allaltare, e puosesi in orazione, e in quella orazione ricevette dalla divina visitazione s eccessivo fervore, il quale infiamm s fattamente lanima sua ad amore della santa povert, che tra per lo colore della faccia e per lo nuovo isbadigliare della bocca parea che gittasse fiamme damore. E venendo cos infocato al compagno, s gli disse: A, A, A, frate Masseo, dammi te medesimo. E cos disse tre volte, e nella terza volta santo Francesco lev col fiato frate Masseo in aria, e gittollo dinanzi a s per ispazio duna grande asta. da Sevida wminda franCesko sakurTxevelSi da dadga locvad. am locvaSi ki ewvia mas saRvTo madli iseTi mxurvalebiT, imdenad aRunTo suli wminda upovarebis siyvaruliT, rom saxis fersa da daRebul pirze ise etyoboda, TiTqos siyvarulis als gamoscemso. ase mxurvalebiT moculi miuaxlovda amxanags da uTxra: a, a, a, Zmao maseo, momeci Seni Tavi. ase uTxra samgzis da mesame Tqmaze wminda franCeskom sulis berviT aswia Zma maseo haerSi da Tavis win karga grZeli Wokis maZilze daagdo.

sxvaTa Soris, yvavilebis am TavSi vpoulobT pirdapir interteqstul miTiTebas dantes samoTxeze.3 magram Cvens TematikasTan arsebiTi kavSiri mxolod amiT ar amoiwureba: saqme isaa, rom dante aligieri TviTon iyo davalebuli ori umniSvnelovanesi sasuliero ordenis dominikelTa da franciskelTa kulturisagan da mis Txzulebebs etyoba Sesabamisi aSkara gavlena. Tu dominikelTa memkvidreobam umTavresad dantes filosofiuri aparatis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba, franciskelTa suliereba, gansakuTrebiT misi socialurad radikaluri da arsebiTad mistikuri nawili, aisaxa RvTaebrivi komediis centralur TematikaSi.4 marTalia, wm. franCeskos yvavilebis teqsti dantes nawarmoebTan SedarebiT gviandeli kompilaciaa, magram aSkaraa, rom amgvari kompilaciebisaTvis yovelTvis iRebdnen mxolod dasabamidan wamosuli tradiciiT damtkicebul da ZiriTadi tendenciebis adekvaturad amsaxvel gadmocemebs. davubrundeT yvavilebis zemoT moyvanil fragments. aq, rogorc vxedavT, saRvTo aRtacebis umaRles wertilze ayvanili wmindani gamoscems sruliad asemantikur bgerebs, magram am bgerebis grafikuli asaxva ar aris ubralod Sorisdebuli enobriv uzusSi dakanonebuli onomatopoeturi sityva: teqstSi vxedavT yvirilis kodifikacias. xma gvevlineba rogorc gamouTqmelis materialuri
3

Sdr. I Fioretti di San Francesco. Le considerazioni sulle stimmate, Introduzione e note di Pier Massimo Forni, Garzanti 1993, p. 46. 4 amave dros unda aRiniSnos, rom simdablisa da morCilebis moTxovna, romelic ase aSkarad Cans wm. franCeskos sulierebaSi, dantesaTvis Tu sruliad ucxo ar yofila, mainc naklebi gamoxatuleba pova mis SemoqmedebaSi (Sdr. Petrocchi G. Vita di Dante, Laterza, Bari 1983, p. 213.) 83

agenti: enis eTnikur Tu nacionalur SezRudulobas aq upirispirdeba 5 yvirilis universaloba. asemantikuri xmis kodifikaciis magaliTebs RvTaebriv komediaSic vpoulobT, Tumca aq maT ufro negatiuri funqcia akisria. am mxriv, yvelaze cnobilia Semdegi adgili jojoxeTidan:
Pape Satn, pape Satn aleppe!, cominci Pluto con la voce chioccia (Inf, VII, 1-2). [pape satan, pape satan alepe! daiwyo plutom xrinwiani xmiT.]

SesaZloa, aq arabuli enis mibaZvac iyos zogierT mkvlevars plutos yvirilSi esmis miniSneba arabuli qalaqis, alepos karibWeze,6 magram rogoric ar unda iyos avtoris STamagonebeli konkretuli garemoebebi, mniSvnelovani erTia: zeciuri sityvis gamouTqmelobas (rac amouwurav sazriss niSnavs) jojoxeTi upirispirebs Tavisi enis gaugebrobas (es ki sazrisis uqonlobas gulisxmobs). ufro didi simwvaviT gamoxatavs igives XXXI qebaSi mocemuli fraza, romelic suleTSi mogzaurs bibliuri gmiris, nimrodis piridan esmis. aq ukve saqme gvaqvs danawevrebuli metyvelebis pirdapir parodirebasTan, romelic mowodebulia, xelaxla ganacdevinos mkiTxvels babilonSi momxdari enaTa aRrevis Soki:
Raphl ma amcche zab almi, cominci a gridar la fiera bocca, cui non si convenia pi dolci salmi (Inf, XXXI, 57-59). [rafel mai ameke Zabi almi, iwyo yvirili mrisxane pirma, romelsac ar Sehferis ufro tkbili sagaloblebi.]

sagulisxmoa, rom nimrodis abrakadabris bolo sityva (almi) gariTmulia sityvasTan salmi (fsalmunebi, sagaloblebi), romlebic aRniSnavs xmisa da sazrisis umaRles harmoniul Serwymas da riTmis safuZvelSi mdgomi fonetikuri msgavseba kidev ufro sacnaurs
5

sasargeblo iqneba gavixsenoT, ras wers pavle mociquli sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb: atacebul iqna samoTxeSi da ismina eniTuTqmeli sityvebi, romelTa gamoTqmac ar ZaluZs kacs (2 korinTelTa, 12, 4) aqac aSkaraa, rom eniTuTqmeli niSnavs adamianur enaze Targmnis SeuZleblobas. amave dros, zmna ismina da arsebiTi saxeli sityva calsaxad gveubneba, rom uwyebam pavles Semecnebamde xmovani gziT miaRwia. aseve dabadebis pirveli Tavebidan vamCnevT, rom gagviWirdeba pasuxi kiTxvaze, xedavda Tu ara adami RmerTs samagierod, ueWvelia, rom esmoda RvTisa. 6 Sdr. Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia, comento a cura di Daniele Mattalia, Milano 1960, p. 153. 84

xdis azrobriv SeuTavseblobas, kidev ufro amZafrebs tercinis 7 mesame taepis ironias. sityva voce (xma) RvTaberiv komediaSi 80-jer gvxvdeba. kantikebis mixedviT sixSire asea ganawilebuli: 21-jer jojoxeTSi, 29-jer gansawmendelSi, 30-jer samoTxeSi. amaSi sakvirveli araferia, radgan am ormarcvliani sityvis sixSire poemis vrcel teqstSi ci pfis kanons unda emorCilebodes. gacilebiT ufro sainteresoa, ranairad viTardeba kantikidan kantikamde am sityviT warmodgenili sazrisis warmomqmneli funqcia. Tavidanve unda aRvniSnoT, rom is funqcia, romelsac sityva voce asrulebs erT romelime kantikaSi, mihyveba mas teqstis bolomde. magram yovel momdevno kantikaSi emateba kidev erTi mniSvnelovani funqcia, romelic am sityviT aRniSnul realobas manamde ar hqonia. jojoxeTi: jojoxeTi Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom aq xma mxolod personaJis maxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa. TiTqmis yovelTvis Tan axlavs 8 Sesabamisi zedsarTavi, magaliTad, soave (mSvidi, narnari), an chioccia (xafi, mWaxe). jojoxeTSi Sesvlis pirvel wams garemomcvel sibneleSi dante mxolod bgeriT STabeWdilebebs eyrdnoba:
Diverse lingue, orribili favelle, parole di dolore, accenti dira, voci alte e fioche, e suon di man con elle facevano un tumulto... (Inf. III, 25-28). [sxvadasxva ena, saZageli kiloebi, mwuxare sityvebi, mrisxane bgerebi, maRali da xrinwiani xmebi, maTTan ki xelebis tylaSuni qmnida erTian guguns...]

am mxriv bgeriTi STabeWdileba Tavidanve wargvidgens warwymedil sulTa mTel samefos. amis Semdeg xma yoveli axali personaJis pirveli maxasiaTebeli niSania. gansawmendeli: gansawmendeli aq pirvelad gvesmis adamianis xma rogorc simRera, galoba. es yovelTvis unisonia da Tanac yovelgvari musikaluri Tanxlebis gareSe a capella. xma gansawmendelSi ismis ara marto rogorc konkretuli sulis individualuri xasiaTis niSani, aramed rogorc adamianis samadlobeli RvTisadmi. garda
7

amgvari antagonisturi riTma italiur poeziaSi dantemdec gvxvdeba: magaliTad, iakopone da todi sasuliero xasiaTis poeziaSi parizi (yovelgvari xorcieli codvisa da dacemis simbolo) gariTmulia asizisTan (wm. franCeskos mSobliuri qalaqi, umaRlesi sulierebis simbolo), ris Sedegad fonetikuri keTilxmovaneba ufro cxadad warmoaCens ori sawyisis arsebiT winaaRmdegobas. 8 ix. zemoT, plutos gamocemuli bgerebis daxasiaTeba. 85

amisa, gansawmendelis mTis sxvadasxva doneebze, sadac cxovnebis momlodineTa sulebi TavianT codvebs inanieben, ganuwyvetliv ismis uxilavi xmebi: eseni Sesabamis codvas kicxaven, an am konkretuli mankierebis sapirispiro siqvelis amsaxvel magaliTebs mouTxroben monanie sulebs. SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom gansawmendelis amgvari akustikuri organizaciis kulturuli arqeti pi iyo monastris satrapezo, sadac ZmaTa yovel sadils an vaxSams mudam Tan axlda morige mowesis an morCilis mier saRvTo werilis, wmindanTa cxovrebis an sxva ram sulis margebeli teqstis kiTxva. samoTxe: samoTxe sityva harmonias aq pirvelive qebaSi vpoulobT. marTalia, pirvelad es sityva gansawmendelis XXXI qebaSia gamoyenebuli, magram Tavisi arsiT swored samoTxeze mianiSnebs, radgan gvesmis swored im momentSi, roca miwier edemSi asuli poeti pirispir xvdeba beatriCes. samoTxeSi xma pirvelad xdeba polifoniuri. SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom polifonia da, aqedan gamomdinare, harmonia samoTxis atributia da Tavis TavSi gansxvavebul sawyisTa erTi miznisTvis TanamSromlobas gulisxmobs. amitomac samoTxeSi yoveli galoba ara marto mravalxmiania, aramed aq usulo sagnebic JRers kerZod, zeciuri sferoebi. galobas Tan axlavs akompanementi es ukve Semosili xmaa (rivestita). movisminoT kantikis pirveli striqonebi:
La gloria di colui che tutto move per luniverso penetra, e risplende in una parte pi e meno altrove (Par, I, 1-3). [dideba misi, vinc yovelives amoZravebs, qveynierebas gamsWvalavs da brwyindeba zogan metad, sxvagan ki naklebad].

swored amgvar met-naklebobaSi aris harmonia: Tu jojoxeTi, ase vTqvaT, iZulebiTaa organizebuli saRvTo samarTlis mier, xolo yovel calkeul garsSi warwymedili sulebis srul qaoss warmogvidgens, samoTxisaTvis harmoniuloba Sinagani wesia is ara marto sxvadasxva doneebadaa organizebuli, aramed yovel calkeul doneze masSi myofi sulebis erToblioba warmoadgens TvalsaCino wesiT mowyobil sazogadoebas da ara brbos. samoTxis binadarni poetis Tvalwin xan mistikur vards Seadgenen, xan arwivs. es maTi Tavisufali nebis Tanaxmad xdeba, xolo yovelive amis aRmniSvnelad gvevlineba bgeriTi maxasiaTebeli sityva harmonia.
86

rogorc vxedavT, bgerasa da xmas dantes gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs Soris sagrZnobi funqciuri datvirTva aqvs. magram amasTan erTad is Rrma konceftualuri mniSvnelobiTac xasiaTdeba. amis dasturia poemis pirvelive qebaSi asaxuli Sexvedra vergiliusTan. vergiliusi, romelic avtors unda waruZRves jojoxeTsa da gansawmendelSi, asea daxasiaTebuli:
dinanzi a li occhi mi si fu offerto chi per lungo silenzio parea fioco (Inf. I, 52-53)

aq warmoiqmneba adekvaturad Targmnis problema: Cems Tvalwin wardga is, vinc xangrZlivi dumilis gamo Canda ... rogori Canda? saqme isaa, rom italiuri zedsarTavi fiocco (susti) gamoiyeneba mxolod bgeris, ufro sworad, xmis mimarT. aq ki, rogorc amas nacvalsaxeli chi (vin) gviCvenebs, laparakia TviT vergiliusis pirovnebaze da ara mis xmaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poeti gaigivebulia bgerasTan: poeti aris ara is, vinc wers, aramed is, vinc JRers. danamdvilebiT ver vityviT, rom dantem aq erTgvarad ganaxorciela Sua saukuneebis kulturaSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli lokusi Plato est mortus scribendo, Christus est mortus orando (platoni mokvda, roca werda, qriste roca loculobda)9 romelSic aSkaraa xmis upiratesoba werasTan SedarebiT, magram poetisa da mgalobelis igiveobas ueWvelad konceftualuri mniSvneloba eniWeba. swored am igiveobiTaa gamoxatuli poeziis demokratiuloba filosofiasTan SedarebiT: Tu platonma Tavisi nawerebi dautova kacobriobis gamorCeul umciresobas, ieso qriste ganurCevlad yvelasaTvis mokvda jvarze. swored poeziisa da xmis gaigiveba gvevlineba imis kidev erT dasturad, rom leqsi ganurCevlad yvelasadmi unda iyos mimarTuli, rasac amtkicebs xalxuri enis upiratesobac laTinurTan SedarebiT. ra Tqma unda, vergiliusTan pirvel Sexvedra gacilebiT ufro damajereblad adasturebs poeziisa da bgeris konceftualur igiveobas, vidre poemaSi arsebuli mimarTva muzebisadmi an Sesabamisi miTologiuri paralelebi,10 radgan vergiliusis amgvar daxasiaTebas ver avxsniT poeturi tradiciis formaluri gameorebiT.
9

locvis aRsaniSnavad aq gamoyenebulia ara prex, aramed oratio xmiT locva, RaRadi (Sdr. oratori adamiani, romelic xmiT ipyrobs auditoriis yuradRebas). 10 amaTgan yvelaze cnobilia gansawmendelis pirvel qebaSi moyvanili istoria muzebisa da pieridebis simReraSi Sejibrebis Sesaxeb, romlis Sedegad muzebma Cxikvebad aqcies mefe pieris damarcxebuli qaliSvilebi. 87

poetis rogorc mgalobelis igive koncefcia dasturdeba gansawmendelSic gviani antikuri xanis poetTan, staciusTan Sexvedrisas:
Tanto fu dolce mio vocale spirto (Purg. XXI, 38) [imdenad tkbili iyo Cemi mgalobeli suli]

aRsaniSnavia, rom zedsarTavs vocale (mgalobeli, mReradi) mTel poemaSi mxolod am adgilas vxvdebiT. bgeris Tematur, ufro metic, Teologiur mniSvnelobaze RvTaebriv komediaSi migvaniSnebs kidev erTi epizodi jojoxeTidan, romelic Semdegi striqoniT mTavrdeba:
Ed elli avea del cul fatto trombetta (Inf. XXI, 139)

am adgils konstantine gamsaxurdia ase Targmnis: ukanalidan mogvasmina dudukis xmebi. originalTan ufro axlosaa m. lozinskis rusuli Targmani: . magram aqac Semasmeneli arRvevs dantes teqstTan Sesabamisobas. jojoxeTis XXI qebis bolo striqonis zusti Targmani aseTia: da man ukanalisgan qmna sayviri. rogorc vxedavT aq laparakia ara ubralo xmovan mibaZvaze, aramed ufro Rrma Sinaarsis mqone gaigivebaze Tu transformaciaze, sadac ukanali iqceva sayvirad. 11 sityvas trombetta italiur enaSi aqvs ori mniSvneloba : 1) mcire zomis sayviri; 2) sayviris damkvreli, romelic amave dros asrulebs sajaro mauwyeblis funqcias. ase warmoiqmneba taepis metad arsebiTi mniSvneloba: da man ukanalisgan qmna sajaro mauwyebeli. axla ki droa ganvixiloT poemis mTeli epizodi, romelsac asrulebs moyvanili taepi: jojoxeTis XXI qebis bolos dante da vergiliusi Tavs daaRweven demonebs da samSvidobos gasulni gascqeren maT uZlur mrisxanebas; boRmisagan kbilebdakreWili eSmakebi Sebrundebian TavianTi winamZRolisken, romelic ukanalidan xmamaRal bgeras gamoscems. epizodi SeiZleba ganvixiloT binaruli opoziciebis gamovlenis xerxiT. pirveli binaruli opozicia gvxvdeba qebis dasawyisSi:
Cos di ponte in ponte, altro parlando che la mia comeda cantar non cura (Inf. XXI 1-2) [ase mivdiodiT xididan xidze sxvadasxva sagnebze saubriT, razec galobas Cemi poema ar zrunavs]

11

kidev ori mniSvneloba, romelTagan erTi yvavils aRniSnavs, meore ki calmxrivi moZraobis quCidan gamosasvlels, gviandelia da mocemul SemTxvevaSi interess ar warmoadgens. 88

vxvdebiT dapirispirebas laparaksa da galobas Soris: dante da vergiliusi bevr rameze laparakobdnen jojoxeTSi mogzaurobisas, magram yvelafris gadmocemas rodi unda gauyadros Tavi mgalobelma poetma igulisxmeba, rom is mxolod mniSvnelovans irCevs. ase dawyebuli qeba mTavrdeba eSmakis ukanalidan gamosuli xmis aRweriT. riTi unda iyos es xma ufro mniSvnelovani ori poetis saubarze? ganvagrZoT binaurl opoziciaTa ganxilva. ukanals, ufro sworad ki anuss, romlidanac xdeba xmis gamocema, ra Tqma unda, Seesabameba piri. es sulac ar aris SemTxveviTi an xelovnurad Seqmnili opozicia mas sakmaod mdidari tradicia aqvs Suasaukuneobriv kulturaSi. sakmarisia aRvniSnoT, rom eSmakis ikonografiaSi xSiria gamosaxulebebi, sadac demoni gamosaxulia dundulebze TvalebiT. am SemTxvevaSi, kudi asrulebs cxviris, xolo anusi bageebis funqcias. eSmakis WeSmariti saxe misi ukanalia12 es sityva (culo) mxolod erTxelaa gamoyenebuli mTeli poemis manZilze. aseve erTxelaa gamoyenebuli sityva trombetta, romlis mniSvnelobaze ukve vilaparakeT zemoT. am sityvis opoziciad gvevlineba tuba (buki), romelic poemaSi sul orjeraa gamoyenebuli13 da amaTgan Tematurad mniSvnelovania samoTxis XXX qebis is adgili, sadac dante ambobs:
Cotal qual io la lascio a maggior bando che quel de la mia tuba... (Par. XXX, 34-35) [iseTi, romelsac me ufro did mauwyebels davutoveb, vidre Cemi bukia...]

rogorc vxedavT, aq binaruli opozicia trombetta tuba vrceldeba am sityvebiT gamoxatul mTel semantikur velze, romelic moicavs ara marto musikalur sakravebs, aramed sajaro mauwyeblebsac. demonTa winamZRoli, romelic ukanalidan sayviris xmas gamoscems aSkarad raRacis Setrialebuli saxea. magram risi? aq SegviZlia gavixsenoT micvalebulTaTvis laTinuri locvis erTi cnobili adgili: Tuba mirum sparget sonum buki saocars avrcelebs xmas. romeli xma igulisxmeba? ra Tqma unda angelozTa mier axmovanebuli bukebi, romlebzedac gvamcnobs mociqul ioanes gamocxadeba. angelozTa gamocemuli bgera gvamcnobs saRvTo samarTlis gamarjvebas, gvamcnobs saSineli samsjavros dasawyiss, romelsac
sakmarisia gavixsenoT Tundac miqael paxeris (1435-1498) suraTi wminda volfgangi ganagdebs eSmaks jvris gardasaxviT. 13 samoTxis VI qebaSi laparakia romaeli sardlis, pompeusis legionTa sayvirze da aq sityvas tuba ar gaaCnia Tematurad mniSvnelovani konotacia. 89
12

veravin gaeqceva (Nil inultum remanebit araferi darCeba dausjeli, naTqvamia micvalebulTaTvis imave locvaSi). amis sapirispirod, demonis gamocemuli bgera gamoxatavs damarcxebiT gamowveul boRmas da imas, rom demonTa muqaras yovelTvis daaRwevs Tavs marTali. amgvarad kravs erTi SexedviT, ufro sworad, mosmeniT komikuri bgeriTi simbolo warmoudgeneli sivrcis momcvel Teologiur wres. Tumca xmiTa da bgeriT ara marto Teologiuri wre ikvreba RvTaebriv komediaSi, aramed cxaddeba poeziis adgili Seqmnil samyaroSi. swored amas migvaniSnebs gansawmendelis meore qebis erTi ucnauri adgili. gansawmendelis napirze myofi dante moulodnelad Sexvdeba axalmosul sulTa jgufs, romelTa Soris aris misi megobaric musikosi kazela. poetis TxovniT kazela mReris dantes erT-erT kanconas: Lamor che nella mente mi ragiona siyvaruli, romelic azrovnebs Cems gonebaSi. irgvliv myofebs gaitacebs hangisa da leqsis Zala:
Lo mio maestro e io e quella gente cheran con lui parevan s contenti, come a nessun toccasse altro la mente (Purg. II, 115-117) [Cemi ostati, me da masTan mdgomi is xalxic imdenad kmayofilni vCandiT, TiTqos sxva araferi exeboda Cvens gonebas]

ra SeiZleba inatros amaze ukeTesi xelovanma? magram uecrad Cndeba gansawmendelis karibWis mcveli katoni da mrisxaned mimarTavs galobis msmenel sulebs:
Correte al monte a spogliarvi lo scoglio chesser non lascia a voi Dio manifesto (Purg. II, 122-123) [gaiqeciT mTisken da moicileT qercli, romelic RvTis gancxadebulad xilvas giSliT]

am brZanebaze kazela galobas wyvets da damfrTxali sulebi saswrafod auyvebian gansawmendelis aRmarTs. ratom gaswira ase sastikad dantem sakuTari Semoqmedeba da masTan erTad mTeli poezia? Carlz singltonis azriT,14 aq saqme gvaqvs avgustine avreliusis moZRvrebis aplikaciasTan: igulisxmeba katafatikuri midgomis erT-erTi mTavari postulati imis Sesaxeb, rom yoveli nivTi an movlena mniSvnelovania ara TavisTavad, aramed rogorc erTgvari niSani, romelmac sabolood Semoqmedis Semecnebamde unda migviyvanos.
Sdr. Ch. Singleton, Jorney to Beatrice, The John Hopkins University Press, 1977 pp. 26-33. 90
14

amgvarad, poezia aris mxolod erT-erTi niSani WeSmaritebisken aRmaval gzaze, misi zedmetad dafasebis SemTxvevaSi ki gzamkvlevi niSani advilad iqceva mxedvelobis daburvel qerclad. ra Tqma unda, axsna logikuria, magram arsebobs erTi yuradsaRebi garemoeba: italiuri sityva scoglio niSnavs ara marto qercls an, figuralurad, uwmindurebis nadebs, aramed kldesac. ufro metic, dRevandel enaSi is mxolod kldes niSnavs, radgan qerclisa da nadebis mniSvnelobis aRmniSvnelma sityvam orazrovnebis Tavidan asarideblad gramatikuli sqesi Seicvala (scoglia). romeli klde dgas dabrkolebad gansawmendelSi Semosul sulebsa da RmerTs Soris? Tumca am problemis garkveva scildeba winamdebare statiis Temas...

Nodar Ladaria

On the Symbolism of Voice and Sound in Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy

The article proves that in the poem of Dante Alighieri, voice and sound as well as symbols related to them have not only an expressive but also an important thematic function. This thematic function gradually develops and gets enriched: while in Inferno a voice is only indicating peculiarity of characters, in Purgatorio one can hear chanting and then in Paradiso the chant becomes polyphonic to the accompaniment of music. The article considers theological aspects of this thematic development and shows how Dante Alighieri projects apophatic and cataphatic ways of approaching God on the dualistic model of communication. The symbolism of voice and sound is of a crucial importance in the process of such projection.

91

do nino doborjginiZe

qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa


ilia WavWavaZis universitetis humanitaruli da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. interesTa sfero: antikurobisa da Sua saukuneebis gramatologia, sociolingvistika. ZiriTadi publikaciebi: Die identittsfindende Funktion der Sprache und bersetzungsprobleme bei den altgeorgischen Exegeten, in: F. Paul (Hg.), Muster und Funktionen kultureller Selbst und Fremdwahrnehmung, Gttingen, 2000. Die Argumente gegen die Bibelbersetzung in die Volkssprache und ihre Nachwirkung auf die Entwicklung des Georgischen in den 10.-12. Jh., in: Kaukasische Sprachprobleme, Hrsg. v. Winfried Boeder, Oldenburg 2003. diamerizmebi da TxuTmeti samwerlo enis toposi (uZvelesi cnobebi iberiuli damwerlobis Sesaxeb. JurnalSi: literatura da sxva, Tbilisi 2005 weli.

qristianuli aRmosavleTis saxotbo poeziis konteqstSi1


iovane zosimes qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa Zveli qarTuli saxotbo poeziis erT-erT yvelaze Tavsatex Zeglad iTvleba. am Txzulebis sakmaod gaugebari qveteqstebi da alegoriebi filologiuri Ziebis metad saintereso sagani iyo wlebis ganmavlobaSi. winamdebare naSromSi me arc am mravalricxovani literaturis mimoxilvas vapireb da verc am gaugebar qveteqstebze da alegoriebze visaubreb. me Sevecdebi, mokled aRvwero is saerToaRmosavluri konteqsti, romelSic es xotba unda Seqmniliyo da romlis gaTvaliswinebac, Cemi azriT, garkveulwilad mainc xsnis qebasTan dakavSirebul zogierT sakiTxs. nawarmoebebi, romelTac am konteqstSi ganvixilav, rogorc qronologiurad, ise geografiulad sakmaod daSorebulia erTmaneTs; maT arc urTierTgavlenis kvali etyoba; am ti pis siriul, koptur, qarTul, somxur Tu saeklesio slavur Zeglebs sxva ram aerTianebs: rogorc Cans, isini iwereboda erT konkretul braldebaze sapasuxod, erTi mizniT: aRmosavleT qristianobis araelinizebul xalxebs
am statiis Tavdapirveli mokle varianti (moxsenebis teqsti) daibeWda JurnalSi: burji erovnebisa (2004, 5).
1

92

Tavi daecvaT berZenTa Sefasebisagan, romelic antikurobisa da Suasaukuneebis yvelaze ti piuri opoziciis saxeliTaa cnobili: {Hllhne~ - bavrbaroi. es opozicia aramarto berZnebis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli kulturuli aRmatebulobis simbolo iyo, aramed berZnulTan SedarebiT am enebis funqciuri diferencirebis safrTxesac qmnida. miT umetes, rom amis precedenti ukve arsebobda qristianul dasavleTSi, sadac jer kidev qristianobis SemoRebamde kulturisa da urTierTobis enad aRiarebuli laTinuri umtkivneulod, yovelgvari garegani Zaldatanebis gareSe iqca dasavleTis erTiani eklesiis universalur enad. laTinuris amgvarma primatma, anu rogorc mas samarTlianad uwodeben, laTinuris spiritualurma imperalizmma da sakramentalurma kultma,2 ki mniSvnelovnad Seaferxa adgilobrivi nacionaluri enebis ganviTareba, maTi qceva samwerlobo enebad. rogorc cnobilia, enaTa amgvar funqciur diferenciacias legitimurobas aniWebda laTinur patristikaSi SemuSavebuli sami wminda enis, anu trilingvitas Teoria, romelic kacobriobis Tavdapirvel enas, ebrauls, sibrZnisa da mecnierebis enas, berZnuls da dasavleT romis imperiis sayovelTao enas, laTinurs, gamorCeul statuss aniWebda e. w. wminda argumentebis moSveliebiT. pirveli argumenti Tanabrad exeboda samive enas da gaxldaT is, rom qristes jvris cnobili warwera ebraulad berZnulad da laTinurad iyo Sesrulebuli. 3
Sdr. Hanna-Barbara Gerl 1985: Zwischen faktischer und numinoser Gltigkeit: Lorenzo Vallas Theorie vom Vorrang der lateinischen Sprache, in: Richard J. Schoeck (ed.): Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bononiensis. New-York, gv. 327-336, aq gv. 327. 3 ebraulis, rogorc kacobriobis Tavdapirveli enis, legitimacia jer kidev hieronimesTan gvxvdeba. igi miiCnevs, rom ebrauli yvela enis dedaa (Hieronymus, Commentarii in prophetas minores, in Sophoniam. ix. CCSL, t. 76, gv. 708), rom babilonis godlis mSeneblobamde, anu enaTa bunebrivi istoriis dasawyisamde, mxolod ebraul enaze laparakobdnen (Sdr. Hieronymus, Opera exegetica 1: Hebraicae quaestiones , ix. CCSL, t. 72, gv. 14). rac Seexeba ebraulis, berZnulisa da laTinuris, rogorc wminda enebis legitimacias qristes jvris samenovani warweris mixedviT, wyaroebSi igi VI saukunidan Cndeba. pirveli Zegli, romelic sami wminda enis primats aRiarebs, aris isidore sevilelis Txzuleba etimologiebi (Isidorus Hispalensis, Etymologiae IX , ed. M. Reydellet, Paris 1984, gv. 33): Tres sunt autem linguae sacrae: hebrea, greca, latina, quae toto orbe maxime excellunt. His enim tribus linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuit causa eius scripta. Vnde et propter obscurationem Sanctarum Scripturarum harum trium linguarum cognitio necessaria est, ut ad alteram recurratur dum siquam dubitationem nominis uel interpretationis sermo unius linguae adtulerit (arsebobs sami wminda ena, ebrauli, berZnuli da laTinuri, romlebic mTel msoflioSi yvelaze metad gamorCeulni arian. swored am sam enaze iqna dawerili pilates mier uflis jvarze misi ganaCeni. amis gamo, iseve rogorc wminda werilis gamomxatvelobiT saSualebaTa mifarulebis gamo, auciulebelia am sami enis codna, raTa meore enas mimarTo, Tuki erT enaze gamoTqma da interpretacia saeWvo Cans).
2

93

meore argumenti gansxvavebuli iyo TiTeuli enis SemTxvevaSi: asaki, rjuli (Leges, aetas) ebraulisTvis sibrZne da mecniereba (Sapiens) berZnulisTvis romaelTa sayovelTao Zalaufleba (Imperium Romanum) laTinurisTvis.4 berZnul-laTinuri patrologia eWvqveS ayenebda ebrauli da laTinuri enebis wmidaobis sabuTebs. igi samarTlianad Tvlida, rom laTinuri axalgazrda da Raribi enaa,5 ebrauli ki sakmaod viwrod SemosazRvruli erTobis, iudaizmis, identobis simboloa da ara qristianuli universalizmis. am konteqstSi igi SeiZleba aRqmul iqnas, rogorc qristes gziT gadalaxuli warsulis pativsacemi reliqti da amdenad, mas wminda enis ara realuri, aramed sapatio tituli SeiZleba ergos; 6 erTaderTi ena, romelsac ZaluZs srulyofilad gamoTqvas am religiis saidumlo, aris berZnuli, werda basili didi Tavis 214-e epistoleSi terenciusis mimarT: Peri; de; tou, o{ti uJpostasi kai; oujsiva ouj tautovn ejsti, kai; aujtoi, wJ nomivzw, uJpeshmhvnanto oiJ ajpo; th Duvsew ajdelfoi;,ejn oi| to; steno;n th eJautwn glwvtth uJforwvmenoi, to; th oujsiva o[noma th/ @Ellavdi fwnh/ paradedwvkasin.7 amgvari konkurenciis pirobebSi, roca TviT ebraulsa da laTinursac ki uWirdaT berZnulis realuri kulturuli avtoritetis gverdiT damkvidreba, gansakuTrebiT mwvaved idga aRmosavleT qristianobis xalxur enaTa berZnulTan TanasSdr. (Augustinus, In Iohannis Evangelium, CCSL 36, gv. 653): Hae quippe tres linguae ibi prae ceteris eminebant: hebraea propter Iudaeeos in Dei Lege gloriantes; graeca propter Gentium sapientes; latina propter Romanos multis ac pene omnibus jam tunc gentibus imperantes (es sami ena iq aRmatebuli iyo yvela sxva danarCenze, ebrauli, imitom rom ebraelebisTvis saamayoa rjulis qona [ebraul enaze], berZnuli, vinaidan berZnebs [brZeni adamianebi hyavT], da laTinuri, vinaidan romaelebi ukve maSin Zalian bevr, TiTqmis yvela xalxze batonobdnen). 5 laTinuris faqtobrivi Zalauflebis miuxedavad, Sua saukuneebis laTinurenovan patristikaSi sakmaod myaria azri imis Sesaxeb, rom ebraulTan da berZnulTan SedarebiT sakmaod axalgazrda laTinuri semantikur-gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis mixedviT Raribia. Sdr. (Hieronymus, Epistulae, Epistula 114, CSEL 55, gv. 395) Tibi enim meum sudauit ingenium et facundiam Graecam Latinae linguae uolui paupertate pensare. Neque vero, ut diserti interpretes faciunt, uerbum uerbo reddidi nec adnumeraui pecuniam, quam michi per partes dederas, sed pariter appendi, ut nihil desit ex sensibus, cum aliquid desit ex uerbis (SenTvis davSveri da msurda, rom berZnuli enis simdidre Rarib laTinur enaSi momeTavsebina). 6 am da sxva sakiTxebis analizi Sesabamisi berZnul-.laTinuri wyaroebis mimoxilviT ix. Gabriele Hille-Coates: Auffassungen von der Herkunft der Sprachen im Identifikationsfeld der lateinischen Sprache im westlichen Christentum des Mittelalters, in: Udo Schning (ed.): Internationalitt nationaler Literaturen (= Beitrge zum ersten Symposion des Gttinger Sonderforschungsbereichs 529). Gttingen 2000, pp. 129-147. 7 Basilius Caesariensis, Epistula 214 (PG 32, 789).
4

94

worobis sakiTxi. is faqti, rom es xalxuri enebi, kopturi, eTiopuri, qarTuli, somxuri, saeklesio slavuri, misionirebasTan erTad sakuTari damwerlobis mqone enebad iqcnen, veranairad ver aqarwylebda opozicias: {Hllhne~ - bavrbaroi. im udidesi kulturuli naxtomis miuxedavad, rasac damwerlobis Seqmna da saliteraturo tradiciebis dawyeba hqvia, realurad es enebi urTulesi problemis winaSe idgnen maT, SedarebiT naklebi gamocdilebis mqone enebs, srulyofilad da, rac mTavaria, originalis xatad da moqcevad (efrem mcire) unda gadmoeRoT filosofiasa da ritorikaSi gawaful berZnul enaze Seqmnili teqstebi. amgvar pirobebSi TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis es enebi or umTavres gzas irCevdnen: 1. isini ar uaryofdnen, rom maTi ena Raribia, uRonoa,8 magram maTTvis es aRiareba enis funqciuri sferoebis SezRudvas ki ar niSnavda, rogorc qristianul dasavleTSi,9 piriqiT, swored mSobliuri enis siRaribe ganapirobebda mweralmTargmnelTa swrafvas, intensiuri saliteraturo-mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobiT Raribi mSobliuri ena `gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjve~ (ioane petriwi) berZnulis Tanaswori gaexadaT. 2. amasTanave, es enebi cdilobdnen, sakuTari istoriuli warsulidan gamoeZebnaT wminda enebis badali argumentebi da amiT maTi Rirseuloba da berZnulTan maTi Tanasworuflebianoba daemtkicebinaT. winamdebare naSromSi am ukanasknels sakuTari istoriidan wminda enebis badali argumentebis gamoZebnas Sevexebi. esaa swored is saerTo niSani, romlis mixedviTac zemoT dasaxelebul teqstebs erT sibrtyeze ganvixilav. am TvalsazrisiT yvelaze meti saTqmeli sirielebs hqondaT, da vinaidan aRmosavleTis sxva xalxebTan erTad isinic opoziciis: {Hllhne~ - bavrbaroi meore nawilSi igulisxmebodnen, bunebrivia, aqtiurad kamaTobdnen wminda enebis argumentebis Sesaxeb da siriulisTvisac asaxelebdnen amave rangis `sabuTebs~. sirielTa mTavari samizne iyo pirveli argumenti, anu sam enaze Sesrulebuli qristes jvris warwera: ieso nazareveli
Sdr. Seiswave, rameTu orsaxe ars berZulad saxeli sulisa: fsiqi, romeli umetessa adgilsa samSnvelisa wil dadebul ars pavlesa Sina, da kualad pnevma, romeli-ese TT Tavadis sulisa arsebasa uwodian da wmidisaTs igive iTqumis. xolo qarTvelTa uRonoebisagan erTi saxeli aqus sulisa. (Targmanze darTuli komentari: A. 217, 322.r). 9 amis Sesaxeb ix. Nino Doborjginidze: Die Argumente gegen die Bibelbersetzung in die Volkssprache und ihre Nachwirkung auf die Entwicklung des Georgischen in den 10.-12. Jh., in: Winfried Boeder (ed.): Kaukasische Sprachprobleme. Beitrge zu den Kaukasistentagungen in Oldenburg 1995-1001 (= Caucasica Oldenburgensia 1), pp. 119-140.
8

95

mefe iudevelTa. VI saukunis anonimuri Txzuleba ganZeulobaTa gamoqvabuli, romelic efrem asurs miewereba da Semonaxulia siriuli da arabuli versiebiT, eWvqveS ayenebs am arguments da wers: ebraulad, berZnulad da laTinurad Sesrulebuli es warwera sulac ar metyvelebs am enebis sasargeblod, piriqiT, igi aris niSani imisa, rom am xalxebs wili miuZRviT mesiis jvarcmaSi: amas ganasaxierebs herode berZeni, kaifa ebraeli da pilate romaeli. samarTliania, rom siriuli ena araa maT Soris, vinaidan sirielebs araviTari brali ar udevT am tragediaSi. amis mowmea edesis mefe avgarozi, romelsac surda Sesuliyo ierusalimSi da daengria igi im mizeziT, rom ebraelebma jvars acves mesia.10 sirielebi ebrauli enis siwmindis argumentsac (ebrauli Tavdapirveli enaa) uwevdnen konkurencias da amtkicebdnen, rom ara ebrauli, aramed swored siriulia upirvelesi ena. am sakiTxebs dawvrilebiT mimoixilavs meeqvse saukunis aRmosavleT mesopotamieli ucnobi avtoris Txzuleba. Sdr. pirveli ena, romliTac RmerTi adamis modgmas elaparakeboda, iyo sufTa da daxvewili siriuli. ebrauli ar ekuTvnis babilonis godolis mSeneblobis Semdeg ganyofil samocdaaT idiomaTa ricxvs, vinaidan igi pirvelad abraamma Semoitana, rogorc arameulisa da qanaanurisagan Seqmnili idioma. amitomac vambobT Cven, rom ebrauli sxvadasxva enebisagan Sedgenili xelovnuri enaa. rac Seexeba sakuTriv RmerTis enas, igi, ra Tqma unda, siriuli ar yofila, aramed zeadamianuri idioma iyo, ena, romliTac RmerTi angelozebs elaparakeboda.11 Tvalsazrisi, rom swored siriulia kacobriobis Tavdapirveli ena, kargad iyo cnobili aRmosavleTis xalxTa,12 maT
10 Carl Bezold, Die Schatzhhle. Eine Sammlung biblischer Geschichten aus dem sechsten Jahrhundert jemals Ephraem Syrus zugeschrieben, syrischer Text und arabische Version mit deutscher bersetzung und Anmerkungen. Neudruck der Ausgabe Leipzig 1883-1888. Amsterdam, gv. 29, 71. 11 A. Borst, 1957: Der Turmbau von Babel, Stuttgart, t. 1, gv. 263. 12 aRmosavleT qristianuli samyaros adgilobrivi enebis damkvidrebisa da berZnulTan maTi urTierTobis sakiTxebs umniSvnelovanesi Sromebi uZRvna v. boederma. aq davasaxeleb zogierT maTgans: Boeder, Winfried: Die georgischen Mnche auf dem Berge Athos und die Geschichte der georgischen Schriftsprache, Jurnali: bedi qarTlisa 41 (1983): 85-95; misive: Identitt und Universalitt: Volkssprache und Schriftsprache in den Lndern des alten christlichen Orients, Georgica 17 (1994): 66-84; misive: Sprachen und Nationen im Raum des Kaukasus, in: G. Hentschel , ber Muttersprachen und Vaterlnder. Zur Entwicklung von Standardsprachen und Nationen in Europa. Frankfurt am Main: Lang (ed.) 1997: 183-209; misive: Sprache und Identitt in der Geschichte der Georgier, in: B. Schrade - Th. Ahbe (edd.), Georgien im Spigel seiner Kultur und Geschichte 1998: 68-81. am SromebiT didad davalebulia yvela qarTveli avtori, vinc met-naklebad Seexo am sakiTxebs. swored mis SromebSi wamoWrilma problematikam, mis mier dasmulma uaRresad saintereso kiTxvebma ganapiroba Cemi daintereseba am sakiTxebiT. wlebis ganmavlobaSi masTan nayofieri TanamSromlobis, Zveli qarTuli teqstebis germanulad Targmnasa da interpretaciaSi uangaro daxmarebisTvis minda gulwrfeli madloba gadavuxado baton vinfrids.

96

Soris qarTvelebis, religiur istoriografiaSi. vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreba dawvrilebiT aRwers babilonis godlis ambebs da Tavdapirveli enis daSlas sxvadasxva enebad: ... da eneba, raTa aRvides cad da ixilnes myofni cisani. xolo viTarca ganvlo sazRuari haerisa da Sevida sazRuarsa varskulavTasa, verRara uZlebdes saqmed moqmedni, rameTu dadneboda oqro da vecxli. ... da esma muniT sazraxavi SvidTa gundTa zecisaTa, romlisagan Sesulbes adamiani. da iqmna yoveli kaci TTo naTesavi metyuel TTo enasa da arRara erCdes urTierTas pirsa moyusisa Tsisa da warvides. da dauteves yovelTa qalaqi da warvides. da dautevna hindurad mzraxvalni hindoeTs, sindni sindeTs, hromni hroms, berZenni saberZneTs, ag da magug magugeTs, sparsni sparseTs. xolo pirveli ena asurebri iyo13 qarTuli istoriografia bibliuri samocdaTormeti (iudaisturi tradiciis mixedviT samocdaaTi) enis konteqstSic axsenebs siriuls, rogorc enaTa sawyiss. Sdr. Semokrbes yovelni tomni noesni da Svilni, sem qam da iafeT da arfagsad da faleg da iovaT da warvides aRmosavliT da hpoves veli ... da daeSennes mun. da iyo sityua maTi erT da /erTsa/ enasa zraxvides adamisiTgan vidre mun dRedmde, enasa asurulsa friad vrcelsa ... da ars igi mefe yovlisa enisa. da mieriTgan ganeyo werili pirvel, romelsa werdes, ebraul, xolo SerTo ena, romelica ars queyanasa zeda. asuriT gamo iswaves; aramed igi sZlevs yovelsa enasa, da werili asurTa da sarkinozTa marjueniT daiwyebis da marcxeniT daesrulebis. xolo berZenTa da romTa wera waRmarT ars. ... xolo dReTa eberasTa, raJams aRaSenes godoli babilovans, mun Seirivnes enani da ganibnivnes yovelni pirsa queyanisasa. da ewoda amisTs adgilsa mas babilovani. da Semdgomad ganyofasa enaTasa mokuda ebera... da dafles ZeTa misTa ragav da seqora sofelsa, romelsa ewoda mexlin, ... da mieriTgan iqmna queyana sameocdaaT enaTa da sameocdaaT mTavrad. da yovelsa enasa daadgines mefe.14 sirielebi arc mecnierebiTa da sibrZniT wminda enad gamorCeul berZnulTan darCenilan valSi da amayad acxadebdnen, rom berZnebma sibrZnisa da mecnierebis Tavi da Tavi anbani finikielebisagan iswavles, e.i. garkveulwilad
juanSeri, vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreba, ix. s. yauxCiSvili, qarTlis cxovreba I, Tbilisi 1955, gv. 162-163. 14 eqvTime TayaiSvili: qarTlis cxovreba. mariam dedoflis varianti. damateba I: Tqumuli wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa efremisi, Targmani dabadebisaTs cisa da queyanisa da adamisTs, Tbilisi 1906, gv. 812-813.
13

97

swored sirielebisagan arian davalebulni.15 maTi TqmiT, am argumentebis mixedviT siriuli ufro wmindac kia, vidre ebrauli, berZnuli an sakmaod saeWvo da araprestiJuli argumentiT (Imperium Romanum) gamorCeuli laTinuri. istoriuli argumentebiT Tavisi gamorCeulobis damtkicebas cdilobdnen aRmosavleT qristianobis sxva enebic, maT Soris, kopturi, qarTuli, somxuri da saeklesio slavuri. is faqti, rom mTel arabul samyaroSi qristianoba ara adgilobriv arabul enebze, aramed kopturad gavrcelda, kopturs mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeboda saerTo aRmosavluri modelisgan. kopturma am sivrceSi laTinuris msgavsi religiis sayovelTao enis funqcia Seasrula, riTac igi misionirebis Tavdapirvel wess agrZelebda. kopturis msgavsi sayovelTao funqcia hqonda slavur samyaroSi saeklesio slavurs, romelic bejiTad cdilobda daecva misi ufleba, yofiliyo bibliis Targmanis, liturgiisa da saerTod, religiis ena.16 mSobliuri enis gansakuTrebulobisa da siwmindis argumentebs sagangebod eZebdnen somexi avtorebic mose xorenels didi sasomxeTis istoria babilonis godlis mSeneblobidan da enaTa da xalxTa ganyofis ambebidan gamohyavs. misi TqmiT, somexi xalxis mamamTavari, bibliuri Togarmas Ze, goliaTi haiki, babilonis godlis TanamaSenebeli iyo. haikma gaaTavisufla Tavisi xalxi belnimrodis monobisagan da namdvili samSoblosken wamoiyvana. misi Svili, armenaki, somexi xalxis saxelmdebelia. mose xorenelis am siuJets dabeJiTebiT imeorebs momdevno periodis somxuri saistorio mwerloba da mas araerT saintereso istorias umatebs. IX-X saukuneebis somexi mwerali, kaTolikosi iovane VI (835-925), XII saukunis
Sdr. Vor allem aber stellt sich die Frage, warum die Volkssprache ber die verstndliche, wenn auch am lateinischen Westen gemessen keineswegs selbstverstndliche Praxis hinaus ein solches Gewicht bekam: Was bringt z. B. Theodoret aus Antiocheia im 5. Jh. dazu, zu betonen, dass die Wahrheit nicht nur bei den Hellenen, sondern auch bei den Barbaren zu suchen sei? Was veranlat ihn, die besondere Dignitt des Orients historisch abzuleiten? Z.B. festzustellen, dass die Griechen das Alphabet schlielich von den Phniziern haben, also gewissermaen aus Syrien, und vor allem: dass das Syrische und nicht etwa das Hebrische die lteste und erhabenste Sprache der Menschheit sei (Boeder 1983: 91) 16 Sdr. slavi xalxis misionerebis, konstantinesa da kiriles cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT: `romisken mimavali kirile veneciaSi gaCerda. masTan mividnen episkoposebi, mRvdlebi da monazvnebi. isini mas sayvedurobdnen, rom man [kirilem] slavebs sakuTari damwerloba da sakuTar enaze liturgia Seuqmna, maSin roca mxolod sam enaze, ebraulad, berZnulad da laTinurad, aris nebadarTuli liturgiis Catareba. am braldebaze kirile pasuxobs: nuTu ar grcxveniaT, mxolod sam enas rom aRiarebT?... Cven xom vicnobT bevr sxva xalxs, romelTac damwerloba aqvT da RmerTs adideben sakuTar enaze. aseTebi arian: somxebi, abasgebi, qarTvelebi [iberebi], sugdebi, goTebi... da sxva mravali~ (ix. Schtz, Joseph 1985: Die Lehrer der Slaven Kyrill und Method. gv. 86).
15

98

cnobili somexi istorikosi, vardan arvelci, somxuri enis warmoSobas uSualod ukavSireben babilonSi Tavdapirveli enis daSlas da xotbas asxams mas, rogorc kacobriobis enaTa gvirgvins. Sdr. amis Sedegad (Tavdapirveli enis daSla igulisxmeba) mravali sikeTe iqmna, [..] pirveli uxeSi enisagan warmoiqmna rbili elinTa [ena], magari romaelTa, mrisxane hunTa, mvedrebeli asurTa, mravalferovani sparsTa, lamazi alanTa, sasacilo guTTa, yru egvi ptelTa, JRurtula hindoTa, yovlad Semkuli da sasiamovno somexTa.17 sasomxeTisa da somxuri enis ganxilva bibliuri wminda istoriisa da Tavdapirveli enis bunebriv enebad dayofis konteqstSi iyo is safuZveli, romelsac axal dromde eyrdnoboda somxuri istoriografia da sakuTari enis gamorCeulobis argumentad asaxelebda: goliaTma haikma somxeTis samefo iq daaarsa, sadac warRvnis Semdeg noes kidobani daeSva miwaze, amdenad, somxurma kacobriobis mamamTavris, noes ena Semoinaxa.18am argumentiT igi iseTive gamorCeuli da wmindaa, rogorc ebrauli, berZnuli an laTinuri. babilonisdroindel ambebTan uSualo kavSirSi ganixilavs am sakiTxebs qarTuli istoriografiac. qarTlosis mama, Targamosi, iyo kaci gmiri. da Semdgomad ganyofisa enaTasa, odes aRaSenes babilons godoli, da ganeyvnes mun enani da ganibnines muniT yovelsa queyanasa. da warmovida ese Targamos naTesaviTurT misiT, da daemkdra orTa mTaTa Sua kacTSeuvalTa, araratsa da masissa.19 aq kidev bevri argumentis damowmeba SeiZleboda Zveli bulgarulisa Tu saeklesio slavuris istoriidan im saerTo aRmosavlur-qristianuli konteqstis saCveneblad, romelSic unda Seqmniliyo iovane zosimes qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa an vardan arvelcis somxuri enis qeba.20 iovane zosimes mier qarTulis sasargeblod qebaSi gamoTqmuli argumentis uaRresad saintereso interpretacias gvTavazobs v. boederi zemoT dasaxelebul statiaSi (ix. Boeder 1998). marTlac sakmaod marjved da moxerxebulad gamoiyureba is gza, rac zosimem
vardan arvelci, msoflio istoria. Zveli somxuridan Targmnes ekaterine kvaWantiraZem da nodar SoSiaSvilma. Sesavali, komentarebi da saZieblebi daurTo ekaterine kvaWantiraZem, Tbilisi 2002, gv. 40. 18 Sdr. Michael Chamich, History of Armenia. I. 1827, Calcutta, gv. 4-10. 19 leonti mroveli, cxovreba mefeTa, s. yauxCiSvili, qarTlis cxovreba, I, Tbilisi 1955, gv. 14. 20 orive maTgans exeba T. gamyreliZe statiaSi: mwignobroba qarTuli (Dedicatio, mariam lorTqifaniZisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tbilisi 2001, gv. 420-429), T. bolqvaZe monografiaSi: ideologizebuli Rirebulebebi Tbilisi 2005, gv. 74-89.
17

99

airCia: man wminda enebis badali argumenti qarTulisaTvis saqarTvelos da Sesabamisad qarTuli enis istoriidan ki ar moitana, aramed esxatologiuri momavlidan: Tu Tavdapirveloba ebraulisTvis misi siwmindis argumentia, qarTulisTvis amis badal argumentad unda CaiTvalos is, rom swored qarTuli iqneba gankiTxvis da Sesabamisad, kacobriobis ukanaskneli ena. Tu Tavisi pirveli sityva kacobriobam ebraulad warmoTqva da amiT es ena wmindadaa aRiarebuli, ukanaskneli ena swored qarTuli iqneba. cota uxeSad rom vTqvaT, es argumenti sakmaod daculia da mouxelTebeli; marTalia, msjelobiT misi dasabuTeba ver moxerxdeba, magram sanam damtkiceba ver moxerxdeba, misi uaryofac SeuZlebelia. ase gamoiyureba zogadad is saerTo-aRmosavluri konteqsti, romelSic es nawarmoebi unda daweriliyo da romelic, rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, sulac ar xsnis mis Tavsatex qveteqstebs da alegoriebs, romelTa interpretaciasac, albaT, momavalSic araerTgzis miubrundeba qarTuli filologiuri mecniereba.

Nino Doborjginidze

Praise and Glory of Georgian Language in the Context of Eastern Christian Holy Poetry
The article deals with the Eastern Christian world national literatures, in the context of which Iovane Zosimes Praise and glory of Georgian language had to be written. The attempt of Eastern peoples local languages to find out in their own histories such arguments and proofs that would legitimize less experienced and less traditional folk languages is shown on the examples of Syrian, Armenian, church Slavonic and Georgian sources.

100

jo grigo l joxaZe

semiotikuri midgoma da istoria istoriis semiotikuri Seswavla, upirvelesad, gamoirCeva wyaros teqstisadmi gansxvavebuli midgomiT. is ukuagdebs leopold rankes cnobil formulas, rom istorikosis amocana warsulis aRdgenaa _ ise, rogorc es sinamdvileSi iyo. istorikosis mdgomareobas is arTulebs, rom mas saqme ara aqvs pirvelad faqtebTan. istorikosi dacilebulia realurad momxdar movlenas. mis winaSe mxolod teqstebia, daSifruli teqstebi. amitom, lotmanis azriT, aucilebelia im kodisa Tu kodebis krebulis rekonstruqcia, romlebiTac sargeblobda teqstis Semqmneli. Semdeg saWiroa am kodis korelacia im kodebTan, romlebiTac sargeblobs mkvlevari. Tumc, aqac Cndeba problema: wyaros avtori aRsawer obieqts sxvadasxva movlenebidan irCevs. Semdeg ki mas aniWebs upiratesobas, romelic danarCenebze mniSvnelovnad miaCnia. ra gamosavali arsebobs? lotmanis azriT, wyaros avtoris samyarosa da istorikos-interpretatoris samyaros struqturebs Soris unda moinaxos gansxvavebani, romlebic maqsimalurad unda gamoikveTos, gaSiSvldes... es gansxvavebani ise unda aRiweros da gacnobierdes, rogorc es xdeba erTi enidan meoreze gadasvlisas. am TvalsazrisiT, istoria kulturis mexsiere101

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistent-profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: XIII_XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba da istoriuli esseebi. interesebis sfero: eklesiisa da religiis istoria da istoriuli anTropologiis problemebi.

baa, rac imas niSnavs, rom is ara mxolod warsulis nakvalevia, aramed _ awmyos aqtiuri meqanizmic. es procesi sicarieleSi ar mimdinareobs: dialogis orive monawile sxva koliziebSic partniorebi arian; orive Riaa imisTvis, rom garedan sxva teqstebma SeaRwion maTSi. teqstebi ki, rogorc cnobilia, yovelTvis gulisxmoben axalaxal interpretaciebs. amgvarad, istoriisadmi semiotikuri midgoma, zogadTeoriulad, didad emsgavseba hermenevtikul da postmodernul paradigmas: movlena _ misi asaxva wyaroSi _ Tanamedrovis mier am wyaros wakiTxva _ istorikos-interpretatoris mier wyaros Seswavla. praqtikuli mniSvnelobiT, semiotika gvTavazobs, gamovavlinoT warsulis simboloebi da kodebi, gadaviyvanoT isini Tanamedrove niSnebis sistemaSi da ase CavwvdeT wyaros arss. b. uspenskis SeniSvniT, istoriisadmi semiotikur-kulturuli midgoma gulisxmobs istoriuli procesis monawileTa Tvalsazrisze dayrdnobas: mniSvnelovnad unda miviCnioT is, rac maTi azriTaa mniSvnelovani anu aucilebelia im subieqturi motivebis aRdgena, romlebic iwvevs istoriuli personaJebis qmedebas. es, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs SexedulebaTa im sistemis aRdgenasac, romelic ganapirobebs rogorc ama Tu im movlenis aRqmas, ise _ reaqcias am movlenebze. amrigad, semiotikas istoria esaxeba komunikaciis procesad, romlis drosac mudmivad moedineba axali informacia da es ganapirobebs sazogadoebrivi adresatis (sociumis) sapasuxo reaqcias. am SemTxvevaSi, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, vin aris adresanti, informaciis gamomgzavni. es SeiZleba iyos sociumis esa Tu is wevri (istoriuli moRvawe). aseT dros istoriuli procesi sociumsa da individs Soris komunikaciaa. sxva SemTxvevebSi, SeiZleba saqme gvqondes movlenaze reaqciasTan, romelsac gare Zalebi ganapirobeben. amgvarad, istoriuli procesi SeiZleba warmovidginoT sociumisa da individis, sociumisa da RmerTis, sociumisa da bediswerisa da a.S. komunikaciad. yvela am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor gaiazreba Sesabamisi movlena, rogor fasdeba igi sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi. aq kodis rols asrulebs erTgvari ena, romelic gansazRvravs ama Tu im faqtis Sesabamis istoriul-kulturul konteqstSi aRqmas. amgvarad, movlenas maSin eniWeba mniSvneloba, roca movlenis teqsts sociumi kiTxulobs. am Sesabamisi enis arseboba, erTi mxriv, aerTianebs mocemul sociums, saSualebas iZleva, sociumi koleqtiur pirovnebad warmovidginoT da momxdar movlenebze misi
102

wevrebis metnaklebad erTnair reaqcias velodoT. meore mxriv, es ena organizebuls qmnis TviT informacias, adgens ama Tu im faqtis mniSvnelobas da urTierTkavSirs: is, rac am eniT ar aRiwereba, TiTqos, saerTod ar aRiqmeba sazogadoebrivi adresatis mier, misi TvalTaxedvis miRma rCeba. droTa ganmavlobaSi mocemuli sazogadoebis ena, bunebrivia, icvleba. erTi da igive obieqturi faqtebi, romlebic realuri movlenis teqsts Seadgenen, SesaZloa, sxvadasxvagvari interpretaciiT gadavidnen sxvadasxva enebze _ Sesabamisi sociumis enazec da sxva romelime enazec, romelic gansxvavebul sivrcesa da dros ekuTvnis: kerZod, is, rac mniSvnelovania mocemuli epoqisa da kulturuli arealisaTvis, SesaZloa, sruliad umniSvnelo aRmoCndes sxva kulturul-istoriuli arealis SexedulebaTa sistemaSi an _ piriqiT. amasTan, aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom swored im sociumis SexedulebaTa sistema, romelic sazogadoebriv adresatad gvevlineba, gansazRvravs movlenis mimdinareobis uSualo meqanizms anu istoriul process, rogorc aseTs. aseTia istoriuli procesis komunikaciurobis modeli. is semiotikuria imdenad, ramdenadac agebulia metyvelebis anu bunebriv enaze komunikaciis analogiiT. aq amosavalia enis cneba, romelic gaigeba teqstebis warmoSobis meqanizmad. ena gansazRvravs mniSvnelovani faqtebis SerCevas; ama Tu im movlenis semantikuri statusi ganisazRvreba misi adgiliT sistemaSi (enaSi), misi urTierTobiT amave enis sxva erTeulebTan. es modeli saSualebas gvaZlevs avxsnaT movlenis mimdinareoba droSi, Tumc, mas ar ZaluZs TviTon istoriis axsna: istoria xom upirvelesad warsulis gaazreba, gacnobierebaa! Tu movlena wyaroSi aRweril sinamdvileSi droiTi Tanmimdevrobis dacviT anu warsulidan awmyosken mimdinareobs, istoriuli cnobiereba gulisxmobs azris sapirispiro mdinarebas: awmyodan warsulisken. am TvalsazrisiT, istoriuli cnobiereba aucileblad gulisxmobs semioziss; amgvarad, istoriis semiotikuri gageba unda daefuZnos ara mxolod enis semiotikas, aramed _ niSnis semiotikasac anu mecnierebis im sferos, romlisTvisac pirveladi swored niSnis cnebaa. istoria Tavisi bunebiT semioturia im TvalsazrisiT, rom is gulisxmobs sinamdvilis gansazRvrul semiotizebas _ araniSnis _ niSnad, araistoriis _ istoriad qcevas. istoriis semiozisi, Tavis mxriv, or aucilebel pirobas gulisxmobs: 1. warsulis ama Tu im movlenis droiTi TanmimdevrobiT ganlagebas anu drois faqtoris Semotanas; 2. movlenaTa Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris damyarebas anu mizezobriobis faqtoris Semotanas;
103

es pirobebi uzrunvelyofs istoriis semioziss. Tu pirvel maTgans ar gaviTvaliswinebT, saqme gveqneba miTologiur, maradiul drosTan; xolo Tu meore pirobas davarRvevT, istoriuli aRwera ubralo qronologiur an genealogiur Tanmimdevrobad gadaiqceva. Tanac, es orive faqtori istoriul warmodgenaSi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba: marTlac, mizezis mikvleva, romelic drois miRmaa, axasiaTebs kosmologiur da ara _ istoriul aRweras! esa Tu is movlena istoriul Rirebulebas mxolod maSin iZens, roca am pirobebs akmayofilebs _ monawileobs droiT da mizez-Sedegobriv urTierTobebSi. dro roca romelime movlena misi Tanamedroveebis, istoriuli procesis monawileTa mier istoriisaTvis Rirebulad aRiqmeba, roca mas istoriuli faqtis mniSvneloba eniWeba, maSin winare movlenebic erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba. SesaZloa, adre es movlenebi amgvarad sulac ar gagveazrebina. amrigad, awmyos poziciidan SeirCeva da gaiazreba warsulis movlenebi _ radganac maTi xsovna rCeba koleqtiur cnobierebaSi. amasTan erTad, warsuli yalibdeba awmyos perspeqtivaSi wakiTxul teqstad. semiotikurad miCneuli movlenebi saSualebas gvaZlevs, davinaxoT istoria, ganvalagoT winare movlenebi istoriuli TanmimdevrobiT. es is realuri codna ki ar aris, romelic TandaTanobiT grovdeba droSi, aramed _ urTierTobebi mizez-Sedegobrivad ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. SemdegSi axali movlenebi moxdeba, romlebic istoriul gamocdilebas axleburad waikiTxavs, axleburad Seafasebs. amgvarad, cvalebadi awmyos kvalobaze warsulic xelaxla gaiazreba. am TvalsazrisiT, istoria awmyosa da warsulis TamaSia. Tavis mxriv, istoriuli gamocdileba _ warsulis mravalgvari gaazreba _ bunebrivad axdens gavlenas istoriis momavalze. aqedan gamomdinare, sociumi, rogorc koleqtiuri pirovneba, qmnis momavlis programas, gegmavs Tavis Semdgom moRvaweobas. Sesabamisad, istoriis aRqma iqceva istoriis enis evoluciis erT-erT ZiriTad faqtorad. istoriuli procesi rekursiul svlaTa Tanmimdevrobaa: awmyodan warsulisken, warsulidan momavlisken da a.S. is awmyosa da warsulis TamaSia, roca warsuli ganixileba awmyos aqtualur movlenaTa perspeqtivaSi da amave dros, procesis mimarTulebas gansazRvravs. esaa istoriisadmi semiotikuri midgomis arsi.

104

da aw warsuli da awmyo istoria warsuls Seiswavlis. warsuli isaa, rac axla ar aris (axlandel sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs), magram isicaa, raSic darwmunebulni varT, rom adre iyo (gansxvavebul, warsulis sinamdvileSi arsebobda). imis Tqma warsulze, rom is iyo, imis Tqmas udris, rom is aris im sinamdvileSi, romelic uSualo aRqmas ar eqvemdebareba. imisTvis, rom warsuli istoriuli Seswavlisa da kvlevis sagnad vaqcioT, is swored rom warsulad (wasulad), awmyosgan dacilebul, sxva droiT planTan, sxva droiT sinamdvilesTan dakavSirebulad unda gaviazroT. amrigad, istoriuli warsuli dacilebuli, gaucxoebuli warsulia. awmyosgan gaucxoebis procesi gulisxmobs warsulis semiotizebas, roca xdeba warsulis, rogorc teqstis organizeba; teqstisa, romelic awmyos perspeqtivaSi ikiTxeba. istoria akavSirebs warsulsa da awmyos, rogorc or gansxvavebul, sxvadasxva droiT plans mikuTvnebul sinamdviles. istorias saqme aqvs sizmrisebr, miRmur realobasTan, magram am SemTxvevaSi miRmuroba vlindeba ara sivrceSi, aramed _ droSi. warsuli ar ukavSirdeba grZnobismier aRqmas, magram awmyosTan gaSualebulad maincaa dakavSirebuli _ is stovebs kvals awmyoSi, rogorc subieqtur gancdebSi (individualur an koleqtiur mexsierebaSi), ise _ obieqtur faqtebSi, romlebic warsulis movlenebis Sedegebad aRiqmeba. kvlevisas swored es gaSualebuli aRqma semiotizdeba: subieqturica da obieqturic warmogvidgeba, rogorc sxva yofis, awmyosgan dacilebuli sinamdvilis niSnebi. radgan istoriuli warsuli ar gveZleva konkretul gamocdilebaSi, mas esaWiroeba gaSifrva da rekonstruqcia. radgan warsuli gansxvavebul gamocdilebas ganekuTvneba, zogjer gvaeWvebs TviT misi arsebobac ki: xandaxan mas miTsac vuwodebT. radgan warsulis Wvreta ar ZalgviZs, warsulis sakiTxi rwmenis sakiTxad anu uxilavis cxadyofad warmogvidgeba. ai, istoriis aRqmisTvis saWiro gasaRebi. isto riuli aRqma aR erTmaneTisgan unda ganvasxvaoT warsulis istoriuli da kosmologiuri aRqma. istoriuli cnobiereba organizebas uwevs warsulis movlenebis mizez-Sedegobriv matricaSi ganlagebas. warsulis movlenebis Tanmimdevroba aq niSnavs Sedegs sxva, ufro adreuli movlenebisa.
105

amgvarad, istoriuli Semecneba yovelTvis gvagzavnis raRac winaresTan, oRond _ ara pirvelsawyisTan. Tavis mxriv, es winare movlenebic ufro winare movlenebs ukavSirebs raRac pirvelsawyiss, sawyis mdgomareobas, romelic arasodes qreba im mniSvnelobiT, rom misi emanacia mudmivad grZeldeba. warsulis aRqmis gaazrebis orive ti pi gansazRvravs awmyos aRqmas. istoriuli Semecnebis farglebSi, roca awmyoze gadmodis drois istoriuli gancda, momxdari movlenebi fasdeba mocemul momentSi danaxuli momavlis mniSvnelobiT: axlandeli movlena mizez-Sedegobrivad ukavSirdeba momavlis movlenas da Sesabamisad, fasdeba misi SesaZlo SedegiTurT. rac ufro mniSvnelovania Sedegi, miT metad vfiqrobT, rom movlenac mniSvnelovani iyo. uSedego movlena TviT movlenasac ukargavs fass. amgvarad, movlenis mniSvneloba ganisazRvreba misi proeqciiT momavalze. axlandeli movlenis semiotikur statuss ganapirobebs is, rom igi ganixileba mizezad, romelmac TiTqos ganapiroba movlenis Semdgomi ganviTareba. Tumc, momavali Cven ar gveqvemdebareba da ar SeiZleba vicodeT ama Tu im movlenis Sedegi _ Cven mxolod is ZalgviZs, rom vivaraudoT. Cveni reaqcia ganisazRvreba ara obieqturi, aramed _ subieqturi faqtorebiT, ara saqmis arsiT, aramed _ Cveni warmodgeniT mizez-Sedegobriobaze. aR kosmo logiur i aRqma kosmologiuri cnobierebiT, roca awmyoze gadmodis drois kosmologiuri gancda, momxdari movlena mxolod imdenadaa mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac Seesabameba ara momavlis, aramed _ warsulis mdgomareobas: axlandeli movlena warmogvidgeba pirvelsawyisi warsulis anareklad anu awmyo fasdeba ara momavlis, aramed _ warsulis movlenebiT. awmyoSi ganiWvriteba ara imdenad nawinaswarmetyvelebi momavali, ramdenadac _ sawyisi mdgomareoba. awmyos movlenebis semiotikuri statusi imiT ganisazRvreba, rom maT ganvixilavT ara mizezad, aramed _ Sedegad, radgan maTi bedi pirvelsawyisma mdgomareobam ganapiroba. Tu awmyos movlena ukavSirdeba momavals, es xdeba ara mizez-Sedegobrivad, aramed _ simbolurad. kosmologiuri cnobiereba erTmaneTs awmyos da momavals ki ar ukavSirebs, aramed, upirvelesad, pirvelsawyis mdgomareobas, aTvlis wertils ukavSirebs rogorc awmyos, ise _ momavals. awmyo da momavali erTmaneTs uSualod ki ar ukavSirdeba, aramed _ gaSualebulad, sawyisi, integraluri da yovlismomcveli mdgomareobis gavliT.
106

am gagebiT, awmyos movlenebi ar Soben momavals, magram SesaZloa maTi aRqma, rogorc _ momavlis winaswarmetyvelebisa. is, rac awmyoSi xdeba da is, rac momavalSi moxdeba, erTi da imave sawyisi mdgomareobis anareklad, niSnebad, simbolur warmosaxvad gvevlineba. kavSiri am niSnebs Soris SeniRbulia, daSifrulia samyaros kodSi. Tu viciT es kodi, Cven ZalgviZs awmyos movleniT momavlis winaswarmetyveleba. am dros vxelmZRvanelobT ara profanuli gamocdilebiT, aramed samyaroze kosmologiuri SexedulebiT. awmyo warsulis anareklia da momavlis winaswarmetyveleba. drois aRqmis istoriuli da kosmologiuri modelebi abstraqtulia, romelTa Tanaarseboba realur gamocdilebaSi dasaSvebia. Cveulebriv, istoriuli modeli realizdeba sabunebismetyvelo-samecniero SexedulebebSi, kosmologiuri _ religiurSi. es pirdapir miemarTeba individualur da koleqtiur cnobierebas, pirovnebaTa gansxvavebul ti pebs, gansxvavebul kulturebs. gaaCnia, romel da rogor aRqmaze keTdeba aqcenti. kosmologiuri da istoriuli cnobiereba sWvivis qristianul dogmatikaSi. qriste, rogorc RmerTkaci, erTdroulad miekuTvneba rogorc kosmologiur sawyiss, ise _ istoriul process. igi Ze RmerTicaa da logosic, romelic pirvelad iyo. TviTonaa dasawyisic da dasasrulic. mrwamsis mixedviT, is iSva mama RmerTisagan uwinares yovelTa saukuneTa. is abraamamde iyo da a.S... amasTan, qristes gankaceba _ dabadebidan vidre jvarze gakvramde _ Seesabameba movlenaTa istoriul ganviTarebas. es istoriuloba, saxarebiseuli movlenebis droiTi dakonkreteba sagangebodaa xazgasmuli mrwamsSi, naxsenebia pilate da a.S. istoriulisa da kosmologiuris, maradiulisa da droebiTis Sefardeba princi puli xasiaTisaa _ is amJRavnebs qristes RvTaebriv da adamianur bunebas. amasTan, Tu kosmologiuri cnobiereba RvTaebriv sawyiss Seesabameba, istoriuli adamianurs miemarTeba. istoriuli movlenebi kosmologiuradac mniSvnelovania, isini moaswaveben kacobriobis axali eris dasawyiss. amave dros, am kulminaciis gaTvaliswinebiT unda davinaxoT da gavacnobieroT yvela winare movlenac. es gvaaxlovebs warsulis semiotikur gancdasTan. asea Zvel aRTqmaSic, roca iq qristes winasaxe da winaremovlenebi iZebneba. amiT, kosmologiuri sawyisis movlenebi ukavSirdeba istoriul process. qristes gankaceba istoriis gaazrebaSi gansazRvravs drois ormag aRqmas, istoriuli procesis ormag perspeqtivas, roca procesi kulminacias eTanadeba.

107

mo mava li momavlis aRqma sruliad gansxvavebulia. momavals mxolod gonebiT Tu mivwvdebiT. awmyoc da warsulic individualuri gamocdilebiT gveZleva. momavali metafizikuria. roca samomavlo Sexedulebebs vaviTarebT, awmyosa da warsulis aRqmis gamocdilebas veyrdnobiT: erTi mxriv, awmyo aRiqmeba warsulis perspeqtivaSi da gaigeba, rogorc warsulidan warmoqmnili. am Sexedulebam, SesaZloa, gansazRvros momavlis aRqma. radgan momavali uSualo gamocdilebiT ar gveZleva, ar viciT, ra moxdeba momavalSi _ Cven mxolod varaudi SegviZlia. Tumc, is ki viciT, rom Tavis droze ar iyo arc awmyo da amdenad, axlandeli awmyo momavalia uwindel warsulTan SedarebiT, romelic maSin awmyo iyo. erTi sityviT, awmyo warsulad gveevlineba jer ararsebul momavalTan SedarebiT _ sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, is iqceva warsulad, roca momavali dadgeba. amgvarad viRebT kidev erT silogizms: awmyo momavalia warsulSi da warsuli _ momavalSi. am gagebiT, momavali is droa, romelic ar aris: momavali isaa, rac awmyodan iSveba imgvaradve, rogorc awmyo warmoiSva warsulidan. es dro jer unda gaCndes, movides, xolo maSin, roca es moxdeba, is iqneba ara momavali, aramed _ awmyo. amgvarad, momavlis gagebas eZleva drois mdinarebis evoluciuri, perspeqtiuli xasiaTi, romelic gansazRvravs Sexedulebas istoriul procesze. es Sexeduleba Tavsdeba drois aRqmis istoriul modelSi. warsuli da momavali araTanasworia (araizomorfulia) egzistenciuri mniSvnelobiT: warsuli isaa, rac Tavis droze arsebobda, xolo momavalma jer kidev unda moi povos arseboba. warsulis arseboba ar aris damokidebuli awmyos arsebobaze, maSin, roca momavlis arseboba pirdapir warsulzea damokidebuli; warsulze raRac viciT, momavals mxolod vxvdebiT; warsuli Tanmimdevrulad organizebuli teqstia. momavali mxolod calkeul momentebad, fragmentulad ganiWvriteba. warsulze konkretuli codna gvaqvs maSin, roca momavalze ufro abstraqtuli Sexedulebebi gviyalibdeba. warsuli yovelTvis iyo, awmyo aris, momavali iqneba, magram iyo da aris princi pulad sxvadasxvagvarad eTanadeba erTmaneTs, vidre _ aris da iqneba. Tu iyo, es, upirvelesad, isaa, rom aris kidec; maSin, roca iqneba, uwinaresad isaa, rac jer ar aris; iyo isaa, rac axla ar aris, magram ara is, rac saerTod ar yofila; maSin, roca iqneba isaa, rac axla ar aris da saerTodac ar aris. meore mxriv, warsuli SesaZloa aRviqvaT awmyos perspeqtivaSi
108

da am Sexeduelebamac SesaZloa, gansazRvros momavlis aRqma. am gagebiT, momavali warsuliviT gaiazreba: momavlis aRqma awmyos perspeqtivaSi ganisazRvreba warsulis aRqmiT amave perspeqtivaSi. momavalic, warsuliviT, gaigeba ise, rom is uSualod ar gveZleva aRqmiT sinamdvileSi; am dros, momavalic aris imave mniSvnelobiT, rogoriTac _ warsuli. orive miRmur realobad gveZleva anu imad, rac arsebobs, magram amave dros, uSualo adamianur aRqmas ar eqvemdebareba, aqtualuri gamocdilebis miRmaa. egzistenciurad, warsuli da momavali sruliad Tanabrad gvevlineba; isini mxolod empiriulad gansxvavdeba: maT Soris gansxvaveba Cvens gansxvavebul gamocdilebas emyareba: momavali jer ar gvaqvs, maSin, roca warsuli aRviqviT. magram maTi arseboba eWvqveS ar dgeba. momavali gveZleva ise, rogorc is, rac sadRac arsebobs, magram Cemamde jer ar mosula. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom momavalica da warsulic, Tanmimdevrulad organizebul teqstad meZleva, magram es teqsti jer ar wakiTxula. momavlis aseTi gageba Tavsdeba drois aRqmis kosmologiur modelSi. kosmologiur cnobierebaSi yovelive momxdari raRac pirvelsawyiss, sawyis dros ireklavs, romelsac Tanabrad ukavSirdeba awmyoc, momavalica da warsulic. isini TavianTi egzistenciuri statusiT ki ar gansxvavdebian, armed _ damokidebulebiT aRqmiT gamocdilebasTan. dro Sobili ki ara, arsebobamicemulia, qmnilia, iseve, rogorc samyaroa qmnili. am SemTxvevaSi momavlis aRqma winaswarganzraxulobas efuZneba. imis msgavsad, rom arsebobs warsulis movleniTi teqsti, arsebobs momavlis movleniTi teqstic, imisa, rac iqneba, rac winaswarganzraxulia. es teqsti fragmentulad, SesaZloa, misawvdomi iyos winaswarmetyvelTaTvis, naTelmxilvelTaTvis, romelTac ZaluZT imis aRqma, rac xdeba sxvagan da sxva dros. aseTive SesaZlebloba miiRweva magiuri ritualebiT. da si dr o da sivrce drois amgvari gagebis SemTxvevaSi, aqtualuri xdeba droisa da sivrcis asociacia. marTlac, imis Tqma, rom momavali arsebobs, oRond, masze araferi vici, arsebiTad imis Tqmaa, rom is sadRac aris, sxva adgilas, miuRwevel toposSi, magram misi realoba ar maeWvebs. warsulis gaazrebac SeiZleba ase: isic im adgilasaa, sadac ukve viyavi (Tavis droze Cems gamocdilebas eqvemdebareboda). amdenad, drois aRqmaze gadmodis sivrcis aRqmis gamocdileba: dro gaigeba sivrciTi modeliT, aRiqmeba sivrciTi kategoriebiT. ratomaa, rom swored dro aRiqmeba sivrciTi kategoriebiT da _ ara piriqiT?
109

adamiani ganicdis sivrces, wvdeba mas, ramdenadac masSi gadaadgildeba. konkretuli sivrcis aRqmis gamocdileba gadadis sivrceze, rogorc aseTze. adamians droSi gadaadgileba ar ZaluZs. aq abstraqciis ufro maRali xarisxia saWiro. am gagebiT, sivrcis aRqma pirveladia. amitomac gansazRvravs is drois aRqmas. dro SeiZleba sivrcesaviT gaviazroT. dro da sivrce SesaZloa, hgavdes kidec erTmaneTs: Tu sivrces sagnebi avsebs, dro _ movlenebiTaa savse. sivrciTi orientacia (marcxniv, marjvniv) Seesabameba droiTs (aqamde, amis Semdeg) da sxv; maTi kodebis SeTavseba iolia. mTavari gansxvaveba sivrcesa da dros Soris mJRavndeba maTi adamianisadmi damokidebulebiT: sivrce adamianTan damokidebulebaSi pasiuria, maSin, roca adamiani, piriqiT, aqtiuria misdami; dro aqtiuria adamianisadmi, adamiani _ piriqiT. adamiani metnaklebad Tavisuflad gadaadgildeba sivrceSi; drois SemTxvevaSi, dro icvleba, TviTon gadaadgildeba, ris gamoc, adamiani aris xolme an erT, an meore droSi. amgvarad xvdeba adamiani droSi, romelsac adre momavlad miiCnevda da axla misTvis awmyod iqca. dro moZraobs da Tanac _ erTi mimarTulebiT. adamians sivrcismsgavsi gadaadgileba droSic rom SeeZlos, an piriqiT, sivrce drosaviT rom gadaadgildebodes, istoriasa da geografias Soris sxvaobac gaqreboda. Tu dro sivrcesaviT aRiqmeba, Tu vityviT, rom momavali sadRac aris, maSin droiTi procesi mogzaurobaa, maradiuli gadaadgilebaa awmyos gavliT, warsulidan _ momavalSi. Tu vityviT, rom momavlisken, iseve, rogorc horizontisken mivdivarT, maSin momavalic modis CvenTan: orive SemTxevevaSi, dro moZraobs, iseve, rogorc _ adamiani uZrav sivrceSi. magram ra hqvia im sivrces, romelSic es xdeba? es aris RvTaebrivi, transcendenturi sivrce, romelic drois miRmaa. Cven viciT, rom dro aiTvleba ciur sxeulTa moZraobis mixedviT. aq, bunebrivia, Cndeba, drois ciklurobis, wriulad moZraobis Sexedulebac. dedamiwa brunavs Tavisi RerZis garSemo; mTvare _ dedamiwis garSemo; dedamiwa _ mzis garSemo; es azri Sobs Sexedulebas drois ciklurobis Sesaxeb. maSasadame, Tu warsuli da momavali arsebobs, dro cikluria. es imas niSnavs, rom warsuli saerTod ki ar qreba, aramed _ meordeba, ciklurad cocxldeba awmyoSi an igive awmyo, romelic momavlisken miiswrafis, periodulad warsuls ubrundeba. rac yofila, igive iqneba da rac momxdara, igive moxdeba; araferia mzis qveS axali. naxaven rasme da ityvian: aha, axali! esec yofila Cvens winare saukuneSi (ekl. I, 9-10).

110

aseTi Sexeduleba droze samyaros kosmologiur models Seesabameba: droSi erTi da igive ontologiuri teqsti meordeba: warsuli, awmyo da momavali romeliRac sawyisi formebis realizaciaa _ dro meordeba formis saxiT, romelSic individualuri bedi da saxeebi moiazreba. es ganmeorebadobaa SesamCnevi, danarCeni SemTxveviTia da zedapiruli _ moCvenebiTia da ararsebuli; mimdinarisa Tu momxdaris WeSmariteba warsulis sinamdvilesTan SepirispirebiT ganisazRvreba. amasTan, istoriuli cnobiereba, principSi, gulisxmobs xazobriv da Seuqcevad (ganumeorebel) dros da ara _ ciklurs, ganmeorebads. am cnobierebisTvis centraluria evoluciis idea da ara _ winaswarganzraxulobisa. evoluciis procesSi mudmivad warmoiqmneba princi pulad axali mdgomareoba (Zveli ar meordeba). yoveli axali mdgomareoba gulisxmobs mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirs romeliRac winare (da ara pirvelsawyis) mdgomareobasTan. Tu kosmologiur modelSi erTi da igive movlenebi meordeba, istoriulSi _ erTi da igive mizez-Sedegobrivi kanonzomierebani. movlenebi konkretulia. mizez-Sedegobrivi kanonzomierebani _ abstraqtuli. amiT gansxvadeba kosmologiuri cnobierebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli cikluri dro xazobrivi, istoriuli droisagan. xazobrivi dro Tavisi bunebiT abstraqtulia, cikluri _ konkretuli. xazobrivi homogenuria, cikluri _ arahomogenuri. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, movlena drois fonze xdeba: erT movlenas meore Sobs, dro am procesSi ar monawileobs. meore SemTxvevaSi, movlena da dro erTmaneTs uSualod ukavSirdeba: movleniT teqsts yofierebis konkretika gansazRvravs. dro gansazRvravs movlenaTa ganviTarebas, movlena ki, Tavis mxriv, drois aRqmas gansazRvravs. momxdaris mimarT dro ar aris pirveladi da imanenturi, aramed masTan intimurad dakavSirebulia. es is formaa, romelic imTaviTve dadgenil Sinaarss konkretul formas aZlevs. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, dro arsebobis aprioruli pirobaa, meoreSi _ arsebobis forma. amrigad, dro, erTi mxriv, SeiZleba moazrebul iqnas, rogorc raRac abstraqtuli da samyarosTan mxolod garegnulad dakavSirebuli, pirobiTi bade, aprioruli sqema, romelsac unda moergos momxdari movlena; an piriqiT: dro, raRac konkretuli da, princi pSi, cvalebadi samyarosTvis da iq mimdinare movlenebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia. erT SemTxvevaSi, dro movlenaTa fonia, meoreSi dro TviT Sedgeba am movlenebisgan, is am movlenebiT savse erTgvari materiaa. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, dro samyarosgan gancalkevebulad moiazreba, rogorc
111

raRac, rac masze ar aris damokidebuli; samyaro SeiZleba gaqres, magram es drois gaqrobas ar niSnavs; meore SemTxvevaSi, samyaros aRsasruli drois gaqrobasac moaswavebs (rom ukve aRar iqneba dro, gamocx. X, 6). aq samyaros Seqmna drois dasawyisicaa. aq dasawyisi ar miuTiTebs drois romeliRac momentze, aramed _ drois, rogorc aseTis, dasawyisze. literatura: 1. ... . - - . ., 1999. 2. .. ( ) // .. . ., 1996. .1.

Grigol Jokhadze

History and semiotics


(Perception of time as a semiotics problem)
There are various opportunities of an explanation of historical events, and, accordingly, the same events can receive various interpretation - in particular, state-political, social and economic, cultural-semiotics, etc. Behind each of these explanations costs, obviously, certain model of historical process, i. . some representation about its essence. This variety opportunities reflects, apparently, real complexity of historical process: differently, various explanations do not deny, but supplement each other. Really, if historical event gives in to different explanations, it means, it is possible to think, that various impulses refer in one point and have led to one result (creating, so to say, a resonance effect, mutual strengthening). The opportunity of various explanations can reflect, thus, a real, objective nonrandomness of considered event. The cultural-semiotics approach to history assumes the appeal to the internal point of view of participants of historical process: significant that is significant from their point of view admits. It is a question, thus, of reconstruction of those subjective motives which appear a direct impulse for those or other actions (anyhow defining a course needless to say, that these subjective motivations can reflect more the general objective laws. Anyway, the researcher relationships of cause and effect at that level which the nearest image - it is direct interest in this case, instead of indirect type - is correlated with even-

112

tual plan. The behaviour of the society reacting to those or other events, can be considered in the same categories if to treat society as the collective person. Such approach assumes, in turn, reconstruction of system of the representations causing both perception of those or other events, and reaction to these events. In semiotics prospect historical process can be presented, in particular, as process of the communications at which constantly acting new information causes this or that response from the public addressee (society). In this case it is essentially unimportant, who is the sender. Thus, historical process can appear as the communications between society and the individual, society and the God, society and destiny and etc. In all these cases important as the corresponding events are comprehended, what value is attributed by it in system of public consciousness. As a code acts thus some language (this term is understood, certainly, not in narrow linguistic, and in wide semiotics sense), defining perception of those or other facts - both real, and potentially possible - in a corresponding historical and cultural context. Thus, to events value is attributed: the text of events is read by society. It is possible to tell then, that in the elementary phase historical process appears as process of generation of new phases in some language and perusal by their public addressee (society) which defines its response. Respective language, on the one hand, unites the given society, allowing to consider society as the collective person and causing more or less identical reaction of members of society to occuring events. Contrariwise, it somehow will organize the information, causing selection of the significant facts and an establishment of this or that communication between them: That is not described in this language, as though is not perceived at all by the public addressee, drops out of its point of view. Eventually language of the given society, naturally, varies, that does not exclude an opportunity of allocation of the synchronous cuts supposing its description as the operating mechanism. The same objective facts making real eventual text, can be interpreted differently in different languages - in language of corresponding society and in any other language concerning other space and time. In particular, that is significant from the point of view of the given epoch and the given cultural area, can not have at all value in system of representations of other cultural-historical area, - and on the contrary. There is a communication model of historical process is those, so to say. It is semiotical , because it is under construction on analogy to speech activity, i. . the communications in a natural language. This model allows to explain expansion of events in time. The history by the nature is semiotical in the sense that it assumes not-sign as a sign, not-history in history. It assumes, in turn, two necessary conditions: 1. An arrangement of those or other events (concerning the past) in time sequence, i. . appears the factor of time; 2. Establishment of cause and effect attitudes between them, i. . appears the factor of causality. The conditions providing of semiotical proccess of history are those.
113

so eTer soselia

semantikuri primitivebi da ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli 1969 wels gamoqveynda amerikeli avtorebis b.berlinisa da p.keis erToblivi naSromi, romelmac erTgvari biZgi misca feris terminTa sistemebis kvlevas sxvadasxva enaSi [B.Berlin, P.Kay, 1969]. avtorebma 98 enis feris terminTa SeswavliT daadgines, rom feris terminTa sistemis ti ps gansazRvravs bazisuri feris terminebi, romlebic, rogorc wesi, monoleqsemuri, farTod gavrcelebuli da yvelasaTvis erTnairad gasagebia. swored bazisuri feris terminebSi aisaxeba, Tu samganzomilebiani feriTi sivrce (feriTi kontinuumi) rogoraa dayofili, struqturirebuli (anu feris ra kategoriebi gamoiyofa) mocemul enaSi. b.berlinisa da p.keis Teoriis mixedviT, romelic ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modelis saxelwodebiTaa cnobili, ferTa kategorizacia nebismierad rodi xorcieldeba enaSi (rogorc amas lingvisturi relativizmi varaudobds); avtorTa azriT, amgvar dayofas kanonzomieri xasiaTi aqvs da Camoayalibes is semantikuri universaliebi, romlebic asaxaven nebismieri enis ferTa kategorizaciis kanonzomierebebs. b.berlinisa da p.keis Teorias mxars uWers ukanaskneli periodis fiziologiuri da fsiqologiuri gamokvlevebi. rogorc

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, g.wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis aRmosavlur enaTa ti pologiis ganyofilebis gamge. ZiriTadi Sromebi: , feris terminTa sistemebi qarTvelur enebSi, ferTa kategorizaciis modelebi, ferTa kategoriebis saxeldebis zogadi princi pebi feris terminTa qarTul sistemaSi da sxva. interesTa sfero: zogadi enaTmecniereba (gansakuTrebiT _ semantika), qarTvelologia, kognitiuri lingvistika.

114

cnobilia, feri samyaroSi obieqturad ar arsebobs. igi adamianis Tvalisa da tvinis Semoqmedebis nayofia. magram yvela adamianis Tvalis fiziologia erTnairia, miuxedavad imisa, Tu romel enaze metyvelebs igi da aseve erTnairia is fiziologiur-fsiqikuri procesebi, romlebic feris SegrZnebas udevs safuZvlad. rogorc irkveva, adamianis Tvali ganarCevs 2-3 milionamde fersa Tu Seferilobas, maSin roca feris aRmniSvnel sityvaTa da gamonaTqvamTa raodenoba enaSi 150-s ar aRemateba (Tundac Zalze sqeltaniani ganmartebiTi leqsikonebis mixedviT). b.berlinisa da p.keis Teoriis gavrcelebis paralelurad gaCnda gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisebic feris terminTa sistemebTan dakavSirebiT. erT-erTi amgvari Tvalsazrisi ekuTvnis feris terminTa semantikis cnobil mkvlevars r. frumkinas. misi Sromebi damyarebulia principebze, romlebic ramdenadme gansxvebulia ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modelis principebisagan da, rogorc wesi, fsiqolingvisturi xasiaTisaa [. , 1984]. ferTa kategorizaciiis universaluri modelis Sesaxeb gansxvavebuli azri aqvs semantikis cnobil mkvlevars a.veJbickas, romelic Tavis naSromebSi TiTqmis yovelTvis amaxvilebda yuradRebas feris terminTa semantikaze [A. Wierzbicka, 1980; 1984; 1989; 1990; 1992]. mis erT-erT monografiaSi [A. Wierzbicka, 1996] am sakiTxs calke Tavi eZRvneba, sadac avtori aSkarad gamoxatavs Tavis uaryofiT damokidebulebas ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modelis mimarT. imisaTvis, rom CavwvdeT avtoris amgvari damokidebulebis mizezs, sasurvelia, zogadi warmodgena mainc viqonioT im ZiriTad principebze, romelsac avtoris Sroma emyareba. aRniSnul naSromSi a.veJbicka miznad isaxavs, daadginos semantikuri primitivebi. es is minimaluri semantikuri erTeulebia, romlebic, TavisTavad cxadia, sxva mniSvnelobiT ar ganisazRvreba, universaluria da nebismier kulturaSi Sinaarsobrivad yvelaze TvalsaCino, mniSvnelovan, universalur sagnebTan an movlenebTanaa dakavSirebuli. magaliTad, aseTia xedvis mniSvneloba, mniSvneloba SigniT, mniSvneloba axla, mniSvnelobani: kargi, cudi, Sors, axlos, didi, patara da sxva. amgvar primitivTa sia a.veJbickas naSromSi 55 erTeuls aerTianebs. semantikur primitivebze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes enis semantikuri analizi. sayuradReboa, rom primitivebze dayrdnobiT avtori gvawvdis ara mxolod leqsikursemantikur analizs, aramed mTel rig gramatikul kategoriaTa semantikur analizsac.
115

erTi SexedviT, SesaZlebelia, mogveCvenos, rom amgvari analizi, faqtobrivad, komponentur analizs warmoadgens. magram, unda aRiniSnos, rom semantikur primitivebze damyarebuli analizi am ukanasknelisagan principulad gansxvavebaulia. semantikuri komponentebi, romlebsac emyareba komponenturi analizi, xSirad formalurad gamoyofil minimalur semantikur erTeulebs warmoadgenen, maSin roca semantikuri primitivebi denotatur prototipebTanaa dakavSirebuli. ,,feris terminTa mniSvneloba da xedvis universaliebi, _ ase ewodeba im Tavs, romelsac a.veJbicka mTlianad uTmobs feris terminTa semantikur analizs. upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom a.veJbicka uaryofs feris cnebis universalobas da gasagebia, rom misTvis arc feris terminia universaluri. swored amitom, is universalia, romlis mixedviTac, yovel enaSi arsebobs feris, minimum, ori termini, misTvis aramarTebulia. Tumca, Tu avtoris Semdgom msjelobas gavadevnebT Tvals, davinaxavT, rom avtori xSirad ganixilavs feris terminTa orelementian sistemebs. avtoris amgvari damokidebuleba feris kategoriisadmi gamowveulia imiT, rom mas feri gagebuli aqvs inglisuridan amosvliT (an imgvari enobrivi sistemidan amosvliT, sadac qromatuli da aqromatuli ferebi erTmaneTisagan enobrivad gamijnulia). ra Tqma unda, es araa feris is kategoria, miT umetes, bazisuri feris kategoria, romlis universalobazec ferTa kategorizaciis universalur modelSia msjeloba. feris kategoriis cneba, aRniSnuli modelis mixedviT, ufro farToa, igi feris cnebasac moicavs a.veJbickaseuli gagebiT. feris kategoria ganisazRvreba enaSi feris terminebiT danawevrebuli feriTi sivrcis struqturuli erTeulebiT (miuxedavad imisa, qromatuli feri amgvar sistemaSi calke erTeuladaa Camoyalibebuli Tu ara). a.veJbicka ar iziarebs feris universalobas. misTvis universaluria xedva, _ yvela kulturaSi aris interesi xedvisadmi, imisadmi, Tu ras xedaven da, misi azriT, sulac araa aucilebeli gamoiyos feri, rogorc vizualuri gamocdilebis calke aspeqti [A.Wierzbicka, 1996, 287]. magram aqve Cndeba kiTxva: gana feri ar aris is, rasac xedaven? da gaugebaria, ratom ar unda gamoiyos igi, rogorc vizualuri gamocdilebis calke aspeqti? rogorc avtori iqve aRniSnavs, xedvis universalobas adasturebs is, rom mas yvela enaSi Sesabamisi sityva gaaCnia, feris cnebas ki aseTi sityva yvela enaSi ara aqvs (rogorc a.veJbicka ambobs, araa eqsponirebuli yvela enaSi). Cveni azriT, feris cnebisaTvis Sesabamisi sityvis ar arseboba
116

ar unda niSnavdes, rom feris kategoria araa universaluri. nebismier enaSi arsebobs feris konkretuli kategoria imisagan damoukideblad, arsebobs Tu ara am enaSi zogadad feris aRmniSvneli sityva. rac Seexeba feris terminis semantikas, a.veJbickas miaCnia, rom yoveli konkretuli terminis mniSvnelobis gansazRvra TiTqmis SeuZlebelia; SesaZlebelia mxolod, warmodgenili iqnes axsna ama Tu im konkretuli mnSvnelobisa. rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, feris terminis mniSvnelobas xSirad ukavSireben sinaTlis sxivis fizikur Tvisebebs (sinaTlis talRis sigrZes an fardobiT energias) da sailustraciod ganixilavs inglisur termins violit _ ,,iisferi (aq sayuradReboa, rom igi arabazisuri feris terminia inglisurSi). rogorc a.veJbicka SeniSnavs, am terminiT aRiniSneba feri 400-470 nm-is diapazonSi, xolo 475 nm-is Semdeg iwyeba lurji feri. feris konkretuli terminis mniSvnelobis amgvari gansazRvra avtors, savsebiT samarTlianad, ar miaCnia am terminis mniSvnelobis codnad da xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom esaa mecnieruli codna da mas araferi aqvs saerTo sityvis mniSvnelobasTan. zustad amgvari damokidebuleba aqvs avtors im mecnieruli midgomisadmi, romelic feris kategoriis ukeT gansazRvrisaTvis neirofiziologiur monacemebs eyrdnoba, an feris kategorias aramkafio (fuzzy) simravlis saxiT warmoadgens. aq avtori xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom feris percefcia ar unda ukavSirdebodes feris konceptualizacias, rom feris aRqma adamianebs saerTo aqvT, magram konceptualizacia sxvadasxva kulturaSi gansxvavebulia. am mosazrebiT a.veJbicka, TiTqos ferTa kategorizaciis universalur models ewinaaRmdegeba; sinamdvileSi, arc ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli ar varaudobs, rom ferTa percefcia unda gansazRvravdes ferTa konceptualizacia/kategorizacias. amgvarad, warmovadgineT ori ZiriTadi punqti, romelic gansazRvravs avtoris uaryofiT damokidebulebas ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modelis mimarT: erTi _ feris cneba araa universaluri da meore _ feris kategoriis formalizacia (misTvis neirofiziologiuri safuZvlebis daZebna, an misi simravlis saxiT warmodgena) semantikuri Seswavlisas araa marTebuli. vfiqrobT, saintereso iqneba warmovadginoT feris zogierTi terminis is gansazRvreba, romelsac a.veJbicka Tavis naSromSi gvTavazobs. marTalia, am gansazRvrebebs avtori `axsnebs~ uwodebs, magram, Cveni azriT, maT gansazRvrebis formulirebas aZlevs.
117

magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT rusuli terminis naSromSi warmodgenili `axsna~: X aris = (a) zogjer adamiani xedavs mzes maRla caSi roca X-is msgavs sagnebs xedaven, am dros SeiZleba ifiqron caze (b) X ar aris imis msgavsi, rogoric am dros aris ca (g) zogjer adamiani ver xedavs Zalian bevrs (kargad) rodesac X-is msgavs sagnebs xedaven, SeiZleba amaze ifiqron. aqve ganvixiloT terminis `axsna~: X aris = (a) zogjer adamiani xedavs mzes maRla caSi roca X-is msgavs sagnebs xedaven, am dros SeiZleba ifiqron caze (b) X aris amgvari cis msgavsi (g) zogjer adamiani bevr sagans xedavs roca X-is msgavs sagnebs xedaven, SeiZleba amaze ifiqron. SeniSvnis saxiT davsZenT, rom vecadeT, Targmani Zalze axlos yofiliyo originalTan, sasveni niSnebic ki ar davsviT originalisagan gansxvavebulad. am ori terminis aq warmodgenil `axsnebSi~ Cans rogorc gansxvaveba, ise siaxlove maT mniSvnelobaSi (orive cis fers aRniSnavs, magram erTi ukavSirdeba cis fers dRisiT, meore _RamiT). ramdenad Rirebulia feris terminis mniSvnelobis amgvari `axsna~? roca amgvar `axsnebSi~ X-is msgavs sagnebzea laparaki, gasagebia, rom am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba msgavseba feriT, magram avtori cdilobs `axsna~ mogvwodos ise, rom ar ixmaros `feri~. garda amisa, `axsnas~ bundovanebas aniWebs `SeiZlebas~ gamoyeneba. amave dros, TiTqos erTgvarad winaaRmdegrobivia terminis axsna, romelic iwyeba imiT, rom im sagnebis danaxvaze, romlebic feriT aris , SeiZleba ifiqron caze, ufro zustad, mzian caze; TiTqos bunebrivia, ifiqron caze imitom, rom -is msgavsi ferisaa ca. magram iqve (punqti b) avtori gveubneba, rom is, rac aris , ar aris mziani cis msgavsi. sabolood, a.veJbickas axsna gveubneba, rom aris Ramis cis feris msgavsi da amiT unda migvaniSnos, rom -is prototi pia Ramis cis feri. SeiZleba es asec iyos, magram rom msgavsia -isa (romelic mziani cis fers ukavSirdeba prototi pulad), es daadastura r.frumkinas eqsperimentulma gamokvlevamac, romelic miznad isaxavda

118

rusul enaSi feris terminebis Seswavlas swored semantikuri msgavsebis mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT [. , 1984]. damatebiT gvinda warmovadginoT, agreTve, inglisuri red terminis `axsna~: X aris red = roca vinme xedavs X-is msgavs sagnebs, SeiZleba ifiqros cecxlze roca vinme xedavs X-is msgavs sagnebs, SeiZleba ifiqros sisxlze X-is msgavsi sagnebis danaxva SeiZleba maSinac, roca sxva sagnebis danaxva ar SeiZleba. sailustraciod warmodgenil am `axsnebSi~, rogorc vxedavT, avtori fers ukavSirebs sagans. marTalia, samyaroSi feri damoukideblad ar arsebobs, magram enaSi feris terminebis arseboba maCvenebelia imisa, rom arsebobs ama Tu im konkretuli feris cneba sagnisagan damoukideblad, rac a.veJbickas `axsnebSi~ arafriT ar aisaxeba. miuxedavad amisa, es `axsnebi~ sakmaod sainteresoa da sainteresoa imiT, rom maTSi avtori faqtobrivad adgens prototipebs feris kategoriebisaTvis. aq xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos is faqti, rom amgvari prototipebi daZebnilia, rogorc wesi, bazisuri feris kategoriebisaTvis, romlebic ZiriTad erTeulebs warmoadgenen feris terminTa sistemis Sesabamis semantikur struqturaSi. amgvarad, a.veJbicka Tavis naSromSi warmogvidgens calkeuli feris terminis (da es, rogorc wesi, swored bazisuri feris terminia) semantikur analizs, cdilobs, axsnas feris terminis mniSvneloba. Cveulebriv, sityvis mniSvneloba misTvis niSnavs imas, rasac am enaze molaparake fiqrobs mocemuli sityvis warmoTqmisas. bunebrivia, asevea gagebuli feris terminis mniSvnelobac da amdenad, feris terminTa semantikuri analizisas avtori gvixsnis, ras fiqrobs molaparake da am axsnebiT calkeul termins Sesabamis prototi ps ukavSirebs. marTalia, amgvar analizSi, rogorc vxedavT, dakargulia feris terminTa simravlis sistemuri xasiaTi, ar Cans feris terminTa erTobliobiT enaSi asaxuli feriTi sivrcis semantikuri struqtura. samagierod, feris terminebis dakavSirebiT prototipebTan erTgvari warmodgena iqmneba enaSi ferTa kategorizaciis procesze, imaze, Tu risi zegavleniT xorcieldeba enaSi ferTa kategorizacia. amgvari mizezebi, a.veJbickas analizis mixedviT, adamianis makro-garemos ukavSirdeba, ufro zustad ki, es is `garemoebiTi~ cnebebia, romlebic gadmoicema fire (`cecxli~), sun (`mze~), sky (`ca~) grass (`balaxi~), sea (`zRva~) da ground (`miwa~) sityvebiT. avtori xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom es cnebebi araa semantikuri primitivebi, rom es aris
119

konstruqtebi, romlebic agebulia adamianis mier dedamiwaze cxovrebis gamocdilebidan. feris kategorizacia SeiZleba ganapirobos, agreTve, lokalurad mniSvnelovanma referentma (es SeiZleba iyos minerali, cxoveli, mcenare...). amgvari kategoriis magaliTad avtori moixmobs inglisuri orange terminis Sesabamis kategorias. sainteresoa avtoris SeniSvna am tipis terminebTan dakavSirebiT: isini xSirad ganicdian semantikur cvlilebas (amis kargi magaliTia rusuli termini , romelic -s _ ,,mtreds ukavSirdeba, magram dRes ,,cisfers niSnavs). rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, feris terminebis dakavSireba Sesabamis prototi pebTan feris ama Tu im terminis etimologiaSi SeiZleba aisaxos. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, a.veJbicka ar iziarebs b. berlinisa da p. keis Tvalsazriss da, saerTod, misTvis miuRebelia ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli. miuxedavad amisa, zemoTqmulis safuZvelze naTeli xdeba, rom, faqtobrivad, a.veJbickas mier Catarebuli semantikuri analizi da ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli feris terminTa semantikis kvlevis or gansxvavebul gzas warmoadgens gansxvavebuli miznebiT: erTi cdilobs, feris terminTa semantika aRweros imgvarad, rom aisaxos is, rasac fiqrobs molaparake feris terminis gamoyenebisas da amave dros, amgvari analizi semantikur primitivebs unda eyrdnobodes (feris terminTa semantikis analizisas gamoiyenebuli primitivebia: `xedva~, `fiqri~, `msgavseba~), ris Sedegadac xdeba feris terminTa dakavSireba mis prototipebTan; meore ki ikvlevs im semantikur struqturas, romelic enaSi feris terminebiT gadmocemuli feriTi sivrcisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, adgens am struqturisTvis damaxasiaTebel kanonzomierebebs, romelTagan zogi universaluri xasiaTisaa, xolo zogi ki specifikuria _ damaxasiaTebelia konkretuli enisaTvis. ferTa kategorizaciis universaluri modeli da feris terminTa semantikis imgvari analizi, rogoric a.veJbickas naSromSia warmodgenili, savsebiT SeTavsebadia. amis Sesaxeb aRniSnulia b. komris naSromSi, romelic enobrivi universaliebisadmia miZRvnili [B. Comrie, 1981], a.veJbickas ZiriTadi naSromis gamoqveynebamde sakmaod adre. b.komri Tvlis, rom ferTa kategorizacia unda daukavSirdes feris kategoriis birTvs da ara sazRvrebs, rom kategorizacia unda ganisazRvros ara raRac aucilebeli da sakmarisi pirobebiT, aramed prototi pebis terminebSi.

120

gamoyenebuli literatura 1. , . . (1984) , , : , . 2. Berlin, B & Kay, P. (1969) Basic color terms:Their universality and evolution., Berkeley. 3. Comrie, B. (1981) Language Universals and Linguistic Typology, Oxford. 4. Wierzbicka A. (1980) Lingua Mentalis, Sidney, New York, London, Toronto, San Francisco. Wierzbicka, A. (1984) Apples Are Not a Kind of Fruit: The Semantics of Human ategorization; 5. American Anthropologist, 11/2. 6. Wierzbicka, A. (1989) Soul and Mind. Linuistic Evidence for Ethnopsycology and Cultural History; American Anthropologist, 90/4. 7. Wierzbicka, A. (1990) The meaning of Color Terms:Semantics, Culture and Cognition; Cognitive Linguistics, 1/1. 8. Wierzbicka, A. (1992) Semantics, Culture and Cognition: Universal Conccepts in Culture-Specific Configuration, New York, Oxford. 9. Wierzbicka, A. (1996) Semantics: Primes and Universals, Oxford, New York.

Ether Soselia

Semantic primes and the universal model of colour categorization


Analyzing semantics of color terms a famous researcher of semantics A.Wierzbicka does not accept the universal model of colour categorization by B.Berlin and P.Kay. In our opinion those two theories are not contradictory, they are two different views. Actually A.Wierzbickas analysis based on universal semantic primes is close to prototypical analysis of colour term semantics, while B.Berlin and P.Kays model refers to the general universals ruling categorization and the structure of the colour space in every language, that is reflected in the corresponding basic colour term system.

121

ca rusudan canava

erTi epizodis sami interpretacia odiseaSi (xis cxenis ambavi)


filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis literaturis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: miTo-ritualuri modelebis genezisisa da formirebis sakiTxisaTvis, miTis ritualis da magiis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis, Myth model of substitute sacrifice and the classical epos, monografia: miToritualuri modelebi, simboloebi antikuri mwerlobaSi da qarTuli literaturul-eTnologiuri paralelbi. interesTa sfero: antikuri miTologia da literatura, kulturologia, literaturis istoria da Teoria, komparativistika.

troas miTosuri ciklisa da homerosis poemebis xsenebisas wignieri mkiTxvelis gonebaSi ramdenime frTiani fraza amotivtivdeba. pirvel rigSi, albaT, ganxeTqilebis vaSli, aqilevsis qusli da troas cxeni. es sintagmebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc aRmniSvnelebi (an niSnebi), romlebic, erTi mxriv, didi miTis umniSvnelovanes struqturul erTeulebs warmoadgenen, meore mxriv, Tavad gadaiqcnen konkretuli situaciis Sesabamisi uamravi yofiTi Tu ganzogadebuli viTarebis aRmniSvnelebad. ase magaliTad, ganxeTqilebis vaSliT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT rogorc or adamians Soris warmoSobili konfliqturi situacia, ise adamianebis jgufebsa da saxelmwifoebs Sorisac. aqilevsis qusli (susti adgili) SeiZleba hqondes pirovnebas (an pirovnebebs) an magaliTad, dadgenilebas, proeqts, kanons. troas cxeni (an xis cxeni) ki urTulesi viTarebidan moxerxebiT, eSmakobiT Tavis daRwevis sinonimadaa miCneuli. xis cxenis ambavi moTxrobilia odiseaSi, romelic garkveulwilad (informaciulad) avsebs iliadas. mkiTxvelma kargad icis, rom iliada troas omis meaTe wlis ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi datrialebul

122

ambebze mogviTxrobs. ilionis damxoba ki aqilevsisa da parisis daRupvis mere moxerxda xis cxenis saSualebiT. aqve mokled movigonoT ZiriTadi peri petiebi, romlebmac ganapiroba xis cxenis gansakuTrebuli funqcia troas omSi. saqme is aris, rom ilioni, Tebes msgavsad, RvTaebaTa nebiT daarsebuli qalaqia. es adgili (atas borcvis mimdebare teritoria) e. w. Zlier adgilad iTvleba, romelic RvTaebaTa nebiT i pova ilosma. miTi mogviTxrobs: zevsis SvilTaSvilma ilosma gaimarjva frigiaSi gamarTul sportul asparezobaSi. man jildod miiRo 50-50 qal-vaJi da Wrela Zroxa. misanma iloss auwya, gahyoloda Zroxas da sadac is dawveboda, daearsebina qalaqi. marTlac ilosma Zroxis Caferxebis adgilas atas borcvTan safuZveli Cauyara qalaq ilions _ troas dedaqalaqs. imis dasturad, rom RmerTebis moTxovna zedmiwevniT Sesrulda, zecidan CamoeSva qalRmerT aTenas xis gamosaxuleba _ paladioni1 _ qalaqis Zlierebis simbolo da mcveli. ilosma paladionisTvis aago taZari da daaarsa qalRmerTis msaxurebis rituali.2 ilosis momdevno xelisuflis laomedonis mefobisas aSenda qalaqis galavani, romelic aages poseidonma da apolonma. swored imitom, rom es galavani RmerTebis mier iyo agebuli, mokvdavma adamianebma, Tundac gmirebma, mas veraferi daakles; berZnebi verc SeaRwevdnen qalaqSi, rom ara xis cxeni. ilions ukavSirdeba erTi paradoqsic: es qalaqi Tavisi galavniTa da aqsesuarebiT RvTaebrivi nebiT aigo, (troa ise gaZlierda, rom mcire aziisa da mediteranuli samyaros uZlieres saxelmwifod iqca) da RvTaebrivi nebiTve daingra (dakarga sakraluri, da Sesabamisad, dominanturi funqcia. am centrma Semdgom gadainacvla italiaSi. romi ilionis alter ego-a. amaze ix. vergiliusis eneida). magram am qalaqis damqcevTa umetesoba (romlebic RvTaebaTa nebas asrulebdnen) RmerTebis nebiTve sastikad daisaja (zogi gzaSi daiRupa, zogi _ Sin dabrunebisTanave, zogs xangrZlivi xetialisa da bevri gasaWiris
es paladioni sami wyrTis sigrZisa iyo; marjvena xelSi Subi eWira, marcxenaSi _ jara da TiTistari (Apollod. 111, 12, 30). Ees iyo aTenas uZvelesi xis gamosaxuleba _ aTena-ergane. am paladionma, xis cxenis msgavsad, mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa troas miTiur istoriaSi: misi uCveulo CamoSvebiT cidan iwyeba ilionis aRmSenebloba; gamosaxulebis gatacebisTanave ingreva ilioni. troas daarsebisa da dangrevis miTiuri da istoriuli ambebi, sxvasasxva wyaroze dayrdnobiT, gadmocemulia strabonis geografiaSi (Strab. XIII, 1-3). 2 miTiuri qalaqebis daarsebis Sesaxeb ix.: canava r. miToritualuri modelebi, simboloebi antikur mwerlobaSi da qarTuli literaturul-eTnologiuri paralelebi, Tbilisi 2005:252-265.
1

123

atana mouxda). swored am movlenebis centrSi dgas xis cxeni. axla Cven ganvixilavT sam pasaJs odiseadan; samiveSi xis cxenis ambavia moTxrobili, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs, sxvadasxvagvarad wavikiTxoT erTi da igive ambavi. ufro sworad, davinaxoT, rogor SeiZleba gadmosces erTi da igive ambavi sxvadasxva personaJma. I. xangrZlivi xetialis Semdeg odisevsi feakebis kunZul sqeriaze moxvda. mefe alkinoosma igi pativiT miiRo da umaspinZla (Tumca stumris vinaoba arc ki icoda). ucxo stumris pativsacemad sasaxleSi nadimi gaimarTa, romelzec brma momRerali demodokosic miiwvies. odisevsi usmenda RvTaebrivi aedis simReras, romelic troas omis ambebs yveboda. laertidma Seaqo momRerali da uTxra: demodokos, yvela mokvdavze maRla gayeneb; Sen an muzebma aRgzardes, zevsis asulebma, an apolonma; yvelafers sizustiT yvebi, rac aqavelebs gadaxdaT, TiTqos an Tavad monawileobdi, an sxvaTagan gaige (h[ sev ge mou`s ejdivdaxe, Dio;~ pai`~, h[ sev g Apovllwn. livhn ga;r kata; j kovsmon Acaiw`n oi\ton ajeivdei~, o]ss e[rxan t e[poqovn te kai; o]ss j ejmovghsan jAcaioi;, w]~ tev pou h[ aujto;~ parew;n h[ ajllou ajkouvsa~ III, 487-491)3. Semdeg odisevsi sTxovs demodokoss, moyves xis cxenis ambavi. Tan eubneba: Tu amis Sesaxeb ise moyvebi, rogorc sinamdvileSi moxda, yvelas vetyvi, rom RmerTebma Sen RvTaebrivi simReris (unariT) dagajildoves (aujtivk ejgw; pa`sin muqhvsomai ajnqrwvpoisin wJ~ a[ra toi provfrwn qeo;~ w[pase qevspin ajoidhvn. III,497-498). odisevsma daazusta, rom mas surda moesmina ambavi im cxenisa, romelic epeiosma aago aTenasTan erTad; troaSi ki es cxeni _ qalaqis damangreveli kacebiT savse (mucelgamovsebuli) _ RvTaebrivi odisevsis eSmakobiT Sevida (VIII, 492-494). demodokosma daiwyo simRera4: imiT daiwyo, rogor CauSves argivelebma TavianTi xomaldebi zRvaSi da karvebs cecxli waukides (VIII, 499-500). yvelaze cnobilni (gmirebi) odisevsTan iyvnen cxenSi (cxenis mucelSi) Caketilebi (toi; d h[dh ajgakluto;n ajmf jOdush`a ei]at ejni; Trwvwn ajgorh/` kekalummevnoi i]ppw/: III, 502-503). bolos rogor SeaTries (cxeni)
odiseas teqsti damowmebulia gamocemidan: Homer, Odyssey, With Introduction, Notes, ets. W.W. Merry. Vol.I- II. Oxford 1870. Sesabamisi qarTuli Targmani Cemia. 4 499-e taepis v. meriseul komentarSi weria: w]~ favq , oJ de oJrmhqei;~ qeou _ ase Tqva RmerTiT aRZrulma (moved by the god). troas miTis mixedviT, omis meaTe wlis bolos berZnebma eSmakobas mimarTes. maT troelebs ise moaCvenes Tavi, TiTqos Sin brundebodnen. TavianT xomaldebSi Casxdnen da sakuTari banaki gadawves. sinamdvileSi ki Sors ar wasulan; iqve maxlobel kunZuls amoefarnen da bneli Ramis dadgomas daelodnen, raTa ukan mobrunebuliyvnen. amaze ix.: Verg. Aen. II, 21-dan.
3

124

troas galavanSi. iq rom dadges, maT (troelebs) Soris dava atyda, ra eqnaT cxenisTvis. azri samad gaiyo: spilenZis SubiT gavapoTo amoRaruli xe (koi`lon dovru III, 507), kldeebamde mivaTrioT da qarafidan gadavCexoTo, an davtovoTo, rogorc diadi RmerTebis saamebeli saCuqari (h[ ejaan mevg a[galma qew`n qelkthvrion ei\nai III, v 509).5 bolos am ukanasknelze SeTanxmdnen. ase iyo bedisweriT gadawyvetili _ qalaqi unda daeRupa xis did cxens, romelSic iyvnen saukeTeso argoselebi troelebis amosawyvetad da ubedurebis Tavze dasatexad (VIII, 510-513). Semdeg demodokosma imRera, rogor SeiWrnen cxenis muclidan gamosuli aqaveli vaJkacebi qalaqSi; yvela Taviseburad aCanagebda ilions. aresis msgavsi odisevsi deifobosis saxls miadga RvTaebriv menelaosTan erTad (VIII, 514518). iq sastiki brZola gamarTa da (odisevsma) gaimarjva didsulovani RvTaebis, aTenas, SemweobiT (VIII, 519-520). odisevsma Tavad sTxova demodokoss, moeTxro xis cxenis ambavi. rogorc Cans, mas troaSi Cadenil gmirobebs Soris es epizodi yvelaze mniSvnelovnad miaCnda. II. igive ambavi uambo telemaqoss menelaosma. telemaqosi, odisevsis vaJi, aTenas STagonebiT gaemgzavra iTakidan mamis TanamebrZolebTan, raTa maTgan mainc gaego rame Sinmousvleli mSoblis Sesaxeb. pirvelad brZen nestors ewvia pilosSi, Semdeg _ menelaoss spartaSi. swored am dRes sasaxleSi didi wveuleba iyo _ mefe Svilebis qorwils zeimobda. gamocnaurebis Semdeg menelaosma Tqva: suliT da guliT utexi bevri vaJkaci minaxavs, bevri miwa momivlia, magram odisevsis msgavsi WirTamTmeni ar Semxvedria (oi|on Odussh`o~ j talasivfrono~ e;ske fivlon kh`r IV, 270). am mZleTamZle kacma (kartero;~ ajnh;r IV, 271) ai, ra gaakeTa da ganaxorciela (oi\on kai; tovd e[rexe kai; e[tlh IV, 271): xis cxens, romelSic bevri saukeTeso argoseli iyo troelTa dasaRupad da gasanadgureblad gamzadebuli, Sen moadeqi, (elene), cxadia, boroti demoniT Cagonebuli (keleusevmenai dev s e[melle daivmwn IV, 274-5), raTa troelTaTvis dideba eboZebina. Sen gaxlda RmerTis dari deifobosi. (Tqven) samjer SemouareT cxens, (Sen) gverdebs xeliT exebodi da saxelebiT mimarTavdi argoselebs, (xmiT) maT sayvarel colebs hbaZavdi (ejk d ojnomaklhvdhn Danaw`n ojnovmaze~ ajrivstou~, pavntwn Argeivwn fwnh;n i[skous ajlovcoisin IV, j 278-9). uceb me da tindarids, romlebic RvTaebriv odisevsTan
509-e taepis komentari: h[ ejavan or to leave it there as a splendid present, to be a peace-offering to the Gods.
5

125

erTad (cxenis) bnel mucelSi visxediT, nacnobi xmebis gagonebaze, mogvinda gamovsuliyaviT, an gamogxmaurebodiT, magram windaxedulma odisevsma SegvaCera (a[ll Odusseu;~ katevruke kai; e[sceqen iJemevnw j per IV, 284). antiklesma ki Sens daZaxilze pasuxis gacema moindoma, magram odisevsma piri moumuwa ugunurs da manam eWira xeliT (amiT yvela aqaveli gvixsna daRupvisagan savwse de; pavnta~ Acaiou;~ j IV, 288), sanam, aTenas nebiT, Sen ar waxvedi (IV, 289). menelaosma xis cxenis ambavi moyva, rogorc erT-erTi yvelaze TvalsaCino nimuSi odisevsis vaJkacobisa, gonierebisa da windaxedulebisa. Tundac am erTi epizodiT kargad Cans, vin aris odisevsi da ra wvlili miuZRvis troas dangrevaSi. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, odisevsic troas mTel epopeaSi Tavis yvelaze mniSvnelovan gmirobad swored amas miiCnevs (amitomac sTxova demodokoss xis cxenis ambavi moeTxro). III. axla ganvixiloT, ra roli iTamaSa am umwvaves viTarebaSi elenem. igi cxenze arafers ambobs, magram yveba, ra moxda manam. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, ra gaakeTa elenem, sanam ambis Txrobas daiwyebda. Zalian mokled aRvwer situacias menelaosis TvalismomWrel sasaxleSi: rogorc ukve aRvniSne, mefis ojaxSi qorwili iyo. stumrebi ilxendnen. swored am dros movida ori ucnobi axalgazrda stumari (telemaqosi da pisistratosi _ nestoris umcrosi vaJi, telemaqosis megzuri), romlebic pativiT miiRes da sufrasTan miiwvies. amasobaSi darbazSi gamovida artemisis dari elene, romelsac msaxurma qalma oqros jara gauwyo6. dedofali moxerxebulad dajda da qsovilis beWva daiwyo. am saqmianobas elenesTvis xeli ar SeuSlia SeeniSna, rom ymawvili telemaqosi Zalian hgavda odisevss. gamocnaurebis Semdeg stumrebsa da maspinZels Soris gulisamaCuyebeli, tkiviliani mogonebebiT damZimebuli saubari gaimarTa. yvelas gaufuWda ganwyoba. maSin elenem gadawyvita RvinoSi dardis gamqarvebeli wamali Seeria: ( Enq au\t a[ll ejnovhs Elevnh Dio;~ ejkgegaui`a: aujtivk a[r eij~ oi\non [ j bavle favrmakon, e[nqen e[pinon nhpenqev~ t a[colovn te, kakw`n ejpivlhqon ajpavntwn. IV, 219-221).7 sakmarisi iyo, (es nazavi) cota daelia adamians, erTi cremlic ar wamouvidoda ded-mamac rom daxocoda
6

teqstSi moTxrobilia, rom es oqros jara elenes egvi ptis qalaq Tebes dedofalma alkandrem, mefe polibosis meuRlem, uZRvna (sxva saCuqrebTan erTad) IV, 125-132. 7 v. meris azriT, dazustebiT ar SeiZleba imis Tqma, ra wamali Seuria elenem Rvinos. plutarqes azriT, es pasaJi asaxavs elenes mWevrmetyvelebis jadosnur zemoqmedebas. Tanamedroveni ki fiqroben, rom elenem gamoiyena opiumi. 126

moulodnelad; an Zma an sayvareli Svili mis Tvalwin rom gaegmiraT basri maxviliT. aseTi wamali hqonda zevsis asuls (elenes). wamali mas egvi pteSi uboZa polidamnam, Toonis meuRlem. iqauri nayofieri miwa bevr samkurnalo da mavne, Sxamian mcenares aRmoacenebs. iqaurebi yvelani mkurnalebi arian, TavianTi saocari codniT sxva xalxs aRematebian, radganac peanis gvarisani arian (IV, 222-232). mas Semdeg, rac wamalSereuli Rvino Camoariges, elenem stumrebTan saubari ganagrZo (IV, 234-5): man jer menelaossa da stumrebs (saxelovani mamebis Svilebs ajndrw`n ejsqlw`n pai`de~: IV, 236) mimarTa: zevsi sxvadasxva adamians sxvadasxvagvar sikeTesa da borotebas ugzavnis; mas yvelaferi xelewifeba (ajta;r qeo;~ a[llote a[llw/ Zeu;~ ajgaqovn te kakovn te didoi`: duvnatai ga;r a]panta IV, 236-7). axla ki vrcel darbazSi dabrZanebulebs erT ambavs giambobT: yvelafers ver movyvebi, ver gavixseneb, rac mravalWirnaxulma odisevsma gadaitana, magram erTs mainc giambobT, rac troaSi gadaxda Tavs: (odisevsma) Tavisi Tavi gailaxa, ZonZebi Caicva da rogorc mona, dasazverad Semovida mtris qalaqSi. iseTi ieri hqonda, daglejil samosSi ise boganod gamoiyureboda, verc ki warmoidgendi, rom odesme aqavelTa gemebi nanaxi eqneboda. troaSi maTxovariviT Semosuli veravin icno, mxolod me mivxvdi, vin iyo (IV, 238-250). SekiTxvebs vaZlevdi, igi sityvas banze migdebda, magram mas Semdeg, rac davbane, tani zeTiT davuzile, Sevmose da diadi ficiT Sevfice (kai; w[mosa kartero;n o]rkon IV, 253), rom odisevss troelebTan ar gavcemdi, vidre gemebTan ar dabrundeboda, amis Semdeg aqavelTa yvela ganzraxva gamando (kai; tovte dhv moi pavnta novon katevlexen jAcaiw`n IV, 256). bevri troeli gangmira maxviliT da aqavelebs axali ambebiT daubrunda (IV, 257-8). troaSi glovobdnen, Cemi guli ki xarobda, eswrafoda Sin dabrunebas (aujta;r ejmo;n kh`r cai`r, ejpei; h[dh moi kradivh tevtrapto nevesqai a[y oi\kovnd IV,259-261). Zalian vdardobdi afrodites braliT Sors rom wavedi sayvareli samSoblodan, mivatove bavSvi, saqorwino sareceli, WkuiTa da silamaziT Semkuli meuRle (IV, 262-4). rogorc aRvniSne, xis cxeni aRwerili movlenebis centrSia: swored am cxenis Setanam ganapiroba troas dangreva. cxenis operaciis warmatebiT ganxorcieleba odisevss ukavSirdeba, amitom es laertidis yvelaze didi gmirobaa. moTxrobili ambebi TanmimdevrobiT rom davalagoT, aseT suraTs miviRebT: odisevsi Zalian did riskze wavida, rodesac mawanwalad gadacmuli Sevida troaSi, raTa daezvera iqauri viTareba, rom Semdgom aqavelebs
127

Sesabamisad emoqmedaT. troaSi mas gadaeyara elene, romelmac icno. elenem erTgulebisa da gauTqmelobis fici misca odisevss da misgan Seityo aqavelTa yvela ganzraxvis Sesaxeb. Sinaarsobrivi TanmimdevrobiT amas moyveba demodokosis mier moTxrobili ambavi: rogor aages da Seiyvanes troaSi xis cxeni, romlis muclidan gamosulma gamorCeulma aqavelebma TanamebrZolebs kari gauRes da troa gaacamtveres. demodokosis moTxrobas avsebs menelaosis monayoli, romelic, erTi mxriv, odisevsis windaxedulebasa da gonierebaze mianiSnebs, meore mxriv, elenes saqcielze dagvafiqrebs. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, troas omis ambebis mogonebiT guldamZimebul mamakacebs elenem RvinoSi wamali Seuria; es wamali aris nhpenqhv~ (tkivilis gamyuCebeli) da a[colo~ (dardis gamqarvebeli), kakw`n ejpivlhqon aJpantwn (yvelas cuds rom aviwyebs). vinc RvinoSi Sereul am wamals dalevs, erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi (ejf-hvmeron) gaxalisdeba da cremlic ar wamouva, uaxloesi adamianebic rom dauxocon. es wamali elenes egvi ptis dedofalma polidamnam aCuqa. meore egvi ptelma dedofalma _ alkandrem ki _ Zvirfasi jara. swored am jaraze beWavs elene qsovils, Tan stumrebs esaubreba da RvinoSi gamabruebel wamals urevs. mxolod gabruebuli da badeSi gabmuli adamianebi Tu aRiqvamen elenes monaTxrobs ise, rogorc es Tavad elenes surs (rasac aRwevs kidevac). elenes monaTxrobidan savsebiT naTelia, rom man icoda aqavelTa gegmebis Sesaxeb. rogorc Cans, xis cxenis Sesaxebac icoda. man odisevss erTgulebis fici misca. rogorc Cans, odisevsi endo elenes; laertidma monanie qalSi mokavSire dainaxa, magram sastikad Secda. elenem kinaRam daRupa aqavelebi (es iyo elenes meore ara nakleb saSineli Ralati). rom ara odisevsi, ara marto xis cxenis mucelSi myofi gmirebi daiRupebodnen, aramed es warumatebloba omSi berZenTa damarcxebis tolfasi iqneboda. elenes am saqcielze menelaosi ambobs: albaT, romeliRac borotma demonma Cagagona ase moqceuliyavi (IV, 274), raTa troelTaTvis dideba eboZebinao. ra gaakeTa elenem? rodesac troaSi xis cxeni Seitanes da bevri msjelobis Semdeg gadawyvites, qalaqSi RmerTebis samsxverplod daetovebinaT, RamiT cxenTan mividnen elene da misi axali meuRle deifobosi. elene cxens gars uvlida, ferdebs xels adebda da mucelSi myof gmirebs maTi colebis xmebiT uxmobda. rogorc Cans, elenem icoda, vin iqneboda xis cxenis mucelSi (igi mxolod mucelSi myofi gmirebis colebs baZavda). cxenis garSemovla (samjer Semouara) da sayvarel colebs danatruli kacebis gamoxmoba Zalian veragi xerxia (erT-erTi
128

folkloruli motivic. am epizodSi elene SeiZleba SevadaroT sirenas, romelic xmiT Rupavs mamakacebs). elene Tavis mzakvrobas warmatebiT daagvirgvinebda, aTena rom ar Careuliyo. cxenidan aqavelebis gamoxmobisas elenes axlavs Tavisi axali qmari, romelsac menelaosi RvTaebrivs uwodebs. is, rom deifobosi elenes imJamindeli qmaria, teqstSi aRniSnuli ar aris. troas ciklis gadmocemebis mixedviT cnobilia, rom parisis sikvdilis Semdeg elene deifobosis coli gaxda (Apollod. epit. V,9,22). es rom marTlac asea, iqidanac Cans, rom cxenis muclidan gamosvlis Semdeg aqaveli gmirebi sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT gaemarTnen da qalaqis gaCanageba daiwyes. odisevsi ki menelaosTan erTad deifobosis saxls miadga (sadac elene eguleboda). savsebiT naTelia, rom xis cxenis epizodi ormag datvirTvas atarebs: erTi mxriv, yvelaze TvalsaCinod warmoaCens odisevsis windaxedulebasa da gamWriaxobas, meore mxriv, yvelaze wamgebiania elenesaTvis. spartidan wasvlis Semdeg mas ase aSkarad da uRvTod (fici gatexa) ar umtria TavisianebisTvis. mxolod gabruebul, gonebadabindul adamians (adamianebs) Tu SeuZlia es ambavi aRiqvas ara ise, rogorc sinamdvileSi iyo, aramed ise, rogorc es elenes surs. am epizodSi Tavisianebis moRalate elene saintereso fiqcias qmnis da yvelas ajerebs Tavis erTgulebaSi. elene mizans aRwevs ramdenime saSualebiT: upirveles yovlisa, Tavisi imdroindeli statusiT _ igi kvlav spartis dedofalia, menelaosis meuRle (menelaosi mis Ralatze Tu Ralatebze an ar laparakobs, an RvTaebis nebas miawers). elene mqsoveli qalia (sirenac)8, SeuZlia Tavis badeSi moaqcios yvela, visac moisurvebs. amas emateba jadosnuri wamalic. saboloo jamSi, sparteli col-qmris mier moyolili xis cxenis ambebebis mosmenis Semdeg rCeba erTaderTi gancda _ troaSi RmerTebis nebiT gatacebuli elene mxolod aq, Tavis samSobloSi, sayvarel qmar-SvilSia bednieri. sxva yvelaferi misi nebis gareSe moxda. ismis kiTxva: ra mizani aqvs elenes mistifikacias?! mas xom statusi aRdgenili aqvs (kvlav spartis dedofalia), Tanac zevsis asuls warsuls aravin axsenebs. saqme isaa, rom odiseaSi ojaxisadmi erTgulebis uzenaesobaa wamoweuli. am poemis gmiri da misabaZi personaJia Ppenelope _ erTguli coli
oboba didi dedisti pis qalRvTaebaTa erT-erTi ikonografiuli insignia. cnobilia, rom mxolod mdedri oboba akeTebs bades. es obobebi Tavad irCeven mamr partniorebs da ganayofierebis Semdeg maT klaven. e.w. oboba-qalebi im semantikur mwkrivSi Sedian, romlebic mudmivad axali mamris ZiebaSi arian.
8

129

da deda. penelope klitemnestrasa da elenes (romlebic erTi dedis Svilebi arian) biZaSvilad ergeba. isini erTi Taobisani arian. am qalebs sxvadasxvagvari bedi ergo: klitemnestram mokla sakuTari qmari _ agamemnoni. elene mudam axali qmris ZiebaSia. mxolod penelopem SeinarCuna meuRlis erTguleba, man oci weli ucada odisevss da saarako saxeli moixveWa. Tu iliada elenes apoTeozia, odisea penelopes saxotbo poemaa. Sin, spartaSi, dabrunebul elenes surs hgavdes penelopes. swored amitom mimarTavs igi mistifikacias. amrigad, xis cxenis ambavi sami personaJis sajildao qvaa. odisevss am gmirobam uWknobi saxeli da yvelaze gonieri aqavelis statusi moupova. elenesTvis es (parisTan erTad gaqcevis Semdeg), rbilad rom vTqvaT, yvelaze saCoTiro epizodia. elenes xibliT gabruebuli menelaosi ki am faqtSi mxolod odisevsis vaJkacobasa da berZenTa gamarjvebis upirobo aucileblobas xedavs. ase rom, xis cxenis ambis interpretacia saintereso Strixebs hmatebs odiseas personaJebs. es aris Cinebuli nimuSi erTi ambis sxvadasxvagvarad warmoCenisa; sagulismo isaa, rom samive SemTxvevaSi erTi ram udavoa _ xis cxenis ideis sulisCamdgmeli da warmatebiT damgvirgvinebeli odisevsia. rogorc vTqviT, xis cxenis ambavi odisevsisTvis troas epopeis gvirgvinia. odisevsis vaJsac swored imitom uyvebian am ambavs, rom srulad gaicnobieros ucnobi mamis wvlili troas omSi da sxva berZen gmirTagan ganmasxvavebeli Tviseba _ Wkuaulevoba. Rusudan Tsanava

Three Interpretations for One Episode in the Odyssey


(The story of the Trojan horse) At the mention of the mythic cycle of Troy and the Homeric poems, a literate reader will promptly recall several flying phrases - first of all, `the apple of discord, `Achilles heel and `the Trojan (wooden) horse. These syntagmas may be regarded as signifiers which on the one hand represent highly important structural elements of the great myth, and on the other hand, correspond to a particular situation and denote quite a number of circumstances related to either everyday life activities or to general concepts. The story of the wooden horse is included in the Odyssey, which to a certain extent completes the Iliad. The reader is well aware that the Iliad describes several days in the tenth year of the war. As concerns the fall of Ilium, this happened with the help of a wooden horse, after the death of Achilles and Paris. The wooden
130

horse is not merely a mythic figure. It has a sacral function as the wall around Ilium was erected by gods (Apollo and Poseidon); and it was also under the divine will that Ilus found the site where the city was to be built. The paper will focus on three passages from the Odyssey. Since they all tell the story of the wooden horse, we are given an opportunity to read the same story in different ways or rather, to see how different characters can give an account of one and the same story. The first protagonist is Demodocus a blind aedios from Scheria (The Odyssey, Book 8). His story is true and unbiased, which is attested by Odysseus himself. The second and third stories are told by Menelaus and Helen (The Odyssey, Book 4). The paper pays particular attention to Helens story and the atmosphere she created before starting the conversation (she put a magic drug in the vine and was continuously spinning as she talked to Menelaus). According to the episode, Helen is an oath breaker and a traitor. However, she succeeds in dazing the listeners and picturing herself innocent (fiction). Evidently, the story of the wooden horse is very important to the three characters: through the courageous act Odysseus attains unfading glory and the renown of the shrewdest of all Achaeans. For Helen, it is the second most embarrassing event after her escape with Paris. Menelaus, dazed with Helens charm, discerns nothing in the event but the chivalry of Odysseus and the unconditional victory of the Greek people. So, the interpretation of the story about the wooden horse discloses some more interesting traits of the characters of the Odyssey. It perfectly illustrates how the same story can be related in three different ways. Anyway, what the three accounts have in common is the indisputable and invaluable role of Odysseus: he is the initiator and the chief implementer of the `wooden horse ploy; he is the crown of the Trojan epopee. Telemachus, son of Odysseus, is told this story in order to fully comprehend the contribution of his unknown father to the victory and his unparalleled property which made him different from other Greek heroes his infinite shrewdness.

131

ma qa marina qavTaraZe

Tbilisis v.sarajiSvilis sax. saxelmwifo konservatoriis asocirebuli profesori, musikis istoriis kaTedris gamge 2001w-dan dRemde), saqarTvelois kompozitorTa kavSiris gamgeobis wevri, kulturis, sportis da ZeglTa dacvis saministros musikis eqsperti. konservatoriis samecniero eleqtronuli Jurnalis proeqtis avtori da mTavari redaqtori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: qarTuli operis arqeti pis Sesaxeb tradiciul musikalur kulturaTa urTierToba da maTi transformacia ucxo kulturul garemoSi, `religia da axali qarTuli musika~, religia da musika totalitarul saxelmwifoSi (germanul enaze), vaimaris XIII saerTaSoriso kongresi: musika da kulturuli identuroba da sxv. samecniero interesebi: musikis istoria, kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebi, saopero sinTezis problemebi da sxv.

stili, rogorc niSanTa sistema postmodernistul xelovnebaSi XX saukunis sakompozitoro SemoqmedebaSi movlenaTa axleburi aRqma da gansxvavebuli, winaaRmdegobrivi tendenciebi damkvidrda. siaxle, upirveles yovlisa, stils rogorc niSanTa sistemas Seexo, romelic, musikaluri avangardisgan gansxvavebiT, SemoqmedebiTi meTodis germetiulobis kategoriuli uaryofiT aRiniSna. ukanaskneli meoTxedi saukunis xelovnebis mimarT gamoyenebuli terminebi, romlebic samusikismcodneo SromebSi gvxvdeba: neoromantizmi, neoeqspresionizmi, neoavangardizmi, neomodernizmi, postavangardizmi, postmodernizmi, transavangardi, axali simartive da sxva, miuxedavad maTi farTod damkvidrebisa, bundovanebiT gamoirCeva; magaliTad, postmodernizmTan dakavSirebuli saxelovnebaTmcodneo literaturis veeberTela plasti mis specifikas xelovnebis enis radikalurad axal konvenciaSi xedavs (1,54 ). amiT amoiwureba saerTo warmodgena postmodernizmis Sesaxeb. postmodernis musika Tvisebrivad axali movlenaa. amaze migvaniSnebs musikaluri leqsikis, gansxvavebuli mxatvruli Sreebisa da struqturis sinTezi, ganxorcielebuli siRrmiseuli Zvrebi, musikaluri stilisa da Sinaarsis doneze musikaluri xelovnebis socialuri funqciis transformacia

132

epoqidan realobis gandevniT, romelsac anarekli, refleqsia ganasaxiereben. musika kargavs Tavis Cveul orientirebs da msmenels aqcevs misi niSnebis gamSifravad, rac ar gamoricxavs kompozitoris mier erTi da imave mxatvruli kodis gansxvavebul gaazrebas. cxadia erTi, rom postmodernizmma dasavleTevropul xelovnebaSi ukve dakarga siaxlis efeqti, Tumca dResac inarCunebs aqtualobas. postmodernis esTetikis princi pulad axali niSania nawarmoebis bgeriTi iersaxidan mis qveteqstze yuradRebis gadatana, rac musikis sulier Sinaarss, mis ritualur, magiur mniSvnelobas aRadgens. am ti pis mraval nawarmoebSi magiuri saxiereba kacobriobis dauokebel ltolvas usasrulobisaken ganasaxierebs. gasakviri araa, rom am epoqis kompozitorTaTvis Zlier SemoqmedebiT stimulad aRmosavluri filosofia iqca. gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva wyaroebSi am movlenis qronologiac; postmodernis dasawyisad miiCneven XX saukunis 50-ian, 60-70-ian da 80-ian wlebsac. literaturaTmcodneobaSi damkvidrebuli terminis proecireba moxda xelovnebis yvela dargze, amasTanave, TiToeul maTganTan dakavSirebiT is kargavs cnebiT mkafioebas da droiT gansazRvrulobas. musikaluri postmodernis (da SesaZloa, saerTod postmodernis epoqis) periodizaciis mesame, bolo etapi ukanasknel or aTwleuls moicavs. dRes CvenTvis Znelia am periodis metnaklebad sruli daxasiaTeba. SegviZlia mxolod daRlilobis, amowurulobis mZafri SegrZnebis konstatacia: Tuki raime marTlac Rirebuli iqmneba isev Zvel miRwevaTa Tu aRmoCenaTa damuSavebisa da srulyofis xarjze. musikaluri postmodernis Sesaxeb msjelobisas jerjerobiT mainc mxolod garegnul maCveneblebs veyrdnobiT. isic unda iTqvas, rom ramdenadac musika Tavisi specifikiT gansxvavdeba xelovnebis sxva dargebisagan, istoriulad misi qceva friad TviTneburia da xelovnebis sxva dargebs fexs arc ise iolad uwyobs. ase rom, dResac literaturaSi, saxviT xelovnebaSi, arqiteqturasa Tu TeatrSi postmodernizmad wodebul movlenebsa da maT musikalur analogebs Soris xSirad mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa. amitom ufro gamarTlebulia musikaSi postmodernis epoqisa da misi mravalferovan gamovlinebaTa klasifikacia zogadi Tvisebebis da stilur niSanTa mixedviT. qarTulma postmodernzmma sakmaod farTo da nayofieri niadagi hpova CvenSic. postmodernistulma refleqsiebma araerTi qarTveli xelovanis, mwerlis, mxatvrisa Tu musikosis SemoqmedebaSi iCina Tavi. maT SemoqmedebaSi da esTetikur naazrevSi vxvdebiT iseT
133

gamovlinebebs, romelTac TavianTi stilistikiT sruliad aSkarad movaqcevT postmodernistuli kulturis arealSi. postmodernistuli teqstebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia: interteqstualuroba, ormagi kodireba, ekleqturoba, e.w. nonseleqcia, `TamaSis~ esTetika, pastiSis modelis gamoyeneba da, rac mTavaria, miswrafeba Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi asaxos msoflio kulturis mTeli gamocdileba misi citirebis (xSirad ironiuli citirebis) da aluziebis gziT; `Cveni dro TiTqos Semajamebelia, is axdens imave faseulobaTa gacnobierebas axal doneze~(2,19). miuxedavad imisa, rom dasavleTSi ukve laparakoben postmodernizmis Sesaxeb, saqarTveloSi igi jer kidev aqtiur fazaSia da jer ar Cans misi dasasrulis niSnebi. musikalur xelovnebaSi postmodernistul esTetikas Seesabameba gia yanCelis, Temur bakuraZis, ioseb bardanaSvilis, zurab nadareiSvilis, daviT evgeniZis nawarmoebebi, romelTa arsisa da mniSvnelobis adeqvaturad gaazreba mxolod postmodernuli kulturis konteqstSia SesaZlebeli. postmodernizmis gamovlenis formebidan da dinamikidan gamomdinare, statiaSi ganvixilav sami sxvadasxva Taobis kompozitoris _ gia yanCelis, ioseb bardanaSvilis da zurab nadareiSvilis Semoqmedebas. Cemi mizania ganisazRvros qarTveli kompozitorebis Semoqmedebis romeli Tvisebebi ukavSirdeba postmodernizmis esTetikasa da mis filosofiur Ziebebs. ganaxlebis procesma, romelic 60-ian wlebSi daiwyo qarTul musikalur kulturaSi, gagrZelda 80-90-ian wlebis xelovnebaSic. es iyo istoriulad determinirebuli aqti, romelSic gamovlinda drois specifika, SemoqmedebiTi TvalTaxedvis gafarToeba da XX saukunis II naxevris evropul xelovnebaSi mimdinare procesTa gaTavisebis survili. yovelive aman metateqstSi aRbeWdil pluralistul niSanTa kompleqsis saxe miiRo da kompozitorTa individualur stilSi Taviseburad airekla. gia yanCelis mier musikaluri masalis gaazreba, misi esTetika exmianeba postmodernistul filosofias, romelic, upirveles yovlisa, enaTa da xedvaTa pluralizms gulisxmobs da teqstis interpretaciaTa usasrulobas aRiarebs. intonaciuri sawyisi yanCelis SemoqmedebaSi mravalgvari interpretaciis wyaro xdeba. SesaZloa, swored amitom, ganurCevlad Janrisa, erTxel mignebuli intonaciuri kompleqsi misTvis Semdgom gamoyenebaSic saintereso rCeba da axal mxatvrul sinamdvileSi axal semantikas avlens. yanCelis Semoqmedebis konceptualuri xasiaTi leqsikur da korpusul interteqstualobas emyareba (3), rac mTel rig SemTxvevebSi
134

ara marto konkretuli sakompozitoro xerxebis, aramed tradiciasTan uxilavi kavSirebis donezec vlindeba. misi leqsikuri interteqstualoba tradiciuli musikis im sferos ukavSirdeba, romelic amaRlebulis, RvTaebriv-religiuris maradiul gancdas ukavSirdeba da pirvelqmnili Janruli iersaxiT da emociuri toniT funqcionirebs avtoriseul teqstSi paraleluri montaJis princi piT da masTan erTianobaSi qmnis mxatvrul mTels (mag., magnitur firze Cawerili sagalobeli - Magnum ignatum-Si). `ucxo teqsti yanCelis nawarmoebebSi Tavisi originaluri semantikiTa da esTetikiT Semodis da interteqstualuri mimarTebebis sxvadasxva wyaroTi sazrdoobs (i. stravinski, k. penderecki, a. Snitke, verdi-puCini, j. kaxiZe, b. kvernaZe da a.S.), romelTa urTierTobidan misi originaluri mxatvruli midgoma ikveTeba. xelovneba, upirveles yovlisa urTierTobaa da es urTierToba unda gavigoT ara yofiT sibrtyeSi, aramed rogorc sulieri naTesaobis momaswavebeli, azrTa gacvla-gamocvlis, maTi gaziarebis aucilebloba; swored aseTi midgomiT xelmZRvanelobs gia yanCeli, romelic cdilobs moicvas kacobriobis mier rogorc sinqronul, ise _ diaqronul WrilSi dagrovili faseulobani da `sakuTari~, `yanCeliseuli~, TviTmyofadobiT gamorCeuli stili Seqmnas `sxvis~ stilur niSan-simboloTa arekvlisa da asimilirebis safuZvelze . sxvadasxva istoriul epoqaSi movlenas, romelic stiluri winaaRmdegobis Sedegad Cndeboda, sxvadasxvagvari gaazreba da motivireba hqonda. postmodernisaTvis niSandoblivi sxvadasxva stiluri sistemebis Segnebuli kombinireba yanCelis dramaturgiis polaruli ti pis konfliqtis safuZveli xdeba da vlindeba sxvadasxva doneze: 1) dapirispirebuli mxatvruli saxeebis Seqmnisas sxvadasxvagvari warmoSobis intonaciuri da verbaluri teqstis gamoyenebaSi; 3) Janrul poligenurobaSi; 4) polistilistikaSi; 5) formaTqmnadobis da ganviTarebis montaJur princi pSi. stiluri aluziis Sesaqmnelad yanCeli wina epoqebis niSanTa sistemis intonaciur-semantikuri leqsikonis gamoyenebiT axdens asociaciuri meqanizmis amuSavebas. sxvadasxva stilur ganzomilebaSi qreba `maRali~ da `dabali~ Janrebis ierarqia, sadac Tavisuflad Tanaarseboben saopero monologi da SarJirebuli regtaimi, valsi, italiuri bel canto da sagaloblebis amaRlebuli stili, rac qmnis stilur siWreles, mozaikurobas (`da ars musikaSi~). epoqis aseTi Wreli, intonaciuri leqsikonis gamoyenebiT g. yanCeli qmnis erTgvar damakavSirebel arxebs, rac xels uwyobs musikaluri enis
135

`komunikabelobas~. amgvarad, winaaRmdegoba, romelic sxvadasxva stilur normativebs Soris warmoiSoba, mxatvruli formis erTerTi msazRvreli xdeba(4, 34-49). ioseb bardanaSvili ti puri samocdaaTianelia, romlisTvisac postmodernuli stiluri ekleqtika Semoqmedebis ZiriTad princi pad iqca. Tumca, aRniSnuli mis SemoqmedebaSi ganpirobebuli araa mxolod postmodernizmisaTvis damaxasiTebeli msoflmxedvelobiTa da interteqstualobis princi piT. misi stili a priori ekleqturia _ igi ori erovnuli kulturis, qarTulisa da ebraulis pirmSoa; da, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, Tanabrad aviTarebs am kulturaTa niSnebs Tavisi TviTmyofadi bierovnuli SemoqmedebiTi stilis farglebSi. saqarTveloSi dabadebuli, qarTul erovnul da profesiul tradiciebze aRzrdili kompozitori SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis pirvel periodSive interesdeba da iTvisebs ebraul erovnul kulturas, rac misi azrovnebis arqeti pSic gacxadda. 1995 wlidan ki istoriul samSobloSi sacxovreblad gadasul bardanaSvils israelis stilurad Wrel kulturul sivrceSi bunebrivad Seaqvs qarTuli erovnuli kulturis niSnebi. yovelive es mniSvnelovanwilad gamoarCevs mis SemoqmedebiT xelweras israelis multikulturul garemoSi, romelic sxvadasxva qveynis ebraul diasporaTa erTobliobiT Seiqmna. `Cveni saxe mdgomareobs imaSi, rom erTdroulad viyoT aziatebic da evropelebic~(i. bardanaSvili) istoriuli da geografiuli mizezebis gamo israelSi evropuli da aziuri elementebi arsebobs mentalobaSic da kulturaSic. is, rac XXI saukunisTvis gaxda ti puri stiluri pluralizmis TvalsazrisiT, israelSi arsebobda gacilebiT adre. ekleqtika Cadebuli iyo TviT israelis saxelmwifos ideaSi, romelic unda gamxdariyo mTeli msoflios ebraelTa TavSesafari. amis gamo israelSi aRiniSna kulturaTa iseTi ekleqtikuroba, rogoric ar SeimCneva msoflios arc erT qveyanaSi. bardanaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi postmodernizmi rogorc epoqaTa, samyaroTa Soris gawyvetili kavSiris aRdgenis simbolo, adreul periodSive iCens Tavs, magram wamyvan princi pad 90-iani wlebidan mkvidrdeba sakompozitoro praqtikaSi. `safexurebi~, `RvTis Svilebi~, kvarteti #2, opera `eva~... II simfonia da misi bolo opera `mogzauroba aTaswleulis bolos~ erTgvari Semajamebeli mniSvnelobis Txzulebebia, romlebSic `axali~ ekleqtikuroba koncefciuri datvirTvisaa. aq aTaswleulis musikaluri stilebis, enebis saSualebiT warimarTeba dialogi warsulsa da Tanamedroveobas, dasavleTsa
136

da aRmosavleTs, sxvadasxva erovnul sawyisebs, religiur-filosofiursa da yofiTs, zeciursa da miwiers Soris. ase xorcieldeba interteqstualuri procesebi gansxvavebul enaTa, modelTa, meTodTa gamoyenebiT. zurab nadareiSvilis SemoqmedebaSi postmodernistuli azrovneba 80-iani wlebidanve, anu SemoqmedebiT asparezze misi gamosvliTanave iCens Tavs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kompozitoris musikaluri azrovnebis Tavisebureba postmodernistulma esTetikam ganapiroba. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs polistilistikis mxatvruli meTodis gamoyeneba simfoniur poema `sagaloblebSi~, ormagi kodireba da ironia safortepiano trioSi /skercoSi/, gansakuTrebiT _ variaciebSi sulxan cincaZis Temaze fortepianosa da orkestrisaTvis, `Mon plaisir~-sa da operaSi `Aphaniptera da Formisidae~. rogorc Tavad avtori aRniSnavs, variaciebi sulxan cincaZis Temaze fortepianosa da orkestrisaTvis erTgvari gamoTxoveba iyo im drosTan, rodesac msgavs filmebs (`baSi-aCuki~) iRebdnen, patriotizmis im grZnobasTan, romliTac Tavad simReraa gamsWvaluli. nawarmoebSi erTgvari distancireba xdeba avtoriseul da cincaZis musikas Soris. citata filmidan JRers, rogorc warsuls Cabarebuli idealebis simbolo, romelic TanamedroveobaSi gaufasurda da moZvelda. kameruli orkestrisaTvis dawerili `Mon plaisir~-is aluziur bunebaSi, intonaciur da tembrul dramaturgiaSi isea SeTavsebuli barokos musikaluri idiomebi /Cembalos tembri, aluziebi da citatebi kuperenis, baxis Semoqmedebidan/ da sonoristuli, atonaluri epizodebi, rom erTdroulobaSi naCvenebi warsuli da awmyo `zedroulobis~ SegrZnebas badebs. `Mon plaisir~-Si gamovlinda z. nadareiSvilis postmodernistuli TvalTaxedvis ramodenime niSani _ stilis ormagi kodireba, pro-istoriuloba, aluziuroba. igi gamoixata rogorc nawarmoebis Canafiqrisa da ideis, ise _ musikalurgamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis doneze da efuZneba TamaSis esTetikasa da polistilistikas, rogorc xerxisa da saazrovno princi pis gamoyenebas. ti puri postmodenistuli pastiSia nadareiSvilis opera `Aphaniptera da Formisidae~, romlis libreto Tavad avtorma Seqmna, verbaluri teqsti orenovania, erTi _ qarTuli, xolo meore _ Taviseburi `abradakabra~, romelic italiur sityvebSi marcvlebis gadaadgilebaze aigeba. mas azrobrivi datvirTva ar gaaCnia da aixsneba zRapris koncefciis ironiuli modifikaciiT. Tavad avtors surda, rom rwyili da WianWvela yofiliyvnen ara `kuTxuri~, `provinciuli~,
137

aramed `ganaTlebuli~ personaJebi, romlebic `italiurad~, fsevdopaTetikurad imetyvelebdnen; swored amiT aixsneba, rom nawarmoebs hqvia ara `rwyili da WianWvela~ aramed, `Aphaniptera da Formisidae~. operaSi naCvenebia adamianis sxvadasxva xasiaTi-niRabi, romlebic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ar icvleba. ase mag.: Rori _ didi gurmani da esTeti; muxa _ gadamdgari generali; yvavi _ samasi wlis `kazanova~; Tagvi_msubuqi yofaqcevis lamazmani; ormo_buzRuna mezobeli; kata _ gauTxovari moralisti; Zroxa _ mravlismnaxveli qalbatoni/. nawarmoebi emyareba aseve opera _ bufas ti pur dramaturgias, mis formebs: reCitativi `Secco~, moqmed pirTa portretuli daxasiaTebebiT, moqmedebis dinamikuri ganviTareba, romlis ZiriTadi mamoZravebelia qmediTi ansamblebi. `Aphaniptera da Formisidae~-s musikaluri ena `Tavisi~ da sxvisi~ stilebiT TamaSs, mocartis operebis musikis aluziebisa da avtoriseuli stilis musikaluri idiomebis montaJs emyareba. amgvarad, axal qarTul musikaSi, axali ekleqtikis aqtualizaciis pirobebSi axal cxovrebas iwyebs pastiSi, simulakri / mag., yanCelis `da ars musikaSi~ Casmuli opera, bardanaSvilis operaSi ` mogzauroba aTaswleulis bolos~, nadareiSvilis `Aphaniptera da Formisidae~. termini `pastiSi~, ramdenadme fermkrTali semantikis miuxedavad (5,189), postmodernistul leqsikonSic da 80-90-ian wlebis Cvens qarTul realobaSic inarCunebs pozicias universaluri metaenobriobis gamo. tradiciulad igi gamoyenebuli stilebis, xerxebis imitirebas warmoadgens; Tavisi dasavluri prototi pis msgavsad, masSi Zlieria didaqtikuri intonacia da paTosi. magram saopero pastiSis istoriuli prototi pisagan gansxvavebiT postmodernistul xelovnebaSi igi ar warmoadgens sxvisi sakompozitoro teqnikebis `asortis~, an ama Tu im stiluri niSnebis skrupulozur citirebas an imitirebas. pastiSur kompoziciaSi kulturuli kodebi da enebi damiqsirebulia da winaswar tiraJirebuli Sablonebis kaleidoskops emsgavseba, romelic amasTanave individualuri sakompozitoro stilis gravitaciul velSia moqceuli. pastiSSi postmodernistuli weris ori magistraluri xazia Serwymuli pirdapir saavtoro metyvelebas enacvleba hi percitaturi mozaika da xdeba RirebulebaTa ierarqiis gaqroba. amasTanave, avtorisa da ucxo polistiluri teqstis urTierTdamokidebulebaSi ikveTeba maTi montaJis horizontaluri da vertikaluri ti pebi: 1) rodesac nawarmoebSi `sakuTari~ da sxvisi teqsti Tanmimdevrulad, garkveul droiT distanciazea ganfenili, da 2) rodesac isini simultanurad,
138

erT droiT monakveTSi, vertikaluri montaJis princi piT arian warmodgenilni. Zveli ekleqtikis da plagiatisagan gansxvavebiT pastiSi ar gulisxmobs istoriuli ritorikis seriozulobasa da punqtualobas, an epoqis rekonstruqcias. misTvis arc parodiisaTvis damaxasiaTebel kanonis daqveiTeba da gamartiveba aris damaxasiaTebeli. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pastiSi postmodernistuli tolerantulobis pirmSoa. masSi bufonaduri an groteskuli TamaSis elementebi kulturuli `arqivis~ desakralizaciis mizniT aris kombinirebuli. ekleqtika, romelic xelovnebaSi yovelTvis negatiur, plagiatobis tolfas movlenad iTvleboda, postmodernistul situaciaSi axali teqnikur-stiluri elementebis SekavSirebis xerxs warmoadgens da asaxavs Tanamedrove mxatvruli azrovnebis Taviseburebebs. ekleqtika (eklektos) _ berZnulad amovarCev, amovkreb, garkveulad, Segnebuli operaciis ganxorcielebas, ZvelSi axlis Ziebas gulisxmobs da Cveuli movlenaa arqiteqturisaTvis (orderuli stilebi). postmodernizmis periodSi ekleqtikis problemis semiotikuri zRvari ukavSirdeba mxatvruli teqstis, rogorc ormagi kodis mqone movlenis aRqmas, romelic gaTvlilia erTdroulad aRqmis sxvadasxva doneze. misi aqtualizaciis ganmsazRvrel faqtorad gvevlineba Tezaurus recipienti (msmeneli, mkiTxveli, mayurebeli) (6, 210-211). musikaluri teqstisadmi axalma midgomam moiTxova avtorisgan semantikuri mniSvnelobis mza masala. am mizans emsaxureba simboluri semantikuri, personificirebuli Tematizmi, romelic JanriT, stiliT ganzogadebis sagani xdeba. amitom kompozitoris `reJisoruli~ midgomis zeamocana aris masalis, xSirad `ucxo~ masalis arCevani, rac bevradaa damokidebuli avtoris sulier, inteleqtualur gamocdilebaze da mis profesiul mzaobaze. JanriT, stiliT TamaSi, mza masalis SerCeva citatis, kolaJis, aluziis, stilizaciis saxiT xorcSesxmis Taviseburi xerxia avtoriseuli koncefciis; stiliT ganzogadeba, stiluri pluralizmi, polistilistika saSualebas iZleva maqsimalurad iqnas gamoyenebuli msmenlis asociaciuri azrovneba, misi mxatvruli gamocdileba da inteleqti. musikalur nawarmoebSi Canafiqris realizebis mniSvnelovan xerxad warmogvidgeba SerCeuli masalis droSi organizebis xerxi _ anu dramaturgiuli da formaqmnadi principi. kompozitoris ~reJisoruli~ koncefcia originalurobisken iswrafvis, vinaidan musikaluri masalac da xerxic SeiZleba iyos ucxo, meoradi. amitom nawarmoebis specifikuri Taviseburebebi da avtoris
139

individualoba yvelaze naTlad swored sintaqsur, saxeobrivi elementebis urTierTdamokidebulebis sistemaSi da ara enobrivmorfologiur doneze vlindeba. gasuli ori aswleulis (XVIIIXIX ss.) musikalurma praqtikam gviCvena, rom, intonaciurTan SedarebiT, formaTqmnadobis sfero ufro naklebad reagirebda `epoqis siaxleebze~. Ees viTareba kardinalurad icvleba XX saukuneSi, vinaidan swored kompoziciis sfero ganicdis kardinalur ganaxlebas mxatvruli drois organizebis sxva princi pebis zegavlenis qveS. swored amis Sedegia, rom kompozitoris reJisoruli Canafiqri aucileblad Seicavs kompoziciur-dramaturgiul siaxles. amgvarad, Tanamedrove qarTul musikaSi, zemoaRniSnuli avtorebis SemoqmedebaSi, axali mxatvruli enis Camoyalibeba, romelic emyareba postmodernizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel axal ekleqtikas, ar niSnavs sxvisi stiluri niSnebis pasiur gamoyenebas, an sayovelTaod misawvdomi bgeriTi normativebis farTo gavrcelebas (es pop-kulturis prioritetia). stilis axlebur Tvisebriobas axal sakompozitoro profesionalizmis ganviTarebis farTo masStabi, axali enobrivi da Janruli formebis uwyveti Zieba ganapirobebs. swored maTi srulyofis Sedegad Cndeba axali klasikuroba da, Sesabamisad, stilis individualizaciis SesaZleblobac. literatura: damowmebuli literatura 1. C. jenksi, postmoderni gviani modernis winaaRmdeg// postmoderni rogorc `aseTi~, Tbilisi 1999w. ~, 2. . . , . ( .) //. 1988 10// 3. , . . 1998 . 4. qavTaraZe m. _ 80-iani wlebis qarTuli opera// Tb., Jurnali `xelovneba~ 1992 #9-10 5. . , . . 2001 . 6. . , . , 2002 .

140

Marina Kavtaradze

Stile as a system of signs


The article deals with the problem of style, as a system of signs in postmodern music for which unlike avant-garde music, is characteristic mixing of old and new forms and categorically refuses the hermetic sealing of creative process. The goal of the article is to reveal stylistic traits conditioned by the esthetics of post- modernism in modern Georgian music. Examples are brought from the musical pieces of Gia Kancheli, Joseph Bardanashvili, Zurab Nadareishvili and others. The new semiotic essence of post- modern musical text with double codes demanded from the authors ready-made materials of semantic meaning, which accounts on its simultaneous perception on different levels. In the article the problems like inter text, new eclectics, double coding, play on styles and genres, pastiche etc are discussed.

141

irak li

mW mWedliSvili

abelur da kaenur tradiciaTa dro-sivrciTi simbolizmi


filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, kinomcodne, inJiner-fizikosi. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `cifruli gamosaxuleba da eidosuri xati~, `kosmosi, sivrce-dro da virtualuri realoba~, `perspeqtiva _ aRorZinbidan cifrul gamosaxulebamde...~... samecniero interesebi: amJamad ori mimarTulebiT vmuSaob: pirveli, xmelTaSua zRvis kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa safuZvlebSi ganmsazRvreli da dReisaTvisac sagulisxmo msoflSegrZnebiTi, anu dro-sivrciTi xasiaTis konceptebis gamovlenaSepirispireba. da meore _ `arTroni, anu elinuri azrovnebis is simboluri winaforma, romelmac Semdgomi, dasavluri kulturis msoflSegrZnebiTi mimarTeba ganapiroba.
1

didi frangi ganmanaTlebli, Jan-Jak ruso ornaxevari saukunis win mqadageblis SemarTebiT amtkicebda, rom im adamians, romelmac pirvelma SemoRoba miwa da ganacxada _ es Cemia! _ gulubryvilo adamianebma daujeres da Robe ar moarRvieso. da swored am momentze gadis, rusos azriT, is wyalgamyofi, romlis Semdgomac adamianTa Tanacxovrebis wesi Tavdapirveli bunebrivi Tanasworobis nacvlad arasamarTliani sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifoebrivi wyobiT Seicvala.1 SeiZleba mTlianobaSi frangi moazrovnis xedva calsaxad ueWveli da sarwmuno arc adre iyo da arc dRes aris, magram is Sexeduleba, rom civilizaciis warmoSobas safuZvlad miwis SemosazRvris aqti, anu miwaTmoqmedebis damkvidreba daedo im droidan moyolebuli sayovelTaod misaReb cnebad rCeba. rusos negatiuri damokidebuleba yvelaferi imis, maT Soris, kulturisa da mecnierebis mimarT, rac, misi azriT, saxelmwifos warmoSobasa da Sesabamis uTanaswoix.-T, Jan-Jak ruso: narkvevi adamianebSi uTanasworobis warmoSobasa da mis safuZvlebze (- . ., -, 2000, . 51)

142

robis Camoyalibebas ukavSirdeba ganpirobebuli, etyoba, mainc im epoqisaTvis saxasiaTo xedviT (aspeqtiT) iyo. ganmanaTleblobis Semdgom da masTan erTad, germanuli klasikuri filosofiac kacobriobis ganviTarebas erTian da calsaxa istoriuli procesis saxiT warmoidgenda, rac, saboloo angariSiT, xels evropocentristuli tendenciis damkvidrebas uwyobda. amgvari xedviT sakacobrio civilizacia warmoCenilia iseT aRmaval erTianobad, sadac evropuli done umaRles safexurad miiCneva, xolo yvela danarCeni _ igive procesis wina an ganviTarebaSeCerebul safexurad aRiqmeba. marTalia, mTeli XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi aseTi, progresistuli xedva safuZvlianad Seirya (Spengleri, ortegai-gaseti, toinbi, hantingtoni, biukeneni), magram bolo drois maRali teqnologiebiT ganpirobebuli msoflios SemWidroebis sul ufro yovlismomcveli da gamWoli procesi iseT globalur sinamdviles qmnis, sadac erTian, sakacobrio civilizaciaSi yofnis SegrZneba kidev ufro mZafr elfers iZens.. arada, bolo aTwleulebis destruqciul da katastroful movlenaTa rigi harmoniuli erTianobisaken svlis STabeWdilebas sulac ar tovebs. bi polaruli msoflios daSlis dawyebidan Cavlili droc sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom globalur uwesrigobaTa da permanentul SeSfoTebaTa mizezebi ufro Sors, Zireul safuZvlebSi veZioT. xolo safuZvlebis gadaxedvisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas isic, rom ganviTarebis evoluciuri xedva evropuli civilizaciis svlis mxolod zedapirul-qronologiur suraTis sqematuri warmodgenaa da rom, TviT am civilizaciisa da miT ufro sxva saxis civilizaciaTa Camoyalibebas iseTi kulturuli faqtoric apirobebda, romelic sayovelTaod miRebul sworxazovan, aRmavali ganviTarebis koncefcias mTlad ver eTanadeba. zemoT ukve aRniSna, rom Tanamedrove SexedulebiT civilizaciis warmoSoba dakavSirebuli miwaTmoqmedebis SemosvlasTan, anu momTabare cxovrebis binadrobis, mkvidrobis wesiT Secvlis procesis dawyebasTan aris. istoriul movlenaTa rigi am mosazrebis utyuar, logikur dasabuTebas iZleva, magram, amavdroulad, igive rigi siRrmiseul, qronologiur-xazovani dinebis miRma arsebul, Tanamdev kulturul xdomilebebs verSemCnevis saburvels qveS tovebs.
2

termini kultura (laT. cultura), rogorc cnobilia, ciceronma iqamde mxolod agraluri (agri-cultura) mniSvnelobis _ miwis damuSaveba, movla _ analogiiT SemoiRo. 143

marTalia kulturis cneba dasabams swored miwaTmoqmedebis Semosvlidan iRebs,2 magram ukuqmedebiT igi ufro adreul movlenebzec ganivrcoba. cxovrebis wesi, romlis Camoyalibebasac adamianma aTaseuli wlebi moandoma (cxovelTa moSinaureba, maTi movla da marTva, garemosTan adaptacia da a. S.) swored kuturaa, radgan Seqmnili adamianis ZalisxmeviTa da mondomebiT aris. amasTan, kulturis es ti pi, romelic dResac cocxlobs, gansakuTrebuli cnobierebis, abeluri ti pis adamiansa da Sesabamis socialur erTobas ayalibebs. da amitomac, kulturulogiuri kvleva qronologiuri sworxazovnebidan momdinare monacvleobasTan erTad da zogjer nacvlad, Zireul dayofa-diferenciasac unda iTvaliswinebdes. 1. abelur da kaenur tradiciaTa konfliqti. aha, magdeb dRes miwis pirisagan da unda mivefaro Sens saxes; devnili da miusafari viqnebi amqveynad da yovel Semxvedrs SeeZleba Cemi mokvla. (dab. IV, 14). kvlav-da-kvlav ismis Civili, radgan sasjeli, romelic kaenma Zmis mkvlelobis gamo daimsaxura mis STamomavalT aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi Tan sdevs. da uWvelia, rom wminda werilis teqstSi ZmaTamkvlelobis adamianuri codvis ukan is dapirispirebac igulisxmeba, romelic kacobriobas Tan, aseve aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi sdevs. abelisa da kaenis saxiT erTmaneTs adamianTa ori ti pi an kulturaTa ori Zireuli forma daupirispirda da bibliuri ambavic am movlenas simbolurad gvamcnobs. dacemis Semdeg samoTxidan gamoZevebul adamsa da mis modgmas RmerTma saarsebod iseTi dawyevlili miwa dauwesa, sadac mxolod ZeZvi da ekali aRmocendeba. unda vigulisxmoT, rom kaeni ganwesebas: da mindvris balaxi iyos Seni sazrdo (dab. III, 18), ar dasjerda da miwis damuSaveba daiwyo. aqedan moyolebuli, miwis zedapiris funqciuri erTgvarovneba dairRva, velze iseTi adgili gaCnda, sadac mxolod adamianis sazrdo moipoveboda. mesaqonle abels es siaxle, saZovarze akrZaluri adgilis gamoCena, ra Tqma unda, ar moewonebodada movlili nakveTis gapartaxeba arc kaens unda moswoneboda. konfliqtis gadaWris mcdeloba _ uTxra kaenma Tavis Zmas, abels: gavideT velad (dab. IV, 8) _ tragikulad dasrulda, velma orive ver daitiada es, kacobriobis istoriaSi umniSvnelovanesi, bibliis mier simbolurad moTxrobili, TiTqos mxolod kerZo, yofiTi safuZvelis mqone dapirispireba kvlav grZeldeba, radgan arsebobas kulturaTa safuZvlebSi ganagrZobs. civilizaciis calsaxa ganviTarebis bolo saukuneebSi
144

damkvidrebulma mecnierulma xedvam am dapirispirebis gadaWra ki ara, mxolod droebiTi miCqmalva, SeniRbva SesZlo. problemis konceptualur gagebasa da Sesabamis konstruqciuli gzebis Ziebas inerciisa Tu sxva, pragmatul mosazrebaTa gamo saTanado yuradReba, rogorc ukanaskneli movlenebi cxadyofen, arc dRes eqceva. Jan-Jak ruso cdeboda, roca ambobda, rom imas, vinc miwis nakveTi pirvelma SemoRoba da daisakuTra, sxvebma daujeres da Robe ar moarRvieso. arRevdnen da mere rogor! abelisa da kaenis dramatuli dapirispireba kacobriobis istoriaSi uSualodac da ufro metad, faruli saxiT mravaljer ganmeorebula. kulturaTa safuZvlebSi gadasuli velisa da mindvris konfliqtis muxti sazogadoebebsa da civilizaciebs Soris dapirispirebaTa da daZabulobaTa gaRvivebis mudmivmoqmed wyarod iqcda da axlac aseTad rCeba. bibliis mixedviT _ kaeni miwaTmoqmedia, abeli ki _ mwyemsi, mejoge. simbolurad, es adamianTa is ori tipia, romelic Tanamedrove kacobriobis dasabamidan, anu mas Semdeg arsebobs, rac binadarma tomebma xeli miwis damuSavebas, xolo momTabareebma mejogeobas mihyves. orive ti ps sakuTari cxovrebis wesisa da saqmianobidan momdinare gansakuTrebuli wes-Cveuleba da tradicia Camouyalibda. miwaTmoqmedi xalxi, bunebrivia, swored imis gamo, rom binadrobis, mkvidrobis wess misdevs, sabolood qalaqebis Seqmnamde midis (sagulisxmoa, rom biblia pirveli qalaqis Semqmnelad kaens moixseniebs). es ukve binadrobis meore fazaa, romelic pirvelTan SedarebiT dafuZnebisa da sivrciTi SemWidroebis ufro maRali xarisxiT gamoirCeva. saerTod ki, binadar xalxTa arseboba da saqmianoba drois niSniT xasiaTdeba: sivrcis mkacrad SemosazRvrul areSi fiqsirebulni TavianT qmedebas isini usasrulo xangrZliobad warmodgenil drois kontinuumSi, moiazreben. momTabare da mejoge xalxi ki piriqiT _ arafers xangrZlivs ar qmnis da arc momavals epotineba. samagierod, sivrce maTTvis sul axal da axal, SeuzRudav SesaZleblobaTa area. ase rom, kaenis simbolizms Seesabameba SekumSvis princi pi, romelic warmodgenili droiTi xangrZliobis mixedviT aris, xolo abelisas _ gaSlis, anu ganvrcobis principi, romelic sivrciTi ganzomilebiT xasiaTdeba. sxvanairad, kaenis modgmis tradicias, kulturas SeiZleba intensiuri (laT. intentio _ daZabva, gaZliereba) ewodos, xolo abelisas _ eqstensiuri (laT. extentus _ gaWimva, dagrZeleba, gafarToeba).

145

Zireul, dro-sivrciT mimarTebaTa Sesabamisad orive kultura gansxvavebul simboloebs, ritualebsa da tradiciebs warmoSobs. miwaTmoqmedi xalxi, imis gamo, rom metwilad saqme fiqsirebul, uZrav obieqtebTan, nivTier sagnebTan aqvs, vizualur simboloebs, xatebs qmnis. arsobrivi mniSvnelobis mixedviT vizualuri xati sivrciT formamde, geometriul sqemamde daiyvaneba. momTabare an mejoge xalxebisaTvis yvelaferi rac maT garkveul adgils miabavs, maT Soris xatic, akrZalulia. amitomac isini mudmivi gadaadvilebis mdgomareobisaTvis erTaderT Sesatyvis, xmovan simboloebs qmnian. magram xedviT (vizualur) aRqmas mimarTeba sivrcesTan, xolo smeniTs (audios) _ drosTan aqvs. ase rom, mgrZnobelobiT doneze ZiriTadi principebis erTgvari Sebruneba xdeba: kaenur-miwaTmoqmedi, anu intensiuri kulturis xalxi, romelTa arseboba droiT xangrZliobas eqvemdebareba plastikur, anu sivrciT formebs qmnian (arqiteqtura, skulptura, ferwera), xolo, abelur-mejoge, eqstensiuri kulturis xalxi piriqiT, droSi ganfenads _ fonetikurs (musika, poezia). aRniSnuli Zireuli gansxvaveba aseve gansxvavebul msoflaRqmasa da Sesabamis mentalur-socialur garemos ayalibebs. kaenur, intensiur kulturebSi mowesrigebis princi pi sivrcesTan erTad, rogorc wesi, adamianur erTobazec ganivrcoba _ individ-atomad gancalkevebuli adamianebi garkveul, drois TanmimdevrobaSi gardamaval socialur (ierarqiul) da struqturul mTlianobaSi erTiandebian. abeluri ti pis xalxebi ki, usazRvro da erTgvarovani ganvrcobis tendenciis Tanaxmad ufro koleqtiur qmedebaze orientirebul da morCilebaSi Tanaswor, egalitaruli ti pis (patriarqalur an tomobrivad Tanaswor) socialur erTobebs qmnian. yovel zemoT gamoTqmul mosazrebas mxolod Teoriuli xasiaTi aqvs. praqtika, cxovreba, istoria, rogorc wesi, gacilebiT ufro mravalferovani da mdidaria. Teoriuli hi poTezebica da martivi konceptebic swored sinamdvilis xdomilebaTa urTulesi wnulis ukan garkveuli sazrisis an kanonzomierebis aRmosaCenad iqmneba. wminda saxiT xsenebuli eqstensiur an intensiur kulturebi (civilizaciebi) ar gvxdeba, miT ufro mas Semdeg, rac kacobriobam, Zalze umniSvnelo nawilis gamoklebiT, mkvidrobis cxovrebis wesi airCia. da swored es movlena badebs iluzorul xedvas _ Tu cxovrebis wesi TiTqmis yvelgan erTnairia, maSin kulturac, civilizaciac metnaklebad erTnairi da homogenuri unda iyos.

146

miamituri ironiiTa da erTgvari niSnisgebiT, SeiZleba iTqvas _ rogorc Cans, yofiereba cnobierebas yovelTvis ar gansazRvravs miuxedavad imisa, rom msofliom, karga xania, TiTqos unificirebuli politikuri formebi airCia (saxelmwifoTa dasazRvra, marTvis sistema, saerTaSoriso samarTali da a. S.), yovel calkeul qveyanaSi imas, rasac realobas an cxovrebiseul sinamdviles uwodeben mkafiod Camoyalibebul (racionalurad gaweril) normebTan erTad da zogjer maT nacvladac, is fenomeni gansazRvravs, rasac tradicias uwodeben. sityva tradicias maincdamainc calsaxa mniSvneloba arc adre hqonia da mas Semdeg ki, rac velurobisa da barbarosobis (polit) koreqtul sinonimad iqca, misi terminuli gamokveTiloba xom sul gafermkrTalda. es sityva TiTqmis yvelafers, rasac adamiani odesme Sexebia, primitiuli wes-Cveulebidan umaRles sulier da religiur gancdamde, esadageba. da radgan, rogorc zemoT iTqva, Teoriuli koncefciebi cxovrebaSi wminda saxiT iSviaTad xorcieldebian, amitomac yovel kulturaSi Zireuli, abeluri an kaenuri, tendenciis tradiciis saxeliT moxsenieba ufro marTebuli iqneba. nebismier kulturaSi civilizaciis es ori dasabamiseuli tendencia (an tradicia) erTdroulad arsebobs. gansxvavebas sxvadasxva socialur Tu erovnul organizmebs Soris am oridan erTerTis prevalireba ganapirobebs. amasTan, es prevalireba saukuneebSi gamotarebuli erT-erTi tendenciis mdgradi TanaobiT xasiaTdeba _ yoveli civilizaciis an kulturis ti pi swored am niSnis mixedviT ganisazRvreba. Tumca, TviT kulturis SigniT ganmapirobebeli tradicia yovelTvis calsaxad dominirebadi ar aris. magaliTad, abeluri tradiciis zeobis klasikur gamovlenas, arabul islamur saxelmwifos (xalifats) sawyisis sruliad sapirispiro, kulturis intensiuri ganviTarebis periodic qonda. IX-X saukuneebSi arabulma kulturam iseT maRal dones miaRwia (filosofia, astronomia, medicina, alqimia, maTematika da sxv.), rom zogjer am periods musulmanur renesanssac uwodeben. elinistur sivrceSi, romelic xalifatis sazRvrebSi moeqca antikur-berZnuli kulturis SeWra da difuzia ukve TiTqmis aTasi wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda. am kulturis pirvelwyaroebis (ZiriTadad aristoteles naSromebis) aTvisebisa da gaTavisebis mcdelobam arabuli kulturis ganviTareba intensiur kalapotSi TavisTavad Caagdo. sabolood es procesi, ra Tqma unda, jer Senelda

147

da mere SeCerda, radgan wonaaRmdegobaSi Zireul, eqstensiur tradiciasTan movida. xolo, meore mxriv, imave intensiur-kaenuri tradiciis klasikuri gamovlena, antikur-elinuri polisuri kultura balkaneTis naxevarkunZulidan wina aziaSi Zalismieri gadatanis Sedegad eqstensiur ti pSi gardaisaxa (aleqsandre makedonelis imperia). Tumca, es magaliTi, sapirispiro poziciidan ganxilvisas, ufro imis dadasturebas warmoadgens, rom axlo aRmosavluri arealis mentalursocialur tradicias Zalze myari fesvebi aqvs. da swored fesvebidan momdinareobis kuTxiT xedvas an zemoT Camoyalibebuli Tvalsazrisis mixedviT civilizaciis svlisaTvis Tvalis miyolebas paradoqsul, istoriuli xasiaTis xdomilebaTa sawinaaRmdego daskvnamde mivyavarT. rogorc cnobilia, Zveli samyaros pirveli samiwaTmoqmedo tradiciebi xmelTaSua zRvis aRmosavleTidan mimdebare regionSi Caisaxa. da Tu zemoT gamoTqmuli koncepcia sworia, Tu dafuZneba, miwis damuSaveba kaenur tradicas warmoSobs, maSin yoveli civilizacia, romelic am regionSi Camoyalibda upiratesad intensiuri tradiciis matarebeli unda yofiliyo. sinamdvileSi, tradicia, romelic am regions axasiaTebs, rogorc istoriuli warsuli da dRevandeloba gviCvenebs, eqstenciuri xasiaTisaa. da es sruliad logikuria, radgan, rogorc Zveli wyaroebi adastureben am arealSi samiwaTmoqmedo kulturis Camoyalibebamde da mas Semdegac, momTabare da mejoge tomTa gacxovelebuli mimosvla mimdinareobda. bunebrivia, xalxTa mimoqcevis mborgav okeaneSi warmoSobili samiwaTmoqmedo kunZulebi (SuamdinareTis nayofieri miwebi mTeli am regionis Zalze mcire nawilia) damoukideblad da TavisTavad ver ganviTardebodnen. Tumca, meore mxriv, uZvelesi civilizaciebis warmoSobis miwaTmoqmedebasTan dakavSireba TavisTavad ar unda gulisxmobdes imas (da aq unda iyos swored progresistuli xedvis cTomis an erTgvari aberaciis piroba), rom agraluri kultura yovelTvis abelur tradicias efuZneba. rogorc Cans, Sromis organizaciis is kooperaciul-koleqtiuri forma, romelic am civilizaciebSi arsebobda (Tundac sarwyav-melioraciuli sistemebi) mxolod abelur-eqstensiuri tradiciis xalxs SeeZlo Seeqmna. cnobilia, rom xmelTaSua zRvis samxreT da samxreT-aRmosavleT regionebis, afrikuli da aziuri nawilis momTabare-mejoge tomebma SuamdinareTisa da nilosis sanapiros aTviseba Cvens welTaRricxvamde VI-IV aTaswleulSi daiwyes. amis erTerT mTavar mizezs ki, rogorc
148

istorikosebi gvarwmuneben, klimatis Secvla warmoadgenda. gamyinvarebis daTbobis periodiT Secvlis sawyisi etapis maRali sinotive mejoge-momTabare tomTa arsebobisa da farTod ganvrcobis xelsayrel pirobas qmnida. Semdgom periodSi niadagisa da haeris gamoSrobam (imdenad, rom afrikis CrdiloeT sanapiro da arabeTis naxevarkunZuli TiTqmis mTlianad udabnod iqca) am regionebSi ganbneuli uricxvi tomis mdinareebTan daaxloeba-mibma gamoiwvia. is faqti, rom uZvelesi saxelmwifoebi mxolod wyaluxv bunebriv arteriaTa gaswvriv warmoiSven swored adreul an mdinaris civilizaciaTa abelur, eqstensiur arss warmoaCens. saerTod, wyaldidobisa da Waobis senis, malariis epidemiis mudmivi saSiSroebis gamo mdinareTa mimdebare teritoria samosaxlod uvargisad miiCneoda.3 amitomac, im droisaTvis sakmaod rTuli melioraciuli sistema ara mxolod stabiluri mosavlis miRebis, aramed aRniSnul saSiSroebaTagan Tavdacvis mizniTac iqmneboda. mcire mdinareTa SezRuduli resursi ki, wylis saregulirebel arxTa masStaburi qselis Seqmnas TavisTad gamoricxavda. sruliad pragmatuli midgomiT, xelsayreli mxolod did mdinareTa damorCileba SeiZleba yofiliyo. momTabare tomTa eqstensiuri xasiaTis Zalisxmevac tramalebis nacvlad wyaluxv da welgrZel mdinareTa mocva-aTvisebisken warimarTa. ase rom, SeiZleba sruliad garkveviT iTqvas, rom miwaTmoqmedebas, romelic did mdinareTa gaswvriv Camoyalibda safuZvlad ara dasazRvra-gamocalkevebis, anu SemWidroebis, aramed mocva-ganvrcobis princi pi daedo (sarwyavi qseli da miwayrilebi wylis mocilebis an Sekavebis, e. i. teqnologiuri saWiroebis gamo da ara dasazRvris, mizniT iqmneboda). arada, civilizaciis calsaxa ganviTarebis koncefcia, romelic inerciisa Tu gauazreblobis gamo Cveul SexedulebebSi, rogorc wesi, aSkara an faruli saxiT dResac Tanaobs aRniSnul gansxvavebis moments ver amCnevs. Tu civilizacia zogadad saTaves miwaTmoqmedebidan iRebs, maSin logikuria, rom ganviTarebis drosivrciTi xazi an veqtori mimarTuli mesopotamiidan da saerTod am regionidan, evropisaken unda iyos. magram igive veqtoris ukumimarTulebiT mkacr da calsaxa ganvrcobas uazrobamde mivyavarT

unda aRiniSnos, rom istoria mdinareTa aTvisebisa (melioracia, WaobTa amoSroba da a. S.) Zalze xangrZliv periods moicavs. fernan brodelis mixedviT, evropaSi es procesi mxolod XX dasawyisisaTvis dasrulda (ix.-T, . . ., 2002) 149

_ iq, sadac miwaTmoqmedebaze dafuZnebuli intensiuri cxovrebis wesi ar Camoyalibda civilizacia saerTod ar unda arsebobdes hoda, uazrobisgan Tavis dasaRwevad sruliad garkveviT unda aRiniSnos, rom axlo aRmosavleTis regionebSi aTaswleulebis win gaorebuli Zireuli tradiciis eqstensiuri Stos Sesabamisi (abeluri) samiwaTmoqmedo civilizacia Camoyalibda. da es adreuli, warmoSobiT eqstensiuri xasiaTis civilizaciebi intensiurSi ver gardaisaxebodnen, radgan miRweuli ganviTarebis donis SenarCuneba mxolod kvlavganmeorebadi eqstensiuri ZalisxmeviT SeiZleboda. garemomcvel, dapirispirebul momTabare tomTa mogeriebas, maT gandevnas an damorCilebasa da saxelmwifoSi CarTvas yoveli adreuli civilizacia isev ganvrcobis princi pis Zalismieri SenarCunebis saSualebiT axersebda. momTabare tomebis wvlils uZveles civilizaciaTa SeqmnaSi mravali istoriuli wyaro da mkvlevari adasturebs _ am regionSi arsebuli yvela eqstensiuri ti pis saxelmwifo warmonaqmni dasabams afrikul-aziuri momTabare tomebidan iRebs (dReisaTvis gaurkveveli mxolod Sumerebis warmomavlobaa. mesopotamiis Semdgom saxelmwifoebs arabeTis naxevarkunZulidan gamosuli _ aqadelebi, arameelebi, qaldevelebi _ semituri tomebi qmnidnen. amas garda, igive arealSi da egvi pteSic Cv. w. a.-mde II aTaswleulSi ariuli tomebis, ariebis, anu giksosebis, mZlavri migraciac aRiniSneboda). ase rom, makedonelis laSqrobidan dawyebul dasavluri intensiuri kulturis eqpansias aq, am regionSi aTaswleulebSi Camoyalibebuli, Rrma eqstensiuri tradicia daxvda. arabuli universaluri saxelmwifos, xalifatis geografiuli moxazuloba, toinbis dakvirvebiT, aTasi wliT daSorebuli aqemeniduri iranis SemosazRvras TiTqmis zustad imeorebda.4 xolo, aqemeniduri irani, Tavis mxriv, asirielTa dawyebuli saqmis gamgrZelebeli iyo. asirielebi _ babilonelebisa da a. S. am rigis damakavSirebel, gamWol RerZs swored Zireuli, aTaswleulebSi gardamavali tradicia warmoadgenda. da Tu dRes CamoTvlilis msgavsi warmonaqmni, universaluri saxelmwifo axlo aRmosavleTSi aRar arsebobs, es aRniSnuli tradiciis moSlas sulac ar gulismobs. kultura, mentaloba, socialuri garemo an, Tu gnebavT, msoflaRqma aq aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi upiratesad abeluri ti pisa iyo da dResac aseTad rCeba.
4

ix.-T: . . . ., 2003, 443

150

xolo kaenuri, samiwaTmoqmedo tradicia, romelic intensifikaciasa da lokalizacias TavisTavad gulisxmobs, bunebrivia, swored iq ganviTardeboda, sadac garemo SedarebiT mSvidi arsebobis pirobebs qmnida. amgvari viTareba mxolod Zveli samyaros centridan moSorebiT, periferiul regionebSi, Znelad misadgom, mTagorian adgilebsa da xmelTaSua zRvis kunZulebze SeiZleba yofiliyo. antikur-berZnuli polisuri civilizaciac swored amgvar arealze dafuZnebuli tradiciis ganviTarebis Sedegia. 2. elinTa civilizaciuri bade. berZeni barbarosebis, aqavelebis balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze SeWris Semdeg adgilobrivma tomebma (pelasgebma) sruli asimilacia ganicades. Tumca, meore mxriv, mikenuri civilizacia, romelic am SemoWris Semdeg peloponesze damkvidrda, sawinaaRmdego procesis, Tavad barbarosTa kulturuli asimilaciis Sedegia. minosur kulturas, romelic am regionSi berZnebis SeWramde batonobda, Zalze ganmxoloebuli, lokaluri xasiaTi qonda (kunZuli kreta da msgavsi materikuli fragmentebi). mikenuri kultura erTi mxriv, wina, am regionSi arsebuli kulturis gagrZelebas warmoadgenda, xolo, meore mxriv, aqadelTa jer kidev SerCenili eqstensiuri tendenciis gamovlenis Sedegic iyo. balkaneTis naxevarkunZulis sakmaod vrcel teritoriaze mikenuri kultura (an civilizacia) swored am tendenciis wyalobiT ganivrco. mikenuri ti pis sasaxleebi da maT garSemo arsebuli dasaxlebani (mikeni, tirinfo, pilosi, aTeni, Tesalia) saberZneTis sakmaod vrcel teritoriaze, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTgvar civilizaciur qsels qmnidnen. da es, rogorc homerosi uwodebs, oqrouxvi da Zlevamosili civilizacia yvelaze didi saomari warmatebis Semdeg, troaze gamarjvebidan sul mokle xanSi daemxo. Cv. w. a.-mde XIII saukunis bolos dawyebulma CrdiloeT da Crdilo-dasavleT balkaneTidan SemoWril barbaros berZenTa doriuli tomebis Semosevam mikenuri kulturis done ukan TiTqmis aTasi wliT dawia. am, dacemis epoqaSi, rogorc varaudoben Cv. w. a.de VIII saukuneSi mcxovrebi homerosi winare, iliadas gmirTa xanas oqros saukuned amitomac moixseniebda. magram, rogorc berZnebis magaliTidan Cans, intensiuri kulturis fesvebs Sesaferis, stabiluri ganviTarebis pirobebSi axali, cxovelmyofeli ylortebis gamotana yovelTvis SeuZlia _ klasikuri antikur-berZnuli kultura da civilizacia, romelic dacemis doriul periods moyva wina, mikenuri kulturis aRorZinebad SeiZleba iyos miCneuli.
151

da aq, xazi berZnebis istoriaSi gamovlenil erT saintereso da sagulisxmo moments unda gaesvas. balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze Semosvlis Semdeg aqadelebma Zlevamosili mikenuri civilizaciis Camoyalibebas daaxloebiT Svidi saukune moandomes. dacemis dasawyiss, romelic dorielTa Semosvlas moyva da klasikur, polisuri civilizaciis Camoyalibebis periods drois TiTqmis igive xangrZliobis monakveTi yofs. es magaliTi imis TvalsaCino gamovlenaa, Tu ra mZime da xangrZlivi procesia saWiro imisaTvis, rom Zireuli tradiciis erTi forma (am SemTxvevaSi abeluri) meoreSi (kaenurSi, anu intensiurSi) gadaewyos.5 axlo aRmosavluri regionis kulturuli tradiciis wina daskvnis gaTvaliswinebiT ganxilvisas aSkara xdeba, rom im regionSi, sadac ramodenime aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi momTabare da mejoge modgmis xalxTa permanentuli (uwyveti) gadaadvileba mimdinareobda miwaTmoqmedebaze dafuZnebul kulturas TviTganviTarebis saSualebas, anu xelSeuxeblobis pirobasa da saWiro dros aravin miscemda. antikur-berZnuli polisuri civilizaciis warmoSobam gza im droisaTvis sruliad axal mimarTulebas gauxsna. Tu winare, xmelTaSua zRvis regionSi gabneuli intensiur-samiwaTmoqmedo kulturebi lokalizaciis arsobriv princi ps ver scildebodnen, berZnebma sakmaod vrceli regionis sistemuri mocvis precendenti Seqmnes. Zireul elements, anu atoms am sistemisa berZnuli qalaqi, polisi warmoadgenda. polisi taZrebisa da sasaxleebis garSemo gaSenebuli dasaxlebisgan, adreuli qalaqisgan gansxvavebuli wyobis warmonaqmns warmoadgenda. da aq kosmiuri wesrigisa da harmoniis xseneba SeiZleba miCneuli ganbnevis, gadaxvevisa Tu abstraqtuli Temis naZaladevad Semotanis mcdelobad iyos. Cvens saazrovno tradiciaSi miwisa da cis opozicias fesvi gamjdari Rrmad aqvs. antikuri periodis berZnuli azrovneba ki, swored aseTi dapirispirebis morigebis mcdelobaa. daSveba imisa, rom samyaro erTiania da es is punqtia, saidanac berZnuli azrovneba, filosofia iwyeba, intensifikaciis procesis kanonzomieri gagrZelebaa.
5

saintereso da sagulisxmoa, rom brodeli, romelic ufro gviani Suasaukuneebis xmelTaSua zRvis regions ikvlevda msgavs daskvnamde midis: , . ( . ., 2002, c 116)

152

TaRliTi, rogorc ruso uwodebs, anu kaeni miwis SemoRobvis aqtiT ara mxolod Zmas (TanamoZmeebs) daupirispirda, aramed axali codvis gamosyidvis, xeluxlebeli bunebis Selaxvis, samyaros qmnadobaSi Setanili sakuTari wvlilis gamarTlebis aucileblobis winaSec dadga. albaT, swored SemosazRvruli nakveTisa da usazRvro velis erTian mTlianobad warmodgenis (an gaerTianebis) aucilebloba daedo sababad samyaros Zvel berZnul metafizikur-kosmiur dasabuTebas. piTagoreli filolaosi, romlis naSromebis mixedviTac platonma Tavisi kosmiuri esTetika (dialogi timaisi) Seqmna, amtkicebda: buneba da samyaros wyoba Sedgenili usazRvrosa da ganmsazRvrelis mier aris, aseve _ mTeli samyaro da yvelaferi, rac masSi aris.6 xolo imis TvalsaCinod warmosadgenad, rom samyaros wyoba da yvelaferi, rac masSia sazRvrisa da usazRvros SeerTebis Sedegad aris Seqmnili, filolaoss swored samiwaTmoqmedo magaliTi moaqvs. mindorze, filolaosis dakvirvebiT, erTdroulad da erTad miwis samgvari nawili arsebobs, erTi, romelic sazRvrebisagan Sedgeba, meore _ sazRvrebisagan da SemousazRvravi nakveTebisagan Semdgari, romlebic erTdroulad sazRvraven da arsazRvraven, xolo mesame _ SemousazRvravi sivrce. marTalia, am or, erTmaneTTan arc igiveobiT da arc msgavsebiT dakavSirebul sawyiss, sazRvarsa da usazRvros piTagorelTa azriT (zogadad ki, antikuri msoflxedviT), kosmiuri harmonia aerTianebs, magram es Sexeduleba mxolod cidan motanili ar yofila. realur adamianur sazRvrebSi, anu fsiqikaSi bunebis usazRvro da Slegi Zalebis anareklis arsebobas jer kidev wina, dionisur-orfevsuli (orgiastuli) tradicia uSvebda. xolo, pragmatul sferoSi, samiwaTmoqmedo da yofiT tradiciaSi ki, usazRvros SemosazRvris geometriuli gadawyvetis aTaswlovani gamocdilebac arsebobda. da swored amitom, kaenuri tradiciis kulturaSi, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, dafuZnebidan momdinare dasazRvris, anu formis micemis princi pi socialuri urTierTobis sferosac unda Sexeboda. is faqti, rom sityva kosmosi () Tavdapirvelad adamianTa kanonzomier ganlagebas (meomarTa wyobas) aRniSnavda da cis TaRs mxolod Semdgom miesadaga, swored gamoTqmul mosazrebas unda adasturebdes.
6

, . ., 1979, VIII, 7, 85. 153

amitom, filolaosis mier mindorze sazRvrisa da usazRvros SeTavsebis motanili magaliTi ara SemTxveviTi, aramed swored arsobrivi tradiciidan momdinarea. da axla, Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom antikuri periodis berZnebis warmodgeniT, sferuli formis kosmoss harmoniis kanonis Tanaxmad miwaze wre Seesabameba, maSin miwis nakveTebis ganlagebac mTlianobaSi ciklur formas unda qmnides. samiwaTmoqmedo nakveTebiT garSemortymuli antikuri qalaqi, anu polisi swored am modelis realur xorcSesxmas warmoadgenda. berZnebis warmodgeniT, Tu adamiani cvlis bunebriv garemos, sazRvravs da acalkevebs mis garkveul nawilebs, maSin dedamiwis dasaxlebuli areali, anu oikumena sferuli cis TaRis kosmiur harmonias mxolod aRniSnuli polisuri konfiguraciiT unda morgeboda. amasTan, imave harmoniis kanonidan gamomdinare, wriuli princi piT agebuli an nakveTTa rgoliT Semofargluli polisis Sida sawyisi, anu centri gare rgolebTan (maT Soris SemousazRvrav, anu aqtualur usasrulobis princi pis mixedviT, isev rgolur formasTan) proporciul damokidebulebaSi unda yofiliyo. aseT adgils polisSi agora warmoadgenda. xose ortega-igaseti, erTgan, agoras bliTis (rusebi rom eZaxian, -is) cariel xvrels adarebs. da am xumrobanarev SedarebaSi simarTlis natamali namdvilad aris _ agora ara marto wriuli dasaxlebis Canasaxuri sawyisia, aramed (da amavdroulad), SemousazRvravis pirveladi SemosazRvris kvalic aris da amis gamo, polisis gareT darCenil usazRvro aresTan simbolur-proporciuli mimarTebis matarebelicaa.7 agora is adgilia, sadac miuxedavad sicarielisa, intensifikaciis process sivrculi SemWidroebis xarisxi ukiduresad maRal donede miyavs. es momenti imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom intensiur da eqsteniur tradiciaTa dapirispirebis wina topologiuri Sesatyvisi, veli-mindori (an -nakveTi), veli-agoraTi SeiZleba Seicvalos, radgan am, meore wyvilis kontrasti ufro mkveTri, TvalSisacemi da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, ufro damaxasiaTebelic aris. amas garda, agoras, am cariel ares, erTgvari Savi xvrelis msgavsi Tvisebac SeiZleba mieweros. mas TiTqos yvelafris mizidvis unari aqvs _ adamianebisac da imisac, rac adamians Seuqmnia. mimocvlisa
7

is faqti, rom agora xSirad marTkuTxa formis iyo, gamoTqmul mosazrebas ar ewinaaRmdegeba _ yvela swori geometriuli forma elinTaTvis wresTan miaxloebis saSualebas warmoadgenda (wris kvadratura) 154

da Sexvedris adgilad yofnis es funqcia metad mniSvnelovania, radgan agoras, Tanamedrove gagebiT, adreuli an pirveli sajaro velic ki SeiZleba ewodos. aq sagnobrivTan erTad (agoraca da romauli forumic upirvelesad sabazro moednebia) konceptualuri da simboluri gacvlac xdeboda. kacobrioba agorasagan davalebuli politikur-demokratiuli formebis garda im koncefciebiTa da ideebiTac aris, romelic, mamardaSviliseuli kalamburi rom movixmoT, agoraze gorviT Camoyalibda rogori Zlieric ar unda yofiliyo agoras veli, intensiuri kulturis kristalizaciis polisuri areali tradiciul-lokaluri mocvis farglebs mainc ver scdeboda. antikur-berZnuli kultura Seecada mTel oikumenas civilizaciuri sistemis, anu isev kosmiuri analogiidan momdinare polisuri badis saSualebiT gaswvdomoda. magram, balkaneTis naxevarkuZulis garda, calkeuli polisuri warmonaqmnebi, koloniebisa da savaWro faqtoriebis saxiT, dasavleTiT, mxolod kunZul siciliaze, apeninisa da pireneis naxevarkunZulTa xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiroebze, xolo, aRmosavleTiT, mcire aziasa da umniSvnelo raodenobiT, Savi zRvispira regionSi daarsda. polisuri civilizaciis ganvrcobis Semdgom mcdelobas, aleqsandre makedonelis SeWras axlo aRmosavleTSi, marTalia, sababad aqemeniduri iranis dasavleTiT mimarTuli agresia daedo, magram, samxedro-politikurTan erTad, am qmedebas kaenuri tradiciis kulturis farTomasStabiani eqspansiis mizanic hqonda. elinizmis epoqa, romelic am ori, antikuri-elinuri da aRmosavluri tradiciis Sexvedras moyva ufro, SeiZleba iTqvas, kompromisul-ekleqtikur morigebas, vidre romelime tradiciis dominirebas gulisxmobda. sabolood ki, aleqsandre makedonelis imperiis an ufro sworad, misi daSlis Sedegad warmoSobili saxelmwifo warmonaqmnebis politikuri sistema kvlav adgilobriv, aRmosavlur, anu eqstensiuri ti pis tradicias daefuZna. xolo, polisuri civilizaciis, anu kaenur-intensiuri tradiciis tarebisa da ganvrcobis funqcia am, elinistur periodSi romma ikisra. 3. romauli meboZiri. berZnebisagan gansxvavebiTa da maTive gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romaelebma civilizaciuri sistema ara policentrul, anu polisuri badis princi ps, aramed erTi centris, erTi polisis modelze daafuZnes. aqedan moyolebuli, ocneba-idea: romi _ msoflio centri an msoflio mbrZanebeli yvelaze did politikur sacdurad iqca. da es gasakviri sulac ar
155

unda iyos, radgan civilizaciis centrebidan daSorebuli patara dasaxlebis moqalaqeTa droTa maradiul erTianobaSi moazrebuli swrafvis saswaulebrivi xorcSesxma adamianTa warmosaxvas dResac aRafrTovanebs. im drois romaelTa suliskveTeba ki, rogorc Cans, ocnebasTan erTad sruliad pragmatul xedvasac moicavda. universaluri saxelmwifos romauli proeqtis mixedviT, gansxvavebul tradiciaTa morgeba ara berZnulis msgavs polisuri kristalizaciis TavisTavad process, aramed marTvis racionalurad gaTvlil imperiul princi ps unda ganepirobebina. Zalauflebis (imperium-is) ganvrcoba aq, am sistemaSi gansakuTrebuli meqanizmiT, Tanamedrove eniT, marTvis teqnologiebiT, komunikaciuri arxebiT xorcieldeboda. saxmeleTo da sazRvao gzebis kargad awyobili qseli informaciisa da saqonlis mimocvlasTan erTad mobilur romaul legionTa imperiis nebismieri nawilis im droisaTvis Zalzed swraf misawvdomobasac uzrunvelyofda. Sesabamisad, sajaro velic, berZnuli, atom-agorul kvanZTa badisgan gansxvavebiT, komunikaciuri qselis wyobas imeorebda, rac romauli forumis imperiis nebismier wertilSi erTgvar (Tanamedrove terminologiiT, virtualur) Tanadaswrebas gulisxmobda. da, rogorc Cans, romauli qseluri modeli ufro efeqturi aRmoCnda, radgan, gansxvavebiT berZnul-agoruli, wriulad ganvrcobadi da aseve, Tanabrad da swrafad milevadi velisagan, komunikaciuri arxebis mWidro kalapotSi Casmuli forumis Zalxazebi ufro mimarTulad da ganbnevis gareSe vrceldeboda. aseve mniSvnelovania, rom centridanuli ganvrcobis garda am arxebiT periferiidan centrisken mimarTul dinebaTa gatarebac xdeboda. magram, mTeli es biofizikuri simbolizmi imperiuli meqanizmis mxolod sqematur warmodgenas iZleva. ufro organuli an cocxali wvdomisaTvis albaT isev kulturis is fena unda iyos moxmobili, sadac daleqili adamianur-grZnobadi mimarTebis elementebic aris. marTalia, RvTaebaTa romaul panTeons mTlianobaSi berZnulis analogiurad miiCneven, magram, miuxedavad amisa, calkeul RvTaebaTa magaliTi gansakuTrebuli da mniSvnelovani daskvnis gamotanis winapirobas mainc moicavs. adreul-romauli RvTaebis, ianusis (Janus) kultisa da xatis am kuTxiT ganxilva dro-sivrciTi xasiaTis Zalzed sagulisxmo gaazrebas avlens. antikur epoqamde an iupiteramde upirvelesad miCneuli romauli RvTaebis, ianusis erTi, moxuci saxe mimarTuli yovelTvis warsulisken,
156

xolo, meore, axalgazrda ki _ momavlisaken iyo. Zalze saintereso da, zemoT gamoTqmuli mosazrebis (kaenuri tradiciis droiT mimdevrobaze orientirebis) gaTvaliswinebiT, sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom gadmocemis mixedviT, ianusma adamianebs ara marto drois aTvla, aramed miwaTmoqmedebac aswavla. magram, imave gadmocemis an miTosis mixedviT, droiTis garda, ianusis kulti sivrciTi xasiaTis datvirTvasac atarebda _ yvela gasasvlel-Sesasvleli (kari, karibWe, TaRi, sarkmeli da a. S.) am RvTaebis mfarvelobas (gamgeblobas) ganekuTneboda. ianusis kultSi, rogorc Cans, Zireuli, kaenuri tradiciis dro-sivrciTi mimarTebis orive mxare, rogorc droiT xangrZlivobaze orientirebis, aseve sivrciTi SemWidroebisa da formirebis tendenciac aisaxeboda. ufro zustad, sivrciT mowesrigebas, anu dasazRvras am RvTaebis kulti TavisTavad, aucilebeli saxiT gulisxmobda (radgan gamyofis an SemzRudavis gareSe gasasvlelSesasvleli azrs kargavs). rac Seexeba TviT gamyofs _ sazRvars, mijnas an samans, mas ianusis Svili, RvTaeba terminusi (laT. Terminus) mfarvelobda, romelic miCneuli ianusis avatarad an inkarnaciad (xorcSesxmad) SeiZleba iyos. magram, meores mxriv, ianusuri Riobi abeluri sivrculi ganvrcobis sadar sivrceTaSorisi gamWolvis SesaZleblobasac uSvebda. amis gamo, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom romaul (miTosur) msoflxedvaSi erTgvari sinTezis iseTi elementi arsebobda, romelic abeluri tradiciis usazRvro ganvrcobis tendenciis kaenur dasazRvra-formirebis princi pTan morgeba-Tanaarsebobis pirobas qmnida (uSvebda). amitomac, mTeli oikumenas agora-Canasaxuri CanergviT mocvis berZnuli modelisagan gansxvavebiT, romauli civilizacia igive miznis miRwevas CarTva-ziarebis princi pis saSualebiT cdilobda. TviT es princpi ki swored im arqaul-romaul msoflaRqmas unda efuZnebodes, sadac kaenuri tradicia berZnul kosmiurmiTosuris msgavs erTianobamde misuli jer kidev ar iyo. rogorc Cans, ori Zmis sabediswero dapirispireba is universaluri motivia, romelic pirveladi dayofis gardamavl periodebs axasiaTebs. rogorc cnobilia, momTabare ebraelTa tomebis dafuZneba ierusalimis taZris aSenebis Semdeg moxda. ase rom, bibliur legendebSi, gansakuTrebiT daviTis mefobamde mainc, swored ebraelTa gardamavali, dafuZnebamdeli periodis movlenebi da msoflSegrZnebaa areklili. mejoge-momTabaruli tradicia da mimarTeba gansakuTrebiT
157

naTlad pirvel wignebSi aisaxeba, magaliTad, mohxeda ufalma abelsa da mis ZRvens. xolo kaensa da mis ZRvens ar mohxeda. (dab. 4, 4-5) marTalia, romauli legendis simpaTia, bibliuris sapirispirod, mkvleli Zmis mxaresaa, romulusi xom romis damaarsebelia, magram aRwerili movlenebis xasiaTi aqac igive, gardamaval situaciaze migvaniSnebs. amasTan, sainteresoa, rom legendis fabula tradiciaTa jer kidev mkveTrad daunawevrebeli Tanaarsebobidan kaenur tradiciaze gadasvlis aucileblobas sinTezis elementiT amagrebs _ velze, mwyemsebTan erTad mcxovrebi Zu mglis rZiT gamokvebili tyupi Zmebi, remusi da romulusi warmomavlobiT dakavSirebuli qalaqTan (alba-longasTan) arian. ase daemarTeba yvelas, vinc Cemi qalaqis kedlebis (zRudeTa) gadalaxvas gabedavs! _ romulusis es sastiki, Zmis mkvlelobis argumentiT Semagrebuli muqara jer mxolod CanafiqrSi arsebuli sakuTari qalaqis (romis) momavali xelyofis asacileblad aris gamiznuli. Tumca, TviT mkvleloba TiTqos yofiTi incidentis Sedegia _ remusi romulusis saqmianobas, miwis CiCqnas upativiscemlod, dacinviT moepyro (sasazRvro miwis Txrils gadaaxta). da imas, rasac Cven dRes, am gadasaxedidan, mxolod sinamdvilis araTanxvedri interpretacia SeiZleba vuwodoT, konfliqtis monawileTa xedviT sruliad sxva mniSvneloba hqonda. ori gansxvavebuli mentaluri realobis mimarTeba aseve gansxvavebul, araziar da Sesabamisad, SeuTavsebel fsiqikur pozicias warmoSobs. ukidegano velis wiaRSi laR da SeuzRudav arsebobas Cveuli remusi Zmis an, misi warmodgeniT, misive alter ego-s ucnaur saqmianobas saseirod da gasarTobad unda ganewyo. Tanxmoba an ufro sworad, korespodensuri (gaziareba-mimocvliTi) mimarTeba ZmaTa fsiqikur mdgomareobaTa Soris ver damyardeboda, radgan miwis TxrilSi Camdgari romulusi sul sxvagan, droTa maradiuli dinebis kalapotSi imyofeboda gauziarebeli an ganuxorcielebeli fsiqikuri energiebi ki, katastroful, feTqebadsaSiS situaciebs warmoSobs. SeiZleba danamdvilebiT iTqvas, rom dafuZnebuli cxovrebis wesis Tanmdevi da ganmapirobebeli dasazRvris princi pi pragmatul-samiwaTmoqmedosTan erTad, xsenebul, fsiqosocialur momentsac iTvaliswinebda. adreuli periodis instiqtur SiSze dafuZnebuli tabu-akrZalvis
qarTuli krZalva-akrZalvac amasve unda asaxavdes. sabas gamarteba _ krZalva ars sifrTxiliT damarxva risame, anu darideba _ swored mowiwebiTi da ara kategoriul-represiuli xasiaTisaa.
8

158

garda da zogjer, mis nacvladac, aq, am etapze wminda adamianuri, grZnobad-emociuri (miTosuri) aRqmidan momdinare sakralizaciis meqanizmi amoqmedda. xelSeuxeblobas am droidan, ara mxolod uxilav, numinozur ZalTa mfarveloba an fizikur- materialuri Zalmosileba (iaraRi, zRude, galavani da sxva), aramed krZalvamowiwebiTi mimarTebac ganapirobebda8. marTalia, cneba sakraluri, rogorc Cans, memkvidreobiTi inerciiT, magiur SiSsac gulisxmobs (wyevla, xTonur RvTaebebTan wargzavna laT. sityva sacer-is erT-erTi da etyoba, adreuli mniSvnelobacaa), magram dafuZnebis periodidan am cnebas ufro Tayvaniscema-kurTxevis datvirTva eZleva. laTinuri zmna, sacro-s upirvelesi mniSvneloba _ kurTxeva, raimes wmindad, xelSeuxeblad da urRvevad gamocxadeba (Seracxva), swored amis dasturi unda iyos. mowiweba-Tayvaniscemas, aqedan moyolebuli, wina, Seucnobadi da ucnobi, gaugebari da uxilavi, anu gaurkvevel, numinozur, Zrwolismomcvel ZalTa sanacvlod sruliad garkveuli, saxeldebuli da gansaxierebuli, rogorc wesi, adamianuri ieris, anTropomorfuli arsebani imsaxureben. uformo an arnaxul mistikur arsebaTa adamianur ganzomilebaSi gadmosvlis Semdeg da Sedegadac, sakralizacia msxverpSewirvis ritualis obieqts, TviT msxverplsac Seexo _ saxeldebuli, cnobili, anu kurTxeuli is adamianic xdeba, romelic adre ritualis mxolod pasiur, sagnobriv nawils Seadgenda (kurTxeva ars gandideba saxelisa misisa _saba). saxeliani msxverplidan gmiramde ki erTi nabijia. gmiri iseTi adamiania, romelic garemo-pirobebis an ukuRmarTi bedisweris moZalebas heroikuli, Tavganwiruli, e. i. sakuTari Tavisa Tu sakuTari keTildReobis msxverplad mitanis pirobis momcveli qmedeba-aqtiT upirispirdeba da umklavdeba. da radgan droTa maradiul dinebaze orientireba sakralur sferosTan uwyvet kavSirs, anu saniadago memkvidreobiTobas gulisxmobs, gmirebTan da adgilis RvTaebebTan erTad am sferos gvarisa Tu Temis winaparTa manebi da geniebic emateboda (laT. manes _ micvalebulTa sulebi; genius _ suli, calkeuli adamianis, gvaris an adgilis). ase rom, romaul toposze, ufro swored, miwis zedapiris dasazRvrul areze sivrcis SemWidroebasTan erTad, sakraluri xasiaTis, anu sulieri bunebis fenomenTa Tavmoyra-damagrebac xdeboda, rac, Tavis mxriv, droTa Tanmimdevrobaze orientirebasa da amgvari fsiqo-fizikuri erTianobis gardamavlobas ganapirobebda.
159

ianusuri principis mixedviT, sakralizirebul toposTa romaul erTianobaSi CarTva ara sazRvarTa moSliT, anu eqstensiuri ganvrcobagadafarviT, aramed mediatoruli gamWoli Riobis saSualebiT xdeboda. romauli saxelmwifos ziar sivrcul wyobas swored toposuri sazRvrebis gaswvriv RiobTa, mediatorul-komunikaciur arxTa (an gzaTa) arseboba ganapirobebda. ase rom, gamoTqma, yvela gza romSi midis, simbolurTan erTad, pirdapir, uSualo Setyobinebasac gvamcnobs _ romi yvelaze didi gzaTa Sesayari, meboZiria!... romauli saxelmwifo, pirvel rigSi, swored kaenur-intensiuri tradiciis ganvrcobis Sedegia da elinuri polisuri civilizaciis memkvidred misi miCneva mxolod am faqtoris gaTvaliswinebis Semdeg SeiZleba. marTalia, zogi mkvlevari an koncefcia romaul kulturas meoreulad, antikur-berZnulis saxecvlilebad miiCnevs, magram aseTi midgoma, rogorc Cans, mainc analogiurobidan momdinare aberaciis an cTomis Sedegia. romauli arqiteqturac, qandakebac, Teatrica da filosofiac, ra Tqma unda, elinuridan momdinareobs. amasTan erTad, romaul panTeonSi Sesuli laTinizebuli berZnuli RvTaebani ori kulturis erTianobisa da maT Soris gardamavali kavSiris arsebobis STabeWdilebas kidev ufro damajerebel iers aZlevs. magram, es yvelaferi gviandeli respublikisa da imperiis swored mizanmimarTuli morgeba-CarTvis politikis Sedegia. Tavdapirvelad ki, romulusis mier dafuZnebuli dasaxleba, gadmocemisa da legendis mixedviT, sword berZnebTan dapirispirebuli qalaqis (kulturis) troas memkvidred cxaddeboda (Zmebi, remusi da romulusi troadan gamosuli gmiris, eneosis STamomavlebad miiCnevian). Tu romauli legendis qronologias davujerebT, Tu romi marTlac Cv. e-mde 753 wels daarsda, maSin gamodis, rom berZnulelinuri civilizacia ara Soriaxlo, mezoblad, ara mxolod zRvis meore mxares an kunZul siciliaze, aramed uSualo siaxloveSi, TviT naxevarkunZulzec Tanaarsebobda. istoriuli wyaroebi gvamcnoben, rom adreulSic da gansakuTrebiT ki, klasikur epoqaSi italiis teritoriaze mraval berZnul faqtoriasTan erTad, elinuri civilizaciis uaRresad mniSvnelovani centrebic arsebobda (piTagorizmi, eleelebi). ase rom, rogorc Cans, romi Tavidan elinuri civilizaciis alternatiuli warmonaqmnis funqcias asrulebda. sagulisxmoa, rom gamalebuli daaxloeba an romis elinizacia mxolod Cv. e-mde II saukunidan, anu mas Semdeg daiwyo, rac romma
160

saberZneTi sabolood dai pyro. pirquS laciumSi xelovnebaTa SetaniT datyvevebulma saberZneTma ukmexi dampyrobi Tavad daatyveva _ horaciusis es gamonaTqvami, ra Tqma unda, poeturi hiperbolizaciis magaliTia. sinamdvileSi romauli civilizaciis safuZvlebs an sayrdenebs cvlileba ar ganucdia, ZiriTadi Rirebulebani (RvTaebaTa da winaparTa Tayvaniscema, samarTali, samoqalaqo Rirseba da sxva) adreuli romidan imperiis bolo dReebamde, yofiT doneze Tu ara, oficialurad mainc, erTnairad dominirebdnen. marTalia, elinurma xelovnebam romis iersaxe Zalze TvalSisacemad Secvala, magram, imavdroulad da ufro gvianac, romaul sivrces kvals aRmosavluri kulturac amCnevda (Tundac, vTqvaT, pompeas kedlis mxatvroba, romelic egvipturi zegavlenis magaliTia). da, saerTod, elinuri kultura (ZiriTadad, xelovneba da filosofia) miRebuli mainc ufro romauli sazogadoebis zeda fenaSi iyo. istoriuli wyaroebi cxadyofen, rom mosaxleobis an moqalaqeTa mniSvnelovan nawilSi aRmosavleTidan Semosuli sxvadasxva religiuri kultisa Tu wes-Cveulebis gavrceleba ukve gviani respublikis periodidan iwyeba. imperiis dacemiswina wlebSi ki, rogorc cnobilia, am tendenciam masobriv epidemiis saxe miiRoda aseTi mdgomareobis, aseTi aRrevis mxolod imperiis arealSi moxvedril mraval kulturaTa Soris mimdinare urTierTdifuziisa Tu urTierTmorgebis TavisTavadi, spontanuri procesiT axsnis mcdeloba arasakmarisTan erTad aradamajerebelic unda iyos. arsobrivi wvdomisTvis sagulisxmo miniSnebas an biZgs arc ukve Zalze zogadi, sayovelTaod miRebul mtkicebad qceuli abelur da kaenur anu intensiur da eqstensiur kulturaTa dapirispirebis konstatacia mogvcems. xsenebul konteqstSi elinur polisur civilizaciasac da romaul universalur saxelmwifosac erTnairi, cnebiT-nominaciurad uZravi da xisti gansazRvreba-adgili eZleva. arada, zemoT ukve aRiniSna, rom kaenurma tradiciam xmelTaSua zRvis CrdiloeT nawilSi civilizaciis ori precedenti Seqmna. miuxedavad imisa, rom orive am regionSi arsebul ufro Zvel, abeluri tradiciis aRmosavlur civilizaciebs upirispirdeboda, TiToeulis arseboba ganpirobebuli saerTo tradiciis gansxvavebuli msoflgancdiTi ganazrebiT iyo. transcendenturisken, kosmiuri harmoniisaken mimarTulma elinurma azrovnebam dasazRvris an formirebis princips damatebiTi ganzomileba da Sesabamisad, ufro meti simwyobre SesZina. romaelebi ki brtyel ganzomilebaSi darCnen _ dasazRvris arsobrivad
161

intensiuri princi piT usazRvros, anu eqstensiuris mocva ganizraxes. an, sxvanairad, romaelebi samyaros grZnobadi aRqmis, miTosuri cnobierebis im dones ver gascdnen, sadac gaugebarTan da mouazrebelTan Seyra an/da SeuTavseblis SeTavsebis yoveli mcdeloba, rogorc sakacobrio kulturis istoria cxadyofs, farul saidumloTa ganmasaxierebel qimerul arsebaTa gamoxmobiT mTavrdeboda. qimeras ki, rogorc cnobilia, sakuTari cxovelmyofeli energiis gamomuSaveba ar SeuZlia, misi arseboba mTlianad masobrivi emociis, Zrwunvis fsiqoenergetikazea damokidebuli. iqamdis, vidre romauli saxelmwifos sivrceSi monaTesave, kaenuri tradiciis xalxebi Tu Temebi erTvebodnen, orsaxovani ianusis simbolo mimdinare sasazRvro mijnaTa TavSeyra-gamWolvis process sakmaod kargad ergeboda. mas Semdeg ki, rac am sivrceSi gansxvavebuli, abeluri tradiciis xalxebis CarTva daiwyo universaluri saxelmwifos romaulma modelma, kompitaluri (laT. compitum _ gzajvaredini, meboZiri) Temis princi pma, adreuli organuloba dakarga. romaul sivrceSi abeluri tradiciis xalxis CarTvas winaparTa Tu gmirTa suliT gajerebul Zireul RirebulebaTa adamianuri zemoqmedebis muxtis TandaTan Semcirebac mohyva. orsaxovani RvTaebis simbolizmma pativiscema-mowiwebis nacvlad Zaldatanebisa da Zrwola-SiSis qimeruli elferi SeiZina. sasicocxlo-SemoqmedebiTi organuli bmebidan gamoTavisuflebuli sulieri energia destruqciulSi gardaisaxa. Sedegad, amgvar garemoSi Camoyalibebul moqalaqeTa axali erTobis, plebsis gauwonasworebuli miswrafebani roms mudmivi daZabulobis, xan Cagrulisa da xanac mCagvrelis teroris viTarebaSi amyofebda amitomac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom vandalebze adre roms Sida barbarosi, plebsi Seesia. dasasrul, unda aRiniSnos, rom romaulma civilizaciam umniSvnelovanes miRwevebTan erTad cTomaTa samagaliTo gamocdilebac dagvitova. barbarosTa Semosevis Sedegad romis dacemis istoriuli faqtis saburvels miRma swored dReisTvisac aqtualuri mniSvnelobis cTomis magaliTi devs: kulturul tradiciaTa, RirebulebaTa Sexvedra gzaTa an mijnaTa Seyris analogiuri ar aris. fsiqoemociuri fesvebis mqone fenomenebi sacnaurni an gaziarebulni mxolod gverdigverd ganlagebiT an distanciis (Tundac globaluri) gadalaxviT ar xdebian. an, sxva sityvebiT, erTiani Semkrebi zeganzomilebis gareSe, RirebulebaTa ragind mWidro ganTavseba alagis efemerulobas ver gascdeba, saniadago adgilad ver iqceva
162

da kidev, SesaZlo Semodavebis asacileblad: diax, elinebi, ase vTqvaT, gavidnen zeganzomilebaSi, diax, marTalia, rom am gasvlam maTi civilizacia mainc ver gadaarCina, magram, es SemTxveva romaulisagan sruliad gansxvavebulia _ elinebi ara aRmosavluris an romaulis msgavs universalur saxelmwifos aSenebdnen, aramed kosmiuri harmoniis Sesatyvis zesaxelmwifoebrivi civilizaciis Seqmnas cdilobdnen. da am mcdelobis warumateblobis mizezi an elinTa danaSauli is aris, rom maTi mocaleobiTi ganazreba-Wvreta transcendenciurSi gasvliT Tanadroul msoflios, Tanadrouli kacobriobis SesaZleblobaTa dones Zalze daSorda. ramdenime saukunis Semdeg qritianuli kulturaSi elinuri metafizikis kvlavaRdgoma, swored gamoTqmuli mosazrebis dasturi unda iyos magram, am da sxva sakiTxebis Sesaxeb saubari, albaT, Semdeg, momavalSi gagrZeldeba.

Irakli Mchedlishvili

Temporal and Spatial Symbolism of Abelian and Cainian Cultural Traditions


Existence and activities of the cainian, i. e. settled agricultural peoples within the strictly bounded area of space are subjected to the infinitely represented spatial principle. Abelian or nomadic-pastoral peoples are directed on the unlimited spatial extension rather than on the temporal consequence. First civilizations emerged just as a result of expansion of abelian traditions over the great rivers area. Therefore, though having highly developed agriculture core trends of river civilizations maintained extension nature. Cainian, demarcated agricultural tradition existing in the remote, distant areas of the Ancient World produced intense type civilizations somewhat later. In Hellenic polis trend of space reduction reach to an extreme. Greeks tried to seize of worlds populated area oikumene civilizationally and culturally by means of polis net principle. In order to reach the same goal Romans introduce monocentric ruling (imperium) web extension model. Thus, in Ancient period caenian space-time symbolism produce to branches Hellenic based upon the cosmic harmony polis civilization and Roman junction, compital civilization originated from the two-faced god Janus symbolism.
163

qu mixei l qurdiani

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, akademikosi; ivane javaxiSvilis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori, gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis prezidenti, rusTavelis sazogadoebis prezidenti. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `meoce saukunis dasawyisis literaturul mimdinareobaTa formirebis procesi saqarTveloSi~, `saerTo-qarTveluri versifikaciuli sistema da leqsTwyobis zogadlingvisturi Teoria~, `iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi~, qarTvelTa pirvelsacxovrisi enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT da saerTo-qarTveluri sazogadoebis socialuri struqtura~. interesTa sfero: enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba, leqsTmcodneoba, xelovnebaTmcodneoba, saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da axlo aRmosavleTis istoria da eTnologia, semiotika, maTematika, bunebismetyveleba, Teologia.

sami semiotikuri etiudi `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb s a T au r i `vefxistyaosani~ avtoriseuli saTauria. amas mowmobs poemis yvela cnobili nusxa, romlebSic igi gadamwerTa mier warmodgenilia aRweriTi formiT, xan: `ama ambavisa dasawyisi pirveli amo da sasmenlad Svenieri swavlisaTvis moSaireTasa. tariels da nestandarejans vefxistyaosnobiT uxmoben~. da xanac: `q. dasawyisi pirveli. ambavi sparsuli rusTvelisagan qarTulad naTargmanebi, romelsa vefxistyaosnad uxmoben `tarielisa da nestan-darejanis mijnuroba~ variantad. amasve mowmobs rusTvelis oponenti interpolatoris mier poemis teqstSi CarTuli strofic, romelic mraval xelnawerSi ikiTxeba da an `vefxistyaosnis~ saTauris zemoT moyvanili variantebis erTgvari galeqsili kontaminaciaa an sxva, ucnobi, magram ukve kontaminirebuli saTauri aqvs wyarod: `pirvel Tavi dasawyisi naTqvamia ig sparsulad, uxmobT vefxistyaosnobiT...~ (`vefxistyaosnis xelnawerTa variantebi~, nakveTi pirveli, Tbilisi, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba. 1960. gv. 12: xazgasma yvelgan Cemia _ m.q.). `vefxistyaosani~ samijnuro-saraindo Txzulebaa. romantikuli poema da unda

164

vaRiaroT, rom, am ti pis poemaTa dasaTaurebis princi pisa da tradiciis poziciidan, is aSkara anomaliaa. romantikuli poemis sagani mijnurobis (siyvarulis) istoriaa, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs ori mopirispire sqesis personaJis, Seyvarebuli qal-vaJis arsebobas. swored saxelebi figurireben nawarmoebis saTaurSi, ufro zustad, nawarmoebis saTauri maTi saxelebisgan Sedgeba: sparsuli literatura _ onsori (960-1040) `vameq da azra~, `Sadbahr da aTn al-haiaTi~, gorgani (XI s.) `visi da ramini~, nizami (1141-1209) `xosrovi da Sirini~, sajo qirmaneli (1290-1353) `humai da humaiuni~, `guli da novruzi~, amir xosrov dehlevi (1253-1325) `Sieini da xosrovi~, selman saveji (XIII-XIV s.s.) `jemSidi da xurSidi~, jami (1414-1492) `iusufi da zoleixa~, `salmani da absali~, da sxv. Turqulenovani literatura_ aliSer naeoi (1441-1501) `farhadi da Sirini~, iusuf sisan germiani Seixi (1371_1431) `xosrovi da Sirini~, ahmedi (1329-1412) `jemSidi da xurSidi~ da sxv. qarTuli literatura _ Teimuraz I (1589-1663) `ioseb-zilixaniani~, xalxuri `abesalom da eTeri~... franguli literatura _ kretien de trua (XII s. meore naxevari) `ereki da enida~, xalxuri (XIII s. dasawyisi) `okaseni da nikoleti~, germanuli literatura _ gotfrid Strasburgeli (XII-XIII s.s.) `tristani da izolda~... da a.S. da a.S. Seyvarebuli wyvilis saxelebis saTaurad gamotana romantikuli poemis dasaTaurebis universaluri da Seuryeveli princi pia Sua saukuneebis literaturaSi da amiT is upirispirdeba sagmirosaraindo eposs, romelsac hyavs erTi gmiri, visi saxelic imavdroulad Txzulebis saTauricaa. raki `vefxistyaosani~ avtoriseuli saTauria, xolo `vefxistyaosani~ romantikuli poemaa, samijnuro-saraindo Txzuleba (da ara sagmiro-saraindo), aris aucilebloba aixsnas mizezi rusTvelis mier Sua saukuneebSi sayovelTaod damkvidrebuli tradiciis uaryofisa. ratom uwoda SoTa rusTvelma Tavis poemas `vefxistyaosani~ da ara `tarieli da nestan-darejani~?! genialuri sparseli poetis nizami ganjelis romantikul poemaSi `leili da majnuni~ (1188) aris erTi, semiotikis poziciidan gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo epizodi (romlis aq moyvanili pwkareduli Targmani, Cemi TxovniT, Seasrula akademikosma magali Toduam wignidan: `nizami, leili da majnuni~ vahid dasTgardis

165

redaqciiT, meore gamocema, Teirani, hijris 1333 weli, gv. 166-167; risTvisac madlobas movaxseneb): gardacvlili mamis datirebis Semdeg majnuni kvlav udabnos daubrunda da erTxel, xetialisas naxa erTgulebis kalmiT Seqmnili `leili [da] `majnuni~ erTad dawerili. frCxilebi kra da is varayi (furceli) daxia, TviTon (e.i. misi saxeli `majnuni~ _ m.T.) darCa da amxanagi gaafuWa (waSala). [amisma] Semxedvareebma hkiTxes: ra gonierebaa (ra Sexedulebaa, mosazrebaa) rom orisagan erTi [qreba, meore ki] rCeba. upasuxa: sjobs, Tu rayami ugulvebelyofili iqneba, Cven orisgan erTi rayami iavar iqneba da mxolod erTi darCeba. roca mijnurs kaci gaCxrikavs, satrfo misgan gareT gamoedineba (e.i. mijnurSi satrfoa Cadebuli _ m.T.). uTxres: ratomaa, rom amaSi is dakninebulia (daxeulia), Sen ki TvalsaCinod xar. upasuxa: CemTvis (Cemi azriT) kargi araa, rom me gulad qceuli tvinad viqce, is ki _ kanad. sjobs, me satrfos niRabi viyo an tvinis irgvliv kani viyo. (am adgilis poeturi Targmani ix. nazami ganjeli `leili da majnuni~, sparsulidan Targmna magali Toduam, Tbilisi, nakaduli, 1986, gv. 137). nizami majnunis saqcieliTa da msjelobiT Semdegi Teoriis manifestacias axdens: saxeli aris niSani, aRmniSvneli, romelsac gaaCnia aRsaniSni (+pirovneba an _pirovneba), ori (sxvadasxva) saxelis anu ori (sxvadasxva) niSnis arseboba gulisxmobs ori aRsaniSnis arsebobasac, magram Tu ori aRsaniSni SeerTdeba da iqceva erTad, maSin am gaerTianebuli, erTad qceuli aRsaniSnisTvis ori aRmniSvneli zedmetia da oridan mxolod erTi niSani (saxeli) unda darCes. ori aRsaniSnis gaerTianebisas, erTarsad qcevisas, Tu es procesi siyvarulis Zalis zemoqmedebiT xdeba erTi niSani ki ar mospobs, aramed mxolod dafaravs meores da iqceva mis xilul garsad, xolo meore, STanTqmuli, gaagrZelebs Tavis, gareSe TvalisTvis uxilav, arsebobas, rogorc am garsis birTvi, da am uxilavs aRar esaWiroeba sakuTari niSani, is igulisxmeba axali xiluli odenobis aRmniSvnelSi, magram ori saxelidan (ori niSnidan, ori aRmniSvnelidan), rodesac isini or Tanabar odenobas, am SemTxvevaSi, or satrfos (Seyvarebuls) aRniSnaven, siyvarulis Zalis zemoqmedebis Sedegad erTarsad qcevis Semdeg romels unda mieniWos am axali odenobis gamoxatvis funqcia da ratom? ra upiratesoba aqvs majnunis saxels
166

(niSans) leilis saxelTan (niSanTan) SedarebiT? ratom Slis majnuni leilis saxels (niSans) da tovebs mxolod Tavisas, rogorc leilis saxelis (niSnis) Semcvels da magulisxmebels? ratom Tvlis is Tavis saxels siyvaruliT erTarsad qceuli xiluli odenobis (garsis) aRniSvnisaTvis sakmarisad, raki siyvaruli Tavisi arsiT binarulia da mxolod leilis arseboba aqcevs majnuns satrfod, aseve mxolod majnunis arseboba aqcevs satrfod leilisas, aseve leilis saxelic unda gulisxmobdes majnunisas. aseTi tolobis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi ki, vercerTi am (niSanTagan cal-calke ver dafaravs meores da ver aiRebs Tavis Tavze funqcias, gamoyenebul iqnas am binaruli opoziciis saerTo aRmniSvnelad (niSnad). magram es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu majnuni iseTive niSani (saxeli) iqneba, rogorc leili. leili da majnuni ki Tvisobrivad da funqciurad gansxvavebuli niSnebia (saxelebia). leilis funqciurad Sesatyvisi niSani (saxeli) majnunisa aris yaisi (//kaisi), saxeli, romelic mas, iseve rogorc leilia, misces dabadebisas. yaiss (//kaiss) axali niSani (saxeli) mieca swored leilis gamo, leilis siyvaruliT Sepyrobilobis (`majnun~ _ arabulad xom swored Sepyrobils, Smags niSnavs) aRmniSvnelad da es axali niSani (saxeli, zedwodeba) ukve Seicavda im funqcias, romelsac moklebuli iyo yaisi (// kaisi) _ leilis metrfisa da satrfos funqcias. swored amitom, majnuni, rogorc niSani gulisxmobs keilis, iseve rogorc gulisxmobda yaissac (// kaissac) da amdenad misi gamoyeneba, rogorc damfaravi niSnisa, sruliad kanonzomieri iyo. niSanTa igive Teoria udevs safuZvlad `vefxistyaosans~, rogorc saTaurs. tarieli da nestan-darejani funqciurad erTgvari niSnebia (saxelebia), iseve rogorc yaisi (// kaisi) da leili, xolo majnunis, rogorc niSnis (saxelis) funqciuri Sesatyvisi rusTvelis poemaSi vefxistyaosania. vefxistyaosani aris tarielisa da nestan-darejanis erTdroulad mgulisxmebeli niSani (saxeli), romelic rogorc garsi ise moicavs birTvs da warmoadgens siyvarulis Zalis zemoqmedebiT erTarsad anu erT aRsaniSnad qceuli ori aRsaniSnis sruliad momcveli erT aRmniSvnels, swored amitom aris igi gamotanili poemis saTaurad. vefxistyaosani moyme, tarieli ase uxsnis avTandils Tavis vefxistyaosnobas nestan-darejanTan kavSirSi:
167

648. `rome vefxi mSvenieri saxed misad damisaxavs, amad miyvars tyavi misi, kabad Cemad mominaxavs~; nestan-darejanisadmi siyvarulma aqcia tarieli vefxistyaosnad, iseve rogorc leilisadmi siyvarulma aqcia yaisi (// kaisi) majnunad. amitom majnuni gulsxmobs leilis (da cxadia, yaissac) magram ara piriqiT, da vefxistyaosanii gulsxmobs nestan-darejans (da cxadia, tarielsac), magram ara piriqiT. genialurma rusTvelma Tavis Sedevrs uwoda ara `tarieli da nestan-darejani~, aramed `vefxistyaosani~ niSanTa imave Teoriaze dayrdnobiT, romelic nizamis poemaSi aseTi mwyobri sistemis saxiT iqna gadmocemuli,magram paradoqsia, rom genialurma nizamim Tavis Sedevrs ar uwoda `majnuni~, Tumca swored aseTi saTauris WeSmariteba da kanonzomiereba daamtkica masSive, da saTaurad misca `leili da majnuni~ (`majnuni~ ara, magram aRarc `leili da yaisi~), ar mibaZa ra mis mierve Seqmnil personaJis saqciels. nizami pirveli iyo, vinc `leili da majnuni~ dawera, misi poemis gavleniT da pasuxad (nazira) amir-xosrov dehlevim (12531325) Seqmna `majnuni da leili~, mis Semdeg `leili da majnunis~ versiebis avtorebi iyvnen: sparsulad _ qaTebi (XIV-XV), jami (1414-1492), meqTebi (XV), haTefi (XV_XVI), Seix saad ed-din rahai xafi (XVI), helali badr ed-din astrabadi (XV-XVI), nezam ed-din ahmed sohaili (XV-XVI), yasemi (XVI), husien demiri (an zemiri XVI), mie masum safavi nami (XVI), hedaiaT ul-lahi (XVI), ruh ol-amini (XVI-XVII), qaSef Sirazi (XVI-XVII), hindu (XVII), mirza sadey nami (XVIII), nasibi (XVIII-XIX), yazi zade (XVI), mehmed ali gilani (XVI), lahori (XVII), molhemi (XVII) da sxv. sul daaxloebiT 50 versia: Turqulad _ aliSer navri (1441-1501), hamdi Celebi (1449-1503), fuzuli (1494-1556)... qarTulad _ Teimuraz I (1589-1663)... da a.S. da a.S. da arcerT maTgans ar mosvlia azrad, nizamis poemaSi, Cem mier zemomoyvanili fragmentis wakiTxvis Semdeg, nazirad dawerili Tavisi poemis dasaTaurebisas, moqceuliyo rogorc majnuni... da rogorc rusTveli.

168

s i uJe t i `vefxistyaosnis~ siuJetis Tanaxmad siyvaruli warmoidgineba, rogorc erTgvari kibe, romlis pirvels safexurze dgas pirovneba (me), xolo ukanasknel safexurze RmerTi. amaRleba pirovnebidan (me-dan) RmerTamde da masTan ziareba (Serwyma) xdeba ierarqiulad mkacrad diferencirebul safexurebze gadaadgilebiT. siyvarulis kibis pirvel safexurze dgas adamianis (pirovnebis, me-s) siyvaruli sakuTari Tavisadmi, rogorc savaldebulo piroba. RmerTma Seqmna adamiani xatad da msgavsad Tavisad (dab. 1.26-27:5.1) da RvTis qmnilebebs `RvTis siyvaruli imiT gamogvecxada, rom RmerTma moavlina wuTisofelSi Tavisi mxolodSobili Ze, rom misiT vicocxloT~ (1 ioane: 4.9) da ra ufleba aqvs adamiani, ar uyvardes Tavisi Tavi, rodesac pirvelad igi RmerTma Seiyvara (1 ioane: 4.19), rodesac qristem Tavisi jvarcmiTa da sisxliT gamoisyida adamianis codvebi (1 pet: 1.18-19; 1 ioan: 1.7, 1 kor: 8, 20: efes.: 1,7; ebr. 9.14; gamocx.: 1,5). siyvarulis ufro maRal meore safexurze dgas adamianis (pirovnebis, me-s) siyvaruli im adamianebisadmi, vinc mas ar aurCevia, vinc man RvTisagan miiRo (deda-mama, da-Zma...) da romelTa siyvarulic misTvis savaldebuloa da Tanac savaldebuloa imave doneze, ra donezec sakuTari Tavisa: `giyvardes moyvasi Seni, viTarca Tavi Seni~ (levit.: 19,18). es safexuri udebs sazRvars sakuTari Tavisadmi siyvarulsac _ is ar unda aRematebodes moyvasis siyvaruls. pirveli safexuris gareSe kibe saerTod ver iarsebebs: `Tu Cemi me zizRis Rirsia, maSin princi pi _ giyvardes moyvasi Seni, viTarca Tavi Seni _ sastik ironiad iqceva~ (pol. valeri). pirveli safexuris Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom misi gawirva, sxva safexurebisaTvis misi msxverplad Sewirva SeuZlia keTilSobil adamians. siyvarulis kibis es meore safexuri markirebulia sisxlis erTobiT, sisxlismieri (geneturi) naTesaobiT. qristianobis mier es mcneba aRiarebulia meore udides mcnebad RvTis siyvarulis Semdeg (mark.: 12, 28-31; maT.: 5,43; 22, 39; iak.: 2,8 rom: 13,9: gal.: 5,14). siyvarulis kibis momdevno, mesame safexurze dgas siyvaruli mopirdapire sqesisadmi (trfoba, mijnuroba) _ rodesac pirovneba dedamiwis mosaxleobis sqesobrivi niSmiT gadiferencirebuli ori naxevridan erT-erTSi sakuTari nebiTa da gemovnebiT irCevs erT
169

arsebas (mopirdapire sqesis pirovnebas) _ satrfos (minurs, Seyvarebuls) _ `amitomac miatovebs kaci ded-mamas da miewebeba Tavis dedakacs, raTa erTxorcad iqcnen~ (dab.: 2.24). siyvarulis kibis am, mesame, safexurze markeri xorcieli Serwymisaken swrafvaa (`vefxistyaosanSi~, `pirvel, ndoma siaxlisa, siSorisa ver-moTmena~ 768). es siyvarulis kibis pirveli arCeviTi safexuria. momdevno, kidev ufro maRal, meoTxe safexurze dgas sisxlisa da sqesisgan damoukidebeli siyvaruli (megobroba, moyvreoba) _ rodesac pirovneba (adamiani, `me~) dedamiwis, amjerad ukve, mTeli mosaxleobidan nebayoflobiT irCevs meore pirovnebas _ megobars (moyvares `vefxistyaosanSi~: `vin moyvaresa ar eZebs, igi Tavisa mteria~ 844). siyvarulis am, meoTxe safexurze markeri sulieri erTobisken swrafvaa (`vefxistyaosanSi~: `me igi var, vin sofelsa ar amovhkref kitrad berad, vis sikvdili moyvrisaTvis TamaSad da miCans mRerad~, 777). SeniSvna: cxadia, sulieri momenti arc wina safexurebze gamoiricxeba, TviT sisxlismieri naTesaobis drosac, magram aq laparakia safexurebze amaRlebis kvaldakval sulieri momentis progresirebad dominanturobaze. ase maRldeba adamiani RmerTamde. xolo qristianobis mixedviT, `RmerTi siyvarul ars~ (1 ioane: 4.8; 4.16). rusTvelis mier mociqulTa damowmebiT naTqvami: `siyvaruli aRgvamaRlebs~ (`wagikiTxavs, siyvarulsa mociqulni ragvar weren? / viT ityvian, viT aqeben? can, cnobani miaferen, / `siyvaruli aRgvamaRlebs~. viT eJvanni, amas JReren... 782) _ pirovnebis (am SemTxvevaSi misi personaJebis) swored siyvarulis am simbolur kibeze zeaRsvlas gulisxmobs. magram Tu pirovnebis (adamianis) amaRleba kibeze xdeba qvemodan zemoT _ sakuTari Tavidan RmerTisken, e.i. ierarqiulad ufro dabali donis safexuridan ufro maRlisken, samagierod, daxmareba (Svela) xorcieldeba zemodan qvemoT. arabeTis mefe rostevans vefxistyaosani moymis naxvis Semdeg uCndeba problema. es misi piradi, e.i. pirveli safexuris problemaa. rostevani kargavs simSvides, silaRes, sulier wonasworobas. igi uZluria, Tavad gadawyvitos sakuTari problema. `vefxistyaosnis~ siyvarulis kibis momdevno, meore safexurze dgas rostevanisa da TinaTinis (mama-Svilis) siyvaruli.
170

rostevanis (anu misi pirveli safexuris) problemis gadawyvetas iTavebs misi asuli TinaTini (dakavSirebuli masTan meore, e.i. zemdgomi safexuris siyvaruliT), visTvisac mamaSvilurma siyvarulma mamis problema maT saerTo problemad aqcia. magram problema am safexurzec gadauWrelia. siyvarulis kibis momdevno, mesame safexurze dgas TinaTinisa da avTandilis siyvaruli (mijnuroba). TinaTini, romelsac rostevanis problemis gadasaWrelad, Tavis mxriv, aseve sWirdeba daxmareba, Svela mimarTavs zemdgom, mesame safexurs romlis Carevis gareSe mama-SvilisaTvis simSvidisa da bednierebis dabruneba SeuZlebeli iqneba) _ es ki ukve, rogorc vTqviT, TinaTinisa da avTandilis siyvarulis safexuria. avTandili iwyebs moqmedebas TinaTinis dasaxmareblad, midis ucxo ymis, vefxistyaosnis (tarielis) saZebrad, poulobs mas da igebs mis ambavs, riTac axerxebs kidev siyvarulis kibis qveda safexurebis problemis gadaWras. TinaTinisa da avTandilis siyvarulis safexuri exmareba TinaTinisa da rostevanis siyvarulis safexurs, xolo TinaTinisa da rostevanis siyvarulis safexuri exmareba, Tavis mxriv, rostevanis sakuTari Tavisadmi siyvarulis safexurs _ arabeTis mefe ibrunebs sulier simSvidesa da silaRes. magram amave mesame safexurze, romelzec dgas TinaTinisa da avTandilis siyvaruli, dgas sxva Seyvarebuli wyvilic: tarieli da nestan-darejani, romelTa problemis gadawyveta maT safexurze da maTi ZalebiT SeuZlebelia. da ai, maT Svelad modis zemdgomi, meoTxe safexuri, romelzec dgas avTandilisa da tarielis (agreTve fridonis) siyvaruli (megobroba), siyvarulis kibis es maRali safexuri, cxadia, axerxebs qveda safexuris problemis gadaWras, ufro sworad problemisa: jer meoTxe safexurze myofi avTandili (avTandilisa da tarielis siyvaruli) daexmareba tariels (tarielisa da nestan-darejanis siyvarulis) mesame safexuris problemis gadawyvetaSi, Semdeg maTi rolebi Seicvleba da ukve meoTxe safexurze myofi tarieli (tarielisa da avTandilis siyvaruli) gadauwyvets avTandils (avTandilisa da TinaTinis siyvaruls) mesame safexuris problemas. yovelive amis ganxorcielebaSi `vefxistyaosnis~ personaJebs exmareba RmerTi _ am kibis mizezic da mizanic erTdroulad. rusTavelTan amaRlebadi siyvarulis qristianuli koncefciis interpretacia originaluria da srulyofili, is gamsWvalavs mTel
171

nawarmoebs. `gaZrulia~ mis mxatvrul qsovilSi (ar devs zedapirze da ar aris deklaraciuli). `vefxistyaosnis~ siuJeti siyvarulis kibis qristianuli ideis gacnobierebulad da mizanswrafulad gasimbolurebuli realizaciaa (`vefxistyaosnis~ fabulis Sesaxeb. ix. m. Todua `vefxis naxtomi anu riTi sjobs rusTaveli Seqspirsa da goeTes~, quTaisi, quTaisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1973, ori gamocema). rasac mowmobs misi Sedareba mahmadiani avtoris `leili vo majnunTan~. 1936 wlis 25 maiss Tsu samecniero sesiaze akad. korneli kekeliZem waikiTxa moxseneba rusul enaze `rusTaveli da nizami ganjevi~ da aTze met Sinaarsobriv paralelze miuTiTa (moxseneba mxolod 1962 wels gamoqveynda: k. kekeliZe `etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan~, VIII, gv. 143-162); akad. magali Toduam zemoxsenebul monografiaSi, Seadara ra erTmaneTs `vefxistyaosnisa~ da `leili da mijnunis~ fabulaTa funqciebi, daaskvna: `leilmajnunianis~ fabula msgavsia `vefxistyaosnis~ fabulisa. msgavsia, magram misi identuri ar aris~ (gv. 74). akad. m. Toduam, v. propis meTodis Tanaxmad, `vefxistyaosnis~ fabula dayo Svid funqciad: I funqcia: qalsa da vaJs erTmaneTi uyvarT. II funqcia: mSoblebi vaJs qals ar atanen. III funqcia: qalsa da vaJs erTmaneTs CamoaSoreben. IV funqcia: vaJi daeZebs Tavis satrfos. V funqcia: vaJi gaicnobs kacs, romelsac daxmareba SeuZlia. VI funqcia: damxmare miagnebs qalisa da vaJis SeerTebis saSualebas. VII funqcia: Seyvarebulebi SeerTdebian (gv. 38 da 46-47). mavne `leilmajnunianis~ fibulaSi rva funqcia gamoyo: I funqcia: leilisa da majnuns erTmaneTi uyvarT. II funqcia: leilis mSoblebi majnuns qals ar atanen. III funqcia: leilisa da majnuns erTmaneTs CamoaSoreben. IV funqcia: majnuni `iZiebs~ Tavis satrfos. V funqcia: majnuni gaicnobs kacs (nau als) romelsac misi daxmareba SeuZlia. VI funqcia: damxmare miagnebs qalisa da vaJis SeerTebis saSualebas. VI funqcia: majnuni gaurbis leilisTan xorciel kavSirs.

172

VIII funqcia: Seyvarebulebi SeerTdebian imiT, rom amqveyniur arsebobas Seswyveten (avtoris mistikuri koncefciiT siyvarulis apoTeozi swored es aris) (gv. 73). akad. m. Todua xazs usvams, rom `miuxedavad ZiriTadi funqciebis msgavsebisa, aq yuradRebas iqcevs princi pulad mniSvnelovani VII funqcia, rac `vefxistyaosanSi~ ar gvxvdeba. swored amis gamo, saeWvoa rusTavelis fabulas uSualo kavSiri hqondes leilisa da majnunis ambis mistikur variantTan~ (gv. 73-74). `vefxistyaosnisa~ da `leili da majnunis~ fabulaTa, es erTaderTi ganmasxvavebeli funqcia, jer kidev islamamdel arabeTSi gavrcelebul e.w. `uzrauli siyvarulis~ principebs efuZneba (`SoriT bneda, SoriT kvdoma, SoriT dagva, SoriT alva~, 27) da masze axla sityvas aRar gavagrZeleb. vityvi mxolod, rom miuxedavad Sinaarsobrivi, fabularuli da struqturuli (akad. niko marma cxadyo `vefxistyaosnis~ prologisa da `leili vo majnunis~ prologis Tematuri da struqturuli siaxlove) analogebisa da paralelebisa, rusTavelisa da nizamis Sedevrebs Soris arsebobs relevanturi siuJeturi gansxvaveba, romelic siyvarulis gziT RvTis (WeSmaritebis) wvdomis (Semecnebis) or koncefcias _ marTlmadideblursa da sufiurs _ Soris arsebul gansxvavebas efuZneba. sxvaTa Soris, raki sityvam moitana, sufizmi sulac ar axalisebs qal-vaJs Soris xorcieli kavSirisTvis Tavis aridebas. ai, ras wers amis Sesaxeb sufizmis erT-erTi burji ibn arabi (1165-1240): `Seiyvara ra qali. mamakacma gamoiTxova kavSiri, ufro sworad, zRvruli kavSiri, rac ki aris siyvarulSi, elementebisgan Semdgari arsebis formisTvis ki ar iyo kavSiri ufro diadi, vidre Tanayofa... Tu mamakaci mowmobs RmerTs qalSi, maSin es pasiurSi mowmobaa: Tu ki is mowmobs mas sakuTar TavSi _ misgan qalis gaCenis TvalsazrisiT _ maSin mowmobs mas aqtiurSi, xolo Tu xedavs mas sakuTar TavSi, vin misgan gaCnda, imisi xatis gamouxmoblad, maSin es misi mowmoba iqneba RvTis moqmedebis uSualod ganmcdel, pasiurSi mis mier qalSi RvTis mowmoba ufro sruli da ufro srulyofilia, radgan is mowmobs RmerTs rogorc aqtiurs da imavdroulad pasiurs, vidre sakuTar TavSi _ oden pasiurSi. amitom man (mohamedma _ m.q. mSvidoba mas!) Seiyvara qalebi maTSi RvTis mowmobis srulyofilebisaTvis. RmerTi xol aranairad ar SeiZleba ixilvebodes materiis gare. RmerTi Tavisi universaluri arsebiT ar saWiroebs samyaroebs da Tu es SeuZlebelia aseTi saxiT, da ar
173

arsebobs mowmoab sxvagvarad, Tu ara materiaSi, maSin misi mowmoba qalSi _ udidesia da yvelaze srulyofili~ (`fusus aR-xikam~, Tavi XXVII). zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, survilis SemTxvevaSi nizamis SeeZlo `uzrauli siyvarulis~ islamamdeli tradiciisTvis sufiuri tradicia emjobinebina, magram mas aseTi survili ar gaaCnia da es mxolod im tradiciisadmi erTgulebiT rodi aixsneba, romelic leilisa da majnuns islamamdeli arabeTis `uzraul~ wresTan akanSirebda. xom ar moridebia nizami majnunis msoflmxedvelobis sufizacias. nizami TiTqos gangeb qmnis `siyvarulis kibis~ agebisaTvis aucilebel safuZvels, mis poemaSi xazgasmiT aris Tavmoyrili am kibis asagebad saWiro yvela atributi da safexuri gamonaklisis gareSe _ magram ar aris agebuli TviT kibe. arabTa tomis ameris Seixs, romelic RvTis mier yvela sikeTiT uxvad aris dajildoebuli, aqvs erTaderTi problema _ STamomavloba. mas eSinia umemkvidrod darCenis, es misi piradi anu pirveli safexuris problemaa, romelic am safexurze ver gadawydeba. siyvarulis kibis meore safexurze dgas Seixisa da misi erTaderTi vaJis yaisis (majnunis) mamaSviluri siyvaruli. yaisisTvis (majnuni) mamis sasowarkveTidan gamoyvana TiTqos SeuZlebeli ar unda iyos. miTumetes, rom arsebobs is, visi meSveobiTac majnunisa da misi mamis siyvarulis pirveli safexuris problemis gadaWra ZaluZs _ es leilia. siyvarulis kibis mesame safexurze dgas majnunisa da leilis siyvaruli (mijnuroba, trfoba). am siyvaruls didi winaaRmdegoba xvdeba da maT safexurze da maTi ZalebiT maTi problemis gadawyvetis aranairi SesaZlebloba ar arsebobs. siyvarulis kibis meoTxe safexurze dgas majnunisa da navfalis siyvaruli (megobroba), romelic mowodebulia daexmaros qveda safexurs (da, Sesabamisad, kidev ufro qveda safexurebs) problemis gadaWraSi. magram amaod: meoTxe safexurze myofi navfalisa da majnunis siyvaruli ver exmareba mesame safexurze myof majnunisa da leilis siyvaruls. mesame safexurze myofi majnunisa da leilis siyvaruli ver exmareba meore safexurze myof majnunisa da mamamisis siyvaruls. meore safexurze myofi majnunisa da mamamisis siyvarulic ver exmareba pirvel safexurze mdgomi majnunis (yaisis) mamis siyvaruls sakuTari Tavisadmi da is umemkvidrod darCenili dardisgan kvdeba.
174

safexurebi arsebobdnen cal-calke. maT Soris gadawyvetili iyo kavSiri, ar iyo arc qvemodan zemoT svla-amaRleba da miaxloeba RmerTTan da bunebrivia, arc RvTis sapasuxo daxmareba zemodan qvemoT. siyvarulis kibis agebis aseTi SesaZleblobis xelidan gaSvebis mizezi imaSi unda veZioT, rom is arc damdgara genialuri Semoqmedis winaSe _ misi sulieri gamocdileba. sufiuri Tavisi arsiT, mas karnaxobda models _ sulieri eqstazis RvTis (WeSmaritebis) wvdomisa, sadac siyvaruli am eqstazis gamomwvevic da katalizatoric iyo erTdroulad. majnunisa da leilis RmerTTan ziarebis gza individualuri mistikuri aqtia. risTvisac maT erTmaneTis siyvaruli gamoiyenes. paradoqsia, magram majnunisTvis leilisadmi siyvaruli da Tavad leilic mizani ki ara, saSualebaa. siyvarulis kibesTan dakavSirebiT ki unda iTqvas _ majnuni leilis sikvdilis Semdeg kvlav kibis pirvel safexurze aRmoCnda _ mSoblebis sikvdilTan erTad gaqra meore safexuri, navfalTan urTierTobis gawyvetis Semdeg meoTxec, magram majnunma es arc icoda da arc ainteresebda misi sarwmunoebisTvis aseTi kibe arc arsebobda da mas sxva gza hqonda RmerTTan ziarebisTvis. RmerTTan ziarebis Cveuli gza ki, avTandilisa da tarielis kvaldakval siyvarulis qristianuli koncefciis rusTaveliseuli interpretaciiT agebul kibeze amaRlebasac gulisxmobs. am gzas sufizmSi TariyaTi hqvia, is gulisxmobs gzas adamianidan (pirovnebidan) RmerTamde, romelic aseve kibed aris warmodgenili da garkveuli raodenobis safexurebs (sxvadasxva sufiur orenSi safexurTa sxvadasxva raodenobas) iTvlis da yovel safexurze amaRleba, sakuTari Tavis (pirovnulis) uaryofisa da RmerTSi gaZvris, gaTqvefis ganuxrelad mzard tendencias gulisxmobs. yovel safexurs sufizmSi gaaCnia is relevanturi niSnebi, romelic TariyaTs damdgar sufists kibis ama Tu im safexurTan sakuTari sulieri mdgomareobis calsaxa identifikaciis saSualebas aZlevs. RmerTTan ziarebis Cveneuli gza ki avTandilisa da tarielis kvaldakval siyvarulis qristianuli koncefciis rusTveliseuli interpretaciiT agebul kibeze amaRlebasac gulisxmobs.

175

s i tyve b i

poloniusi _ rasa kiTxulobT, xelmwifisSvilo? hamleti _ sityvebs, sityvebs, sityvebs. u. Seqspiri `hamleti~: 2.2.
sityvaTqmnadoba, `vefxistyaosnis~ erT-erTi arsebiTi maxasiaTebelia. SoTa rusTaveli iyenebs sityvaTqmnadobis araerT ti ps. maTi umravlesoba ar moiTxovs aranair adaptacias teqstSi maTi semantikuri gamWvirvalobis gamo. mag.: `yvelgan rbodes saZebarad, vinca iyo ucxenmales~ (173,4) `dana daica, mocakvda, daeca, gasisxlmdinarda~ (582,4) da sxv. magram gvaqvs gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebic _ es erTmarcvliani sityvebidan da (da ), ca ... nawarmoebi okazionalizmebia. raki da, ca ... CV ti pis erTmarcvliani da calTanxmovniani sityvebia, romelTa Ziriseuli xmovani kvecas eqvemdebareba, maTgan nawarmoeb axal sityva-formebs eqmnebaT safrTxe calsaxa semantikuri identificirebisa, rac ukve brunebis paradigmaSi iCens Tavs (da, dam, das, dad, magram dis, diT an ca, cam, cas, cad, magram cis, ciT... ). amitom aucilebeli xdeba iseTi modelis SemuSaveba, romlis meSveobiTac okazionalizmebi semantikurad amocnobadni gaxdebian, anu moxdeba mkiTxvelisaTvis maTi adaptireba teqstSi. rusTavelma, sityvisTvis da (da ) aseT modelad semantikuri veli airCia. da (da ) ganekuTvneba adamianis naTesaobiT aRmniSvnel terminTa semantikur vels da dis-gan nawarmoeb okazionalizmTa teqstSi adaptirebisaTvis man amave semantikuri velis sityvebi gamoiyena _ deda, Zma, da, Tanac okazionalizmTa semantikuri identificirebisaTvis mimarTa ara mxolod maT mniSvnelobas aramed formasac: 1.1. deda : da 1.1.1. `fatmans uxsnia Cemi mze, sdedebia da sdebia~ (1429,4) aq semantikuri wyvilia deda da da, ukazionaluri gramatikuli formis sdebia (dad gaxdomia, dad movlenia) calsaxa identifikacias da-sTan uzrunvelyofs misi winmswrebi forma sdebia, romelic ded advili amosacnobia CVC struqturis Ziris gamo: s-ded ded-ebia.

176

s-dedded-ebia mkiTxvelisTvis adaptacias axdens s-d-ebia sityvisa: dedd erTi semantikuri veli, erTi gramatikuli yalibi. 1.2. Zma : da 1.2.1. `ymasa uTxra: `vinca kacman Zma iZmos Tu daca idos~ (306, 1) aqac sruli semantikuri da formaluri paralelizmia, romelic calsaxa mniSvnelobas aniWebs okazionalizm idos. 1.2.2. `qmari Seni Zmaa Cemi, egreve mwads Tqveni deba~ (1548,3) aq okazionalizm deba -s semantikuri identifikacia da adaptireba teqstSi xdeba mxolod semantikuri velis meSveobiT. 1.3. da : da 1.3.1. `aw moyvare gi povnivar, disaganca ufro desi~ (252,1) okazionalizms desi calsaxad amocnobads xdis misi winmswrebi disaganc. am okazionalizmTan dakavSirebiT akaki SaniZe werda: `...ufro desi~ sruliad Seuferebeli formaa, yovelgvari licenciis gareSe mdgomi, SeuZlebelia, rom igi poets exmara. marTalia, variantebis wignSi raime sxva forma ar aris saTanado adgilas naCvenebi, magram ueWvelia, rom `ufro desi~ gadamwerlisgan Seryvnili formaa da saWiroa rusTveliseuli moinaxos da aRdges~. CemTvis `ufro desis~ rusTveliseuloba eWvs ar iwvevs. 1.3.2. `aw, Tavman Cemman, mas movklav, Cemad dad vinca madesa~ (574,1) madesa (dad gamixades, dad momivlines) teqstSi adaptirebulia dad sityvis meSveobiT. 1.3.3. `ymasa uTxra: vinca kacman Zma iZmos Tu daca idos~ (306,1) am striqonze zemoT ukve mqonda laparaki (1.2.1.). aq imas davumateb, rom garda pralelizmisa _ Zma iZmos : daca idos, aq okazionalizm idos teqstSi adaptirebisaTvis iqve povnieri sityva daca-c sruliad sakmarisi iqneboda.

177

rusTvelamde qarTul enaSi sityva da (da )-sgan mxolod sityva dobili unda yofiliyo nawarmoebi, romelic amave semantikur velSi Semavali sityvebidan nawarmoebi paradigmis wevri iyo: mama>mamobili, mama mamobili, deda>dedobili, Zma>Zmobili, da>dobili (es paradigma Cems leqsebSi ase `Sevavse~: coli>colobili da swored coli>colobili) am paradigmis wevrobis gamo iyo calsaxad gasagebi. dobili rom rusTveliseuli okazionalizmi ar aris _ es erTmniSvnelovnad Cans iqidan rom is `vefxistyaosnis~ teqstSi arsad aris adaptirebuli da identificirebuli semantikuri sintagmis meSveobiT, anu mas axsna ar sWirdeboda da rusTavelic mas pirdapir iyenebs, rogor mxolobiTis formiT: `pirvel, glax, misi naWvreti, TviT mere Seni dobili~ (898,4) aseve mravlobiTis formiTac: `erTmaneTisa gayrilni qalni ornive dobilni~ (1568,1) swored am sityvis qarTuli enis aqtiur mimoqcevaSi yofnis gaTvaliswinebiT rusTveli qmnis okazionalizmsac romlis adaptireba ar sWirdeba: `uTxra: vici, aRar vargxar Sen aw Cemad dasadoblad~ (246,1) okazionalizmis Sesaqmnelad aq reduqciaa gamoyenebuli, Torem cirkumfiqsi: da-sa-ad, iseve rogorc sityva dobil-i, romelsac is daurTo poetma Cveulebrivia qarTuli metyvelebisTvis (mag.: da-sa-mal-ad, da-sa-Tof-ad da a.S.). `vefxistyaosanSi~ sityvebi: mamobil mamobil-i da dedobil dedobil-i gansxvavebiT Zmobil Zmobil-isa da dobili dobili-sagan ar aris povnieri, Tumca dedobil-i ukve Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebidan aris cnobili, iseve rogorc dobil-i. magram vimeoreb dobil-i Zvel qarTul teqstebSiac rom ar yofiliyo dafiqsirebuli, misi tradiciulobis amocnoba Zneli ar iqneboda, rusTvelis mxriv teqstSi am sityvis yovelgvari adaptirebis gareSe gamoyenebis gamo. ca sityvisgan (resp. Zirisgan) nawarmoebi okazionalizmebis teqstSi adaptirebisaTvis rusTvels ar miumarTavs cis semantikuri velis sxva wevrebisTvis (mag. miwa, zRva da sxv.) da da : da ti pis modeliT dakmayofilda: 2. ca : ca 2.1.1. `es wyroma mefisagan visca esma, vinca icis, man uambo davar qajsa, vin grZnebiTa caca icis~ aq pirveli icis codnas ukavSirdeba, meore, masTan gariTmuli icis ki cas. yovel SemTxvevaSi asea miRebuli nafic rusTvelologTa
178

Soris (`icis, ico zmnuri formebia nawarmoebi ca sityvisagan: vin grZebiTa caca icis 575,4; visac cac ki (Tavisad) miaCnia; caca ico 664,3 cac cad miiCnio~ akaki SaniZe). 2.1.2. `Sen genukvi, Semajero, RmerTi RmerTo, caca ico~ (664,3) yovel SemTxvevaSi Tu Cveulebriv mkiTxvels ara, rusTvelologebs icis da ico okazionalizmebis identificirebis saSualeba poetma semantikuri sintagmis gamoyenebiT misca, romlis pirveli nawilia caca (cac). semantikuri velze dayrdnobiT aris agreTve adaptirebuli `vefxistyaosnis~ teqstSi rusTveliseuli okazionalizmi ie. `ornive moxvdeT wadilsa, igi vardobdes, Sen ie!~ (1271,4) ie nawarmoebia sityvidan ia da niSnavs: `ia iyavi, ioba qmen~ (akaki SaniZe). am mniSvnelobis mkiTxvelis mxriv calsaxa identifikaciisTvis rusTveli iyenebs imave semantikuri velis, romelSic Sedis ia, iseT wevrs, romelic mis mieac da saerTodac Cveulebriv iasTan erTad erTi semantikuri sintagmis wevrad moiazreba: `gulsa gare saimedo ia morge, vardi yare~ (131,3) `vardi Seqmnila zafranad, aw ia Seikonebis~ (699,4) `mzisa SuqTa ver-Wvreteli ia xmebis, vardi Wnebis~ (793,2) `aw zafrania, vis winas ver vardi hgeandis, ver ia~ (354,3) da da ca sityvebisagan gansx vavebiT ia ormarcvliani sityvaa, magram misi bolokiduri xmovani aseve eqvemdebareba kvecas da ZirSi mxolod erTi xmovani rCeba (ia, iam, ias, iad, magram iis, iiT), rac brunebis paradigmaSi araa, TviT paradigmis arsebobis gamo, magram okazionalizmebis warmoebisas TiTqmis SeuZlebels xdis maT identificirebas amosaval sityvasTan. rusTvelma ie-s semantikuri identificirebisa da okazionalizmis teqstSi adaptirebisTvis, rogorc vTqviT semantikuri veli gamoiyena. rusTveliseuli modeli semantikuri sintagmebis meSveobiT okazionalizmebis teqstSi adaptirebisa, rasac is sruliad gacnobierebulad mimarTavs, ar unda iqnes areuli sxvadasxva ti pis leqsikur tavtologiebTan romelsac rusTveli xSirad mimarTavs rogorc stilistur xerxs, mag.: `moyvare mteri yovlisgan mtrisagan ufro mteria~ (1211,2) `mze aRar mzeobs CvenTana, dari ar darobs darulad ~ (820,4) da sxv.

179

amdenad: `Cemi aw caniT yovelman, mas vaqeb, vinca miqia~ (19,1) leqsikuri teqstologiis nimuSia, xolo: `aviyvan, igi pir-mze naqebi da ver vTqvi uqi~ (1143,1) okazionalizm uqi-s semantikuri identifikaciis (qebasTan) da teqstSi misi adaptaciis modelia. rusTveli ara marto qmnis genialur okazionalizmebs, aramed cdilobs gansakuTrebiT rTul an orWoful SemTxvevebSi mkiTxvels gauadvilos maTi calsaxa amocnoba. rusTvelis swored es mcdeloba gvaZlevs meTodologiur safuZvels gavmijnoT miseuli okazionalizmebi ukve arsebulTagan. okazionalizmebis semantikuri identificirebisa da maTi teqstSi adaptirebis rusTveliseuli modeli zogadi literaturaTmcodneobis TvalsazrisiTac aqvs seriozuli meTodologiuri mniSvneloba. am meTodis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia calsaxad gaimijnos erTmaneTisagan tradicia da novacia e.w. mxatvruli literaturis uZveles werilobiT ZeglebSi, mag.: ZvelaRmosavlur eposSi, homerosis poemebSi da a.S. Tu poeti (cnobili, rogorc homerosi Tu ucnobi, rogorc gilgameSis avtori...) mis mier gamoyenebul epiTets (vTqvaT RmerTebisadmi, gmirebisadmi, qveynebisadmi mimarTuls) urTavs ganmartebas an dasabuTebas unda vivaraudoT rom es miseuli inovaciaa, xolo rasac aseTs ar urTavs _ is tradiciulia, mkiTxvelisTvis nacnobi da Sesabamisad sagangebo axsnas ar saWiroebs. es bunebrivia: rogori Zvelic ar unda Candes avtoriseuli teqsti masSi orive nakadi tradiciulica da inovaciuric aucileblad iqneba povnieri _ radgan kultura (zepiri) win uswrebs civilizacias (werilobiTs) da pirvelis tradiciebi meoreSi vlindeba. avtori qmnis axal epiTetebsa da metaforebs, magram amas akeTebs tradiciulis fonze da mis konteqstSi, iseve rogorc qmnis okazionalizmebs sayovelTao mimoqcevaSi myofi leqsikuri fondisa da sityvaTwarmoebis wesebis gaTvaliswinebiT Tu kombinirebiT _ siaxle ki adaptirebis gareSe mkiTxvelisTvis Zneli gasagebia _ teqstualurad is an unda aixsnas (resp. ganimartos) _ epiTetis, metaforis da a.S. SemTxvevaSi an adaptirdes semantikuri sintagmis saSualebiT leqsikuri okazionalizmis SemTxveaSi _ es aris uZvelesi da klasikuri periodis poeziis leqsikuri Tu sxva tipis inovaciaTa _ teqstSi adaptirebis specifika.

180

Mikheil Kurdiani

Three Semiotical Etudes Of The Knight in the Panthers Skin


1. The heading The mediaval literature used to entitle romantical poems due to the names of amorous couple: Vis and Ramin, Leili and Majnun, Khosrov and Shirin, Tristan and Isolda and etc. The heading Vepkhistkaosani (The Knight in the Panthers Skin) is different avtentiviti of which is confirmed scientifically and documentary as well. The origin of this exception deals with Nizami Ganjians (1141-1203/09) semiotical theory that was conceived in Leili and Majnun. One sign is sufficient if two things are merged. The name Majnun rejects mentioning Leili as it is adopted in Majnun as well as Kais. The title Vepkhistkaosani envisages Nestan and Tariel, consequently, mentioning their names isnt necessary in the heading. 2. The plot The ladder of love (clemex) considering humans promotion on the stairs (self-love > love of relatives > love between genders > love of the friend and etc.) up to the coalescence to God is realized in the plot of ,The Knight in the Panthers Skin (Vepkhistkaosani). Human ascensinates towards God from down to up, assistance comes from above upper stair helps down one. The target and cause of ladder existence is God. Ploflines of The Knight in the Panthers Skin (,,Vepkhistkaosani) and ,,Leili And Majnun are represented and compared in our work through the explanation their differences according to religion-confessional concepts. 3. Words Word derivation is essential feature of The Knight in the Panthers Skin (,,Vepkhistkaosani). Rustaveli uses different types of derivation. Most of them dont need any adaption in the text, though there are special occasions. For example, derivation of occasionalizms from the monosyllable words with single consonant da (sister), ca (sky). Rustaveli uses the model considering utilization of semantical data for the semantical identification of occasionalizms and their adaptation in the text (often by the same grammar form). This model means one point of semantical and formal commenting of innovations. Occasionalizms existed in the language arent represented due to their adaptational forms by Rustaveli, that gives general theoretical conclusion: novelty and tradition evidently appear in the ancient poetry (for example, Gilgameshi epic, Hommer and etc.). Epithet, methaphor, episode explained in the text are innovations, others without definitions are considered as traditionals.

181

T a r g m a n e b i
ia roman iakobsoni gramatikis poezia da poeziis gramatika .

gramatikuli paralelizmi

ocdaaTiani wlebis bolos puSkinis TxzulebaTa Cexuri Targmanis redaqtirebisas TvalnaTliv davrwmundi, rom rusuli dednis teqstTan maqsimalurad miaxloebuli leqsebi xSirad mainc tovebs originalisagan mkveTri gansxvavebulobis STabeWdilebas (albaT, saTargmni nawarmoebis gramatikuli wyobis gadmocemis uunarobisa Tu misi SeuZleblobis gamo). CemTvis sul ufro aSkara xdeboda, rom puSkinis poeziaSi morfologiuri da sintaqsuri qsovilis mniSvneloba erwymis da ecileba kidec sityvieri tropebis mxatvrul rols, araiSviaTad batondeba leqsSi da gadaiqceva misi faruli simbolikis mTavar da erTaderT gamomxatvel komponentad. Sesabamisad, puSkinis lirikis Cexur tomSi aRvniSnavdi, rom mniSvnelobis gamZafrebas ukavSirdeba gramatikuli dapirispirebebis mkveTri aqtualizacia, rac gansakuTrebiT mkafiod iCens Tavs puSkinis qmnilebebis zmnursa da nacvalsaxelur formebSi. gansxvavebuli droebisa da ricxvebis, zmnuri aspeqtebisa da kiloebis kontrastebi, msgavsebebi da mezoblobebi calkeuli leqsebis kompoziciaSi marTlac rom wamyvan rols asrulebs. urTierTdapirispirebis gziT winwamoweuli gramatikuli kategoriebi poeturi saxeebis msgavsad funqcionirebs, kerZod, gramatikul pirTa ostaturi monacvleoba warmoadgens daZabuli dramatizmis warmoqmnis xerxs. iSviaTad waawydebiT fleqsiuri saSualebebis ufro daxvewili poeturi gamoyenebis magaliTs (1, gv. 263). kerZod, `brinjaos mxedris~ problemebis Sesaxeb Catarebulma seminarma da slavur enebze misma Targmnam saSualeba mogvca, dagvexasiaTebina `peterburgul moTxrobaSi~ sruli da usruli aspeqtebis
182

dapirispireba, rogorc `naxevari samyaros meufis~ usazRvro, erTxel da samudamod boZebuli Zalauflebisa da, meore mxriv, upirovno evgenis (romelmac gabeda, `geyofao~, eTqva saswaulebrivi mSeneblisaTvis) qmedebaTa sabediswero SezRudulobas Soris arsebuli tragikuli konfliqtis STambeWdavi gramatikuli proeqcia (2, gv. 20; 3, gv. 15-18). gramatikisa da poeziis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxebi sistematur gaSuqebas moiTxovs. SevapirispiroT iseTi magaliTebi, rogoricaa: deda Cagravs Svils an kata dasdevs Tagvs. rogorc eduard sepiri aRniSnavs, yovelgvari cnobieri analizis gareSe, instinqturad vgrZnobT, rom orive winadadeba erT modelzea agebuli, sinamdvileSi isini mxolod materialuri SedgenilobiT ganirCeva urTierTisgan. sxvagvarad, igiveobrivi relaciuri cnebebi orivejer igiveobrivadaa gamoxatuli (4, T.VI). piruku, SegviZlia, SevcvaloT winadadeba an misi calkeuli sityvebi `wminda relaciur aramaterialur planSi~, `materialuri aqsesuarebis~ Secvlis gareSe: SeiZleba, Seicvalos sintaqsuri mimarTebebi (Sdr. deda Cagravs Svils da Svili Cagravs dedas) an _ mxolod morfologiuri damokidebuleba (dedam daCagra Svilebi zmnaSi droisa da aspeqtis, xolo meore arsebiT saxelSi ricxvis modifikaciiT). zRvruli, gardamavali warmonaqmnebis arsebobis miuxedavad, ena mkafiod ganasxvavebs materialursa da relaciur cnebebs, romlebic pirvel SemTxvevaSi gamoixateba leqsikur, meoreSi ki gramatikul planSi. mecnieruli lingvistika enaSi namdvilad arsebul gramatikul cnebebs Targmnis Tavis teqnikur `metaenaze~, ise rom enobriv sistemas Tavs ar axvevs TviTnebur an ucxoenovan kategoriebs. xSirad gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa gansxvavebaSi ar aisaxeba realuri movlenebi. Tu erTi ambobs, rom dedam daCagra Svili, xolo meore erTdroulad amtkicebs, rom Svili daCagruli iyo dedis mier, am or mowmes ver davabralebT CvenebaTa sxvadasxvaobas (miuxedavad gramatikuli mniSvnelobebis gansxvavebisa, rac gvarisa d brunvis SecvlasTanaa dakavSirebuli). erTsa da imave faqtobriv safuZvels asaxavs winadadebebi: sicrue codvaa, tyuili codvismieria, motyueba Secodebaa, matyuarebi codvilebia da a.S. gansxvavebulia mxolod gamoxatvis forma. arsebiTad msgavsi msjelobebi SeiZleba eyrdnobodes moqmedi pirebis (matyuarebi, codvilebi an matyuara, codvili) an TviTon moqmedebaTa saxelebs (sicrue, Secodeba); moqmedeba SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes rogorc damoukidebeli, ganyenebuli ram (sicrue); zogjer is ganivTebulia
183

(tyuili, codva); bolos, isini SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes subieqtis Tvisebebis (codvili da a.S.) saxiT. sepiris mixedviT, metyvelebis nawilebi asaxavs, upirveles yovlisa, Cvens unars, movaqcioT sinamdvile sxvadasxva yalibSi. `enobrivi fiqciebis~ mravalferovneba pirvelad gaaSuqa bentamma; isini gramatikuli wyobis safuZvelia da enaSi farTo, savaldebulo gamoyenebas poulobs. es fiqciebi ar unda movaweroT arc garemomcvel sinamdviles, arc lingvistebis SemoqmedebiT warmosaxvas. bentami marTebulad askvnis, rom `swored ena da mxolod ena ganapirobebs maT uCveulo da, amave dros, garduval arsebobas~ (5, gv. 15). savaldebulo, iZulebiTi roli, romelic enaSi gramatikul mniSvnelobebs ganekuTvneba, yovelmxriv gamoavlines enaTmecnierebma, gansakuTrebiT boasma (6, gv. 139-145), sepirma (Tavi V) da uorfma (7). diskusia gramatikuli mniSvnelobebis SemecnebiTi rolisa da Rirebulebis, agreTve gramatikuli Sablonebisadmi mecnieruli azris met-naklebi winaaRmdegobis Sesaxeb jer kidev ZalaSia, magram erTi ram ueWvelia: enobrivi moRvaweobis sferoTa Soris swored poeturi Semoqmedeba aniWebs `enobriv fiqciebs~ yvelaze met mniSvnelobas. rodesac poema `~-s dasasruls maiakovski wers / // / //, ar unda veZioT SemecnebiTi gansxvaveba or Tanwyobil winadadebas Soris, magram poetur miTologiaSi saxelzmniT gamoxatuli da swored amis meSveobiT gasagnebuli moqmedebis enobrivi funqcia warmogvidgeba rogorc TavisTavadi procesis anu moRvaweTagan metonimiurad gamijnuli moRvaweobis xati (poeziisadmi miZRvnil mecamete saukunis SesaniSnav traqtatSi ingliseli galfredi metonimiis amgvar nairsaxeobas gansazRvravs, rogorc `konkretulis wil abstraqtulis~ Canacvlebas). pirveli winadadebisagan gansxvavebiT, sadac arsebiTi da masTan SeTanxmebuli mdedrobiTi sqesis zedsarTavi personifikacias advilad eqvemdebareba, meore winadadeba Sedgeba usruli aspeqtis infinitivisa da upiro, saSualo sqesis Semasmenluri formisgan. masSi ar SeimCneva raime miniSneba SezRudvisa an gasagnebaze, rac gamudmebiT gvavaraudebinebs frazaSi `moqmedi piris micemiTis~ Casmis SesaZleblobas. ganmeorebiT `gramatikul figuras~ (`bgerweriT figurasTan~ erTad) jerald hopkinsi (genialuri novatori ara marto poeziaSi, aramed poetikaSic) ganixilavda, rogorc leqsis fuZemdeblur princi ps (9, gv. 8-85, 105-109, 267); is gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa
184

imgvar saleqso formebSi, sadac gramatikuli paralelizmi (romelic mezobel taepebs aerTianebs wyvilebad, fakultaturad ki msxvil erTeulebad) axloa metrul konstantasTan. zemomoyvanili sepiriseuli gansazRvra aseTi paraleluri rigebis mimarT mTlianad gamosadegia: `sinamdvileSi Cven winaSea erTi da igive amosavali winadadeba. gansxvavdeba mxolod materialuri formebi~. regularuli paralelizmebis literaturuli magaliTebisadmi (magaliTad, Zvel indur poeziaSi (10), Cinursa (11) da bibliur leqsSi (12) gamoyenebuli wyvilur sityvaTSexamebebisadmi) miZRvnil monografiaTa Soris paralelizmis lingvistur problematikas yvelaze ufro miuaxlovda Stainicisa (13; Sdr. 212, gv. 10) da auterlicis (14) naSromebi finur-ugoruli folkloris Sesaxeb, agreTve popes uaxlesi naSromi monRolur zepir poeziaSi SeniSnuli paralelizmebis Sesaxeb (15, gv. 195-228), romelnic mWidrod ukavSirdeba Stainicis midgomas. Stainicis novatorulma dakvirvebebma da daskvnebma mkvlevrebis winaSe daayena axali princi puli sakiTxebis rigi: zogierT folklorul sistemaSi metnaklebad Tanmimdevrulad gamoiyeneba paralelizmi. am sistemebis analizis meSveobiT vgebulobT, romeli gramatikuli klasebisa da kategoriebis Sesabamisobaa dasaSvebi paralelur taepebSi, e.i. varkvevT, TiToeuli konkretuli enobrivi koleqtivis mier romeli maTgania miCneuli msgavs an ekvivalentur mocemulobebad. paralelizmis teqnikaSi poetur Tavisuflebaze dakvirveba (miaxloebuli gariTmvis wesebis ganxilvis msgavsad) obieqtur cnobebs iZleva mocemuli enis struqturuli Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb (Sdr., magaliTad, Stainicis SeniSvnebi kareluri folkloris wyvilur taepebSi alativisa da ilativis, agreTve preteritisa da prezensis xSiri Sepirispirebis Sesaxeb; sayuradReboa agreTve misi mosazrebebi imgvari brunvebisa da zmnuri kategoriebis Sesaxeb, romelTa Sepirispireba SeuZlebelia). sintaqsuri, morfologiuri da leqsikuri Sesabamisobebisa da gansxvavebebis, semantikuri msgavsebebisa da mezoblobebis, sinonimuri da antonimuri struqturebis gansxvavebuli saxeobebis urTiermimarTeba da, bolos, uriTmo taepebis ti pebi da maTi funqciebi yovelive es sistematur kvlevas saWiroebs. mravalferovania paralelizmis semantikuri safuZvlebi da maTi roli mxatvruli mTlianobis kompoziaciaSi. ai martivi magaliTi: kolis naxevarkunZulis mkvidri saamebis sagzao da saTevzao simRerebSi ori mezobeli adamiani asrulebs erTsa da imave moqmedebas

185

da warmoadgens Tavisebur or Reros, romelzec avtomaturad, usiuJetod Camoicmeba TviTkmari wyviluri formulebi: , ; , ; , ; , da a.S. fomasa da eriomasadmi miZRvnil rusul simRerasa da zRaprebSi ori bedukuRmarTi Zmis saxeebi emsaxureba wyviluri frazebis jaWvis motivirebas, riTac miiRweva rusuli xalxuri poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli paralelizmis parodireba, SiSvldeba misi pleonazmebi da warmoidgineba TiTqosda gansxvavebuli, sinamdvileSi ki tavtologiuri daxasiaTeba ori devgmirisa. es miiRweva sinonimuri gamoTqmebis Setolebis, agreTve _ axlo an msgavs movlenebze paraleluri miTiTebebis meSveobiT (Sdr. variantebis mimoxilva aristovTan 17, gv. 359-368): , ! , , , , , , , , , . ori Zmis moqmedeba igiveobrivia. elifsuri fraza imeorebs sruls orive gmiri gaiqca tyeSi da Tu erTma maTganma airCia aryis tye, meorem ki muxnari, es mxolod imitomaa, rom da amfibraqebia, da ki iambebi. iseTi Semasmenlebi, rogorebicaa , Tavis mxriv, sinonimebia da saerTo mniSvneloba aqvT - ` ~. sinonimuri paralelizmebis terminebiT aRwerilia ara marto Zmebi, aramed maTi garemomcveli sagnebi da movlenebic: , - . bolos, iq sadac sinonimia klebulobs, SemoiWreba paronimuli riTmebi: , . SesaniSnav Crdilorusul baladaSi ` ~ (Sdr. sobolevskisa (18, gv. 82-88) da astaxovas mier Segrovili variantebi, agreTve am ukanasknelis mier Sedgenili sxva Canawerebis nusxa (19, gv. 708-711) binaruli gramatikuli paralelizmi dramatuli moqmedebis zambaras warmoadgens. saeklesio scena am mokle bilinis kvanZis Sekvrisas antiTezuri paralelizmis terminebis meSveobiT urTierTs atolebs mrevlis salocav mowodebebs ` !~
186

da gmiri qalis wamoZaxils `, !~, romelSic miniSnebulia sisxlis aRrevaze. borotmoqmedi dedis CareviT iwyeba wyviluri taepebis jaWvi, romelic or mijnurs myari SesatyvisobiT akavSirebs (Zmisadmi miZRvnil yovel taeps mosdevs taepi dis Sesaxeb): dedam ` ~ (vasilisaTvis), ` ~ (sofiosaTvis). da-Zmis bed-iRblis gadajaWvuloba ganmtkicebulia ganmeorebadi xiazmiT: ` , , , , , , , .~ wyviluri taepebis daaxloebuli saxeebi garegnulad emsgavseba saamebis pleonasturi `sityvaTxveulobis~ stereoti pul konstruqciebs: , , : . . , , , . bilinis calkeul variantebSi gvxvdeba jvruli ageba: saflavebze amovida ori xe: tirifi ( - mdedr. sqesisa) Zmis saflavze, kvi parosi ( mamr. sqesisa) disaze. personaJebisa da maTi bed-iRblis kavSiris Tema mezoblobisa da msgavsebis niSniT gadainacvlebs or xeze; , -. . sxva variantebSi xiazmi ar gvxvdeba: kvi parosi izrdeba Zmis saflavze, tirifi disaze. dedam, romelmac ` ~ , . amgvarad, bolo wyvili metaforulad da metonimiurad imeorebs mijnurTa daRupvis motivs. metaforikisa da faqtiuri garemoebebis zusti gamijvna (ix., magaliTad, 20) am baladis analizisas, albaT,

187

uSedego iqneboda. saerTod, poeturi qmnilebebisa da skolebis wre, romelTaTvisac es mijna arsebobs, metad SezRudulia. hopkinsis dialogi `silamazis warmoSobis Sesaxeb~ (1865) poeziis Teoriis uZvirfasesi SenaZenia. avtori aRniSnavs, rom bibliuri saxis kanonikur paralelizmTan Cveni nacnobobis miuxedavad, ar viTvaliswinebT xolme im mniSvnelovan rols, romelsac asrulebs paralelizmi poetur SemoqmedebaSi: `rodesac is pirvelad iqneba naCvenebi, mgoni, yvela gancvifrdeba~ (9, gv. 106); poeturi gramatikis sferoSi ganxorcielebuli calkeuli sadazvervo reidebis miuxedavad, (ix. magaliTad, 21; 22; 23) yvela drois msoflio poeziaSi `gramatikuli figuris~ roli literaturaTmcodneebisaTvis winandeburad siurprizs warmoadgens (Tumca hopkinsma masze pirvelad miuTiTa TiTqmis asi wlis win). marTalia, leqsikuri tropebisa da gramatikuli figurebis ganmasxvavebel antikur da Suasaukuneobriv naSromebSi gvxvdeba miniSnebebi poeturi gramatikis sakiTxebze, magram es moridebuli sawyisi cdebi Semdgom daviwyebul iqna. paralelizmi, romelic qaliSvilis damCagvrel dedas izokolonis (parisosisis) meSveobiT Seatolebs Tagvisadmi gamodevnebul katasTan an sarecxis manqanasTan, an kidev poliptotonis formiT Seajerebs qaliSvilebis damCagvrel dedasTan, kvlav batonobs leqsebSi faqizi da daxvewili saxiT. Cvens bolodroindel naSromebSi poetikis problemebis ganxilvisas vxelmZRvanelobdiT lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT (2, gv. 31-73; 25, gv. 350-377). maTSi warmodgenili gansazRvris Tanaxmad, poeziaSi mezobeli elementebi urTierTmimsgavsebis tendencias avlenen, ris gamoc ekvivalenturoba aq wyviluri struqturebis agebis princi pis saxiT gvevlineba. Sesabamisad, gramatikul mniSvnelobaTa simetriuli ganmeorebadoba da kontrasti mxatvrul xerxad gadaiqceva. winamdebare moxsenebasTan dakavSirebiT, dawvrilebiT gavaanalize gansxvavebuli epoqebisa da xalxebis poeziis ramdenime damaxasiaTebeli da brwyinvale nimuSi: saxelganTqmuli husituri qorali, romelic Seiqmna XV s-is 20-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, SesaniSnavi ingliseli lirikosebis, filip sidnisa (XVI s.) da endriu marvelis (XVII s.) leqsebi, puSkinis lirikis 1829 wliT daTariRebuli ori klasikuri nimuSi, XIX s-is dasasrulis slavuri poeziis erT-erTi mwvervali norvidis `warsuli~ (1865), udidesi bulgareli poetis, xristo botevis ukanaskneli leqsi (1975), xolo Cveni saukunis pirveli aTwleulebis poeziidan al. blokis
1

es naSromi Setanilia monografiaSi 26 (r.i.)

188

` ~ (1906) da o.mandelStamis ` ~ (1920)1. rodesac miukerZoebeli, gulmodgine, detaluri, erTiani aRwera aSuqebs calkeuli leqsis gramatikul struqturas, damkvirvebeli SeiZleba gaaocos urTierTgansxvavebuli morfologiuri klasebisa da sintaqsuri konstruqciebis moulodnelma simetriam, Tanazomierebam, ekvivalenturi formebisa da mZafri kontrastebis ostaturma daxvavebam. damaxasiaTebelia agreTve gramatikuli kategoriebis repertuarSi arsebuli radikaluri SezRudvebi: zogierTi maTganis amoRebis meSveobiT sxvebi meti sicxadiT aRiWurveba. msgavsi xerxebis qmediToba ueWvelia, da nebismieri mgrZnobiare mkiTxveli, rogorc sepiri ityoda, instinqturad SeigrZnobs am gramatikuli svlebis mxatvrul efeqts `yovelgvari cnobieri analizis gareSe~. poeti xSirad waagavs amgvar mkiTxvels. xalxuri poeziisadmi yurmiCveuli msmeneli an Semsrulebeli, romelic met-naklebad iyenebs konstantur paralelizms, SeigrZnobs normisgan gadaxvevas, Tumca ver gaaanalizebs mas. ase, magaliTad, serbi gusliarebi da maTi maTi msmenlebi amCneven da zogjer kicxaven kidec epikuri simRerebis silaburi sqemisa da e.w. cezuris myari adgilis yovelgvar Secvlas, Tumca ver gansazRvraven, raSi mdgomareobs Secdoma. xSirad gramatikuli kontrastebi xazs usvams leqsis stroful danawevrebas; aseTia zemoxsenebuli husituri qorali `vin xarT, RvTiurno mebrZolno....~; zogjer isini damoukideblad anawevreben nawarmoebs kompoziciur nawilebad. magaliTad, marvelis qmnileba ~To His Coy Mistress~ Sedgeba gramatikulad gansxvavebuli sami nawilisgan. TiToeul maTgani, Tavis mxriv, iyofa sam erTeulad, xolo yoveli aseTi erTeuli dasawyisi, ZiriTadi nawili da dasasruli mTeli nawarmoebis ganmavlobaSi inarCunebs sakuTar gramatikul niSnebs. msgavsebis an kontrastis niSnis mixedviT poeziaSi gamoiyeneba metyvelebis cvalebadi da ucvleli nawilebis yvela saxeoba, ricxvebi, sqesebi, brunvebi, droebi, aspeqtebi, kiloebi, gvarebi, ganyenebuli da konkretuli sityvebis klasebi, finituri da upiro zmnuri formebi, gansazRvrebiTi da ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxelebi da, bolos, urTierTgansxvavebuli sintaqsuri erTeulebi da konstruqciebi.

189

poezia saxeebis gareSe

veresaevis mowmobiT, mas zogjer eCveneboda, rom `saxe mxolod surogatia WeSmariti poeziisa~ (27). e.w. `arasaxeobrivi poezia~ anu `azris poezia~, gandevnili tropebis nacvlad farTod iyenebs gramatikul figurebs. rogorc husitebis sabrZolo qorali, aseve puSkinis ~ ....~ warmoadgens gramatikuli xerxebis monopoliis TvalsaCino nimuSebs, maSin, rodesac orive stiqiis rTul Tanamonawileobis magaliTia marvelis zemodasaxelebuli leqsi an tropebiT uxvad gajerebuli puSkiniseuli stansebi ` ~, romelic am mxriv upirispirdeba leqss ` ....~, Tumca orive nawarmoebi erTsa da imave welsaa dawerili da, rogorc Cans, orive miZRvnilia karolina sobanskaiasadmi (28, gv. 289-292). xSirad leqsis metaforuli plani upirispirdeba mis faqtobriv plans gramatikuli Sedgenilobis mkveTri kontrastulobis Sedegad. swored aseT kontrastzea agebuli norvidis `warsuli~. leqss ` ....~ literaturaTmcodneebi xSirad asaxeleben, rogorc arasaxeobrivi poeziis TvalsaCino nimuSs. marTlac, mis leqsikaSi ar gvxvdeba arc erTi cocxali tropi, xolo myari, yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi gadasuli metafora ` ....~ ra Tqma unda, arafers ar cvlis. samagierod, rvaetaepedi gamsWvalulia gramatikuli figurebiT, Tumca misi faqturis swored am arsebiT niSans ar eTmoboda saTanado yuradReba: ` ; , , , ; , . , , , ; , , .~ leqsi gvaocebs gramatikuli figurebis SerCeviT. is moicavs 50 sityvas, maT Soris 29 fleqsiuria, xolo amaTgan 14, e.i., TiTqmis naxevari nacvalsaxelebia, 10 _ zmna da mxolod danarCeni xuTi ganyenebuli, gonebaWvretiTi arsebiTebi. mTel nawarmoebSi ar moipoveba arc erTi zedsarTavi, maSin, rodesac zmnizedebis raodenoba aTs aRwevs. nacvalsaxelebi aSkarad upirispirdeba metyvelebis sxva cvalebad nawilebs, rogorc mTlianad gramatikuli, wminda relaciuri
190

sityvebi, romlebic moklebulia sakuTriv leqsikur, materialur mniSvnelobas: samive moqmedi piri aRniSnulia mxolod nacvalsaxelebiT: `me~ in recto, `Tqven~ da `sxva~ - in obliquo. leqsi Sedgeba ori jvaredinriTmiani oTxtaepedisgan. pirveli piris nacvalsaxeli, romelic yovelTvis ikavebs taepis pirvel marcvals, oTxjer (TiToeul ortaepedi TiTojer) gvxvdeba: pirveli stansis sawyis da meoTxe taepebSi, meoris dasawyisSi da mesame taepSi. `me~ aq gvevlineba mxolod saxelobiT brunvaSi, mxolod qvemdebaris rolSi da, amasTan, mxolod `Tqven~-is braldebiT brunvasTan erTobliobaSi. nacvalsaxeli , romelic aq mxolod micemiTSi da braldebiTSia (e.i. egreT wodebul mimarTebiT brunvebSi) mTel teqstSi figurirebs eqvsjer, TiToeul taepSi TiTojer, orive stansis meore taepebis garda. amasTan, is yovelTvis axlavs sxva nacvalsaxels. forma (pirdapiri damateba), rogorc wesi, pirdapir an ganSualebul kavSirSia nacvalsaxelur qvemdebaresTan. oTx SemTxvevaSi aseTi qvemdebarea , xolo erTSi anaforuli (e.i. siyvaruli pirveli piris mxriv), maSin, rodesac micemiTi (romelic bolo, sintaqsurad damoklebul taepSi enacvleba pirdapir obieqts (), ukavSirdeba axal nacvalsaxelur formas - . am periferiul micemiTTan erTad (Sdr. 29, par. 44 5; 217, gv. 131), bolo taepis dasasruls Semohyavs lirikuli dramis mesame monawile. es monawile upirispirdeba nominatiur -s, romliTac iwyeba Sesavali taepi. rvataepiani leqsis avtori eqvsjer mimarTavs gmir qals da samjer meordeba sakvanZo formula , romliTac iwyeba jer pirveli stansi, Semdeg bolo stansis pirveli da meore ortaepedebi. orstrofian monologSi mas Seaqvs tradiciuli samjeradi danawevreba 4 2 2, samwevra struqtura samivejer axleburad viTardeba. pirveli stansi aviTarebs predikatis Temas: etimologiuri figura zmna s unacvlebs ganyenebul saxelx , riTac am ukanasknels damoukidebloba, TviTmyofoba eniWeba. warsul droze miTiTebis miuxedavad, leqsis lirikuli Temis ganviTarebaSi araferia dasrulebuli. aq puSkini, zmnur aspeqtebs Soris dramatuli koliziebis gabmis Seudarebeli ostati, gaurbis sruli aspeqtis TxrobiT kilos. erTaderTi gamonaklisi [1] , , [2] mxolod adasturebs kanonzomierebas, radgan garemomcveli damxmare sityvebi , ,... - abaTilebs dasasrulis fiqtiur Temas. araferi araa dasrulebuli, magram srul aspeqtSi daeWvebas, meore mxriv, Seesabameba mapirispirebeli; Semdgom, awmyo uaryofilia
191

rogorc TavisTavad ( ), aseve aRweriTi imperativis SemadgenlobaSi ( ). saerTod, leqsSi ver i poviT awmyos infinitur dadebiT formebs. meore stansis dasawyisi imeorebs sakvanZo formulas da aviTarebs subieqtis Temas. zmnizedebic da instrumentuli formebic araZiriTad vnebiTi gvaris SemasmenelTan erTad, romelic imave qvemdebare s ukavSirdeba, warsulzec avrcelebs im aSkarad an latenturad uaryofiT terminebs, romlebic pirvel stansSi awmyos umoqmedo ganviTarebis elfers aniWebda. sawyisi formulis mesamed ganmeorebis Semdeg, ukanaskneli ortaepedi eZRvneba mis obieqts: [7] ... [8] (nacvalsaxeluri poli ptotoniT -). aq pirvelad JRers WeSmariti kontrasti dramatuli ganviTarebis or moments Soris: orive gariTmuli taepi sintaqsurad waagavs urTierTs TiToeul maTganSi erToblivad gamoiyeneba vnebiTi gvarisa da moqmedebiTi brunvis urTierTSexamebuli formebi [6] [8] , magram avtoris mier sxvisi aRiareba ewinaaRmdegeba mtanjvel eWvianobas, xolo frazaSi gamotovebuli wevri saSualebas iZleva, ar vupasuxoT kiTxvas, sxvadasxva s Tu erTi da imave piris mimarTaa gankuTvnili warsuli eWvianoba da saboloo dalocva. ori brZanebiTi konstruqcia [3] da [8] TiTqos avsebs urTierTs. amasTan, bolo taepis mixedviT, dasaSvebia orivegvari interpretacia. es taepi SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc leqsis daboloeba dalocviT, magram, meore mxriv, gaqvavebuli gamoTqma (imperativis miuxedavad), romelic daqvemdebarebul winadadebaSi ucnauradaa gadasmuli (30, gv. 119), SeiZleba ganvmartoT, rogorc Taviseburi `ararealuri kilo~. es ki niSnavs, rom gmiri qali zebunebrivi Carevis gareSe verasodes i povis amgvar siyvaruls. ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi stansebis bolo winadadeba SeiZleba CavTvaloT `nagulisxmevi uaryofis~ nimuSad iesperseniseuli ganmartebisa da terminis Tanaxmad (31, T. XXIV). is gaerTianebulia am leqsSi warmodgenili sxvadasxvagvari uaryofis wreSi. ramdenime uaryofiTi konstruqciis garda, zmna is warsuli dro am nawarmoebSi Seadgens infinituri formebis mTel repertuars. brunebad sityvebSi aq, rogorc aRvniSneT, batonobs nacvalsaxelebi, maSin rodesac arsebiTebi cotaa: isini ganekuTvneba gonebaWvretiT sferos da axasiaTebs RmerTisadmi mimarTvisa da
192

dalocvis garda pirveli piris fsiqikur samyaros. yvelaze xSiri da teqstSi kanonzomierad ganawilebuli sityvaa : mxolod is dgas braldebiT da micemiT brunvebSi, Tanac mxolod am brunvebSi. masTan mWidrodaa SeuRlebuli sixSiris mixedviT meore , romelic ixmareba mxolod qvemdebaris rolSi da mxolod taepis dasawyisSi. SemasmenelTa im nawils, romelic eTanxmeba qvemdebares, axlavs zmnizedebi, xolo Tanamdev upiro zmnur formebs axlavs moqmedebiTSi dasmuli damatebebi: [4] ; [6] , ; [8] . zedsarTavebi da, saerTod, saxeluri formebi stansebSi ar monawileobs. TiTqmis sruliad ar gvxvdeba wodebiTi konstruqciebi. rusuli enis gramatikul kategoriaTa Semadgenlobis, raodenobis, urTierTkavSirisa da rigis yvela am gadanawilebis mniSvneloba imdenad cxadia, rom ar saWiroebs dawvrilebiT komentars. sakmarisia, wavikiTxoT iulian tuvimis mier Sesrulebuli Targmani, rom TvalnaTliv davrwmundebiT: leqsis TviT aseTi virtuozuli ostati, rogorc ki puSkiniseuli stansebis gramatikul wyobas uaryofs, aqveiTebs maTi mxatvruli zemoqmedebis Zalas.
gramatika da geometria

TiToeuli poeti iTvaliswinebs gramatikuli mniSvnelobebis arsebobas. Sesabamisad, is an miiswrafis simetriisken da iyenebs martiv, ganmeorebad, TvalsaCino, binarul princi pze agebul sqemebs an Camoicilebs maT `organuli qaosis~ Ziebisas. Tu vambobT, rom poetis mier gamoyenebuli principi gramatikuli an antigramatikulia, magram arasodes araa gramatikuli, maSin es Tvalsazrisi unda gavavrceloT mis saerTo damokidebulebaze gramatikis mimarT. poeziaSi gramatikaze dakisrebuli funqciebi analogiuria ferweruli kompoziciisa, romelic zogjer efuZneba aSkara geometriul wesrigs, xandaxan ki ewinaaRmdegeba geometriulobas. geometriis princi pebi (ufro topologiuri, vidre metruli xasiaTisa) Seicavs `mSvenier aucileblobas~, romelic Tavs iCens ferwerasa da saxviTi xelovnebis sxva dargebSi (rasac damajereblad amtkiceben xelovnebaTmcodneebi), maSin, rodesac msgavs `aucileblobas~ sityvieri moRvaweobis mimarT lingvistebi gramatikul mniSvnelobebSi pouloben. am ori sferos Sedareba 1941 wels, gardacvalebamde cota xniT adre, scada SesaniSnavma enaTmecnierma v.l. uorfma. daupirispira ra zogadi, abstraqtuli `winadadebaTa struqturis sqemebi~
193

individualur winadadebebsa da leqsikons (rogorc enobrivi wyobis `ramdenadme rudimentulsa da damokidebul nawils~), man wamoayena im `formaluri princi pebis geometriis idea~, `romlebic yoveli enis safuZvelia~. msgavsi Sedareba, magram ufro gaSlili da myari formiT mogvca stalinma mis SeniSvnebSi gramatikis ganyenebuli xasiaTis Sesaxeb: `gramatikis ganmasxvavebeli niSani imaSi mdgomareobs, rom is ayalibebs wesebs sityvaTa cvlilebebis Sesaxeb, ise rom mxedvelobaSi aqvs ara konkretuli sityvebi, aramed saerTod sityvebi, yovelgvari konkretulobis gareSe; is iZleva wesebs winadadebis Sesadgenad da iTvaliswinebs ara konkretul winadadebebs, vTqvaT, konkretul qvemdebares, konkretul Semasmenels da a.S. aramed yovelgvar winadadebebs, ama Tu im winadadebis konkretuli formis miuxedavad. maSasadame, sityvebisa da winadadebebis kerZoobiTi da konkretuli niSnebidan abstrahirebisas gramatika iRebs im zogads, rac winadadebebSi sityvaTa da sityvaTSeTanxmebaTa cvlilebebis safuZvelia da maTgan agebs gramatikul wesebs, gramatikul kanonebs ... am mxriv, gramatika gvagonebs geometrias, romelic iZleva Tavis kanonebs konkretuli sagnebisgan abstrahirebisas, ixilavs sagnebs, rogorc konkretulobisgan gaZarcul sxeulebs da gansazRvravs maT urTierTmimarTebebs ara rogorc konkretuli sagnebis konkretul mimarTebebs, aramed rogorc sxeulTa mimarTebebs sazogadod, yovelgvari konkretulobis gareSe~ (33). adamianis azrovnebisaTvis Cveuli abstrahireba, romelic orive citirebuli avtoris TvalsazrisiT, geometriisa da gramatikis safuZvelia, martiv geometriul figurebSi ganWvrets kerZo saganTa Tvalwarmtac samyarosa da sityvieri xelovnebis leqsikur `aRWurvilobas~. arsebiTi roli, romelsac poeziis gramatikul faqturaSi asrulebs nacvalsaxelTa gansxvavebuli klasebi, ganpirobebulia swored nacvalsaxelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mTlianad gramatikuli, relaciuri bunebiT, rac maT ganasxvavebs sxva avtonomiur sityvaTagan. nacvalsaxelis mimarTeba aranacvalsaxelur sityvebTan araerTxel Seadares geometriuli sxeulebis mimarTebas fizikurTan (34, gv. 323; 35, gv. 17). faqturaSi vlindeba diferenciuli niSnebic, romlebic ti puria mocemuli eris, an gansazRvruli periodis, an garkveuli literaturuli mimdinareobis, an individualuri poetis, an, bolos, calkeuli nawarmoebisaTvis. ase, magaliTad, husituri revoluciis saagitacio sabrZolo qoralis daxvewili gramatikuli kompozicia, romlisaTvisac ucxoa dekoratiuli ornamentuloba, advilad eqvemdebareba interpretacias goTuri epoqis saerTo fonze. aRvniSnoT
194

TiToeuli strofi Sesabamisi romauli cifriT, xolo strofis TiToeuli wevri zemoT miwerili arabuli cifriT. sami samwevra strofisagan Sedgenili simRera (I1+I2+I3+II1+II2+II3+III1+III2+III3) xasiaTdeba simetriul SesabamisobaTa rTuli sistemiT. es ukanaskneli SeiZleba pirobiTad aRvniSnoT, rogorc vertikalur SesabamisobaTa sami rigi (I1I2I3 da a.S.) da horizontalur SesabamisobaTa sami rigi (I1II1II1 da a.S.), Semdgom ori diagonali, daRmavali (I1II2_III3), aRmavali (I3II2_III1), ori daRmavali (I1II2_III1 da I2II3_III2) da ori aRmavali (I2II1_III2 da I3II2_III3). aseTsave damaxasiaTebel niSnebs geometriul Tanazomierebas, safexurebriv danawevrebas, SesabamisobTa da kontrastTa urTierSexamebas mkvlevrebi (kerZod, p. kropaCeki) amCnevs husituri epoqis Cexur ferweraSi (36). bolos, yvela kompoziciur princi ps, romelmac srulfasovani gamoxatuleba hpova am qoralis gramatikul organizaciaSi, Rrmad aqvs fesvebi gadgmuli mTeli goTuri xelovnebisa da sqolastikuri azris istoriul ganviTarebaSi, rac brwyinvaled gamoavlina ervin panovskim (37). Cexuri magaliTi saSualebas gvaZlevs, mivuaxlovdeT saxviT xelovnebaSi geometriis rolisa da poetur xelovnebaSi gramatikis funqciebis urTierTSesabamisobis mimzidvel problemas. orive faqtoris Sinagani naTesaobis fenomenologiur sakiTxTan erTad, aq warmoiWreba konvergentuli ganviTarebis, agreTve sityvieri da saxviTi xelovnebebis urTierTzegavlenis konkretuli istoriuli Seswavlis amocana. Semdgom, poeturi gramatikis analizi axleburad aSuqebs mxatvruli skolebisa da tradiciebis problematikad. kerZod, mkvlevarma unda hkiTxos TavisTavs: rogor iyenebs xelovnebis nawarmoebi mxatvrul saSualebaTa tradiciul inventars axali miznebisTvis da rogor gadaafasebs maT axali amocanebis gadasawyvetad, rogor miiRo memkvidreobiT husituri revoluciis salaSqro qoralma gramatikuli paralelizmis orive nairsaxeoba (anu, hopkinsis TqmiT, `Sedareba msgavsebisaTvis~ da `Sedareba gansxvavebisaTvis~) goTuri mxatvruli formebis mdidari fondidan da orive gramatikuli xerxis ostaturma Sexamebam rogor misca poets saSualeba, gabedulad ganexorcielebina harmoniulad mwyobri, damajerebeli gadasvla Sesavali sasuliero simReridan (meore, didaqtikuri strofis mebrZoli argumentaciis Semdgom) qoralis bolo nawilis samxedro brZanebebsa da sabrZolo SeZaxilebze.

195

gramatikuli Tavisebureba

gramatikul WrilSi SegviZlia da kidec unda davayenoT literaturaTmcodneobis saarsebo problema poemebis, poetebisa da poeturi skolebis individualobisa da SedarebiTi daxasiaTebis Sesaxeb. puSkinis poeziis gramatikuli wyobis mTeli erTgvarovnebis miuxedavad, misi yoveli leqsi individualuri da ganumeorebelia gramatikul masalis SerCevisa da gamoyenebis mxriv. magaliTad, stansebi ` ~, romelic qronologiurad axloa rvataepedTan ` ~, amave dros, bevr Taviseburebas avlens. vcadoT am mcire moculobis magaliTebis safuZvelze imis Cveneba, Tu raSi aisaxeba es individualoba, xolo meore mxriv, davupirispiroT puSkinis saalbomo stansebi (romlebic ganuyreladaa dakavSirebuli rusuli da dasavluri romantizmis poetur ZiebebTan) ucxo da Soreul goTur kanons, romelic ian JiJkas TanamebrZolTa qoralSi gamosWvivis: ? , , , . , . ? , , . , , , : , , . aq, ` ~-isagan gansxvavebiT, 12 nacvalsaxelia, romlebic raodenobrivad CamorCeba rogorc arsebiTebs (20), aseve zedsarTavebs (13), magram mainc mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs. pirveli
196

taepis oTxi damoukidebeli sityvidan sami swored nacvalsaxelebia: ` ~. avtoriseul metyvelebaSi mTavar winadadebaTa yvela qvemdebare gramatikulia da Sedgeba nacvalsaxelTagan: , , , , magram zemoganxiluli leqsis piris nacvalsaxelebisagan gansxvavebiT, aq Warbobs kiTxviTi da anaforuli formebi. maSin, rodesac pirvelsa da mesame stansebSi pirisa da kuTvnilebiTi II piris nacvalsaxeli gvxvdeba mxolod micemiT brunvaSi. is Seesabameba mxolod adresats da ara nawarmoebis uSualo Temas (, ); II piris kategoria bolo stansis zmnebSi iCens Tavs saxeldobr, brZanebiTi kilos or wyvilur formaSi: [14] , [15] . orive leqsi iwyeba da mTavrdeba nacvalsaxelebiT, magram rvataepedisgan gansxvavebiT, gansaxilveli nawarmoebis adresati araa aRniSnuli arc pirveli piris nacvalsaxeliT, arc Sesabamis pirSi dasmuli zmniT. mas Seesatyviseba mxolod kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli, romelic avtoris saxels enacvleba da aqve eWvia Setanili am saxelis RirebulebaSi leqsis adresatisaTvis: . marTalia, pirveli piris nacvalsaxeli Casmulia bolodan meore taepSi jer iribi, ganSualebuli formiT xolo ukanaskneli taepis bolo, hiperkaTaleqtikur marcvalSi pirvelad vlindeba winamorbedi usulo da ganusazRvreli subieqtisadmi ( da ) mkveTrad dapirispirbuli pirveli piris qvemdebare Sesabamisi zmnuri SemasmenliT , , maSin rodesac ` ~ iwyeba, piriqiT, -iT, magram avtori am TviTdamkvidrebas uSualod ki ar axorcielebs, aramed karnaxobs mas adresats, TviTon ki bolomde usaxo terminebiTaa warmodgenili metonimiurad ( ), an sinekdoqurad ( ), an kidev mowodebuli metonimiis ganmeorebadi anaforuli damowmebebis meSveobiT () da meoradi metonomiuri asaxvebis saSualebiT (ara TviT saxeli, aramed misi ), an, bolos, metonimiuri saxeebiT gamowveuli metaforuli replikebiT (... ... ). tropebis simravliT es nawarmoebi gansxvavdeba, rasac kvlav xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, leqsisgan ` ~. Tu iq datvirTva gramatikul figurebs ekisreba, aq mxatvruli rolebi gramatikulad nawildeba gramatikasa da leqsikas Soris. proporciuli kveTis kanoni, romelic egzom Tanmimdevruladaa gatarebuli husitur qoralSi, aqac aSkarad vlindeba, magram gacilebiT rTuli da ucnauri saxiT warmogvidgeba: teqsti iyofa or
197

rvataepedad. ori maTgani iwyeba SekiTxviT, romliTac avtori TiTqos mimarTavs qals ( ?), Semdeg ki TviTve pasuxobs am SekiTxvaze. pirveli ori oTxtaepedis garemomcveli riTmis nacvlad meore wyvilSi gamoyenebulia jvaredini riTma, rac iwvevs ori gansxvavebulriTmiani vaJuri taepis ucnaur Setakebas (... da ). pirveli ori stansis metaforuli planidan ukanasknel ors lirikuli Temis ganviTareba gadaaqvs sityvasityviTi, pirdapiri mniSvnelobebis sibrtyeze da, Sesabamisad, uaryofiTi konstruqcia enacvleba metaforuli rigis dadebiT konstruqciebs. sainteresoa, rom sawyis stanss, sadac poetis saxeli Sedarebulia momakvdavi talRis yru xmaurTan (...), mesame stansSi exmianeba monaTesave, magram gacveTili leqsikuri metafora ` ~, romelmac TiTqos unda Caylapos azrdakarguli saxeli. amasTan, mTel leqsSi SeimCneva sxvagvari (kvlav diqotomiuri) danawevreba: saboloo stansi, mTeli Tavisi gramatikuli SedgenilobiT, aSkarad upirispirdeba danarCen sams. arawarsuli (momavlis gagebis mqone) drois samgloviaro perfeqtuli zmnebis TxrobiT kilos, romelic Warbobs pirvel sam stansSi, - , , ... - saboloo stansi upirispirebs ori, aseve perfeqtuli sametyvelo zmnis (, ) imperativs, rac pirdapir metyvelebas moiTxovs, xolo es metyveleba uwyveti sicocxlis saboloo gandidebis meoxebiT auqmebs yvela moCvenebiT danakargs, radgan avtoriseul tiradas upirispirebs usrul aspeqtSi warmodgenili leqsis pirvel zmnur formas. Sesabamisad, icvleba nawarmoebis mTeli leqsika: winamorbed terminebze , , gmirma qalma unda upasuxos: , , `ukvdavi samyaros~ tradiciul paronomaziaze miniSnebiT, meoTxe stansi epaeqreba pirvel sams: SenTvis Cemi saxeli mkvdaria, magram, dae, is iyos cocxali niSani Cemi maradiuli mogonebebisa Sens Sesaxeb. gviandeli formulirebis Tanaxmad: ` ; ~ (18,31). poetis saxelis Sesaxeb pirveli stansi winaswarmetyvelebda , , .... da swored am saxeebs ubrundeba ukanaskneli stansi. magram RamiT, rodesac bgera qreba, ` ~ (sametyvelo, puSkinis mier ganaxlebuli metaforis Tanaxmad), da ara , aramed unda gaismas daviwyebuli saxeli. simboluria rogorc Ramis Senacvleba dRiT da xmaurisa mdumarebiT, aseve ukanaskneli
198

stansis gramatikuli Taviseburebebic, masSi pirveli stansis zedsarTavebis da nacvlad tyuilad rodi funqcionirebs arsebiTebi , . saerTod, gansazRvrebiTi zedasarTavebisa da mimReobebis simravlis sapirispirod, rac damaxasiaTebelia pirveli sami stansisaTvis (xuT-xuTi TiToeulSi), meoTxeSi isini saerTod ar Cans, iseve, rogorc mTel leqsSi ` ~. aq, meore mxriv, uxvadaa zmnizedebi, romlebic TiTqmis ar SeiniSneba sakvlev leqsSi. bolo oTxtaepedi emijneba pirveli sami stansis morTul, Selamazebul stils, romelic ucxoa ` ~-is teqstisaTvis. amgvarad, leqsis antiTezisi, ukanaskneli stansi, romelic Semotanilia mapirispirebeli -Ti (esaa erTaderTi maerTebeli kavSiri mTel leqsSi) Tavisi gramatikuli wyobiT (ganmeorebuli imperativiT, romelic upirispirdeba pirveli sami oTxtaepedis TxrobiT kilos, agreTve zmnuri absolutiviT, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba winandel saxelur mimReobebs) arsebiTad gansxvavdeba winamorbedi teqstisagan. mas Semoaqvs ucxo metyveleba, orjeradi predikatuli , pirvel pirSi dasmuli qvemdebare da Semasmeneli, sruli damokidebuli winadadeba da, bolos, TviT zmnis usruli aspeqti perfeqtuli formebis mTeli rigis Semdgom. pirveli, indikativuri da meore, imperatiuli nawilebis raodenobrivi araTanazomierebis (Tormeti sawyisi da bolo oTxi taepi) miuxedavad, orive maTganSi SeiniSneba damoukidebeli sintaqsuri jgufebis parataqtul wyvilebad dayofis sami Sedgomi safexuri. pirveli, samtansiani nawili moicavs or, kvlav araTanazomier, sintaqsurad paralelur kiTxva-pasuxian konstruqcias (rva sawyisi taepi mesame stansis oTxi taepis sapirispirod). Sesabamisad, leqsis meore nawili, misi bolo stansi Seicavs Tematurad monaTesave or paralelur winadadebas. orive kiTxva-pasuxiani konstruqcia Sedgeba erTnairi kiTxviTi winadadebebisa da pasuxebisgan (erTi da imave anaforuli qvemdebariT). pirveli nawilis am meorad danawevrebas Semdgom nawilSi Seesabameba meore imperatiuli winadadebis binaruli xasiaTi. is Seicavs pirdapir metyvelebas da, amgvarad, iyofa Sesaval remarkad () da TviT citatad (). bolos, pirveli pasuxi iyofa metaforuli xasiaTis da monaTesave Tematikis mqone or paralelur winadadebad. oriveSi gvxvdeba gadatana /enjambement/I. , /...., II..... , /. aseTia parataqsisis sami koncentruli formis ukanaskneli wevri leqsis pirvel nawilSi. meore nawilSi mas
199

Seesabameba citirebuli metyvelebis gamijvna paralelur, Tematurad msgavs winadadebebad ( ... ... ). ukanaskneli stansi Seicavs imdensave damoukidebel parataqtur wyvils, ramdensac sami winamorbedi oTxtaepedi erTad; samagierod, eqvsi damoukidebeli jgufidan (sami kavSiriani garemoebiTi winadadeba da sami `atributul-predikatuli gansazRvreba~, rogorc maT uwodebda Saxmatovi) sami jgufi ganekuTvneba pirvel, metaforebiT yvelaze gajerebul stanss /...., ../ .../..., ... / maSin, rodesac sam danarCen oTxtaepedze regularulad modis hipotaqsisis TiTo-TiTo magaliTi /II...... III ...: IV..., ..../. am gamijvnaTa Sedegad ukiduresad mZafrad ikveTeba pirveli da bolo stansebis mravalmxrivi kontrasti, e.i. dapirispireba lirikuli Temis kvanZis Sekvrasa da gaxsnas Soris (rac ar gamoricxavs maT mWidro erTsaxeobas; rogorc kontrasti, aseve erTianoba (msgavseba) gamoxatulebas poulobs bgeriT faqturaSic. maxvilian (da iqtusian) xmovnebs Soris labializebulebis Warbi raodenoba gvxvdeba pirvel sam stansSi, Semdeg maTi raodenoba klebulobs, ukanasknel stansSi ki minimums aRwevs (I : 8, II : 5, III :, VI : 3). amasTan, maxviliani difuzuri (viwro) xmovnebis ( da ) maqsimaluri raodenoba gvxvdeba kidura stansebSi pirvelsa da meoTxeSi (6 da 5), rac ganasxvavebs maT orive Sida stansisgan (0 da 2). Tvali mivadevnoT Temis ganviTarebas kvanZis Sekvridan mis gaxsnamde, rac aSkarad iCens Tavs gramatikul kategoriaTa, gansakuTrebiT brunvebis gamoyenebis TaviseburebaSi. sawyisi stansidan vigebT, rom poets winadadeba misces, Caewera Tavisi saxeli samaxsovro wignSi. Sinagani dialogi, monacvle kiTxvebi da Sesityvebebi am winadadebis sapasuxo erTgvar mkvaxe rCeva-darigebas warmoadgens. saxeli gaixmianebs da ukvalod gaqreba (), pirveli stansis gardauvali konstruqciis Tanaxmad, sadac wodebiTi akuzativi mxolod `talRis~ metaforuli saxis meSveobiT (, ) migvaniSnebs obieqtis Ziebaze. meore stanss, romelSic saxels enacvleba misi werilobiTi asaxva, Semoaqvs gardamavali forma ... , magram epiTeti , pirdapir damatebasTan erTad, gvabrunebs umiznobis Temisaken, romelic pirvel stansSia ganviTarebuli. micemiTSi dasmuli SedarebiT iwyeba meore stansis metaforuli plani ( ), da TiTqos mzaddeba micemiTis gamoCena mis ZiriTad rolSi: mesame stanss Semoaqvs arsebiTi saxeli micemiTi daniSnulebiT ( ), magram konteqsti, amjerad uaryofiTi , abaTilebs am daniSnulebas.
200

ukanaskneli stansis bgerwera exmianeba sawyisi stansis difuzur xmovnebs, xolo meoTxe stansis Tematika werilobiTi aRweridan gvabrunebs pirveli stansis aJRerebul saxelTan: Txroba iwyeba saxelis yru wamoZaxiliT da bolos kvlav JRers . Sesabamisad, leqsis bgerweraSi orive kidura stansis dayruebuli, difuzuri xmovnebi urTierTs exmianeba. magram kvanZis gaxsna arsebiTad cvlis saxelis rols: konteqstis mixedviT aSkarad nagulisxmevi SeTavazebis pasuxad poeti albomis patrons mimarTavs: . pirveli sami stansidan TiToeulSi (I2, II1, III3) saxelis aRmniSvneli nominativis () nacvlad gmiri qalisadmi mimarTuli imperativis meore pirTan gvxvdeba imave anaforuli nacvalsaxelis (IV2) akuzativi. avtoris nebis Tanaxmad, gimiri qali amiT -s umoqmedo adresatidan moqmed pirad (ufro zustad, im pirad, romelsac mouwodeben imoqmedos) iqceva. exmianeba ra pirveli sami stansis samjerad -s da am nacvalsaxelis bgeriT variacias mesame stansSi _ -s -sTan oTxjerad Sexamebas, rasac uswrebs an mosdevs , meoTxe stansi auqmebs qvemdebares. is kalamburulad iwyeba imave SexamebiT ? , , .... saxeli, romelic pirvel sam stansSi mowyvetilia ugrZnobel garemocvas, unda gamoTqvas gmirma qalma, romlis metyveleba (marTalia, mxolod emblematurad, magram mainc pirvelad) migvaniSnebs am saxelis patronze: .... sainteresoa, rom avtoriseuli `~ leqsSi dasaxelebuli araa. rodesac ukanaskneli stansis bolo taepebSi bolos da bolos moixsenieba pirveli piris nacvalsaxeli, is Casmulia pirdapir metyvelebaSi, romelic gmir qals Tavs moaxvies avtoriseulma imperativebma. magram `~ aRniSnavs ara avtors, aramed gmir qals. Cemze avtorze mogonebebis waSlas aq (antonimur garemocvaSi) upirispirdeba uryevi xsovna Cemze - ` ~is mexsierebadakargul patronze. avtoris saxelisadmi apelaciis gziT qalis TviTdamkvidreba Semzadebulia brunvaTa mniSvnelobebis meryeobiTa da cvlilebebiT, rac ase intensiurad xorcieldeba mTel am leqsSi. misi mravalricxovani wodebiTi konstruqciebis mimarT unda gamoviyenoT bentamis (gv. 62) SeniSvnebi ori enobrivi sferos materialurisa
201

da abstraqtulis mWidro urTierTSexebisa da urTierTgamsWvalvis Sesaxeb. ase magaliTad, Tandebuli `~ meryeobs sakuTar, materialur, lokalizaciursa da, meore mxriv, haerovan, ganyenebul mniSvnelobebs Soris. puSkini sagangebod gamZafrebuli formiT gvawvdis adgilobrivi brunvis da TandebulebTan Sexamebis orive funqcias (pirveli sami stansidan TiToeulSi). pirvelSi gramatikuli riTmiT dakavSirebulia taepebi: ? da . erTi da igive Tandebuli pirvel taepSi aRWurvilia ganyenebuli mniSvnelobiT, meoreSi ki konkretul-lokalizaciuriT. egreT wodebuli `garemomcveli~ -sadmi dapirispirebuli `gareSe~ Tandebuli mJReri saxelidan mis werilobiT formaze gadasvlis Sesabamisad gvevlineba meore stansis ori paralelur, gramatikul riTmiT dakavSirebul taepSi pirvelad lokalizaciuri mniSvnelobiT ( ), meored ganyenebul rolSi ( ). amasTan, orive gariTmuli taepis semantikuri dapirispireba kalamburulad mTavrdeba: .mesame stansSi Tandebuliani ori Sexamebis dapirispireba iseTivea, rogorc pirveli stansis sqemaSi, magram kiTxvis elifsuri ganmeoreba iZleva ornairi interpretaciis saSualebas ganyenebulisa ( ) da WeSmaritad lokalizaciurisa ( ). Sesabamisad, meoTxe stansi midrekilebas iCens am Tandebulis sakuTari mniSvnelobis gamovlenisken (, ). sawyis taepSi dasmuli SekiTxvis ( ) pasuxad gmir qals sTavazoben, warmoTqvas avtoris mier nakarnaxevi replika, romelic garemomcvel Tandebuls samjer aniWebs mis pirvelad materialur mniSvnelobas: qalisaTvis Cawerili saxeli, qalis mierve warmoTqmuli, imas gulisxmobs, rom samyaroSi ( ) aris adamiani, romlis gulSi ( ) is kvlav cocxlobs. Rameuli dan dRis ze gadasvlas exmianeba bneli xmovnebis Senacvleba naTeli xmovnebiT. sainteresoa, rom puSkinis stansebic da husituri qoralic mTavrdeba ormagi imperativiT, romelic meore pirs karnaxobs ormag replikas. esaa sinTezuri pasuxi puSkinis leqsis sawyis kiTxviT nacvalsaxelze (?): `... : ... ... ~ da Cexuri simReris sawyis mimarTebiT kiTxviT nacvalsaxelze Kto A s tiem vesele Ki Knte kc: Na n, hr na n! bra sv rukama chutnajte, `Bh pn n Kiknte!
202

amasTan, swored aRniSnuli msgavsebis fonze gansakuTrebiT TvalnaTliv vlindeba gansxvaveba poeturi gramatikis sferoSi. kerZod, puSkinisTvis damaxasiaTebelia erTi rigis gramatikuli gategoriebis (magaliTad, gansxvavebuli brunvebis an erTi brunvis kombinatoruli mniSvnelobebis) urTierTmonacvleoba. erTi sityviT, esaa rakursebis uwyveti cvla, romelic sruliad ar xsnis gramatikuli paralelizmis problemas, aramed xelaxla ayenebs mas axlebur, dinamikur WrilSi. literatura: 1. Pu A.S. Vbrane Spisy. Ed. a.. Bern., R. Jakobson, Praha, 1936. kin 2. Jakobson R. socha v symbolice Pu kinov. In: Slovo a slovenost, 1937, III. 3. Jakobson R. The Kernel of Comparative Slavic literature In: Harvard Slavic Studies, 1953, 1. 4. Sapir E. Language. New York, 1921. 5. Ogden C.R. Benthams Theory of Fictions. London, 1939. 6. Jakobson R. Boas View of Grammatical Meaning in: American Antropologist, 1959, 61. 7. Whorf B.L. Language, Thought and Reality, New York, 1956. 8. Faral E. Les arts potiques du XIIe et du XIIIe sicle. Paris, 1958. 9. Hopkins G. M. Journals and Papers. London, 1959. 10. Gonda J. Stilistic Repetition in the Veda. Amsterdam, 1959. 11. Tschang Tscheng-ming. Le paralllisme dans le vers du Chen King. Paris, 1937. 12. Newman L., Popper V. Studies in Biblical Parallelism. University of Califormia, 1918; 1923. 13. Steinitz V. Der Parallelismus in der finnisch Karelischen Volksdichtung. Helsinki, 1934. 14. Austerlitz R. Ob-Ugrie Metries. The Metrical Structure of Ostyak and Vogul Folkpoetry. Helsinki, 1958. 15. Poppe N. Der parallelismus in der epischen Dichtung Mongolen In: UralAltaishe Jahrbcher, 1958, 30. 16. . , ., 1890. 17. . , 1876, 4. 18. . , . 1, .-, 1895.
203

19. . , . 2. .-., 1951. 20. Brook-Rose Ch. A Grammar of Metaphor. London, 1958. 21. Davie D. Articulate Energy. An Inquiry into the Syntax of English Poetry. London, 1955. 22. Berry F. Poets Grammar, Landon, 1958. 23. . , , 1960. 24. Jakobson R. Poetika w swietle Jzykoznawstwa. In: Pamitnik Literacki, 1960, 51, 2. 25. Jakobson R. LIngustics and Poetics In: Style in Language, ed. T.A. Sebeok, New york, 1960. 26. Jakobson R. Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry. The Hague, 1961. 27. .. , 1960, 1. 28. . .. . , . 11, ., 1958. 29. .. . ., 1941. 30. . , ., 1959. 31. Jespersen O. The Philosophy of Grammar. London-New York, 1924. 32. Tuwim I. z rosyjskiego. Warszawa, 1954. 33. .. . .,1950. 34. .. . ., 1947. 35. . . , 1940, 6. 36. Kropcek P. Malistvi doby husitsk. Praha, 1946. 37. Panofsky E. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. New York, 1957.

Targmna Tamar lomiZem

204

iu lo iuri lotmani

simbolo kulturis sistemaSi semiotikur mecnierebaTa sistemaSi erT-erT yvelaze mravalmniSvnelovan sityvas simbolo warmoadgens. gamoTqma semiotikuri mniSvneloba farTod gamoiyeneba, rogorc martivi sinonimi niSnurobisa. rodesac teqstSi xazgasmulia Sinaarsisa da gamoxatvis mimarTebebis konvencionaloba, mkvlevarni xSirad saubroben simbolur funqciebsa da simboloebze. jer kidev sosiurma daapirispira erTdroulad simboloebi konvenciur niSnebTan, pirvelebSi ikonuri elementis xazgasmiT. SegaxsenebT, rom sosiuri amasTan dakavSirebiT werda, rom saswori SeiZleba gamodges samarTlianobis simbolod, ramdenadac ikonurad wonasworobis ideas Seicavs, xolo forani _ vera. sxva klasifikaciiT, simbolo ganisazRvreba, rogorc niSani, romlis mniSvnelobas sxva rigis an sxva enis erTgvari niSani warmoadgens. am gansazRvrebas ewinaaRmdegeba simbolos ganmartebis tradicia, rogorc umaRlesi da absoluturad araniSnobrivi arsis erTgvari niSnuri gamoxatvisa. pirvel SemTxvevaSi simboluri mniSvneloba iZens xazgasmiT racionalur xasiaTs da ganimarteba, rogorc gamoxatvis planis Sinaarsis planad adekvaturi Targmnis saSualeba. meore SemTxvevaSi, iracionaluri Sinaarsi bundovnad Cans gamosaxvis planSi da simbolo erTgvari xidis rols asrulebs iracionalur samyarosa da mistikur samyaros Soris. sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom nebismieri _ rogorc kulturis istoriaSi realurad mocemuli, aseve romelime mniSvnelovani obieqtis aRmweri _ lingvistur-semiotikuri sistema sakuTar naklulobas SeigrZnobs, Tu ar iZleva simbolos sakuTar ganmartebas. saubaria, ara imaze, rom rac SeiZleba ufro zustad da sruli saxiT aRiweros romeliRac yvela SemTxvevisTvis erTiani obieqti, aramed _ yovel semiotikur sistemaSi struqturuli poziciis arsebobaze (Tanayofierebaze), uromlisodac sistema ar aris sruli: zogierTi arsebiTi funqcia ar realizdeba. amasTan, meqanizmebs, romlebic emsaxureba am funqciebs, daJinebiT aRniSnaven sityviT simbolo, Tumca am funqciaTa buneba da miT umetes meqanizmTa buneba, romelTa meSveobiTac isini realizdebian, gansakuTrebiT Znelad daiyvaneba
205

romelime invariantamde. amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu Cven ar viciT, ra aris simbolo, yovelma sistemam icis, ra aris misi simbolo, da saWiroebs mas semiotikuri struqturis muSaobisTvis. am funqciis bunebis gansazRvris mcdelobisas, ufro xelsayrelia ar gakeTdes raime zogadi gansazRvreba, aramed ganvizidoT Cven warmodgenaTa kulturuli gamocdilebis intuituri monacemebidan da Semdgom SevecadoT maT ganzogadebas. yvelaze Cveulebrivi warmodgena simboloze dakavSirebulia ideis romeliRac SinaarsTan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, meoris gamoxatvis plans warmoadgens da romelic, rogorc wesi, kulturuli TvalTaxedviT, ufro Rirebuli Sinaarsisaa. amasTan erTad, simbolo unda gansxvavdes reminiscenciisgan an citatisgan, ramdenadac maTSi Sinaarsis gamoxatvis garegani plani ar aris damoukidebeli, aramed warmoadgens erTgvar niSans _ indeqss, romelic miuTiTebs ufro farTo teqstze, romelTanac is metonimiur mimarTebaSia. simbolo ki, rogorc gamoxatvis planSi, aseve Sinaarsis planSic yovelTvis warmoadgens raRac teqsts, anu mas gaaCnia raRac erTiani, Tavis TavSi Caketili mniSvneloba da mkafiod gamoxatuli sazRvari, romelic saSualebas iZleva TvalsaCinod gamoiyos igi garSemortymuli semiotikuri konteqstidan. aRniSnuli garemoeba gansakuTrebiT arsebiTad gveCveneba im unarisTvis, rasac simbolod yofna ewodeba. simboloSi yovelTvis aris (sufevs) raRac arqauli. yoveli kultura saWiroebs teqstebis plasts, romlebic arqaulobis funqcias asrulebs. simboloTa kondensireba, aq Cveulebriv, gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia. simboloTa amgvari aRqma SemTxveviTi ar aris: maT ZiriTad jgufs marTlac arqauli buneba aqvs da damwerlobamdeli epoqidan momdinareobs, rodesac gansazRvruli (da, rogorc wesi, moxazulobis mxriv elementaruli) niSnebi warmoadgendnen koleqtivis zepirsityvier mexsierebaSi teqstebisa da siuJetebis Senaxul kondensirebul, mnemonur programebs. gansakuTrebiT farTo da mniSvnelovani teqstebis kondensirebuli saxiT Senaxvis unari simboloebSi aris SemorCenili. magram CvenTvis ufro metad sainteresoa, kidev erTi, aseve arqauli Tviseba: simbolos, romelic dasrulebul teqsts warmoadgens, SeuZlia ar CaerTos romelime sintagmatur rigSi, da rom CaerTos kidec masSi, inarCunebs azrobriv da struqturul damoukideblobas. igi advilad gamoiyofa semiotikuri garemodan da aseve advilad Sedis axal teqstur garemoSi. amasTan aris dakavSirebuli misi arsebiTi niSani: simbolo arasdros ekuTvnis
206

kulturis erT romelime sinqronul Wrils igi yovelTvis vertikalSi msWvalavs am Wrils, warsulidan mosuli midis ra momavalSi. simbolos mexsiereba ufro Zvelia, vidre misi arasimboluri teqsturi garemos mexsiereba. kulturis yovelgvari teqsti princi pulad araerTgvarovania. mkacrad sinqronul WrilSic ki kulturis enaTa heterogenuroba rTul mravalxmianobas qmnis. gavrcelebuli Sexeduleba imis Taobaze, rom gamonaTqvamebiT: klasicizmis epoqa an romantizmis epoqa, Cven ganvsazRvravT kulturuli periodis erTianobas an Tundac mis dominantur tendencias _ mxolod iluziaa, romelic aRweris pirobiTi enis Sedegia. kulturis sxvadasxva meqanizmis borblebi sxvadasxva siswrafiT brunaven. Cveulebrivi enis ganviTarebis tempi ver Seedreba mag. modis temps, sakraluri sfero yovelTvis ufro konservatiulia profanulze. amiT izrdeba is Sinagani mravalferovneba, romelic kulturis arsebobis kanons warmoadgens. simboloebi kulturuli kontinuumis erTerT yvelaze mdgrad elements warmoadgenen. ramdenadac simboloebi kulturis mexsierebis mniSvnelovan meqanizms warmoadgenen, maT gadaaqvT teqstebi, siuJeturi sqemebi da sxva semiotikuri warmonaqmnebi misi erTi plastidan meoreSi. simboloTa konstanturi rigebi, romelnic kulturis diaqronias msWvalaven, garkveulwilad, Tavis Tavze iReben erTianobis meqanizmTa funqcias: kulturis mexsierebis sakuTar Tavze ganxorcielebiT, isini mas izolirebul qronologiur plastebad daSlis saSualebas ar aZleven. erTianoba, romelic emyareba dominantur simboloTa jgufs da maTi kulturuli sicocxlis xangrZlivobas, garkveulwilad, gansazRvravs kulturaTa nacionalur da arealur sazRvrebs. Tumca, am TvalTaxedviT ganxiluli simbolos buneba orgvarovania. erTi mxriv, kulturaTa sizrqis gamsWvalvisas, simbolo realizdeba Tavis invariantul arsSi. am aspeqtSi, Cven SegviZlia davakvirdeT mis ganmeorebadobas. simbolo gamova, rogorc raRac araerTgvarovani misi garemomcveli teqsturi sivrcis mimarT, rogorc gzavnili sxva kulturuli epoqebisa (= sxva kulturebisa), rogorc mogoneba (gaxseneba) kulturis Zveli (= maradiuli) safuZvlebisa. meore mxriv, simbolo aqtiurad urTierTobs kulturul konteqstTan, transformirdeba misi zegavleniT da TviTon axdens mis transformacias. simbolos invariantuli arsi realizdeba variantebSi. swored im cvlilebebSi, romelsac ganicdis simbolos

207

maradiuli mniSvneloba mocemul kulturul konteqstSi, es konteqsti yvelaze naTlad avlens Tavis cvalebadobas. ukanaskneli unari dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom istoriulad yvelaze aqtiuri simboloebi xasiaTdebian mimarTebaTa erTgvari gaurkvevlobiT (ganusazRvrelobiT) teqst-gamoxatulebasa da teqstSinaarss Soris. es ukanaskneli yovelTvis ekuTvnis yvelaze mravalganzomilebian azrobriv sivrces. amitom gamoxatuleba mTlianad ver faravs Sinaarss, magram TiTqos gadakvriT mianiSnebs masze. aris es gamowveuli imiT, rom gamoxatuleba warmoadgens gacveTili teqstis, Sinaarsis mxolod mokle mnemonur niSans, Tu pirveli miekuTvneba kulturis profanul, Ria da demonstrirebad sferos, xolo meore _ sakralur, ezoterul, saidumlo an romantikul moTxovnilebas gamoxatos gamouxatavi, am SemTxvevaSi ganurCevelia. mniSvnelovania mxolod is, rom simbolos azrobrivi potenciebi yovelTvis ufro farToa maT mocemul realizaciaze: kavSirebi, romlebsac amyarebs simbolo sakuTari gamoxatulebis meSveobiT ama Tu im semiotikur garemosTan, ar amowuravs mis yvela azrobriv valentobas. es ki, Tavis mxriv, qmnis im azrobriv rezervs, ris meSveobiTac simbolos SeuZlia moulodnel kavSirebSi Sesvla Tavisi arsis SecvliT da teqsturi garemos moulodneli deformirebiT. am TvalTazrisiT niSandoblivia, rom Tavisi gamoxatulebiT elementarul simboloebs gaaCniaT ufro didi kulturul-azrobrivi moculoba, vidre rTul simboloebs. jvars, wres, pentagramas gacilebiT ufro didi azrobrivi potencia gaaCnia, vidre apolons, romelic tyavs aZrobs marsiass, im ganxeTqilebis gamo, romelic arsebobda gamoxatulebasa da Sinaarss Soris, maTi erTmaneTze proecirebis SeuZleblobis gamo. swored martivi simboloebi qmnian kulturis simbolur birTvs da swored maTi gajerebiT iqmneba saSualeba vimsjeloT mTlianobaSi kulturis simbolizirebadi Tu desimbolizirebadi orientaciis Sesaxeb. am ukanasknelTan aris dakavSirebuli miTiTeba teqstebis simbolizirebul Tu desimbolizirebul wakiTxvaze. pirveli saSualebas iZleva simboloebad iqnas wakiTxuli teqsti an teqstis narCenebi, romlnic Tavis bunebriv konteqstSi amgvarad ar aRiqmeba. meore aqcevs simboloebs ubralo Setyobinebebad. is, rac simboloebis Semqmneli cnobierebisTvis aris simbolo, sapirispiro wesisTvis gamodis simptomis rolSi. Tu desimbolizirebadi XIX saukune ama Tu im adamianSi an literaturul personaJSi xedavda (ideis, klasis, jgufis) warmomadgenels, bloki adamianebsa da movlenebs
208

yoveldRiurobaSi aRiqvamda sasrulSi usasrulobis gamovlenis simboloebad. (Sdr. misi reaqcia kluevis an steniCis pirovnebaze; es ukanaskneli aisaxa blokis statiaSi rusi dendebi). es ori tendencia Zalian sainteresod aris Sezavebuli dostoevskis mxatvrul azrovnebaSi. dostoevski _ gazeTebis yuradRebiani mkiTxveli da Jurnalisturi faqtologiis (gansakuTrebiT _ sisxlis samarTlis qronikis) koleqcioneri, sagazeTo faqtebis qviSrobze sazogadoebis faruli avadmyofobis xilul simptomebs xedavda. Sexeduleba mweralze, rogorc eqimze (lermontovi Cveni drois Ggmiris SesavalSi), bunebis mkvlevarze (baratinskis mxevali), sociologze (balzaki) aqcevda mas simptomebis mSifravad. simptomologia semiotikis sferos ekuTvnis (simptomologiis Zveli saxelwodeba samedicino semiotikaa). Tumca, mimarTeba gasagebi (gamoxatulebisa/gamonaTqvamisa) da gaugebari (Sinaarsisa) aq konstanturi (ucvleli) da erTmniSvnelovania da aigeba Savi yuTis princi piT. ase, magaliTad, turgenevi Tavis romanebSi mgrZnobiare xelsawyos sizustiT afiqsirebs sazogadoebrivi procesebis simptomebs. amasTan aris dakavSirebuli azri ama Tu im personaJze, rogorc warmomadgenelze. imis Tqma, rom rudini aris zedmeti adamianebis warmomadgeneli ruseTSi, tolfasia mtkicebisa, rom mis saxeSi xorcSesxmulia am jgufis ZiriTadi niSnebi, romlis Sesaxeb SeiZleba vimsjeloT gmiris xasiaTis mixedviT. gamonaTqvami, rom stavrogini an fedka qajebSi garkveuli movlenebis, ti pebis an Zalebis simbolizebaa, niSnavs mtkicebas, rom aRniSnul ZalTa arsi garkveulwilad gamoixata am gmirebSi, magram TavisTavad jer kidev bolomde gaxsnili ar aris da idumalebiT moculi rCeba. dostoevskis cnobierebaSi orive midgoma mudam ejaxeba erTmaneTs da rTulad gadaixlarTeba. sxvagvarad igeba dapirispireba simbolosa da reminiscencias Soris. Cven ukve mivaniSneT maT arsebiT sxvaobaze. axla upriania kidev erTi miniSneba gakeTdes: simbolo arsebobs mocemul teqstamde da misgan damoukideblad: igi mwerlis mexsierebaSi xvdeba kulturis mexsierebis siRrmidan da cocxldeba axal teqstSi, axal niadagSi moxvedrili marcvlisdagvarad. reminiscencia, gzavnili, citata _ axali teqstis organuli nawilebi, funqcionireben mxolod mis sinqroniaSi. isini teqstidan mexsierebis siRrmeSi aRweven, xolo simbolo _ mexsierebis siRrmidan teqstSi. amitom SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom is, rac Semoqmedebis procesSi simboloa (mexsierebis sugestiuri meqanizmi), mkiTxvelis aRqmaSi
209

realizdeba, rogorc reminiscencia, ramdenadac Semoqmedebisa da aRqmis procesebi upirispirdeba erTmaneTs: pirvelSi saboloo teqsti warmoadgens Sedegs, meoreSi _ sawyis wertils. aRniSnuls ganvmartavT magaliTiT. dostoevskis poemis, imperatoris gegmebSi (ioane antonoviCze1 romanis Canafiqri) arsebobs Canaweri, rom miroviCi Seagonebs izolaciaSi gazrdilsa da cxovrebaSi aranairi cdunebis mcodne ioane antonoviCs daTanxmdes SeTqmulebaze: sxvenidan aCvenebs mas samyaros (neva da sxv.) < ... >. aCvenebs RmerTis samyaros. yvelaferi Senia, mxolod moindome. wavideT! TvalsaCinoa, rom Zalauflebis CvenebiT cdunebis siuJeti dostoevskis cnobierebaSi dakavSirebuli iyo simbolosTan: macduris mier cdunebulis gadayvana maRal adgilas (mTa, taZris saxuravi; dostoevskisTan _ cixis koSkis sxveni) mis ferxTiT arsebuli samyaros CvenebasTan. dostoevskisTvis saxarebiseuli simbolika romanis siuJetSi iSleboda, mkiTxvelisTvis romanis siuJeti saxarebiseuli reminiscenciiT aixsneboda. Tumca, am ori aspeqtis Sepirispireba pirobiTia, da iseT rTul teqstebSi, rogoric dostoevskis romanebia, yovelTvis ver xerxdeba. rogorc aRiniSna, sagazeTo qronikas, sisxlis samarTlis procesebis faqtebs dostoevski aRiqvamda, rogorc simptomebs. amasTan aris dakavSirebuli misi mxatvruli da ideur-filosofiuri azrovnebis arsebiTi aspeqtebi. maTi azris gaxsna SesaZlebelia sityvisadmi tolstoisa da dostoevskis damokidebulebis SepirispirebiT. jer kidev adreul moTxrobaSi tyis Cexva gamovlinda principi, romelic tolstois mTeli momdevno SemoqmedebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli darCa: oficrebs, romelnic sauzmobnen, moCvenebiTi gulgrilobiT da Sinagani daZabulobiT esmiT mTielTa zarbaznis gasrolis xma: sad iyideT Rvino? _ zantad vkiTxe volxovs, maSin, rodesac mis gulis siRrmeSi erTnairad mkafiod ori xma laparakobda: erTi _ RmerTo, miiRe suli Cemi mSvidobiT, meore _ imedi maqvs, ar daviRunebi, rodesac zarbaznis yumbara gadaifrens, aramed gaviRimeb _ da im wamsve Tavze raRacam saSinlad usiamovnod gaizuzuna da Cvengan or nabijze moadina zRarTani.
1

ioane antonoviCi (1740-1764) rusi imperatori, 1741 wels elizavetam (elisabedma) taxtidan Camoagdo erTi wlis asakSi; 1756 wels Camwyvdeul iqna cixesimagreSi, romelSic daRupvamde imyofeboda. moklul iqna miroviCis mcdelobisas, daesva is taxtze, rac, SesaZloa, provokaciac iyo. 210

_ ici, napoleoni an fridrixi rom vyofiliyavi, _ Tqva am dros sruliad gulgrilad volxovma Cemken SemobrunebiT, _ raime qaTinaurs vityodi aucileblad. _ Tqven ukve TqviT, _ vupasuxe me mRelvarebis Zlivs dafarviT, romelic ganvlil gansacdels gamoewvia CemSi. _ mere ra, rom vTqvi: aravin Caiwers! _ me Caviwer. _ Tqvn, rom CaiweroT kidec, mxolod gasakritikeblad, rogorc miSCenkovi ambobs daumata man. _ dalaxvros eSmakma! Tqva am dros Cvens ukan antonovma da gajavrebiT gadaafurTxa, _ kinaRam fexebze ar momxvda.2 Tu vimsjelebT am nawyvetSi gamovlenil tolstoiseuli metyvelebis Taviseburebaze, maSin mogvixdeba misi sruli konvenciurobis aRniSvna: mimarTeba gamoxatvasa da Sinaarss Soris pirobiTia. sityvam SeiZleba WeSmaritebac gamoxatos, rogorc es antonovis wamoZaxilSi iyo, da tyuilic, rogoric xdeba oficris saubarSi. gamoxatvis planis gamoyofis da misi sxva nebismier planTan SeerTebis saSualeba sityvas aqcevs saxifaTo instrumentad, socialuri tyuilis moxerxebul kondensatorad. amitom, im sakiTxebSi, romelSic WeSmaritebis saWiroeba sasicocxlod aucilebeli xdeba, tolstoi arCevda saerTod ar gamoeyenebina sityvebi. ase rom, pier bezuxovis mier elenisadmi siyvarulis sityvieri axsna _ sicruea, xolo WeSmariti siyvaruli aixsneba ara sityvebiT, aramed mzeriT da RimiliT an, rogorc es kitis da levinis SemTxvevaSia _ kri ptogramebiT. akimis usityvo, gaugebari -s (Zala wyvdiadisa) Sinaarsi WeSmaritebas Seicavs, WeSmaritebas, maSin roca mWevrmetyveleba tolstoisTan yovelTvis sicruea. WeSmariteba _ bunebis Cveulebrivi wesrigia. sityvebisgan (da socialuri simbolikisgan) ganwmendili cxovreba, Tavisi bunebrivi arsiT, WeSmaritebaa. movitanT Txrobis ramdenime magaliTs dostoevskis idiotidan. aq, rogorc Cans, saqme sxvagvarad iyo, raRac mSvinvieri da gulismieri naleqi _ msgavsi aTvalwunebis zomagadasuli grZnobisa, romelic erTi sityviT, raRac Zalian sasacilo da miuRebeli wesier sazogadoebaSi < ... .> es mzera _ TiTqos gamocana iyo < ... > mas eldas gvrida qalis sxvagvari mzera bolo dros, sxvagvari sityvebi. zogjer eCveneboda, rom igi TiTqos Zalian imxnevebda Tavs, Zalian ikavebda Tavs da mas axsendeboda, rom es Zlier aSinebda <...>
2

.. .. .11.67. 211

Tqven imitom ar SegeZloT misi siyvaruli, rom zomaze metad amayi xarT, ara, amayi ki ara, me Sevcdi, mediduri xarT _ esec ki ara, Tqven sigiJemde Tavmoyvare xarT <...> es xom Zalian kargi grZnobebia, mxolod aq, ratomRac, veraferi gamovida; aq avadmyofobaa da kidev raRacaa!3 Cven mier TiTqmis alalbedze amorCeuli es nawyvetebi ganekuTvneba sxvadasxva personaJis gamonaTqvamebs da TviTon mTxrobelsac, magram isini erTi zogadi niSniT xasiaTdeba: sityvebi arc sagnebsa da arc ideebs asaxeleben, aramed TiTqos gadakvriT migviTiTeben maTze da imavdroulad gvagebineben, rom SeuZlebelia maTTvis zusti saxelis SerCeva. da TiTqos kidev raRac iqceva mTeli stilis aRsaniSnav niSnad, romelic aigeba usasrulo dazustebebiT da damatebiTi SeniSvnebiT, Tumca-Ra, arafers azusteben da mxolod aCveneben saboloo dazustebis SeuZleblobas. amasTan dakavSirebiT, SeiZleboda idiotidan i politis sityvebis gaxseneba: ... yvelanair genialur an axal adamianur azrSi, an, ubralod, yvelanair seriozul adamianur azrSi, romelic vinmes uCndeba TavSi, yovelTvis rCeba raRac, risi gadacemac SeuZlebelia sxva adamianebisTvis, Tqven azrebs 35 wlis ganmavlobaSi rom xsnideT da gansamartavad tomebs werdeT, yovelTvis rCeba raRac, rac araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar moindomebs gamosvlas Tqveni Tavis qalidan da darCeba TqvenTan erTad samaradisod: ise gardaicvlebiT, rom, SesaZloa, Tqveni ideebidan yvelaze mTavari ram ver gadasceT sxvas4 amgvar axsna-ganmartebaSi dostoevskisTvis es arsebiTi azri romantikul JReradobas iZens, uaxlovdeba ra gamouxatvelobis ideas. dostoevskis damokidebuleba sityvis mimarT rTulia. erTi mxriv, is ara marto sxvadasxvanairi saSualebiT usvams xazs sityvisa da misi mniSvnelobis araadekvaturobas, aramed TviTonac gamudmebiT iyenebs arazust sityvas, mimarTavs arakompetentur mowmeebs, romelTac TviTonac ar esmiT, ras amowmeben da aZleven faqtebis garegnul xilvadobas ganzrax arazust axsnas. meore mxriv, ar SeiZleba am uzusto sityvebis da damowmebebis ugulebelyofa, rogorc faqtebisa, romelTac TiTqosda aranairi mimarTeba ara aqvT WeSmaritebasTan da, ubralod, unda waSalon, ise, rogorc es tolstois prozis sazogadoebriv-TvalTmaqcur gamonaTqvamebSia. isini warmoadgenen WeSmaritebasTan miaxloebas, gadakvriT migvaniSneben masze. WeSmariteba
3 4

.. . .. .7..37..8 .37-38~ .7..471,354. , .8..328.

212

maTSi mqrqalad ilandeba. magram is saxarebiseuli sityvebis garda, sxva yvela sityvaSi mxolod ilandeba. am TvalTaxedviT, kompetenturisa da arakompetenturis, gamWriaxisa da sulelis metyvelebas Soris princi puli sxvaoba ar aris, radgan WeSmaritebisgan Sors yofnac da araadekvaturobac mis mimarT, iseve rogorc unari iyos gza mimavali WeSmaritebisken, TviT adamianuri sityvis bunebaSi Zevs. Zneli SesamCnevi ar aris, rom amgvari gagebiT sityva iZens ara niSnis konvencionalur bunebas, aramed simbolosas. dostoevskiseul gagebas ufro uaxlovdeba ara Jukovskis romantikuli gamouxatveloba, aramed baratinskis analitikuri sityva: , [aSkara mniSvnelobisTvis ucxo] . [CemTvis esaa simbolo] , [grZnobebisa, romelTa gamoxatuleba] .5 [enebSi ver vpove] . swrafva dainaxos calkeul faqtSi siRrmuli simboluri azri, damaxasiaTebelia dostoevskis teqstisTvis, Tumca ar Seadgens mis erTaderT maorganizebel tendencias6. saintereso masalas iZleva dakvirveba dostoevskis SemoqmedebiT Canafiqrebze: ama Tu im moqmedi piris xasiaTis Cafiqrebisas, dostoevski mas saxeliT aRniSnavs an gamoyofs raRac niSniT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs mwerals daaaxlovos igi mis mexsierebaSi arsebul ama Tu im simbolosTan, xolo Semdeg gaaTamaSebs sxvadasxvagvar siuJetur situaciebs da iwyebs varauds, Tu rogor moiqceoda es simboluri figura maTSi. analizs daqvemdebarebul siuJetur situaciebSi simbolos mravalmniSvnelovneba saSualebas iZleva debiutebis, miTTel... da endSpilebis variirebisTvis, romelTac dostoevski mravaljer mimarTavs nairgvari svlebis gadasinjvisas.
.., . . : 2 ./ . . . , . ., 1936..1..184. 6 dostoevskis SemoqmedebiTi azrovneba princi pulad heterogenulia: `simbolur~ azrTa qmnadobasTan erTad igi gulisxmobs wakiTxvis sxva SesaZleblobebsac. pirdapiri publicistika, Jurnalisturi qronika, iseve, rogorc bevri sxva ram, Sedis mis enaSi, romlis idealur realizacias `mwerlis dRiuri warmoadgens. Cven gamovyofT `simbolur Sres~ wignis am Tavis TemasTan dakavSirebiT da ara misi ganumeoreblobis gamo mwerlis mxatvrul samyaroSi. 213
5

ase, mag.: nastasia fili povnas (idioti) saxis miRma maSinve Riad Cndeba (pirdapir asaxelebs testSi kolia ivolgini da iribad tocki) saxe qalisa kameliebiT _ kamelia. Tumca dostoevski am saxe-xats rTul simbolod aRiqvams, romelic evropul kulturasTan aris dakavSirebuli, da, misi gadmotanisas rusul konteqstSi, arc Tu iseTi polemikuri paTosiT akvirdeba, Tu rogor moiqceva rusi kamelia. magram nastasia fili povnas saxe-xatis struqturaSi, roli sxva simboloebmac iTamaSes _ imaT, romlebic kulturis mexsierebis damcvelebi arian. erT-erTi maTganis rekonstruqcia Cven SegviZlia, magram mxolod savaraudod. Canafiqri da Tavdapirveli muSaoba idiotze mimdinareobda sazRvargareT mogzaurobis periodSi. 1860 wlebis dasasruls, romlis drosac dostoevskis erT-erT uZliers STabeWdilebas drezdenis galereis daTvaliereba warmoadgenda. misi eqo (holbainis naxatis xseneba) romanis saboloo teqstSic JRers. 1867 w. a.g. dostoevskaias dRiuridan Cven viciT, rom galereis daTvalierebisas, Tavdapirvelad man martom naxa rembrandtis yvela naxati, xolo Semdeg galereis Tavidan davlisas dostoevskisTan erTad: fedia miuTiTebda saukeTeso namuSevrebze da saubrobda xelovnebaze7. Zneli warmosadgenia, dostoevskis ar mieqcia yuradReba rembrandtis naxatisTvis susana da berikacebi. am suraTs, iseve rogorc imave darbazSi gamofenil hanimedis motacebas (puSkinis sityvebiT, rembrandtis ucnaur naxats), dostoevskis yuradReba unda mieqcia misTvis amaRelvebeli Temis interpretaciis gamo: bavSvze mruSTa Tavdasxmas. Tavisi tiloTi rembrandti gascda bibliur siuJets: winaswarmetyveli danielis 13-e TavSi, sadac susanas istoriaa moTxrobili, laparakia darbaisel, gaTxovil qalbatonze, saxlis diasaxlisze, xolo berikacebi, romlebic cdiloben mis cdunebas, aucilebeli ar aris, rom berebi yofiliyvnen8. rembrandtma ki mozardi gogona, gamxdari da fermkrTali, moklebuli yovelgvar qalur mimzidvelobas daucveli gamosaxa. berebs man miawera sazareli avxorculi Tvisebebi, romlebic kontrastulad upirispirdeba maT xanSisulobas (asaks) (Sdr. kontrasti arwivis aRznebul avxorcobasa
7

: 2 . /. .. ., 1964..2..104. 8 ix. `berebad wminda werilSi moixseneba xalxi, romelic zogjer sulac ar aris asakovani <...>, aramed ufrosebi arian Tavisi wodebis gamo ( ., , , . 5 . 4- . ., 1818-1819. .;..162). 214

da hanimedis saxeze aRbeWdil zizRs Soris, romelic gamosaxulia ara miTologiur ymawvil kacad, aramed bavSvad). is, rom nastasia fili povnas romanis dasawyisSi vxvdebiT im momentSi, rodesac erTi berikaci _ tocki mihyidis mas meores (formalurad ganias, magram faqtobrivad general epanCins) da TviT tockis mier TiTqmis bavSvis Secdena SesaZlebels xdis varauds, rom nastasia fili povnas dostoevski aRiqvamda ara marto, rogorc kamelias, aramed rogorc susanasac. magram amave dros, is aris qali ayvanili mruSobaSi, romelzec qristem Tqva: vinc Tqvens Soris ucodvelia, pirvelad man dahkras qva! da uari Tqva mis gansjaze: ...arc me vdeb msjavrs... (i. 8 : 7, 111). simboluri xatebis _ kamelia-susana-codvili coli~ gadakveTaze warmoiSveba is SekumSuli programa, romelsac romanebis CanafiqrTa siuJetur sivrceSi CaZirvis Semdeg eliT gaSla (da transformacia) nastasia fili povnas saxeSi. aseve SesaZlebelia danaxva kavSirisa brigadiris meuRlis saxesa (fonvizinis piesidan) da generlis meuRlis epanCinas saxes Soris, rogorc mexsierebaSi Caweril simbolosa da mis siuJetur gaSlas Soris. ufro rTuladaa saqme i polit terentievis SemTxvevaSi. es personaJi mravalplaniania, da, rogorc Cans, masSi upirveles yovlisa Caiwna sicocxlis sxvadsxvagvari simboloebi (realobis simbolurad axsnili faqtebi)9. Tumca, yuradRebas i pyrobs iseTi detali, rogoricaa i politis survili sikvdilis win mimarTos xalxs da rwmena imisa, rom sakmarisia man mxolod 15 wuTi ilaparakos xalxTan fanjridan da xalxi maSinve daeTanxmeba da gahyveba mas10. dostoevskis mexsierebaSi es detali Camjdari iyo, rogorc tevadi simbolo da dakavSirebuli iyo belinskis sikvdilis momentTan, romelmac ase gaaoca mTeli misi garemocva. i. s. turgenevi ixsenebda: sikvdilis win igi ori saaTi laparakobda Seusveneblad, TiTqosda rus xalxs mimarTavda, da xSirad sTxovda cols, yvelaferi kargad daemaxsovrebina da zustad gadaeca es sityvebi maTTvis, visTvisac gankuTvnili iyo isini...11
Sdr. dostoevskis mtkiceba statiaSi gamofenis Taobazeimis Sesaxeb, rom realoba adamianisTvis misawvdomia mxolod, rogorc ideis simboluri aRniSvna da ara iseTi, rogoric is aris, radgan amgvari realoba sulac ar arsebobs, da arc arasdros yofila dedamiwaze, radgan saganTa arsi adamianisTvis miuwvdomelia, xolo bunebas igi aRiqvams ise, rogorc is aisaxeba mis ideaSi... ( .. . .. .21..75). 10 .. . ...2..244 -245. 11 .. .. ( ..) // , .,1929, .256. 215
9

es daamaxsovrda nekrasovsac: [da rogorc iqna dro dadga . sikvdilis dRes is sareclidan aRsdga... da kvlav Zala moikriba - ! damunjebulma gulmkerdma da xmam daiquxa! <...> :! yviroda igi sixaruliT: win! , , , da amays, da naTels da kmayofils: mas xalxi eCveneboda ~ da moskovis zarebis rekva; , mzera misi aRfrTovanebiT brwyinavda, , , moedanze, xalxSi , eCveneboda mas, rom idga ...12 da laparakobda]. mwerlis mexsierebaSi daleqilma mkveTrma epizodma ganicada simbolizacia da daiwyo kulturaSi simbolos moqmedebis ti puri niSnebis gamovlena: Tavis garSemo dagroveba da Seqmna axali gamocdilebisa, mexsierebis Tavisebur kondensatorad gadaqceva, xolo Semdeg daSla erTgvar siuJetur simravled, romelsac avtori Semdgom aierTianebs sxva siuJetur wyobasTan gadarCevis gziT. amasTan erTad Tavdapirveli kavSiri belinskisTan TiTqmis daikarga, ramdenadac mravaljeradi transformacia ganicada. unda gvaxsovdes, rom simbolo SeiZleba gamoixatos sinkretuli sityvier-vizualuri formiT, romelic, erTi mxriT, proecirdeba sxvadasxva teqstis sibrtyeSi, xolo meore mxriv, transformirdeba teqstebis ukuzemoqmedebis wyalobiT. ase mag., advilad SesamCnevia,
12

.. . .: 15 . ., 1982..4..49.

216

rom v. tatlinis III internacionalis (1919-1920) ZeglSi struqturulad aRdgenilia babilonis godolis xateba breigelufrosis naxatidan. es kavSiri SemTxveviTi ar aris: revoluciis interpretacia, rogorc amboxisa RmerTis winaaRmdeg, mdgradi da gavrcelebuli asociacia iyo revoluciis pirveli wlebis literaturasa da kulturaSi. da Tu romantizmis RmerTmebrZoleobis tradiciaSi meamboxe gmiri xdeboda demoni, romelsac romantikosebi gazviadebul individualizms aniWebdnen, revoluciis Semdgomi wlebis avangardul literaturaSi xazgasmiT aRiniSneboda masobrioba, anonimuroba (Sdr. maiakovskis misteria-bufi). ukve marqsis formulaSi, romelic im wlebSi Zalze popularuli iyo _ proletarebi uteven zecas miniSneba iyo babilonis godolis miTze, romelic ormag inversias ganicdida. upirveles yovlisa, adgils inacvlebdnen cisa da masze Tavdamsxmeli dedamiwis Sefasebebi; meorec, miTs xalxTa dayofis Sesaxeb Seenacvla rwmena-warmodgenebi maT SeerTebaze, anu internacionalizmze. am gziT iqmneba jaWvi: bibliuri teqsti13 _ breigelis naxati marqsis gamonaTqvami tatlinis III internacionalis Zegli. simbolo gvevlineba, rogorc koleqtiuri mexsierebis mkafio meqanizmi. axla SeiZleba SevecadoT movxazoT simbolos adgili sxva niSnur elementTa Soris. simbolo konvenciuri) pirobiTi, Cveulebrivi) niSnisgan gansxvavdeba ikonuri elementiT, gamoxatvis plansa da Sinaarss Soris gansazRvruli msgavsebiT. niSan-xatebsa da simboloebs Soris gansxvaveba SeiZleba ilustrirebul iqnas xatisa da naxatis antiTeziT. naxatSi samganzomilebiani realoba organzomilebianiT aris gamoxatuli. Tumca arasruli proeqcireba gamosaxvis planisa Sinaarsis planze SeniRbulia iluzionisturi efeqtiT: aRmqmels cdiloben STaagonon rwmena sruli msgavsebisa.

13

dabadeba 11: 3-8: da Tqves:modi, gavakeToT agurebi da gamovwvaT cecxlSi da hqondaT aguri qvis nacvlad da fisi _ kirad. da Tqves: modi, avaSenoT qalaqi da godoli, romlis Tavic zecas miswvdeba da SeviqmnaT saxeli, vidre gavifantebiT mTeli qveynis pirze. da Camovida ufali, raTa enaxa qalaqi da godoli, romelsac aSenebdnen adamianebis Zeebi. da Tqva ufalma: erTi xalxia es da erTi ena aqvT d daiwyes amis keTeba da axla maTTvis aRaraferi ar iqneba miuRweveli. CavideT da avurioT maT ena, rom adamianebma ver gaugon erTmaneTs. da gafanta ufalma isini iqidan miwis zurgze da maT Sewyvites qalaqis Seneba. 217

xatSi (da simboloSi, zogadad) araproecirebadoba gamoxatvis planisa Sinaarsis planze gamomdinareobs niSnis komunikaciuri funqcionirebis bunebidan. Sinaarsi mxolod liclicebs gamoxatulebaSi, xolo gamoxatuleba mxolod gadakvriT miuTiTebs Sinaarsze. am azriT, laparaki SeiZleba indeqsTan xatis Serwymaze: gamoxatuleba mianiSnebs Sinaarsze imdenad, ramdenadac gamoxatavs mas. amas efuZneba simboluri niSnis cnobili konvenciuroba. amgvarad, simbolo TiTqosda kondensatorad gamodis niSnobriobis yvela principisTvis da imavdroulad gahyavs, niSnobriobis sazRvridan. igi Suamavalia semiozisis sxvadasxva sferos, aseve semiotikur da semiotikuris miRma realobebs Soris. analogiurad, igi Suamavalia sinqronul teqstsa da kulturis mexsierebas Soris. mis rols semiotikuri kondesatoris roli warmoadgens. rom ganvazogadoT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ama Tu im kulturis simboloTa struqtura qmnis sistemas, izomorfulsa da izofunqciurs, individis genetikuri mexsierebis meSveobiT.

Targmna nino abakeliam

218

si n ikita si r otkin i

avangardizmis gamokvlevis meTodologia anu avangardizmis semiotikuri mimarTeba sinamdvilisadmi

ra ra se av I. ratom avangardi? ratom semi otika? aq saubari ar iqneba avangardizmis rogorc erTiani mxatvruli sistemis semiotikur aRweraze aseTi aRweris dro jer ar damdgara, Tumca es saintereso da produqtiuli iqneboda. am statiis mizani mdgomareobs imaSi, rom movniSnoT aseTi aRweris sazRvrebi, SesaZleblobebi da mimarTulebebi. avangardi literaturis istoriaSi warmoadgens sasazRvro movlenas, avangardi erTgvarad balansirebs xelovnebasa da araxelovnebas Soris. aseTi (`~) zaumis poeziis - `mosazRvreobis~ magaliTebia saagitacio xelovneba (magaliTad, ~saagitacio faifuri~), gasaformebeli samuSaoebi, sareklamo samuSaoebi: xelovnebaa es Tu ara? cnobilia, rom bevri avangardisti aqtiurad iyo CarTuli politikaSi, sazogadoebriv an administraciul moRvaweobaSi, amasTan, mxatvrulis da aramxatvrulis (socialuri moqmedebis) sferoebs am SemTxvevaSi princi pulad ar ganasxvavebdnen. avangardi cdilobs gascdes xelovnebis sazRvrebs da idealSi Seerwyas sicocxles. Zalian cotaa ganmazogadebeli Teoriuli naSromi avangardis Sesaxeb, cota ara marto CvenTan, aramed _ dasavleTSic. mxedvelobaSi maqvs iseTi naSromebi, romlebic met-naklebad mkveTrad gamijnaven avangardizms sxva mxatvruli movlenebisgan, gansazRvraven mis specifikur niSnebs da a.S.1 ratom xdeba ase? vfiqrob, mizezi swored isaa, rom avangardis kvleva ar SeiZleba, Tu SemovisazRvrebiT literaturaTmcodneobis meTodebiT aq meTodi araadekvaturia obieqtisa, Cven winaSe aris raRac ufro meti (an naklebi), vidre xelovnebaa. avangardi moiTxovs sxvagvar, ufro farTo araliteraturaTmcodneobriv midgomas. am konteqstSi, rogorc wesi,
am mcirericxovan naSromebs Soris SeiZleba davasaxeloT pirvel yovlisa, p. biurgeris Theorie der Avantgarde~ (1974), eJi farinos zogierTi gamokvleva saxelwodebiT `deSifrireba~, garda amisa, i. p. smirnovis naSromebi, pirvel rigSi, `mxatvruli sazrisi da poeturi sistemebis evolucia~ (1977). ( ) 219
1

upirveles yovlisa, mimarTaven xelovnebis sxvadasxva saxeebs Soris mWidro kavSirs, ufro zustad, mxatvruli moRvaweobis sxvadasxva saxeebs, romelsac iyeneben avangardistebi. magram calkeuli samecniero disci plinis araadekvaturobis mizezi avangardizmis kvlevisas SeiZleba CamovayaliboT sxvanairadac. erT-erTi centraluri programuli kolizia, romelsac awydeba avangardizmi, da romlis gadaWrasac is cdilobs es aris Zveli tradiciuli enis (kerZod, xelovnebis enis, magram laparakia, sazogadod, semiotikur meqanizmze) da axali, Secvlili (cvalebadi, CamoyalibebaSi myofi) cxovrebis Seusabamobaze. es ar aris esTetikuri problema, arc xelovnebis problema es filosofiuri problemaa.2 (amasTan, upirveles yovlisa, Tanamedrove filosofiisa). meore mxriv, SeiZleba mivaniSnoT avangardistebis politikur da ideologiur aqtivobaze. imis gamo, rom avangardi cdilobs ganaxorcielos martooden universaluri programa, romelic moicavs kulturis semiotikur meqanizmebs mis sxvadasxva sferoSi (xelovneba, filosofia, mecniereba3, politika, yofa, mrewvelobac ki futuristuli lozungi `xelovneba warmoebaSi~), raTa Seiqmnas avangardze adekvaturi xedva, aucilebelia SesaZleblobisdagvarad farTo meTodologiuri safuZveli. avangardistuli mxatvruli moRvaweobis Tavisebureba aixsneba, rogorc iyo naCvenebi, ukve naxseneb avangardis TeoriebSi, imiT, rom avangardi axdens kulturaSi miRebuli im xerxebis deformirebas da transformirebas, romliTac xdeba esTetikur kategoriebTan muSaoba, ufro farTod niSnebTan, niSnobriv sistemebTan da operaciebTan. swored es iZleva im varaudis SesaZleblobas, rom meTodologiis saxiT swored semiotika, romelic xSirad TiTqmis avangardistulad acxadebs pretenzias metamecnierebis wodebaze, didwilad avangardizmis adekvaturia ara imdenad rogorc literaturis movlena, aramed rogorc evropuli kulturis movlena. Tumca, ukve aRar SeiZleba SemovisazRvroT `mecnierebiT, romelic swavlobs niSnebs da niSnobriv sistemebs~, rogorc Cveulebriv
2

andrei cukanovis SeniSvniT, `mTeli Tavisi sicxadiT misi (avangardi n. s.) intenciebi . . . met-naklebad warmoCnda martooden naxevari saukunis Semdeg. ganixilavs ra enobrivi struqturebis zegavlenas adamianis cnobierebaze . . . es filosofia gvaZlevs gasaRebs im faqtis gasagebad, rom avangardi, upirveles yovlisa, cdilobs i povos enasTan muSaobis meTodebi~ ( . .// 1999. #39. (5) gv. 289). 3 SeadareT s. spaskis mier moyvanili v. kamenskis gamonaTqvami: `futurizmi ganaaxlebs mTel kulturas. futurizmi ar warmoadgens martooden moZraobas xelovnebaSi. Cven SevqmniT futuristul mecnierebas, axal fizikas, axal maTematikas~ (spaski s. maiakovski da misi Tanamgzavrebi. mogonebebi. . . . ., , 1940. gv. 23) 220

gansazRvraven semiotikas. semiotikis statusi problemuria da erT-erTi ZiriTadi Sinagani problema masSi dakavSirebulia semiotikuri kvlevebis sagnis gansazRvrasTan. arsebobs ori ZiriTadi mimarTuleba, romelTac gamoyofen am konteqstSi. isini ukavSirdeba C.s. pirsisa da f. de sosiuris saxelebs. pi I I. pirsi vs sosiuri cnobilia, rom samamulo samecniero tradiciaSi semiotikuri literaturaTmcodneoba (an semiotikuri kulturologia) didwilad efuZneba formalizmis tradiciebs, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs, Tvali mivadevnoT f. de sosiuris mimarTulebas. am kavSirs aqvs ara imdenad genetikuri xasiaTi (Tumca, SesaZlebelia dadgindes ganSualebuli kontaqti i. a. boduen de kurtenes meSveobiT; meore mxriv, orive SemTxvevaSi gadamwyvet rols asrulebs lingvisturi orientirebuloba), ramdenadac is, rom is aixsneba ti pologiuri mowmobis saxiT am ori movlenis siaxlovis Taobaze, romelic, rogorc Cans, Sedis erT samecniero an, ufro farTod, kulturul paradigmaSi. Zalian ganzogadebulad semiotikis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri princi pebi, orientirebuli sosiurze, SeiZleba ase movniSnoT: yuradRebis centrSia niSnobrivi sistema (an, Tu gamoviyenebT ufro gviandel termins, struqtura), _ magaliTad, mxatvruli enis sistema an, ufro viwrod, gansazRvruli epoqis gansazRvruli mimarTulebis, konkretuli teqstis an avtoris mxatvruli enis sistema sxva sistemebTan kavSirSi (iseTebTan, rogoricaa ideologia epoqis an raRac socialuri jgufis) da misi ganviTareba (sosiurma Semoitana diaqroniis cneba o. kontze dayrdnobiT, ix. Comte A. Cours de Philosophie Positive. T.IV. Paris: Schleicher Freres, 1908. gv. 167-170)) sosiurs esmis niSani rogorc `mimarTeba~, romelic akavSirebs or komponents aRmniSvnels anu `akustikur xats~, da aRsaniSns, anu `cnebas~. `enobrivi niSani aris `ormxrivi fsiqikuri arsi . . .~ (ix: . . / frangulidan Targmani a.a.xolodovoCis redaqtorobiT. . , 1977. gv. 99)4.
4

ufro zusti Targmani: o . . / a. m. suxotinis meore franguli gamocemis Targmani. Targmanis redaqcia n. a. slusarevasi. . , 1997. ar SeiZleba aq ar mivuTiToT sosiuris ideebis gadmocemisa da zusti Targmanis seriozul problemebze. rogorc wers roi harisi, `codna sosiuris ideebis Taobaze, romelic SeiZleba miviRoT `lingvistikis zogadi kursis~ kiTxvisas, SeiZleba SevadaroT sokrates ideebis Cveneul codnas, rogorc gadmocemulia isini platonis dialogebSi. yvelaferi, rac misawvdomia CvenTvis, - es aris meoradi codna [. . . ]~ (Harris R. Reading Saussure: A critical commentary on the cours de linguistique generale. London: Duckworth, 1987. P. vii.). 221

C. pirsze (romelsac xSirad asaxeleben semiotikis rogorc mecnierebis Semqmnelad) orientirebuli semiotika ixilavs (aqac vaxden Zalian ganzogadebul formulirebas, detalizebis gareSe) upirveles yovlisa, niSnobriv process, anu semiozisis process mniSvnelobis miniWebis, niSnis, obieqtisa da erTgvari azrobrivi warmodgenis SeuRlebis process (am warmodgenas pirsi uwodebs niSnis interpretants). niSnobrivi sistemis sosiurul gagebasa da masze orientirebul semiotikasa da pirsiseuli mniSvnelobis miniWebis processa da mis mimdevrebs Soris princi puli gansxvavebaa. niSani pirss esmis rogorc `samnawiliani SenaerTi niSnis {viwro azriT, anu enis matarebeli, magaliTad, sityva}, aRsaniSni sagnis [thing signified] da cnobierebaSi warmoebuli Semecnebisa [cognition produced in the mind] (Peirce Ch.S. Collected Papers. Vol.1. $ 372) Cndeba axali elementi, romelic ar hqonda sosiurs: niSnis obieqti (`aRsaniSni sagani~)5. (garda amisa, am or semiotikur TeoriaSi aris, rasakvirvelia, sxva Seusabamobebic, romelic amJamad CvenTvis naklebad sainteresoa). iseT samamulo literaturaTmcodneobiT mimarTulebaze, romelic gaagrZelebda pirsis mimarTulebas, ver vilaparakebT. nawilobriv, es aixsneba mecnierebasTan daukavSirebeli, magaliTad, politikuri mizezebiT (magram SesaZlebelia, arsebobs sxva axsnac). amgvarad, niSnis gansazRvreba pirsTan yovelTvis moicavs sam aspeqts: niSnis mniSvnelobaSi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba misi obieqti, misi matarebeli (niSani misi viwro mniSvnelobiT, pirsis terminologiiT reprezentameni) da interpretanti. Tu saubaria esTetikur niSanze, maSin interpretanti, rogorc Cans, daaxloebiT Seesabameba mxatvruli teqstis interpretacias (rogor xedavs mkiTxveli teqsts, rogor zemoqmedebas axdens teqsti mkiTxvelze), niSnis matarebeli Tavad mxatvruli nawarmoebi. maS ra aris esTetikuri niSnis obieqti? romel garegan sinamdvileze miuTiTebs is? esTetikuri niSnis referenciulobis problema Cndeba swored pirsis semiotikis CarCoebSi sosiurisTvis niSnis miRma araviTari realoba ar arsebobs; ase magaliTad, misTvis azrovneba enobrivi gamoxatvis gareSe `warmoadgens amorful, daunawevrebel masas [...],
aq SeiZleba vigulisxmoT sruliad gansazRvruli, Tumca ki arasakmarisad gamokvleuli tradicia amerikul filosofiasa da kulturologiaSi: sakmarisia gavixsenoT, rom Tavad pirsma Tavisi Sexedulebebis aRsaniSnavad Semoitana termini `pragmaticizmi~ (`pragmaticism~), raTa ufro gamoekveTa pragmaticizmTan dapirispireba. 222
5

sadac araferi ar aris mkafiod gamijnuli. winaswar gansazRvruli cnebebi ar arsebobs, iseve, rogorc ar arsebobs araviTari gansxvavebebi enis gaCenamde~ ( . . aRniSnuli naSromi. gv. 144). (am problemas miuZRvna ramdenime naSromi emil benvenistma,6 da, agreTve, roman iakobsonma, romelic gvTavazobda aRniSnul konteqstSi `referenciis magivrad gvelaparaka `avtoreferenciaze~: xelovnebis nawarmoebi mianiSnebs ara gare sinamdvileze, aramed Tavis Tavze). aq uadgiloa esTetikuri referenciis problemis ganxilva, magram vfiqrob, rom avangardizmis specifikis sakiTxi SeiZleba gadaiWras swored am problematikis CarCoebSi: ZiriTadi gansxvaveba avangardizmsa da araavangardizms Soris dakavSirebulia maT gansxvavebul referenciul maxasiaTeblebTan isini gansxvavdeba sinamdvilesTan mimarTebis ti piT. av re xe I I I. avangardistul xelovnebaSi referencia min i malur ia i. s. stepanovi gvTavazobs literaturis aseT gansazRvrebas: `literaturuli diskursi semiotikurad SeiZleba ganisazRvros rogorc diskursi, romelSic winadadebebi gamonaTqvamebi da sazogadod gamoxatulebebi (gamosaxulebebi) _ intensionalurad WeSmaritia, magram ara aucileblad eqstensionalurad WeSmariti (eqstensionalurad ganusazRvrelia). es aris diskursi ganagrZobs stepanovi, - romlis intensionalebs aucileblobiT ar gaaCniaT eqstensionalebi aqtualur samyaroSi da romelic Sesabamisad, aRwers erT-erT SesaZlo samyaros~ ( . / / . , 1983, gv. 23 ). rogorc gvafrTxilebs Tavad i. s. stepanovi, `am formalur gansazRvrebaze . . . SeiZleba daviyvanoT literaturis ZiriTadi centraluri nawili, yovel SemTxvevaSi, realisturi farTo azriT proza~ (iqve). swored Tavisi arasisrulis wyalobiT, es gansazRvreba saSualebas iZleva davinaxoT princi puli gansxvaveba avangardizmsa da araavangardizms Soris.

ix., magaliTad, serio p. `rogor kiTxuloben teqstebs safrangeTSi~ // arsis kvadratura. diskursis analizis franguli skola. 14.: sagamomcemlo jgufi , 1999 ufro adre . / . . . : , 1974. gv. 90-96. (i. s. stepanovis komentarebi. gv. 422-424). . // iqve gv. 69-89. 223

avangardisti ar qmnis samyaros sakuTar models; xelovnebis avangardistuli nawarmoebi ar aRadgens da arc gulisxmobs CvenTvis cnobil, Cven garSemo arsebul an martooden SesaZlebel sinamdviles, aramed mimarTulia iqiTken, rom Camoayalibos axali eqstensionalebi Camoayalibos upirveles yovlisa, enis meSveobiT. araavangardistuli teqsti qmnis mniSvnelobebs ukve arsebul enaze dayrdnobiT, - ena, rasakvirvelia, am dros farTovdeba, Cndeba axali sferoebi an axali doneebi, axali arsebi da a.S., magram mTlianobaSi enis sistema misi fundamenturi kategoriebiT, misi eqstensionalebis sistemiT, rogorc wesi, praqtikulad xelSeuxebeli rCeba. rac Seexeba avangardistul teqsts, is ayalibebs axal mniSvnelobebs, iZleva mniSvnelobebis formirebis axal parametrebs, da, mkacrad rom CamovayaliboT, gamoimuSavebs semiozisis gansakuTrebul ti ps, sxva fundamenturi kategoriebiT: sxva pragmatikiT, sintaqtikiTa da semiotikiT (am konteqstSi SevadaroT eJi farinos gamokvlevas , gamoqveynebuli krebulSi ` Umjetnost Rijei~ God. XXV. Izvanzedni svezak: Knijizevnost Avangarda-Revolucija. Ruska Knijzevna avangarda XX stolejica. Zagreb, 1981. S.G225-260). es principi enis gulisxmoba mniSvnelobebis gulisxmobis nacvlad (arsebis gulisxmobis nacvlad) axasiaTebs ara marto avangardistul poezias, aramed avangardistul mxatvrobasac, magaliTad, kubizmis mxatvrobas; rogorc Cans, es, sazogadod, avangardistuli xelovnebis centraluri princi pia. referencia avangardistul xelovnebaSi daiyvaneba minimumamde; avangardizmSi esTetikur niSans xSirad ar gaaCnia araviTari denotati (magaliTebi rusi futuristebis zaumuri poezia, dadaistebis leqsebi, samxatvro abstraqcionizmi), da Tu aqvs is (zogjer SesaZlebeli xdeba nawarmoebis `realuri~ siuJetis aRdgena - magaliTad, kubizmis mxatvrobaSi an v. maiakovskis, n. burliukis poeziaSi), maSin am SemTxvevaSi niSani miuTiTebs ara denotatze, aramed niSnis agebis wesze, Tavis kodze; ufro zustad, avangardistuli niSani ara imdenad miuTiTebs am kodze, ramdenadac ayalibebs mas. axali semiotikuri kategoriebi exeba, rogorc ukve iTqva, mimarTebebs niSnebs Soris, mimarTebebs niSnebsa da metyvelebis subieqtebs Soris da mimarTebebs niSnebsa da realur samyaros Soris. me dawvrilebiT SevCerdebi martooden bolo aspeqtze. nimuSis saxiT mivmarToT zaumur poezias ( ) yvelaze
224

damaxasiaTebels da yvelaze naklebad (naklebad warmatebulad) gamokvleul mimarTulebas rusul futurizmSi. rusuli futurizmis avtoritetuli istorikosi v.f. markovi am `zaumurobas~ uwodebda `SesaniSnav da gamomwvev ideas, romelmac miiyvana futurizmi mis umaRles miRwevamde da logikur daboloebamde~ ( .. /inglisuridan Targmna kuCeriavkinma, b. ostaninam . , .2000 gv. 316) sa v ma za I V. sa venebeli magaliTi: zaumi imisaTvis, rom daviwyoT laparaki zaumur poeziaze semiotikur aspeqtSi, davubrundeT referenciis problemas. cxadia, rom zaumuri poezia ar miuTiTebs raime WeSmarit an warmosaxviT faqtebze; am azriT, zaumi xelovnebaSi unikaluri movlenaa (am rigSi SeiZleba CavrToT martooden iseTi futurizmisTvis axlo movlenebi, rogoricaa dadaizmi an suprematizmi maleviCi uwodebda ` ~-s suprematizms poeziaSi, - an ufro gviandeli eqsperimenti: absurdis literatura da a.S.). esTetikuri referenciis problema SeiZleba ornairad ganvixiloT: (1) raze miuTiTebs esTetikuri niSani avtoris (Semoqmedis) TvalsazrisiT - `ra Caifiqra avtorma~ (ra referentul obieqts gulisxmobs igi) da (2) mkiTxvelis TvalsazrisiT, - `ra dainaxa mkiTxvelma~ romel obieqtebs daukavSira man mocemuli teqsti). mkiTxvelSi, rogorc wesi, igulisxmeba aRmqmeli cnobiereba da rac gacilebiT mniSvnelovania, - interpretaciis momcemi cnobiereba, romelic ase Tu ise Seusabamebs mocemul teqsts sinamdviles (gansazRvruli (literaturuli) koncefciis mixedviT). magram zaumSi araferia sainterpretacio Tavad zaumis teqstis aRqmis faqtis garda (an, sxvanairad, futuristuli literaturuli koncefciis garda). aleqsei kruConixis Tanamoazre zaumis poeziaSi _ igor terentievi aqebda ` ~-is avtors imisTvis, rom am leqsSi `srulad araferia naTqvami, es didebuli araraobaa, absoluturi nuli~. ( . moxseniebuli naSromi, gv. 296). mkiTxvelis refleqsiis obieqtad (Tuki mkiTxveli moindomebs uazro teqstze fiqrs) SeiZleba iqces an is faqti, rom aseTi, rogorc Cans, uazro teqsti saRdeba leqsad, - an refleqsiis obieqti gaxdeba TviT am teqstis aRqma, anu bundovani SegrZneba, romelic yalibdeba bgerebis SeTanxmebiTa da maTi grafikuli adgilmdebareobiT. (frCxilebSi aRvniSne, rom, rogorc Cans, zaumuri
225

teqstebis yvelaze adekvaturi analizis nimuSebi SemoTavazebulia fonetikis specialistebis mier. aseTi eqsperimentuli gamokvleva Caatara, magaliTad, v. v. panovma, romelic mivida im daskvnamde, rom zaumis leqsebi `SeiZleba ganixilebodes rogorc stabiluri rusuli enis mravali matareblisTvis damaxasiaTebeli fonetikuri aRqmis gamovlineba~. panovis mier Catarebuli eqsperimentis monawileebisTvis (zaumuri) leqsebis emociuri da sagnobrivi Sinaarsi umravles SemTxvevebSi naTeli iyo ( .. // . . , 1966, gv. 162)). avangardistebis programul Teoriul gamosvlebs (iseve, rogorc maT mTel mxatvrul praqtikas, da maT mxatvrul qcevas) mivyavarT im azramde, rom mkiTxveli warmoCndeba (Cafiqrebulia) ara imdenad aRmqmelis, ramdenadac Tanaavtoris rolSi; SeadareT, magaliTad, nikolai CuJakis programul statiaSi `sicocxlemSeneblobis niSnis qveS~ (` ~ `aRqmis pasiuroba, . . . aRmqmelis mowyvetiloba qmnilebis (nawarmoebis) procesisgan ai raSia Zveli xelovnebis mTavari boroteba~ ( . // : . 1923. #1. marti. gv. 36). imave kruConixis mixedviT, zaumis poeziis wyaro fsiqikuri faqtebia, romlebic ganicada avtorma, magram ufro mniSvnelovania (da xSirad amas xazs usvamen) sxva aspeqti: zaumis poezia `aTavisuflebs~, iZleva SemoqmedebiT Tavisuflebas amaSia misi erT-erTi mTavari mizani: `saerTo ena Tokavs, Tavisufali (anu zaumis n.s.) _ iZleva ufro sruli gamoxatvis saSualebas~, `zaumi aRviZebs da aZlierebs Tavisuflebis SemoqmedebiT fantazias, ar Seuracxyofs ra mas arafriT konkretuliT~ ( . : . , 1992. gv. 45. 126). zaumis leqsma, ufro zustad, gancdam, warmoqmnilma zaumis teqstis aRqmis Sedegad, SeiZleba warmoqmnas interpretaciebis usazRvro simravle (sainteresoa, rom aseTi interpretaciebi keTdeboda da keTdeba literaturaTmcodneebis mier magaliTad, j. ianeCeki Tavis monografiaSi zaumis Taobaze ganixilavs kruConixis leqsebs da cdilobs daadginos maTSi SedarebiT mdgradi leqsikuri arsi, moaxdinos maTi kodireba bunebriv enaze; mravalgzis naxseneb ` ~- Si, magaliTad, mkvlevari xedavs erotiul Sinaarss).7 ara es SesaZlo interpretaciebi, aramed TviT SesaZlebloba am
7

ix. Janeccle (gv. 38).

226

uricxvi gansxvavebuli interpretaciebisa, rogorc Cans, Sedis zaumis leqsis CanafiqrSi da Seadgens mis safuZvels. poeti _zaumis Semqmneli _ gvTavazobs formas, romelSic (sxvadasxva pirobebSi) SeiZleba Caidos praqtikulad nebismieri Sinaarsi. zaumis cnobili poeti ilia zdaneviCi werda: `zaumSi TiToeul sityvas aqvs metnaklebad aSkara sxvadasxva rigisa da donis mravali mniSvneloba, konkretuli da abstraqtuli, kerZo da zogadi. zaumis mkiTxveli aRebs kars da fanjrebs Tavis TavSi da gamosavals aZlevs mis mexsierebaSi Senaxul xatebs imisda mixedviT, rogoria misi unari gamoiZaxos es xatebi~, saxeebi ( . aRniSnuli naSromi, gv. 303). Canafiqri swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mkiTxveli gaTavisufldes mocemuli, Tavsmoxveuli interpretaciuli sqemisgan, gaTavisufldes interpretaciis rogorc teqstis aRqmis aucilebeli pirobis zewolisgan. `sityvebi kvdebian, samyaro ki mudam norCia~ (( . aRniSnuli naSromi, gv. 43): xist enas ar ZaluZs adekvaturad warmoadginos (reprezentacia moaxdinos) mudmivad ganaxlebadi samyaro da amocana mdgomareobs imaSi, rom Seiqmnas xelovnebis iseTi forma, romelic Seesabameba cxovrebis am ZiriTad princi ps mudmivi ganaxlebis princi ps. es ki Seadgens, ase vTqvaT, zaumis poeziis Teoriul safuZvels. axsna-ganmartebis usasrulo monacvleoba, rasac adgili aqvs zaumis teqstebis SemTxvevaSi, warmoadgens swored mudmiv cvlilebas, samyaros ganaxlebas, romelic axla mimdinareobs mkiTxvelTa cnobierebaSic; recipientis cnobiereba, amgvarad, SesabamisobaSi modis samyaros mdgomareobasTan. mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi, romelic aRiqvams zaumis teqsts, mimdinareobs iseTi procesebi, rac mudmivad aRdgenad samyaroSia. arsTa formireba yovelTvis iTvleboda avtoris prerogativad (aseTi warmodgena Seicvala postmodernistul epoqaSi magram avangardis Semdeg da avangardis wyalobiT), xolo mkiTxvels unda gamoecno, amoexsna teqstSi Camaluli arsi. Tu amJamad mkiTxvels ekisreba funqciebi, romlebic, tradiciulad, Sedis avtoris kompetenciaSi, avtori erTgvarad xdeba Tavad mkiTxveli. (princi pSi, zaumuri leqsebi SeiZleba daweros nebismierma adamianma. isini aSkarad, demonstratiulad Riaa mibaZvisTvis: zaumi yvelaze sayovelTao xelovnebaa~ (iqve, gv. 126). amave rigSia poeturi teqstebis Seqmnis siurrealisturi receptebi.
Tu ar vifiqrebT mis realizaciaze da CavTvliT, rom Cven iZulebulni varT movaxdinoT Canafiqris~ rekonstruireba. 227
8

axla davubrundeT esTetikuri referenciis problemas da mosazrebas am problemis ornairi ganxilvis Taobaze avtoris TvalsazrisiT da mkiTxvelis TvalsazrisiT. mkiTxvelis Tvalsazrisi (anu mkiTxvelis mier teqstis konkretuli erTeulovani aRqma, romelic aucileblad rodi unda daemTxves avtoris Canafiqrs, damokidebulia mraval SemTxveviT da individualur faqtorze) zaumis teqstis SemTxvevaSi, mkacrad rom vTqvaT, SeuZlebelia, Tu aRviqvamT zaumis leqss imave winapirobebze dayrdnobiT, rogorc araavangarduli teqstis kiTxvisas (Seusabameben xolme sinamdviles an filosofias, an literaturul koncefcias arsebul eqstensionalebs). teqsti iqneba ara leqsi, aramed bgeraTa uazro nakrebi, romelic Seuracxyofs esTetikur gemovnebas (magaliTad, i. a. boduen de kurtene amtkicebda, rom TviTonac SeuZlia ramdenime saaTis ganmavlobaSi Taviseburi intonaciiT Tavisi Tavidan amouSvas zaumis sityvebi, magram es srulebiTac ar aris cocxali metyveleba, aramed `bgeriTi eqskrementebia~ ( . aRniSnuli naSromi, gv. 191). zaumuri leqsi SeiZleba aRviqvaT marto maSin, Tu CavdgebiT avtoris poziciaSi, Tu mzad viqnebiT arsTa-asociaciaTa Tavisufal warmoqmnaSi monawileobis misaRebad; am azriT, mkiTxvelis Tavisufleba mkveTrad icvleba; mkiTxveli, romelic mzad aris miiRos futuristuli ganwyobebi, ase vTqvaT, dadis zaumze, xolo mkiTxveli, romelic ganwyobebs ar iRebs (ar eTanxmeba avtors), rCeba am sistemis miRma.9 maSasadame, sakiTxi referentuli obieqtebis Taobaze am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas martooden avtoris TvalsazrisiT ra Caifiqra man, ra (rogori referenciuli kavSirebi) hqonda avtors mxedvelobaSi. magram amaze ukve iyo saubari: gamomgonebeli cdilobs aRadginos (an, Tu visargeblebT tradiciuli poetikis terminebiT, gamoxatos10) samyaros swored is mudmivi qmnadoba, rac Tavs iCens arsTa mudmiv
SeadareT J. ribmon-desenis winasityvaoba piesisa . .. (v. markovis gadmocemaSi ix. aRniSnuli naSromi, gv.303): `mkiTxveli aRebs kars da fanjrebs Tavis TavSi da gamosavals aZlevs mis mexsierebaSi Senaxul gamosaxulebebs imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdenad SeuZlia gamoiZaxos es gamosaxulebebi. misi SemoqmedebiTi roli, amasTan, aseve SezRudulia, rogorc `zaumis~ SemTxzvelisa, radganac `zaumis~ mier gaCenis momentidan pqtroni ara hyavs~. 10 niSandoblivia terminologiuri siZnele: tradiciuli cneba `gamoxatva~ avlens Tavis arasakmarisobas, rodesac saubaria iseT mxatvrul movlenebze, rogoricaa `zaumi~. aq, rogorc Cans, unda visargebloT semiotikurad ufro mkacri terminebiT, magaliTad, `referireba~ an `significireba~. 228
9

cvlilebasa da ganaxlebaSi, winaswari mza sqemebisa da interpretaciis normebisgan damoukideblad. mkiTxveli ki (romelic unda iyos Teoriulad momzadebuli, - rogorc, saerTod, nebismieri mkiTxveli) mkiTxveli, Tavis mxriv, acnobierebs sxvadasxva gansxvavebuli axsnaganmartebis (interpretaciis) did simravles da idealSi (SesaZlo) arsTa am simravlis wyalobiT, unda mivides (`mudam norCi~) samyaros mudam ganaxlebad warmodgenamde (an mivides raime msgavs emocionalur mdgomareobamde). viRebT aseT models: Camoyalibeba arsebi [avtori] niSani arsebi Camoyalibeba [mkiTxveli] (rogorc Cans, SemTxveviTi ar aris v. xlebnikovis interesi palindromebisadmi SesaZlebelia, palindromebi asaxavdnen avangardis specifiur niSans rogorc avangardisTvis mniSvnelovan Teoriul Sexedulebas. ukve moyvanili sityvebi imis Taobaze, rom `samyaro mudam norCia~, miuTiTeben ukvdavebis idealze; cnobilia, magaliTad, rom ukvdavebis problema Zalian ainteresebda maiakovskis da sxva futuristebs11 es aris mTeli rusuli futurizmis ti pologiuri niSani, SesaZloa mTeli avangardisac). es aris paradoqsuli niSani, romelSic interpretanti da obieqti faqtobrivad erTmaneTs emTxveva. aseTi ti pis niSani aRwera C. pirsma: es aris ikonuri niSani, romelsac SeiZleba ar hqondes realurad arsebuli obieqti12 (amis gamo SesaZlebelia moxdes aRmqmelis yuradRebis gamaxvileba Tavad niSnobriv procesze, komunikaciis procesze). xelovnebis nawarmoebi erTgvarad msgavsia sinamdvilisa da amitom warmoadgens am sinamdvilis ikonur niSans. magram Cven SeiZleba davinaxoT, rom avangardistuli teqstis SemTxvevaSi Cndeba ikonurobis kidev erTi, damatebiTi aspeqti (davubrundeT sqemas): analogiis anu msgavsebis mimarTeba Cndeba obieqtsa da interpretants Soris, da msgavseba imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom SeiZleba vilaparakoT srul igiveobaze. mkacrad rom vTqvaT, Znelia imis gansazRvra, Tu ra warmoadgens obieqts, da ra interpretants: imdenad msgavsia
ix. SeadareT amasTan dakavSirebiT C. pirsTan: suraTis cqerisas Cndeba momenti, rodesac veRar aRviqvamT, rom Cvens winaSe sagania. gansxvaveba realobasa da asls Soris qreba, da erTi wamiT, myisierad, aRqma gadaiqceva wminda iluziad arc erTgvari specifikuri arseboba, da arc raRac saerTo. am momentSi Cven vuyurebT ikonur niSans~ (Peirce ch. S. Collected Papers. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1939. $ 362).
12 11

229

isini (isrebis mimarTuleba sqemaze SeiZleba SemovabrunoT). es SeiZleba davinaxoT zaumuri teqstebis analizis procesSic: vixilavdiT ra mkiTxvelTa aRqmas, Cven mivediT avtoriseul Canafiqramde, xolo imisTvis, rom gavigoT Canafiqri, unda mivmarToT mkiTxvelTa reaqcias. Cemi azriT, avangardis esTetikuri specifika mdgomareobs swored aseT ikonurobaSi gansakuTrebuli saxis ikonurobaSi: niSani xelovnebis avangardistul nawarmoebSi ayalibebs msgavsebas an igivurobas am niSnis obieqtsa da interpretants Soris (da miuTiTebs am msgavsebaze). es agreTve mowmobs imas, rom amocanebi, romlebsac uyenebda Tavis Tavs da romlebsac wyvetda avangardizmi, scildeba esTetikuri sferos sazRvrebs: saubaria adamianis Semecnebis universalur meqanizmebze, im problemebze, romelic afiqrebda kants (C. s. pirsi Tavis filosofiur saqmianobas iwyebda swored kantis naSromebis zedmiwevniTi SeswavliT). Cven es-es aris vTqviT, rom isrebi Cvens sqemaSi SeiZleba SemovatrialoT sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT. miviRebT sxva sqemas: Camoyalibeba arsi niSani magram es sqema zustad warmosaxavs niSnis sosiuriseul models: arsTa usasrulo simravle `zaumur~ teqstSi, romelic sul Tavidan da Tavidan qmnis samyaros, - es aris aRsaniSni, Tavad `zaumuri~ teqsti aRmniSvneli. sosiuris mixedviT, niSani es aris SeerTeba materialuri matareblis (bgeraTa nakrebi an grafikuli simboloebi, da a. S.) da konceptis, an ideis. samyaro niSanTa miRma (an enis miRma an enamde) misTvis ar arsebobs (ufro zustad, aseTi samyaro misTvis amorfulia da amitom Seucnobadi). swored aseTi semiotikuri struqtura ganasxvavebs avangardistul teqsts araavangardistulisgan, romelSic aRsaniSni samyaro yovelTvis inarCunebs arsebiT relevanturobas. magram avangardistuli struqtura gansxvavdeba niSnis sosiuriseuli modelisgan: `samyaro niSnis miRma~ ar wyvets Tavis arsebobas, is ar aris uaryofili, magram qmnis erT mTlianobas azrobrivi warmodgenebis samyarosTan (konceptepTan). am sqemis mixedviT Cven SeiZleba davinaxoT, rom avangardSi xdeba ideologiisa da sinamdvilis gaerTianeba an Serwyma (SeTanxmeba), da aseTi daskvnebi ukve keTdeboda kvleviT literaturaSi, Tumca ki sxva konteqstSi da axali formulirebiT _ magaliTad,
230

futuristebi `xedavdnen mxatvrul teqstSi ara asaxvas, aramed sociofizikuri garemos gagrZelebas~ ( . . .: , 1977. gv. 114). es Seadgenda avangardistuli poetikis laparakia `sistemis transformaciuli SesaZleblobebis~ realizaciaze (iqve, gv. 19) _ futurizmis mxatvruli sistemis (an postsimbolizmis) aucilebel da bunebriv niSans. gacnobierebuli iyo sxva miswrafeba miswrafeba am erTgvarovani socioesTetikuri garemos da xelovnebis ukidures daaxloebaze, xdeba xelovnebis CaTreva am erTgvarovan rigSi: sakuTriv, niSani da socioesTetikuri garemo xdeba erTgvarovani, uciloblad dakavSirebuli. mtkiceba, rogorc, magaliTad, d. burliukis sityvebia - `sicocxle da xelovneba sinonimebia~ ( . // , 1919 pirveli gamocema (aprili)) _ amieridan iZens sruliad gansxvavebul Sinaarss, gansxvavebuls simbolizmisgan (sadac SeiZleba vipovoT TiTqmis iseTive gamonaTqvamebi).13 amitomac gaCnda avangardistebis gansakuTrebuli Teoriuli aqtivobis aucilebloba (xSirad SeiZleba gavigonoT an wavikiTxoT, rom manifestebi TamaSoben ufro did rols avangardizmSi, vidre mxatvruli nawarmoebebi). manifestebi aucilebelia imitom, rom mkiTxvelebi metismetad inertulebi arian da ar esmiT axali silamaze, mkiTxvelebi mzad ar arian gaxdnen futuristebi. `zaumis~ magaliTze niSnis da imis daaxloeba, rasac is akavSirebs, gansakuTrebiT cxadia: mocemuli Sinaarsi Znelad Tu SeiZleba gamoixatos sxva saSualebiT, maSasadame, niSani xdeba calsaxad funqciuri mocemuli niSani asrulebs martooden mocemul funqcias, da mocemuli funqcia SeiZleba Sesruldes martooden mocemuli niSniT (mocemuli ti pis niSniT - anu `zaumis~ teqstiT). rogorc Cans, ara marto `zaumis~ teqstebi, aramed futurizmis mTeli poezia iswrafvis iyos calsaxad funqciuri am azriT, anu misi ZiriTadi
ix. magaliTad, wigni . - . . d. CiJevskis (An fange des russisschen Futurismus/ Hrsg. von D. Tschizewskij. Wiesbaden: Otto Harassowitz, 1963. S. 19-21) da sxva mkvlevarebis miTiTeba imaze, rom arsebobs mWidro genetikuri kavSiri futurizmsa da simbolizms Soris, rac, rogorc me mgonia, ar ewinaaRmdegeba Cems Teziss avangardis specifikis Sesaxeb literaturaTmcodneebis formulirebebi (maT Soris formulirebebi, SemoTavazebulni mocemul statiaSi) Zalzed iSviaTad iZleva saSualebas dadgindes mkacri sazRvrebi. magram am ori mxatvruli sistemis gansxvaveba warmogvidgeba mTlianobaSi mkafiod. ufro dawvrilebiT es problema ganixileba wignSi . (. , 1998) (am naSromis miTiTebisTvis madlobas movaxseneb i. s. stepanovs). 231
13

centraluri mizania niSnisa da imis daaxloeba, rasac is akavSirebs, sazRvrebis moSla niSans (anu enas), ideologiasa da e.w. obieqtur sinamdviles Soris. ibadeba kiTxva: saWiroa ki aseT sistemaSi niSani (romelic, pirsis mixedviT, asrulebs Suamavlis funqcias)? iseTi STabeWdileba rCeba, rom ar aris saWiro is, ris Sorisac Cafiqrebulia Suamavloba, arafriT ar aris gayofili, piriqiTac ki, Seadgens erT mTlians: obieqti da interpretanti, sinamdvile da ideologia da TviT niSani (xelovneba) imyofeba amave erTgvarovan rigSi. ni mo qr V niSnis moTxovnileba qreba imitom, rom aseT semiotikur sistemaSi niSnis aucilebloba qreba, kanonzomieria da bunebrivi revoluciis Semdgom lefis lozungebis gaCena: `xelovneba warmoebaSi~14, kanonzomieria mcdeloba moxdes socialuri sinamdvilis gardaqmna xelovnebis ZalebiT (aseTi ideebi gavrcelebuli iyo kerZod, germaniaSi kurt hileris wreSi) da moxdes uSualo zemoqmedeba adamianebze sityvis ZaliT (bevri avangardisti muSaobda socialuri da komerciuli reklamis sferoSi). xelovnebis aseTi gadatanisas warmoebaSi avtori da mkiTxveli erTmaneTs emTxveva; ai ra emociuri aRmafreniT ambobda amaze n. CuJaki: `xelovneba es frontia . . . romelic ibrZvis imisTvis, rom erTmaneTisTvis urTierTsawinaaRmdego pasiuri meTvalyureebis mravalmilioniani armiis da specTa mcire jgufis, xelovnebaSi gamomgoneblebis nacvlad Seiqmnas erTiani, SromaSi solidaruli kacobrioba, gamsWvaluli yvelasTvis saerTo sixaruliT, samyaros mudam axleburi xedviT~. ( . aRniSnuli naSromi, gv. 37). (mosazrebas ideologiis uSualo (Tundac idealSi) realizaciis SesaZleblobaze empiriul anu `sociofizikur~ sferoSi uSualod mivyavarT komunisturi anu, ufro farTod, totalitaruli utopiis Seqmnamde). undaAaRiniSnos, rom niSnis uaryofa, rogorc semiotikuris sazRvrebidan gasvla, gaxda pirsiseuli programis logikuri dasasruli. saubaria `finaluri interpretantis~ koncefciaze: esaa `is, rac iqneboda gansazRvruli boloSi, rogorc WeSmariti interpretacia, Tu sakiTxis ganxilva gagrZeldeboda manamde, sanam ar iqneboda miRebuli saboloo Sexeduleba~ (Peirce ch. 5. Collected
SeiZleba moviyvanoT futuristebis msgavsi citatebi revoluciamde magaliTad, 1915 w. vladimer maiakovski Tavis statiaSi werda: `ar gagikvirdeT, Tu dRes Cvens xelSi ixilavT masxaras eJvanis magivrad xuroTmoZRvris naxazi~. 232
14

Papers. Vol. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1958. $184) (TviT sakiTxis dayeneba semiozisis daskvniTi rgolis Taobaze pirsis swavlebaSi15 aaxloebs mis semiotikur programas avangardis programasTan. finaluri interpretanti, pirsis mixedviT, unda iyos ara axali semiotikuri fenomeni vinaidan is Seqmnida axal interpretacias, da ase Semdeg aramed `mizandasaxulad formirebadi, Tavisi Tavis maanalizebeli habiti (self analyzing habit)~ (Peirce ch. 5. Collected Papers. Vol. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1936. $ 491). laparakia gadasvlaze semiotikuri operirebidan, niSnebiT operirebidan praqtikul operirebaze operirebaze obieqtebiT. (SeadareT am konteqstSi pirsis koncefcia `pragmaticizmze~). V I perspeqtivebi pe axla isRa dagvrCenia, rom movniSnoT avangardizmis optikuri aRweris ZiriTadi perspeqtivebi, rogorc ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi,. niSnis sosiuriseuli koncefciis sazRvrebSi (aRvniSnav frCxilebSi: rac aqamde gansazRvravda Cvens literaturaTmcodneobas) Zalian Znelia avangardis specifikis danaxva. imisTvis, rom davayenoT esTetikuri niSnebis referenciis problema, ufro zustad, imisTvis, rom davinaxoT avangardizmis semiotikuri struqturis Tavisebureba, imisTvis, rom ganvsazRvroT avangardis specifika da gavigoT, Tu rogor Cndeba aseTi sistema, aucilebelia arastruqturalistuli meTodologia da niSnis gansxvavebuli modeli, romelic mTlianobaSi Seesabameba pirsiseuls. rac Seexeba am problemis damuSavebas, amis gakeTeba, rogorc Cans, unda moxdes ZiriTadad sosiurze dayrdnobiT, magram amjerad ufro farTo perspeqtiviT, sxva doneze. SeiZleba SevecadoT da davadginoT, Tundac miaxloebiT, semiotikuri struqtura, ti pologia araavangardistuli xelovnebisTvis, da maSin cxadad davinaxavT avangardizmis specifikur niSnebs. SeiZleba davadginoT semiotikuri paralelebi avangardsa da masobriv kulturas Soris, da am SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa, naTeli gaxdeba, Tu romeli konkretuli formebiT, rogor moaxdina avangardma gavlena Tanamedrove xelovnebaze (da maSasadame ramdenad moxda da xdeba avangardis utopiis realizacia).

15

j. dilis SeniSvnis Tanaxmad, teleologiuri warmodgenebis moSvelieba garduvali da kanonzomieri Sedegia pirsis mTeli Teoriisa, masa didi utopiisa~. (...). 233

Tu gavigebT Teorias ara rogorc cnobilis axal aRweras cnobil enaze, aramed rogorc enis konstruirebas cnobili movlenebis aRsawerad, romlebic am aRweris Sedegad warmogvidgeba rogorc ucnobi, `axali~, maSin SeiZleba vimedovnoT, rom siRrmiseuli msgavsebis gamokvleva, romelic arsebobs avangardis semiotikur programasa da pirsis mier Camoyalibebul semiotikur programas Soris, gagvixsnis axal mecnierul perspeqtivebs. aq saubaria ara imdenad kulturis iseTi movlenis Seswavlaze, rogoricaa avangardistuli xelovneba, rogorc imaze, rom Camoyalibdes sazRvrebi sruliad sxvagvari fenomenebis aRsawerad (samecniero an filosofiuri Teoria da mxatvruli programa) erTian enaze, anu gakeTdes pirveli nabijebi unificirebadi semiotikuri `avtoreferenciuli~ samecniero instrumentariumis Sesaqmnelad, romelic praqtikulad ar aris dakavSirebuli sakvlevi obieqtis specifikasTan (da gamosadegi praqtikulad nebismieri obieqtis mimarT, romelic ki SeiZleba iyos Seswavlili), da, maSasadame, aRwers adamianis mier sinamdvilis konstruirebis universalur meqanizmebs.

Targmna Tamar berekaSvilma

234

ar nina aruTinova simbolo

metaforas , romelic saxes azrobriobisken mimarTavs, upirispirdeba simbolo, romelic, agreTve, saxes emyareba, magram mimarTulia formis stabilizaciisken. metafora niSnis sinonimad ar moiazreba, maSin, roca, simbolo SeiZleba gaigivebuli iyos rogorc saxesTan, ise niSanTan. simbolo, inarCunebs ra avtonomiur adgils enis semantikur sistemaSi, erTgvari semantikuri xidis funqcias atarebs da saxes niSanTan aerTebs. xSirad saubroben simboluri saxeebisa da simboluri niSnebis Sesaxeb. am konceptebis enobrivi gamoyeneba maT Soris ierarqiul urTierTobasa da wrfiv Tanmimdevrobas zustad afiqsirebs. mocemul ierarqiaSi simbolos umaRlesi pozicia ukavia. simbolosTan miaxloeba yovelTvis aRmasvlas gulisxmobs. igive iTqmis saxezec da niSanzec. wrfiv mimarTebaTa planSi simbolo saxesa da niSans Soris Suamavlad gvevlineba. am konceptebis saxis, simbolosa da niSnis _ urTierTkavSiris gamosaaSkaraveblad simbolos averinceviseuli definicia gamodgeba: SeiZleba iTqvas, farTo gagebiT, rom simbolo aris saxe Tavisi niSnur aspeqtSi da, amasTan, niSani, romelSic Tavs iCens saxis amouwuravi da mravalmniSvnelovani organuloba. yvela simbolo aris saxe (da yvela saxe, garkveulwilad, simboloa), magram simbolos kategoria saxis sazRvrebidan gasvlas, garkveuli azris arsebobas gulisxmobs, romelic saxesTan aris Serwymuli, magram saxesTan gaigivebuli ar aris. (s.s. averincevi, literaturuli enciklopediuri leqsikoni, moskovi, 1987) a. losevi filosofiis enciklopediaSi (t. 5. mosk., 1970) simbolos ganmartavs rogorc ideur, saxeobriv an ideur-saxeobriv struqturas, romelic ama Tu im gansxvavebuli sagnebisadmi mimarTebas moicavs da ganzogadebul, bolomde gauSlel niSans warmoadgens. yvela es sityva (saxe, simbolo, niSani) yoveldRiur enaSi SeiZleba TiTqmis erTnairi mniSvnelobiT iyos gamoyenebuli. isini xSirad erTmaneTis sinonimebadac gvevlinebian, magram, praqtikulad, ar arsebobs konteqsti, sadac samive sityvis iseTi xmareba iyos daSvebuli, rom amiT mTavari azri ar Seicvalos. (babiloni bibliuri saxe (simbolo), magram ara niSani) (s. averincevi).

235

literaturaTmcodneobiT teqstebSi saxisa da simbolos konceptebi erTmaneTs uaxlovdeba. magaliTad, rogorc pasternakTan, ise blokTan revoluciis ZiriTad saxe-simbolos qarbuqi () warmoadgens. ara ubralod qari an grigali, aramed swored qarbuqi, Tavisi uamravi fifqiTa da gamyinavi, kosmiuri siciviT. (d. s. lixaCovi). maSasadame, simbolo saxesTan da niSanTan apelaciiT ganimarteba, magram arc saxe da arc niSani simbolosTan mimarTebiT ganmartebas ar saWiroebs. saxe warmoadgens im safuZvels, razec simbolo da niSani aigeba. marTlac, saxe, gadadis ra simbolos kategoriaSi, aweviT, amaRlebiT, gandidebiT xasiaTdeba. ra ukavSirdeba ierarqiul warmodgenas saxisa da simbolos urTierTmimarTebaTa Sesaxeb? is, rom simbolos maRali azri axlavs, xolo saxe nebismieri donis obiqtTan SeiZleba iqnes asocirebuli, sakmarisi ar aris. Tu saxis gadazrda metaforaSi semantikuri da mxatvruli aucileblobiT aris gamowveuli, saxis (niSnisac) simboloSi gadazrdas eqstralingvisturi faqtorebi ganapirobebs. es exeba rogorc okazionalur, ise _ mdgrad, myar simboloebs. Aam gardasaxvis Tanmdev formalur da semantikur procesebs simbolos mier SeZenili funqciebi ganapirobebs. saxe fsiqologiuria, metafora semantikuri, simbolo ki funqciuria. simbolod qceva niSnavs im funqciis SeZenas, romelic gansazRvravs adamianisa da koleqtivis cxovrebas da cxovrebiseuli gzebisa da qcevis modelebis arCevans gvkarnaxobs. igive iTqmis myar socialur simbolikazec, romlis daniSnulebasac sazogadoebrivi, tomobrivi Tu nacionaluri koleqtivebis ZalTa gaerTianeba da gaZliereba warmoadgens. am SemTxvevaSi simbolo, Cveulebriv, xasiaTdeba rogorc diadi da didebuli, Zlevamosili da dramatuli, mbrZanebluri da gavleniani... saubroben TviTmpyrobeluri xelisuflebis simboloebze. Zalauflebis gazrda simbolos mniSvnelobaze uaryofiT zegavlenas axdens amcirebs _ is xdeba zogadi da bundovani. Tu, Cveulebriv, simbolomde gmirebi da beladebi, meomrebi da geniosebi... maRldebian, simbolos Zalauflebis gazrda mas am adamianis saxesTan asociacias ukargavs da mxolod misi saxeliT kmayofildeba. Zalismieri datvirTva simbolos azrobriv Sinaarss fitavs. metaforas, Cveulebriv, konkretul subieqts ukavSireben, rac mas im mniSvnelobaTa sazRvrebSi aqcevs, romlebic realobasTan pirdapir an iribad aris dakavSirebuli. simbolo ki, piriqiT, miwieri mizidulobis daZlevas iolad axerxebs. is cdilobs aRniSnos
236

maradiuli da mouxelTebeli, is, rac mistikuri tendenciebis mqone moZRvrebebSi (magaliTad, daoizmSi) WeSmarit realobad iTvleba da konceptualizacias ar eqvemdebareba. samyaros diadi suli da mexsiereba Anima Mundi _ SeiZleba aRiniSnos (evoked) mxolod simboloebiT. (u. ietsi) swored amitom, xSirad simbolo gaurkvevel, transcendentur azrs atarebs. simboloSi aris raRac farulic da aSkarac, dumilic da metyvelebac (tomas karleili). swored azri gamoxatavs miRmurobis gancdas (the sense of beyond). metaforas sxva, ufro miwieri amocana gaaCnia. is obieqtis iseTi saxis SeqmnisTvis aris mowodebuli, romelic mis latentur arss gamoavlens. metafora realobis gagebas aRrmavebs, simbolos am realobis sazRvrebs gareT gavyavarT. simbolo gavleniania, magram _ ara komunikaciuri. mas adresati ar gaaCnia. ama Tu im Setyobinebis gagzavna simbolos saxiT sxva pirisTvis SeuZlebelia. roca adamianebi erTmaneTTan saubars simboloebiT cdiloben, maT SeiZleba ver gaugon erTmaneTs. bolo dros Tqven Zalian gaRizianebuli brZandebiT, gaurkvevlad saubrobT, raRac simboloebiT. es Toliac, albaT, raRac simboloa, magram, momiteveT, me Tqveni ar mesmis. (a. Cexovi Tolia) simbolos rolze xelovnebaSi ar SevCerdebiT. es sxva saubris Temaa. aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom mxatvrul konteqstSi praqtikuli Zalauflebis arqonis gamo simbolo semantikur dones ver iguebs da, amis sapirispirod, azrobrivi gaRrmavebisa da gamdidrebis unars iZens. simbolos miRma ar igulisxmeba komunikaciuri funqciis mqone gamonaTqvami. simboloebiT brZanebebis gacema ar xdeba mis diqtats nebayoflobiT emorCilebian. simbolom SeZlo saxisgan memkvidreobiT miRebuli Zalauflebis transformireba socialur Tu sakulto funqciebad. eqstralingvisturi funqciis garda, simbolos saxisa da metaforisgan semantikuri struqturac ganasxvavebs. simbolos, rogorc semiotikuri konceptis formireba misi funqciuri gansazRvrulobis pirdapiri Sedegia. is, rom simbolo struqturuli semiotikuri mcnebaa, simbolos saxisgan ganasxvavebs. simbolos struqturuli agebuleba sam komponents Seicavs: azri (xSirad zogadi, cvalebadi da bundovani), aRmniSvneli (mkafiod da kargad formulirebuli) da maTi gamaerTianebeli semiotikuri kavSiri, romelic mxareTa urTierTdamoukidebeli ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas uzrunvelyofs da sabolood maT konvencionalizacias axdens. niSandoblivia isic, rom sityva simbolos relaciuri predikatis
237

funqciis Sesruleba SeuZlia da aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris Suamavlis rols asrulebs. jvari tanjvis simbolo. is, rom simbolo aRsaniSns (sazriss), rogorc niSnuri urTierTobis gansazRvrul wevrs Seicavs, mtkicdeba imiT, rom simbolos uaxloes sintaqsur partniors abstraqtuli saxeli warmoadgens. Tu saxe konkretul, sagnobriv samyaros emyareba, simbolos sayrden wertils sazrisTa samyaro warmoadgens. dedis saxe da dedobis simbolo, gmiris saxe da gmirobis simbolo. es gansxvaveba Seesabameba konceptis gadanacvlebas amsaxveli kategoriidan semiotikur rigSi, ris Sedegadac ara mxolod formis gamartiveba, aramed saxis Sinaarsis reducirebac xdeba. zogierTi avtori simbolos kerpebisa da fetiSebis gverdiT ayenebs da mas sisxlsavse saxeebs upirispirebs: miTologia Zveli adamianebis cxovrebis gamoxatuleba iyo, maTi RmerTebi ara alegoriebi, ara simboloebi, ara ritorikuli figurebi, aramed cocxal saxeebSi gamoxatuli cocxali cnebebi iyvnen. (belinski). SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom bunebriv simboloebad bunebis Zalebi da stiqiebi, zeciuri da kosmiuri sxeulebi mnaTobebi, planetebi, varskvlavebi, Tanavarskvlavedebi, kometebi, Zvirfasi qvebi, mdinareebi, zRva, tye, cxovelebi, socialuri movlenebidan ki _ saxelmwifosa da saxelmwifo Zalauflebis, xalxis, samSoblos, gmiris, fiqrTa mpyroblis cnebebi SeirCeva. Tu simbolizebuli movlena sakuTar saxes aris moklebuli, is an konvenciuri niSnis formas iZens, an misi gapirovneba xdeba. magram maSinac ki, roca obieqts Tavisi saxe da ieri gaaCnia, is SesaZloa imdenad moculobiTi da ganfenili iyos, rom simbolos arCevanis amocana dausaxos. aseT SemTxvevaSi metaforas an metonimias iyeneben. ase, ruseTis simbolo SeiZleba iyos kremli, sami aryis xe, rusuli troika, Tvaluwvdeneli mindori da a.S. metaforisgan gansxvavebiT, simbolo moiTxovs werilobiT gamoxatvas. amitomac bunebrivi an artefaqtuli obieqtis simboluri funqciis stabilizacia mis konturs maqsimalurad amartivebs. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom yvela geometriul figuras mravalricxovani simboluri mniSvnelobebi aqvs. pavle florenskis mier Sedgenili simboloTa leqsikonis sityvari mxolod geometriuli figurebisgan Sedgeba. erTaderTi statia, romelic am leqsikonSi aris da dawerilia p.florenskis mier, eZRvneba wertils. [nekrasova, 1984]. aRmniSvnelis gamartivebis saerTo tendenciis Sedegad, sagnis calkeul Tviseba _ iqneba es feri, forma Tu adgilmdebareoba sivrceSi, SesaZloa
238

simboluri mniSvnelobiT aRiWurvos. saxis simbolur elementebad daSla misi wakiTxvis saSualebas iZleva. saxe iqceva teqstad, romlis wakiTxva simboloTa sistemis gamoyenebiT xdeba SesaZlebeli. Tumca, simboloebi avtonomiuria da sistemaSi konsolidaciisken ar iswrafvian, erTgvarovani (magaliTad, ferTa) simbolika opoziciaTa principze agebul enas qmnis. Aam SemTxvevaSi simboloTa interpretacia maT gagebas uaxlovdeba, rac kodis codnazea damyarebuli. simbolos mxareTa _ aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis_ urTierTdamokidebuleba SeiZleba iyos (an gaxdes) konvenciuri, rac simbolos kardinalurad ganasxvavebs saxisa da metaforisgan. es ki imaze metyvelebs, rom am konceptis struqturaSi semiotikurma SeaRwia kavSirma misi formaluri da azrobrivi mxareebis gancalkevebisa da SeerTebis niSanma. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, simbolo (socialuri da ritualuri) saxisa da metaforisgan imperatiulobiT gansxvavdeba. metafora am Tvisebas sruliad moklebulia. simbolom imperatiuloba nawilobriv saxisgan miiRo memkvidreobiT, romlis zemoqmedebis Zala ufro emociur mxaresTan aris dakavSirebuli, vidre bunebis uxilavi Zalebis winaSe SiSTan Tu zneobriv idealebTan. xorcielebs ra diqtats, simbolo, iseve rogorc saxe, instrumentul poziciaSi ar gamoiyeneba, rac ase damaxasiaTebelia niSnisTvis. da ni simbolo da niSani niSani da simbolo saerTo semiotikuri leqsikonis sakvanZo sityvebs (klasifikatorebs) warmoadgenen da am leqsikonSi gvareobriv terminebad aRiarebis pretendentebad gvevlinebian.Oorives (simbolos da niSnis) agebuleba samkomponenturia _ aRmniSvneli, aRsaniSni da semiotikuri kavSiri _ struqturis konstituciuri elementi, romelic niSnis mxareebis urTierTmimarTebebs molaparakebis Sedegad amyarebs. miuxedavad am msgavsebisa, simbolo da niSani imdenad gansxvavdebian TavianTi sintaqsuri da semantikuri distribuciiT, rom maTi sinonimuri gamoyenebis SezRuduli sferos garda, isini urTierTSenacvlebadi araa da mxolod Zalze iSviaTad amyareben pirdapir semantikur opoziciur mimarTebebs erTmaneTTan. yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi Cven xSirad viyenebT sityva niSani. aniSna, niSani misca... es moqmedeba komunikaciisTvisaa gankuTvnili da aucileblad adresats gulisxmobs. saxeli niSani myar
239

sityvaTSeTanxmebebSi Sedis da Semdegi moqmedebebis analogad gamodgeba acnoba, gaagebina, sTxova... amasTan, igulisxmeba, rom es Setyobineba usityvod gadaica. man aniSna maT da darCa utyvad. (luka 1, 22). niSani misces amxanagebs meore navSi, rom mosuliyvnen mosaSveleblad. (luka 5, 7). mocemul konteqstSi semiotikuri urTierTobis wevrebi SesaZloa srulad ar iyos warmodgenili. niSnis (Jestis, mimikis) aRmniSvneli SeiZleba darCes araeqsplicirebulad. ixsneba mxolod misi azri. Cveulebriv, is gamoTqmis ekvivalentia da Tavis SemadgenlobaSi ilokutiur Zalas (komunikaciur mizans) moicavs. simbolos maRali an zebunebrivi Zalis gageba axlavs, niSans ki ilokutiuri. simbolo (iseve, rogorc saxe) qcevis zogad models qmnis, niSani ki konkretul qmedebebs aregulirebs. amitom, saubroben sagzao niSnebze da ara sagzao simboloebze. jvarosnebisTvis macxovris saflavi iyo qristianobis wminda simbolo, tanjvis, vnebis simbolo, jvari ki _ maTi ordenis emblema. es simboloebi maT brZolisTvis, ierusalimis aRebisTvis ganawyobda, magram maT moZraobas wminda qalaqisken ar aregulirebda. zneobriv da sagzao imperativebs gansxvavebuli buneba aqvT. niSnebiT regulirdeba sagzao, sahaero da sazRvao mimosvla, simbolo ki cxovrebiseul gzebze siarulSi gvexmareba. niSnis arsi, simbolosgan gansxvavebiT, unda iyos ara mxolod konvenciuri, aramed _ konkretulic. es bunebrivia, radgan, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, niSanSi nagulisxmevi instruqcia SesaZloa ar Sesruldes. niSani moiTxovs gagebas, simbolo ki interpretacias. zemoT moyvanili konteqstis kidev erTi Tviseba isaa, rom niSanSi sakuTriv semiotikuri urTierTobis (formasa da Sinaarss Soris urTierToba) garda, komunikaciis aqtis monawileTa pragmatuli urTierToba vlindeba, romelic wina planzea wamoweuli. amis Sedegad saxeli niSani ubralo damatebis adgils ikavebs. niSniT aCvena, niSniT mouxmo, ... niSnebiT ara mxolod adresatis moZraoba da moqmedeba, aramed pirovnebaTa Soris urTierTobac regulirdeba. arsebobs Tanxmobis, gafrTxilebis, pativiscemis, mowonebis, yuradRebis, simpaTiis, Sewyalebis, keTilganwyobis, Sewynarebis, Serigebis niSnebi. komunikaciis sintaqsi agebulia Semdegi modelis mixedviT misce, miiRo da gaigo niSani. pirovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobebi Semdegi modelis mixedviT aigeba: moqmedebis warmoeba, misi interpretacia da Sefaseba. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi azris gamoxatva grZnobis gamoxatvas uaxlovdeba. gaakeTo raRac raRacis niSnad. am tipis gamoTqmis gamoyeneba gansazRvravs sakuTriv semiotikuri aqciebis formasa da sazRvars
240

anu im gacnobierebul moqmedebebs, romelTa sazRvrebSi sazrisi maT praqtikul mxareze batonobs. maSin, roca saubaria socialur aqciebze, maTi azri sakmaod Raribia, gamoxatvis forma ki uCveulod mdidari. ase, magaliTad, protestis niSnad marTaven mitingebs, awyoben demonstraciebs, acxadeben SimSilobebs. sazogadoebrivi moZraobebis semiologizacias Tavisi sazRvrebi gaaCnia. niSani _ es aris iaraRi, romelsac adamianebi ama Tu im mizniT iyeneben. niSnis sintaqsSi semiotikuri urTierTobebi pragmatuli situaciis monawileTa gadacemiT an gacvliT urTierTobebs eqvemdebareba. niSani es aris diriJoris Jesti, niSniT uweven organizebas, reglamentirebas, mas emorCilebian da misdeven. (aniSna da taSi daukres, aniSna da dajda, aniSna da gavida da a.S.) am konteqstSi, sadac niSani gamoTqmis ekvivalentia, simbolos monawileobis miReba ar SeuZlia. niSnis konvencionalizacia upirispirdeba simbolos kanonizacias. niSani da simbolo gansxvavebul danaSaulebriv qmedebebs Cadian. niSans SeuZlia icruos, simbolos _ mogvatyuos, simboloSi SeiZleba movtyuvdeT, niSanSi _ SevcdeT. niSani ar SeiZleba iyos TviTneburad falsificirebuli, adresatis reaqcia sakmaod erTmniSvnelovnad daprogramebulia. simbolo Zlieria, magram daucveli. misi, iseve rogorc saxis, falsificireba iolia. simboloSi da ara niSanSi ibadeba demagogia, niSanSi ki SeiZleba gamovlindes mxolod eTiketuri pirferoba. maSasadame, simbolo uadresatoa da arakomunikaciuri. maSinac ki, roca saubaria RmerTebisa da zeciuri Zalebis adamianebTan kavSirze, kodi, romelic am SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, miwieri partniorisTvis yovelTvis cnobili ar aris, am SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba sityva niSani da ara simbolo. zeciuri Zalebi, romlebic TviTon SeiZleba iyvnen moazrebulni simboloebad, adamianebTan niSnebiTa da gamocxadebebiT amyareben kontaqts, magram arasdros iyeneben simboloebs. RmerTi, romlis orakuli delfosSi imyofeba, arasdros arafers ambobs, arc malavs, mxolod niSans iZleva. (heraklite). winaswarmetyveleba, gafrTxileba, Setyobineba, uwyeba, muqara da a.S. adresatis (konkretulisa Tu SemTxveviTis) mimarT apelireben. isini niSnis, gamocxadebis, zogjer niSan-Tvisebis kategoriaSi Sedian, magram maT ver mivusadagebT sityvas simbolo. vinaidan dRes daviTis qalaqSi Tqven dagebadaT macxovari, romelic aris qriste ufali da niSnad es geqnebaT: im yrmas povebT Sexveuls da bagaze mwolares. (luka 2, 11-12). simbolo da saxe axlos aris azrovnebasTan iqneba es mxatvruli, miTosuri Tu religiuri, niSani ki urTierTobasTan.
241

sityvebi simbolo da saxe, romlebisTvisac ucxoa instrumentuli pozicia, SeiZleba msgavs SemTxvevaSi aRmoCndnen mentaluri moqmedebebis zmnebTan. adamiani SeiZleba azrovnebdes saxeebiTa da simboloebiT, magram yoveldRiur urTierTobaSi is Tavisi naazrevis gadmocemas niSnebiT axerxebs. Aazrovnebis (upirvelesad, mxatvruli) da komunikaciis buneba erTmaneTisgan mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba. sityvebi mxolod gansazRvraven, sazRvraven azrs, simboloebi ki azris usazRvro mxares gamoxataven~ (d. mereJkovski). magram es gansakuTrebuli Temaa mxatvruli samyaros saxeebisa da simboloebis ena. aq Cven mxolod kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom simbolo, iseve rogorc saxe, ar gulisxmobs adresats da namdvili xelovneba (poezia), ramdensac ar unda eZiebdes mxatvrul gamoZaxilsa da gagebas (literaturul adresatSi), komunikaciuri terminebiT ver ganimarteba, iseve, rogorc sizmrebsa da hi pnoziTa Tu meditaciiT gamowveul fsiqikur mdgomareobas ar SeiZleba vuwodoT Cveulebrivi komunikacia. TamaSebSi mkiTxvelTan, rasac deteqtivebisa da postmodernistuli teqstebis avtorebi mimarTaven, vlindeba ostatoba da ara xelovnebis arsi, romelic zustad maSin SiSvldeba, rodesac mas avtoris komunikaciuri teqnikidan da ilokutiuri teqnikidan ganacalkeveben. mkiTxvelis, rogorc avtoris optimaluri TanamSromlis modeli, romelsac SeuZlia winaswar ganWvritos avtoris svlebi da am gziT teqsturi strategiis formireba moaxdinos (aseTi damokidebuleba axasiaTebs umberto ekos), ganekuTvneba ara poetur STagonebas, aramed rutinul poetikas. marTlac, rac unda gaugebari iyos poeti, is mainc poetad rCeba. (eko 1986). davubrundeT zogad semiotikur sityvebs. marTalia, klasikuri gagebiT niSani da simbolo ganviTarebul (sami komponentisgan Semdgar) semiotikur konceptebs qmnian, maTi gamoyeneba, umTavresad ki, maTi sintaqsi erTmaneTisgan princi pulad gansxvavebulia. Ees gansxvaveba maTi daniSnulebidan gamomdinareobs. pirad da socialur sferosTan dakavSirebuli simbolo moqmedebis programas gansazRvravs da qcevis models qmnis. is yovelTvis adamianze maRla dgas. niSani ki adamianis xelSi komunikaciis iaraRad iqceva da mis praqtikul moqmedebebs aregulirebs. niSans SeiZleba Seesabamebodes ilokutiuri Zala, simbolos ki kategoriuli imperativi. semantikuri gza akavSirebs saxes metaforasTan, semiotikuri gza ki simbolosTan da niSanTan. aris kidev mesame gza, romelic saxes emblemad an Rerbad aqcevs. Targmna Tamar yuraSvilma
242