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Table of Contents

  • 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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1

  • 2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………

2

  • 3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………………………………………

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2

  • 4. THE SETTING………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

  • 5. LITREATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………………………………………

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4

  • 1. BACK GROUND OF THE JOB SATISFACTION………………………………………………………………4

  • 2. SIGNIFICANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION……………………………………………………………………….5

  • 6. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESIS………………………………

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5

  • 1. Development of Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

  • 7. RESEARCH METHODOLGY……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Data collection………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • 1. ... i. Primary Data………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

7

ii. Secondary Data……………………………………………………………………………………………………

..

7

  • 2. Research approach…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

  • 3. Research instruments………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

  • 4. Operationalization of variables………………………………………………………………………………… 8

  • 5. Resources………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

  • 6. Research procedure………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

  • 7. Sampling………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… .. 9 i. Representative Sampling and Sample size……………………………………………………………

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9

  • 8. ANALYSIS OF DATA………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

  • 9. LIMITATIONS OF THE

RESEARCH……………………………………………………………………………………..

10

  • 10. SCHEDULE AND TIME PLANNING……………………………………………………………………………………. 10

  • 11. BIBILIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Appendix

INTRODUCTION: -

All over the world, it is simply realised that the job satisfaction reflects that an employee feels about his job. Most people in employment experience a degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their job. Moreover, they tend to be more satisfied with some aspects of their job than the others. Job satisfaction is very important because it is directly or indirectly involved with personal and organizational well-being. In subject of organizational behaviour, mainly six outcomes could be identified in relation to the job satisfaction i.e. job performance, organizational citizenship behaviour, customer satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover and workforce deviance.

The police force is involved in citizens’ affairs from birth to death in comparison to other organizations. However, very little or no attempt took to evaluate the job satisfaction of police officers. More than eighty five thousand police men are deployed in the country but not only government but also the department itself did not seriously care of job satisfaction. If the police department did not evaluate job satisfaction, the ultimate result would be the poor performance and the low productivity and these jeopardize the reputation of the police department.

This study will be carried out among officers of inspectorate (body of inspectors) of Nugegoda police division. Nugegoda police division comprises 13 police stations and 1695 police officers belonging to various ranks working for respective police stations. The inspectorate (the body of Inspectors) consists of Chief Inspectors, Inspectors and Sub Inspectors. There are 190 officers altogether in police inspectorate. To the benefit of researching it is easy to use officers belonging to the inspectorate because they are considered as first level or operational level managers. On one hand since it is a huge number of officers, it is not practical to take all the police officers in Nugegoda police division as population and on the other hand, the education level and the experience of most police officers of inspectorate would assist to measure the criteria.

2) RESEARCH QUESTIONS: -

A pilot survey was conducted among ten police officers from inspectorate of Nugegoda police division before this. That was conducted by using of survey method. They were given a questionnaire based on five factors which led to job satisfaction. Those factors were Salaries and incentives, promotions, working condition and job security. By analysing the result it revealed that their job satisfaction of inspectorate of police officer was below the average. It implies that there is an issue of job satisfaction among them.

  • What are the factors that determine the satisfaction level of employees?

  • Are there any special factors that help to create job satisfaction especially for the police force?

  • What contributes most to the employee satisfaction?

  • What adjustments should be done to improve job satisfaction?

3) OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:-

The main objective of this research is to ascertain the job satisfaction of police inspectorate.

Specific objectives of study are as follows

To identify the factors those influence the job satisfaction of police inspectorate.

To assess the satisfaction level of inspectorate in Nugegoda police division

To ascertain the impact of job satisfaction to the Nugegoda

To offer alternative suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of police inspectorate.

4) THE SETTING

The Sri Lanka Police Service (commonly known as the Sri Lanka Police) is the civilian national police force of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The police force has manpower of approximately 85,000. It is responsible for enforcing criminal and traffic law, enhancing

public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout Sri Lanka. The professional head of the police is the Inspector General of Police who reports to the minister of defence, when the Police service in under the Ministry of Defence as it is currently. The current Inspector General of Police is N.K. Illangakoon.

In recent years with the Sri Lankan civil war, the police service has become an integral part of maintaining of the nation's security, with primarily focusing on internal security. Many police officers have been killed in the line of duty mainly due to terrorist attacks. Specially trained commando/counter-terrorist unit named Special Task Force, are regularly deployed in joint operations with the armed forces for counter-terrorism operations, VVIP protection, and the police command structure in Northern and Eastern provinces is closely integrated with the other security organizations under the authority of the Joint Operations Command.

The structure of the police lies in a hierarchical manner as other governmental organization. In the structure of police department mainly, two commands exist namely territorial and functional under the responsibility of the inspector general of the police.

Basic structure of the Sri Lanka police department
Basic structure of the Sri Lanka police department

Nugegoda police division is under the command of the S/DIG Western province and it has an officer in charge, normally it is under the responsibility of a Superintendent of police or Senior Superintendent of police.

Since the mobility of police officers is higher than the other organization, any police officers have a considerable chance to be randomly selected to the Nugegoda police division form any

area of the country. By considering the above fact, normally, we can generalise the result what we are getting for this research result.

5) LITERATURE REVIEW:- 1. Back ground of the job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is an imperative phenomenon which affects the organizational and personal happiness. Paul E Spector perceived that job satisfaction is simply how people feel about jobs and different aspects of their jobs. According to Paul E Spector, It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction). (Paul E Spector, 1997:2). There are various definitions which point out different aspect of job satisfaction. “Job Satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience” (E. A. Locke, 1976).There are so many definitions other than this and those defined by various scholars according to their perception.

Many researchers in the history pursued various models to find factors of job satisfaction and relationship between the factors and job satisfaction. A few of important models are concisely described below and will be used to create a conceptual framework. Evans and Laseau (1950) found the following factors affecting job satisfaction in order of preference: 1. Income, 2. Interesting, and important job, 3. Pride in company, 4. Fellow workers, 5. Immediate boss, 6. Management,7. Working conditions, 8. Security, 9. Chance to get ahead, 10. Benefit plants, 11. Safety and medical facilities.

Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is the most famous job satisfaction model

which states that discrepancy between what employees has and what employee wants would determine the job satisfaction. Edwin A. Locke summarised previous studies of job satisfaction in four facets, rewards, other people, nature of work and organizational context.

Dispositional theory is another well-known job satisfaction theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain

level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. The range of this significant theory was narrowed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998 by proposing Core Self-evaluations Model.

Fredrick Herzberg’s two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively (Fredrick Herzberg, 1957). He found organisational environment factor is the most influential factor for the job satisfaction.

In need fulfilment theory it is argued that a person is satisfied when he gets what he wants and he is dissatisfied when he does not get. Needs may be essential for personal achievement, social achievement & for influence.

Overall, there does not seem clear consensus among academics what factor really affect job satisfaction level the most because those varied according to the person and the organization. In association with the literature review the flowing conceptual framework was crate to structure the research.

2. Significance of job satisfaction

Recent research indicates that employee satisfaction does not necessarily contribute directly to productivity. Satisfaction may be viewed as a passive attribute, while more proactive measures such as motivation levels and brand engagement are viewed as more closely linked to behavioural change, performance, and, ultimately, to bottom line performance. The following research illustrates this point:

According to 2003 Institute for Employment Studies research, employee commitment had a higher correlation to customer satisfaction than employee satisfaction. Of note is that employee

commitment had twice the impact of employee satisfaction on customers’ future spending

intentions: a one-point increase in employee commitment led to a monthly increase of $200,000 in sales per store and reduced absenteeism. Employee productivity depends on the amount of time an individual is physically present at a job and also the degree to which he or she is

“mentally present” or efficiently functioning while present at a job. Companies must address

both of these issues in order to maintain high worker productivity, and this may occur through a variety of strategies that focus on employee satisfaction, health, and morale.

In a nutshell, job satisfaction has relationship between, Job performances, Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), customer satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover and workforce deviance according the revelation of various researches. It is essential to address the issue of job satisfaction to elevate the organization and to mark the forward momentum while alleviating the dissatisfaction. The dissatisfied-worker is really a hex in an organization due to his responses such as leaving the organization, raise their voices to improve the condition, being optimistic for improving, neglecting response and allow to exit and increase in error rate.

6) CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESIS:-

both of these issues in order to maintain high worker productivity, and this may occur through

In this conceptual framework, there major factor variables and 23 first level indicators are identified. The relationship between the three variables and first level indicators is tabulated above. The questionnaire will be based on those first level indicators in relation to each factor. Each indicator contains two, three, or more questions. According to this conceptual framework, job satisfaction is the dependent variable here, and other factors are independent variables. Hypothesis testing will be carried out with respect to main three factors (second level) and job satisfaction would be conducted According to above conceptual framework four hypotheses are supposed to be generated. Hypothesis may be tested through correlation statistical tools.

  • 1. Development of Hypothesis

H 1. The more favourable organizational factors the more satisfaction of police officers will be. H 2. The more favourable environmental factors the more satisfaction of police officers will be. H 3. The more favourable personal factors the more satisfaction of police officers will be. H 4. The organizational factors affect the job satisfaction of police officers than the other factors.

7) RESEARCH METHODOLGY

  • 1. Data collection: -. There are two type of data will be collected by for the purpose for the

research. These data types are mentioned below with its description. i. Primary Data Mainly survey method will be used in form of questionnaire for collecting primary data in this research. Hence it is supposed to be carefully constructed.

ii. Secondary Data Published Sources such as police annual reports, Journals, Government Reports, Newspapers and Magazines etc. Unpublished Sources such as Company Internal reports prepare by them given to their analyst & trainees for investigation.

Websites like police.lk official site, some other sites are also searched to find data

  • 2. Research approach

The most suitable approach for this type of study of attitudes is the survey method. Survey

usually includes research instrument, sampling plans and contact methods.

3.

Research instruments

The questionnaire is the research instrument adopted for collecting data in this research. The structured questionnaire consists of closed ended questions. Questions are fabricated and modified in association with Job satisfaction survey, Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire and job description index. Each question will contain five point Likert scale and according to them, those are rated. In this research survey method will be selected because it is very common and it is easy to analyse and interpret question are based up on indicators. A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to the respondent for getting their responses. The questionnaire prepared was short and to the point. In this survey, questionnaire was prepared within following parameters

Organizational factor

Work environmental factor

Personal factor

4. Operationalization of variables

Organizational factors

Environmental factors

Personal factors

1.

Salaries and incentives

  • 1. 1. Social recognition

Intimidation by others

 

2.

Promotions

  • 2. 2. Interest

Work group

 

3.

Policies

  • 3. 3. Personal growth

Working conditions

 

4.

Rewards

Safety

  • 4. 4. Personality

 

5.

Code of discipline

Community support

  • 5. 5. Service experience

 

6.

Nature of works

 

6. Level of education

7.

Autonomy

   

8.

Job security8

   

9.

Communication

   

10.

Supervision

   

11.

Welfare and

   

compensation

Overall satisfaction

 

5.

Resources

For this research, papers, pencils, a printer and a computer are essential resources. In addition to

that SPSS static computer package is also needed.

  • 6. Research procedure

In Nugegoda police division, there are 13 police stations and I would go and meet the subjects and share out those questionnaires after clarifying the research objectives. The questionnaires were distributed to respondents and they may complete the questionnaire manually. At the beginning of each questionnaire, an overview was provided. Questionnaires are supposed to be collected in December

  • 7. Sampling

i. Representative Sampling and Sample size

In Nugegoda police division; there are 1695 police officers from various ranks for the police hierarchy. From 190 police officers from inspectorate, 50 police officers will be selected as a sample on judgmental sampling.

Rank

Number

of

 

officers

SSP/SP/ASP

8

C.I

11

190

I.P/W.IP

32

S.I/W.S.I

147

P.S/W.P.S/P.S.D

252

 

P.C/P.C.D/W.PC

1245

Total

1695

8) ANALYSIS OF DATA

The data collected would be tabulated and analysed in such a way to make interpretations. The following statistical tools are used in the study for the purpose of analysis.

  • Percentage analysis

  • Correlation coefficient

To perform practically those calculations SPSS computer statistical package will be used. For the purpose of analysis, tabulated data presentation and MS Excel bar charts would be presented

9) LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH: -

There are some of the limitations, which affect the research.

These limitations are:

Time and cost is major limitation, which may affect the study.

Some of the respondents reluctant to share information due to various reasons

. The study conducted is limited to inspectorate of Nugegoda police division only. Because the bigger sample the more reliability.

10) SCHEDULE AND TIME PLANNING:-

Action Review and draft literature collection of primary data and secondary data Compile, pilot and review
Action
Review and draft literature
collection of primary data and
secondary data
Compile, pilot and review
questionnaire
August
Septembe
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
Administer questionnaire Final collection of questionnaire Analysing data Final writing of project report and submitting the
Administer questionnaire
Final collection of questionnaire
Analysing data
Final writing of project report
and submitting the research

11) BIBILIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Benson,B.L(2002). A case study of selected factors of job satisfaction among Flint police officers

  • 2. Dantzker, M.L.(1994).Measuring Job Satisfaction in Police Departments and Policy Implications: An Examination of a Mid-Sized, Southern Police Department, AmericanJournal of Police 13: 77-101

  • 3. Ganguli,H.C (2001).Job satisfaction scales for effective management, manual for managers and social scientists.

  • 4. Grogan, William J. (2008). Job Satisfaction at the Marietta Police Department: A Comparative Analysis, Dissertations Theses and Capstone Projects. Paper 11.

  • 5. Hertzberg, F. (1968).One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees. Harvard Business Review, 46, 53-62.

  • 6. Key Findings Linking Employee Satisfaction with Productivity, Performance, and Customer Satisfaction, Retrieved Aug. 19, 2012 06:39.from, http://www.keepem.com/doc_files/clc_articl_on_productivity.pdf

  • 7. Munir,N.S (2002).Job satisfaction and Performance research data analysis report.

  • 8. Police History, Retrieved Aug. 19, 2012 12:39.from http://www.police.lk/index.php/police-history

  • 9. Serhan,E.(2004).Major determinants of job satisfaction among mid-level police managers. Louisville:University of Louisville.

    • 10. Sinha,A.K(2005).A study of bank employees.

    • 11. Spector, P.E. (1997).Job Satisfaction. London: Sage.

    • 12. Sri Lanka Police Service, Retrieved Aug. 19, 2012 05:39.from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka _Police _Service,

  • 13. Sukumar, M.(1999).Study on job satisfaction among the employees of state bank of India in Coimbatore city Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

  • 14. Weiss,J.D,Davis,R.V and Engalnd,J.W (1967).Manual for Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire

  • 15. Zaleznik, A., Christensen, C. R., and Rusethl isberger F. J. (1958). Job Satisfaction Case Studies, Psychology and Industrial Case Studies. Harvard: Harvard Business School

Appendix A

Job Satisfaction Survey of Inspectorate of Nugegoda Police Division

Instructions: please take a couple of minutes and answer the following questions frankly. Your anonymity will be secured.

Part- 1

General Information

Age Group: (18-27), (28-37), (38-47), (48-59). (Underlined the preferred choice)

Educational level: (G.C.E O/L), (G.C.E A/L), (graduate level). (Underlined the preferred other

qualifications)

Sex: ________________________

Rank: _____________________________

Branch/section: ________________________

Years of the Service: ______________________

Police station: __________________________________

Civil status __________________________

Relations in the police service __________________________

Reasons for selecting the Police service for your employment __________________________

1

2

__________________________

Part -2 For the following questions, please check the box that best describes your assessments:

Instruction

Rating scale of survey:

Kindly follow the following categories:

• Strongly agree : 5

• Agree : 4 • Neutral : 3 • Disagree : 2 • Strongly disagree: 1

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

(score)

agree

disagree

  • 1. I am satisfied with my current wages and incentives and My salary is fair comparing to other staff in other similar organization with the same level of responsibility.

           
  • 2. I have fair opportunities for promotions.

           
  • 3. Departmental rules and regulation and its implementations make a good job difficult.

           
  • 4. I do not believe that I am adequately rewarded by the department and it has quick procedures for granting reward

           
  • 5. Code of discipline is encouraging higher professional standards of members of the police department.

           
  • 6. My nature of work properly and formally defined.

           
  • 7. I am satisfied with the autonomy granted me to perform my duties.

           
  • 8. I have positive perception regarding the job security and no fear of dismissal in jeopardy.

           
  • 9. I get all information about the events and affairs of the police department that have an effect on my work

           
  • 10. My superiors fairly treat me and I have opportunities to contribute in taking decisions.

           
  • 11. I am satisfied with the welfare and compensation provided by the department for my family and me

           

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

(score)

agree

disagree

  • 12. I am illegally not intimidated by politicians or superiors.

           
  • 13. My work group is very cooperative.

           
  • 14. There is too much disagreement and fighting at work.

           
  • 15. My working condition is conducive to work.

           

13

  • 16. Health and safety of the members of police department is not highly considered by the higher authorities.

           
  • 17. Police department is not well supported by the

           

community.

  • 18. Some of the duties have to be carried out may threat to the life of the police officers.

           

PERSONAL FACTORS

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

(score)

agree

disagree

  • 19. I have respectable social recognition due to the job and the role.

           
  • 20. I am interested with the duties vested in me.

           
  • 21. I feel that working for the police department will lead to the kind of future I want.

           
  • 22. Good personality has been accepted for working as a

           

police

officer

  • 23. My Service experience has not been considered as an influential factor to take effective decision.

           
  • 24. My level of education is considered for a vital aspect for promotions and deployments.

           

OVERALL SATISFACTION

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

(score)

agree

disagree

  • 25. Any friend of mine gets an offer from the police department I would say this is a good department for

           

working or taking the job.

  • 26. All in all, I am satisfied with my job.

           

14

I) If you have, any Additional Comments you can explain the reasons behind your answers to these questions. (If you have no additional comments; please draw an X across these lines. If you need more space, feel free to use the back of this page).

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2) What are the appropriate measurements to be carried out to enhance your job satisfaction according to your opinion?(If you have no additional comments, please draw an X across these lines. If you need more space, feel free to use the back of this page).

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3) What are the factors that you most dislike and like about your job in addition to above-mentioned facts? (It is not contradicted to what you have accepted above)

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Organizational factors Environmental factors Personal factors 1. Salaries and incentives 1 1. Intimidation by

Organizational factors

 

Environmental factors

 

Personal factors

 
  • 1. Salaries and incentives

1

  • 1. Intimidation by others

12

  • 1. Social recognition

19

  • 2. Promotions

2

  • 2. Work group

13,14(R)

  • 2. Interest

20

  • 3. Policies (R)

3

  • 3. Working conditions

15

  • 3. Personal growth

21

  • 4. Rewards(R)

4

  • 4. Safety

16,18

  • 4. Personality

22

  • 5. Code of discipline

5

  • 5. Community support

17

  • 5. Service experience(R)

23

  • 6. Nature of works

6

   
  • 6. Level of education

24

  • 7. Autonomy

7

       
  • 8. Job security16

8

       
  • 9. Communication

9

       
  • 10. Supervision

10

       
  • 11. Welfare and compensation

11

       

Overall satisfaction

25,26